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# CHAPTER 1

VISCOUS FLOW IN PIPES

Why this chapter is so important?
Why study this topic?
Fluid problem – flow in pipes

Viscous fluid

Shear stress and friction

uniform velocity profile to parabolic velocity profile

other flow properties also changed

CHAPTER 1: VISCOUS FLOW IN PIPES

Introduction

Piping systems are encountered in almost every engineering area.

Problems are related to flow in ducts or pipes with various velocities,
fluids, duct and pipe shapes and sizes.

When ‘real world’ (viscous effect) effects are important, it is difficult to
use theoretical method to obtain the desired result.

A combination of experimental data with theoretical considerations
and dimensional analysis provide the desired results.

Pipe Flow Characteristics

Not all conduits used to transport fluid are round in cross section.

Heating and air conditioning ducts are often of rectangular cross
section. Why?

For heating and air conditioning, pressure difference between inside
and outside is relatively small and basic principle involved are
independent of the cross sectional shape.

Assume involved in this chapter
- The pipe is round in cross section
- The pipe is completely filled with fluid
- Viscous fluid
- Incompressible fluid

Pipe flow vs Open channel flow
- Pipe flow – pressure gradient in the driving force (gravity may
be important).
- Open channel flow - gravity is the driving force.

- Steady flows occur when flow parameters such as pressure,
velocity, temperature etc. do not vary with time.
- If flow parameters vary with time, it is called unsteady.

Laminar and turbulent flow
- Flow is said to be laminar when adjacent fluid layers move at
same velocity and paths of individual particles of fluid do not
cross each other. Occur at low velocities and high viscosity (Re
≤ 2100).
- Flow is turbulent when streamlines cross each other and mixing
of fluid flow occur. Occur at high velocities and low viscosity
(Re ≥ 4000).
- 2100 < Re < 4000 ?

Reynold’s Experiment : Dye Streaks

131 m/s Q = vA = 0. Minimum time occur when Reynolds number is maximum allowed for laminar flow (maximum velocity) v = Re (µ)/ρD = 2100 (1. a.33 x 10-5 m3/s . (Volume does not change when pressure is applied). D = 0. Determine the minimum time taken to fill a 3.018 m. Example : Water at temperature 16oC flows through a pipe of diameter 0. Fluid velocity at a point Compressible and incompressible .018 m V = 3.018)2/4] = 3. Determine the maximum time taken to fill a 3.131[ (0.54 x 10-4 m3 glass with water if the flow in pipe is to be turbulent. Solution : Given.Fluid is incompressible when its density does not depend on pressure. b.When density changes when pressure is applied. .12 x 10-3)/[1000(0.54 x 10-4 m3 glass with water if the flow in pipe is to be laminar.54 x 10-4 m3 a.018)] = 0. it is called compressible.

Maximum time occur when Reynolds number is minimum allowed for turbulent flow (minimum velocity) v = Re (µ)/ρD = 4000 (1.59 s Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow Entrance region .54 x 10-4/6.33 x 10-5 m3/s t = V/Q = 3.33 x 10-5 = 10.249 [ (0.63 s b.12 x 10-3)/[1000(0. Entrance region. t = V/Q = 3. The fluid enters the pipe with nearly uniform velocity profile [section (1)]. developing flow and fully developed flow .54 x 10-4/3.33 x 10-5 = 5.018)2/4] = 6.the region of flow near where the fluid enters the pipe.018)] = 0.249 m/s Q = vA = 0.

le? Solution : Given.1) 1/6 .5)(0. The shape of velocity profile and the dimensionless entrance length.33 x 10-4/[ (0.013)2/4] = 3.As the fluid move through the pipe. turbulent flow) .2) Because of the character of the pipe changes from section (3) to section (4).33 x 10-4/1.06 Re for laminar flow (1.50 m/s Re = ρvD/µ = 1000(2. From section (2) to section (3).3 cm = 0.33 x 10-4 m3/s v = Q/A = 3.013)/1 x 10-3 = 32500 (> 4000.le/D = 0. L = 15m D = 1. the velocity profile does not vary with pipe length and the boundary layer is fully developed (fully developed flow).le/D = 4.3 cm diameter at 20 l/min. Thus boundary layer is produced along the pipe such that the initial velocity profile changes with distance along the pipe until the fluid reaches the end of the entrance length [section (2)]. Determine the length of entrance region.013 m Q = 20 l/min = 20/(1000 x 60)m3/s = 3.33 x 10-4 = 2. .4 (Re) for turbulent flow (1. Example : Water flows through a 15m pipe with 1. viscous effects cause it to stick to the pipe wall. the flow gradually begin its return to its fully developed character (section (5)). le/D depends on whether the flow is laminar or turbulence.

