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11/21/2009 11:59:00 AM
A sand casting or a sand molded casting is a cast part produced by forming a mold from a sand mixture and pouring molten liquid metal into the cavity in the mold. The mold is then cooled until the metal has solidified. In the last stage the cast is separated from the mold. These can be broken down into 6 basic steps. 1. Place a pattern in sand to create a mold. 2. Incorporate a gating system. 3. Remove the pattern. 4. Fill the mold cavity with molten metal. 5. Allow the metal to cool. 6. Break away the sand mold and remove the casting. There are 2 main types of sand used to create a mold. Firstly, there is a µGreen sand¶ which is made from a mixture of silica sand, clay, moisture and other additives. Secondly, The 'Air set¶ method uses dry sand bonded to materials other than clay, by using a fast curing adhesive. Both of these methods use the sand mixture to pack around a master pattern forming a mold cavity. If necessary, a temporary plug is placed to form a channel for pouring the fluid to be cast. Air-set molds often form a two-part mold having a top and bottom, referred as cope and drag respectively. The sand mixture is tamped while it is added to form a mold, and the finishing mold assembly is sometimes vibrated to compact the mixture together and to rid any unwanted void or air spaces, this process is called ramming. Next, the pattern is removed with the channel plug and leaving the mold cavity. The casting liquid, typically molten metal, is then poured into the mold cavity. After the metal has solidified and cooled, the casting is separated from the sand mold.There is no simple tools or no mold release agent, thus, the mold is generally destroyed in the removal process. The accuracy of the casting is limited by the type of sand and the molding process.Sand castings made from coarse green sand impart a rough texture on the surface of the casting, and this makes them easy to identify. Air-set molds can produce castings with much smoother surfaces. However, surfaces can also be ground and polished. After
Metals are made into parts by melting them into liquid phase. In ferrous castings the effect is similar to quenching metals in forge work. This residue can be removed by various means.To control the solidification structure of the metal. Most of the time. These can be gauge using 'Contraction rules'. or a plastic such as expanded polystyrene. Sand can be ground. the mold or pattern is built using wood. Green sand can be reused after adjusting its composition to replenish the lost moisture and additives. silicates and other compounds. the casting is covered in a residue of oxides. swept or even stickled into shape. during casting. The associated rapid local cooling will form a finer-grained structure and may form a somewhat harder metal at these locations. and this may be non-uniform due to uneven cooling. pouring it in a mold . Therefore. it is possible to place metal plates. in the mold. The pattern itself can be reused indefinitely to produce ne w sand molds. some of the components of the sand mixture are lost in the thermal casting process. and removing the molded metal or casting after it has solidified as it cools. chills. Foundry A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings from either ferrous or non-ferrous alloys. metal.molding. which is known as contraction allowance. the pattern must be slightly larger than the finished product. For patterns. Controlling the way a casting freezes it allows possible ways to prevent internal voids or porosity inside castings. . Different scaled rules are used for different metals because each metal and alloy contracts by an amount distinct from all others Elaborating on the chilling process. such as grinding or shot blasting. The metal to be cast will contract during solidification. from the design of the object.
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Most milling machines have self-contained electric drive motors. These machines are also classified as knee-type. The knee is a massive casting that rides vertically on the milling machine column and can be clamped rigidly to the column in a position where the milling head and milling machine spindle are properly adjusted vertically for operation. and a reciprocating adjustable worktable.11/21/2009 11:59:00 AM Milling Machine Milling is the process of machining flat. An adjustable overhead arm containing one or more arbor supports projects forward from the top of the column. curved. which mounts and revolves the milling cutter. The arm and arbor supports are used to stabilize long arbors. which mounts and feeds the workpiece. and planer-type. manufacturing or bed type. Modern vertical milling machines are designed so the entire head can also swivel to permit working on angular surfaces. Elaborating on one of the types. ram-type. Milling machines exist in two basic forms: horizontal and vertical. The plain horizontal milling machine's column contains the drive motor and gearing and a fixed position horizontal milling machine spindle. and power-operated table feeds.Knee-type mills are characterized by a vertically adjustable worktable resting on a saddle which is supported by a knee. Supports can be moved along the overhead arm to support the arbor where support is desired .The turret and swivel head assembly is designed for making precision cuts and can be swung 360° on its base. or irregular surfaces by feeding the workpiece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. Angular cuts to the horizontal plane may be made with precision by setting the head at any required angle within a 180° arc.The plain vertical machines are characterized by a spindle located vertically. Milling machine is a machine used for shaping of metal and other solid materials. variable spindle speeds. and mounted in a sliding head that can be fed up and down by hand or power. parallel to the column face. coolant systems. which are referred to the orientation of the cutting spindle. The usual Mill consists basically of a motor driven spindle.
Fourthly.while setting up work. Many special operations can be performed with the attachments available for milling machine use. Lastly. The milling machine's knee rides up or down the column on a rigid track.when installing or removing milling cutters. Milling machines require special safety precautions while bein g used. Firstly. Seventh. vertical positioning screw beneath past the milling cutter. A heavy.use the buddy system when moving heavy attachments. cutting dovetails and keyways. always hold them with a rag to prevent cutting your hands. The saddle moves in and out on a dovetail to control cross feed of the worktable. .chips should be removed from the workpiece with an appropriate rake and a brush. cutting gears.do not attempt to tighten arbor nuts using machine power. Fifth.place a wooden pad or suitable cover over the table surface to protect it from possible damage. The saddle rests upon the knee and supports the worktable. forming and fluting milling cutters and reamers. Thirdly. The worktable traverses to the right or left upon the saddle for feeding the workpiece past the milling cutter. the knee is used for raising and lowering. Secondly. The table may be manually controlled or power fed. Sixth. do not make contact with the revolving cutter.never adjust the workpiece or work mounting devices when the machine is operating. install the cutter last to avoid being cut. and so forth. The milling machine is excellent for forming flat surfaces.depending on the position of the milling cutter or cutters.
11/21/2009 11:59:00 AM Lathe Machine The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping pieces of metal and sometimes wood or other materials by causing the workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action. Modern lathes offer a variety of rotating speeds and a means to manually and automatically move the cutting tool into the workpiece. tapered work. drilled holes. and crankshafts.The basic lathe that was designed to cut cylindrical metal stock has been developed further to produce screw threads. There are three types of lathe. These are engine lathe. knurled surfaces. . The small version of lathes are bench mounted and semi-portable while the large version of lathes are floor mounted and may require special transportation if they must be moved. turret lathe. and special purpose lathes.
.11/21/2009 11:59:00 AM Shaper machine A shaper function is shaping or surfacing metal and other materials.
11/21/2009 11:59:00 AM CNC machine .