thus there is a balance between pressure.velocity profile is the same at any cross section of the pipe.4 (Re)1/6D le = 4. where it is a constant.013) = 0. In the entrance region. . δp/δx = -Δp/l < 0 Pressure distribution along the pipe Equation for Fully Developed Laminar Flow in Pipes Fully developed laminar flow . therefore le/D = 4.4(32500)1/6(0. viscous and inertia (acceleration) The magnitude of the pressure gradient δp/δx is larger in the entrance region than in the fully develop flow.4 (Re)1/6 le = 4.32 m Pressure and Shear Stress Pressure different between 2 section/point forces the fluid through the horizontal pipe and viscous effects provide the restraining force that exactly balances the pressure force. fluid accelerate or decelerate as it flow.

From the velocity profile.Applying F = ma to a fluid element. . 3 method can be used to derive equations pertaining to fully developed laminar flow in pipes.3) . we can get other information regarding the flow such as pressure drop. Applying F = ma to a Fluid Element Consider fluid element at time t – circular cylinder of fluid of length l and radius r. it is not accelerating.Navier-Stokes equation of motion. flow rate.Dimensional analysis. so ax = 0 Free body diagram of fluid element Apply F = ma (p1) r2 – (p1 . Even though the fluid is moving. . shear stress etc. .Δp) r2 – (τ)2 rl = 0 Δp/l = 2τ/r (1.

3.5) These equation (1.(Δp/2µl)r velocity profile ∫ δu = .Δp/l = 2τ/r .τ = -µδu/δr Combine this two equation δu/δr = .(Δp/2µl)r δr . How shear stress related to velocity? Two governing laws for fully developed laminar flow .This equation represents the basic balance in force needed to drive each fluid particle along the pipe with constant velocity.5) valid for both laminar and turbulent flow. 1. 1. τ is depending on r τ = Cr where C is a constant at r = 0. there is no shear stress (τ = 0) at r = D/2. the shear stress is maximum (τ = τw) C = 2τw/D therefore τ = 2τwr/D (1.4.4) and Δp = 4lτw/D (1.

and D/2 = R ur = τw D/4µ [1 – (r/R) 2] Flowrate Q = ∫ u dA Q = ∫ u 2 r dr Q=2 Vc ∫[1 – (r/R) 2]r dr Q= R2 Vc/2 knowing that average velocity.(Δp/4µl)r 2 + C1 at r = D/2. centerline velocity. u = 0 and C1 = (Δp/16µl)D 2 ur = (ΔpD2/16µl)[1 – (2r/D) 2] at r = 0. u = .5 and 1.7) and Q= D4Δp/128µl (1. V = Q/A = Q/ R2 V=( R2 Vc/2)/ R2 = Vc/2 = ΔpD2/32µl (1. Vc Vc = (ΔpD2/16µl) therefore ur = Vc [1 – (2r/D) 2] (1.8) .6) combine equation 1.6.

Summary .06 Re Laminar flow 1/6 le/D le/D = 4.4 (Re) Turbulent flow Pressure drop per Δp/l = 2τ/r Valid for both unit length laminar and turbulent flow Shear stress τ = 2τwr/D Valid for both laminar and turbulent flow Pressure drop Δp = 4lτw/D Valid for both laminar and turbulent flow Velocity profile 2 ur = Vc [1 – (2r/D) ] Laminar flow Average velocity V = ( R2 Vc/2)/ R2 Laminar flow V= Vc/2 V = ΔpD2/32µl Flowrate Q = D4Δp/128µl Laminar flow Adjustment to account for non horizontal pipe – gravity effect Free body diagram of fluid element for non horizontal pipe . le/D = 0. Flow properties for horizontal pipe Flow Properties Equation Remarks Entrance Length.angle between pipe centerline axis and horizontal axis Apply F = ma (p + Δp) r2 – (p) r2 – mgsin – (τ)2 rl = 0 (p + Δp) r2 – (p) r2 – ρ( r2)lgsin – (τ)2 rl = 0 .

.le/D = 4.le/D = 0.11) Summary . (Δ p – lsin )/l = 2τ/r (1.9) effects of non horizontal pipe Δp →→→→→ (Δ p – lsin ) therefore V = (Δ p – lsin )D2/32µl (1.06 Re Laminar flow 1/6 le/D .10) and Q= D 4 (Δ p – lsin )/128µl (1. Flow properties for non horizontal pipe Flow Properties Equation Remarks Entrance Length.4 (Re) Turbulent flow Pressure drop per (Δp – lsin )/l = 2τ/r Valid for both unit length laminar and turbulent flow Shear stress τ = 2τwr/D Valid for both laminar and turbulent flow Pressure drop Δp – lsin = 4lτw/D Valid for both laminar and turbulent flow Velocity profile ur = Vc [1 – (2r/D) 2] Average velocity V = ( R2 Vc/2)/ R2 V= Vc/2 V = (Δp– lsin )D2/32µl Flowrate Q = D 4 (Δ p – lsin )/128µl .

14(0.0 x 10-5 m3/s if the pipe is horizontal and x1 = 0 m and x2 = 10 m. what is the pressure at x3 = 5 m. from equation Q = D4Δp/128µl Δp = Q(128µl)/ D4 = [128(2. For a condition of part (b).020 m Q = 2.0 x 10-5 m3/s x1 =0m x2 = 10 m.40 N. µ = 0. Example : An oil with a viscosity of µ = 0.020 m Q = 2. a. .40 N. c. Given. µ = 0. Given.02)4] = 20400 N/m2 b. if p1 = 200 kPa.0 x 10-5 m3/s x1 = 0 m x2 = 10 m Δp= 0 from equation Q = D 4 (Δ p – lsin )/128µl Δp – lsin = Q(128µl)/ D4 . What pressure drop is needed to produce a flowrate of Q = 2.40 N. Solution : a.s/m2 and density ρ = 900 kg/m3 flows in pipe of diameter D = 0.40)10]/[3.020 m.s/m2 ρ = 900 kg/m3 D = 0.s/m2 ρ = 900 kg/m3 D = 0. b. must the pipe be on if the oil is to flow at the same rate as in part (a) but with p1 = p2.0 x 10-5)(0. How steep a hill.

3)and (1.14) combine equation (1. pressure different along the pipe.12) .13). W = ρgQhL From energy equation p1/ρg + α1v12/2g + z1 = p2/ρg + α2v22/2g + z2 + hL for horizontal pipe. at x3 = 5 m.13) combine equation (1.128Qµ/ D4 = .12) and (1.128(2.340 c.40)/[3.128(2. v1 = v2 and z1 = z2.40)]/[3.0 x 10-5)(0.02)4(900)(9. Power.14(0.81)] = sin-1[[. Δp = 0 and p1 = p2 = p3 therefore. Condition as part (b).0 x 10-5)(0. p3 = 200kPa Pressure Drop and Head Loss Important of pressure drop – it is related to power required by pump or fan to maintain fluid flow. sin = . α = kinetic energy coefficient and for uniform flow α1 = α2 = 1 hL = Δp/ρg (1. and f = 64/Re Δp/ρg = (64/Re)(l/D)(v2/2g) Δp = 32µlv/D2 (1.02)4(900)(9. for laminar flow hL = f(l/D)(v2/2g) (1.12) from previous researcher.14(0.81)]] = -13.

003)[0. head loss? Re = ρvD/µ = 998(0.9)(0. the head loss b.0367 and hL = f(l/D)(v2/2g) = (0.545 x 10-3 = 1744 (< 2100. laminar flow) for laminar flow f = 64/Re = 64/1744 = 0.003 m diameter 9 m long horizontal pipe steadily at an average velocity of 0. hLρg = 2τl/r hL = 2τl/ρgr hL = 4τwl/ρgD (1. the pumping power requirement to overcome this pressure drop.s/m and density ρ = 998 kg/m3 is flowing through 0.545 x 10-3 kg.15) Example : Water with a viscosity of µ = 1.0367)(9/0.9 m/s.003)/ 1. pressure drop? for laminar flow .92/2(9.81)] = 4.545 m b. the pressure drop c. Determine a. Solution : a.

Most common type of flow.Re ≥ 4000.Particle path is irregular. .0032/4)(44500) = 0.283 W Concept of Turbulent Flow in Pipes Characteristics of Turbulent Flow in Pipes .003)[998(0.Difficult mathematical analysis to describe the flow. .mixing process .heat and mass transfer process .Random movements of eddies which mixes up the layers of fluid. .5 kPa c. .9 (0.0367(9/0.92)/2] = 44. power required? P = ρgQhL and Δp/ρg = hL therefore P = QΔp = 0. Δp/ρg = (64/Re)(l/D)(v2/2g) Δp = (64/Re)(l/D)( ρv2/2) = 0. Important of turbulent flow .

Therefore flow momentum exists. 3-dimensional eddies conveys mass with average velocity . The result of this momentum transfer is shear force. Shear stress in pipe is given as the summation of laminar shear stress and turbulent shear stress . transition from laminar to turbulent flow in pipe axial velocity measured at a given location Turbulent Shear Stress Random 3-dimensional fluid motions (eddies) produce shear force for the turbulent flow.

= + lam turb structure of turbulent flow in a pipe .

16) where = average velocity y = distance measured from wall = R – r * 1/2 u = friction velocity = ( /ρ) w ν = kinematic viscosity This equation is called the Law of Wall which is valid only near a smooth wall for 0 ≤ yu*/ν ≤ 5 Velocity profile for overlap region /u* = 2.5 and 5.5 ln (yu*/ν) + 5. Laminar shear stress is dominant near the pipe wall and the turbulent shear stress dominates the flow at center of pipe. so we need different equations to describe them Turbulent Velocity Profile Velocity profile for viscous sublayer /u* = yu*/ν (1. The region where laminar shear force dominates is called the viscous sublayer or the viscous wall layer.0 are constants determined by experiments . This region is called the overlap region. The character of the each layers such as their velocity are different.17) where 2. There is also a region where both laminar and shear are important.0 (1. The region where turbulent shear force dominates is called the outer turbulent layer or simply the outer layer.

Q=∫ δA Q = ∫ Vc [1 – (r/R)]1/n δA Q = ∫ Vc [1 – (r/R)]1/n 2 r δr Q = 2 R2 Vc n2/[(n + 1)(2n + 1)] (1. for power laws velocity profiles The relationship between average velocity. volume flowrate. n. and centerline velocity.18) The value of n which indicates the “power” of the equation is a function of Re and determined experimentally. /Vc = [1 – (r/R)]1/n (1.For the outer layer. exponent. Q. V.19) since Q = R 2V R2V/ R2 Vc = 2n2/[(n + 1)(2n + 1)] . the Power Law is used from the following expression. VC can be obtained by integrating the power law velocity profile.

1. rub and slide each other. V/Vc = 2n2/[(n + 1)(2n + 1)] V = 2n2Vc /[(n + 1)(2n + 1)] (1. Head Loss Energy equation for steady incompressible flow in horizontal pipes.1 m diameter with a flowrate of Q = 4 x 10 2 m3/s and a pressure gradient of ∆p/l = 2.major loss . Determine the approximate thickness of the viscous sublayer. Determine the approximate Darcy friction coefficient f 3. Water at 200C ( = 998 kg/m3 .q where hL = head loss w = turbine head q = pump head Head loss .minor loss Major Losses Major losses is caused by friction at walls and due to the resistance of fluid particles as they roll.20) Example 1. and = 1 x 10 6 m2/s flows through a horizontal pipe of D = 0. Vc using the power– law velocity profile theory. 2. Losses cause by doing work against friction hL = flv2/2gD . Determine the approximate centerline velocity.59kPa/m. p1/ρg + α1v12/2g + z1 = p2/ρg + α2v22/2g + z2 + hL+ w .

9 – 9.26 Galvanized Iron 0. where f = friction factor l = length v = velocity d = gravity acceleration For laminar flow f = 64/Re For turbulent flow 1/f0.000005 0.00085 0.001 – 0.0015 Plastic.9/Re) + (ε/3.3 – 3.0 Concrete 0. ε Pipe (ft) (mm) Riveted Steel 0.0 Wood Stave 0.19 – 0.8 log [(6.1] Surface Roughness Equivalent Roughness.0005 0.7D)1.5 = .0006 – 0.0 (smooth) Normally for pipe analysis.045 Drawn Tubing 0.15 Commercial Steel 0.9 Cast Iron 0.003 – 0. .0 (smooth) 0. we obtain the dependence of friction factor on Re & /D through the Moody Chart.03 0.1.003 0.00015 0. glass 0.01 0.

The Moody chart is valid for all steady. . For high Re flows. The Moody chart is useful because in real applications. and exists but only for small ranges win the Moody chart. These pipes are called “hydraulically smooth”.To construct this chart the equivalent roughness is usually obtained for ‘clean’ and new pipes because after considerable use. the viscous sub-layer is so thin that the surface roughness completely dominates the character of flow near the walls. most pipes may have increased roughness. f and Re for a very wide range of pipe flows including that for laminar flows as long as the flow is steady. incompressible pipe flows. For smooth pipes ( = 0). we notice that friction factor (f) is not zero because there is still head loss. fully developed. The moody chart offers the relationships between /D. V. fully developed and incompressible. a large variety of D.

Non Circular Conduits Air Conditioner Ducting System Hydraulic Radius RH = Area/ Circumference Circle cross section area RH = Area/ Circumference = [ D2/4]/ D = D/4 D = 4 RH therefore hf = flv2/2gD = flv2/8gRH ε/D = ε/4 RH ρvD/µ =4ρv RH/µ Minor Losses .

Minor losses are caused by the geometry of pipes such as the presence of valves and fittings such as elbows. bends etc. In equation form hL = KLv2/2g where KL is loss coefficient KL = hL2g/v2 = 2Δp/ρv2 KL vary depending on the shapes involved Entrance loss Head loss when liquid enters pipe from a large tank/reservoir . tees.

0 L Sudden Expansion and Contraction .Exit Loss Head loss produced when liquid leaves pipe and enters a large tank/reservoir The entire kinetic energy of exiting fluid v1 is dissipated through viscous effects and eventually becomes v2 = 0 Exit loss from (1) to (2) is equivalent to one velocity head K = 1.

extreme sharp edge entrance 2 1 L A /A = 1 K = 0 .no area change 2 1 L Vena Contracta Fluid entering a sharp corner. . 2 1 For sudden expansion KL = [1 – (D1/D2)2]2 A /A = 0 K = 0.5 . Losses that occur where there is a sudden increase in pipe diameter (expansion) or where there is a sudden decrease in pipe diameter (contraction) Loss coefficient is a function of are ratio A /A . At a sharp corner. the flow will separate and reattaches at the pipe wall. This separation and reattachment forms a bubble (separation bubble) making the area of fluid flow smaller than the actual pipe area. Fluid cannot through sharp corners.

50% of industrial energy is used to drive pumps and compressors. A system of bearings and seals are required to complete the design Flow enters the machine nearly axial at some radius through the eye of the impeller and leaves radially outward. Because high speed flows cannot slow down efficiently. Pump Pumps are used to increase energy of the fluid (liquid). 40% . It consist of rotating elements called impeller which is contained within the pump housing. Fluid discharges into the housing which is designed to reduce velocity. This causes the velocity of fluid passing through this small area to increase Maximum velocity exists at section with minimum area called the vena contracta. Energy is added to the fluid by rotating blades and both pressure and absolute velocity are increased as fluid flows from eye to the periphery of the blades. The shaft transfers mechanical energy to the impeller.Reciprocating pistons or plunger . the kinetic energy could not be fully converted into pressure. Proper design construction and selection of pumps are economically significant. Types of pumps . One of the most common pump is the centrifugal pump.

we get: p1/ρg + v12/2g + z1 + hP= p2/ρg + v22/2g + z2 + hL where hP is the energy added to fluid and hL is the head loss discussed earlier Power Required by Pump Power is the rate of work or the rate of which energy is being transferred and is given by: Power added to fluid: Power = pghPQ Unit: Watt. Flexible squeegee In reality. There is a sudden enlargement in . IC engines etc. pumps cause losses. Gear pump . Nm/s or J/s Example : A tank of water empties by gravity through a horizontal pipe into another tank. In short we can say that pump draws kinetic energy and delivers it to the fluid. Normally pumps are driven by electric motors. Double screw pump . . Sliding vane . If we include energy of pump in the energy equation. Lobe pump . Differential piston .

Each pipe is 2 m long and has a friction coefficient. the difference in level is 3 m. At a certain time.022/4)2]/[2(9.3.005(2) [Q2/ 2 (0.81)(0. Solution : energy equation p1/ρg + v12/2g + z1 = p2/ρg + v22/2g + z2 + hL p1 = p2 = 0. Calculate the flowrate at this point.06)] = 1064Q2 minor losses .02)] = 258471Q2 hf 2 = f2lv2/2gD = 0. v1 = v2 = 0 hL = z1 .005(2) [Q2/ 2 (0.005.81)(0. f = 0. the pipe.z2 =3m major loss hf 1 = f1lv2/2gD = 0.062/4)2]/[2(9. The inlet loss coefficient is 0.

79[Q2/ 2(0.06)2]2 = 0.02/0.062/4)2]/[2(9.81)] = 6382Q2 total head loss hL = 258471Q2 + 1064Q2 +155083Q2 + 408384Q2 + 6382Q2 Q2 = 3/596754 Q = 2.022/4)2]/[2(9.81)] = 408384Q2 for exit hL3 = KL3v2/2g = 1[Q2/ 2(0.3[Q2/ 2(0.242 x 10-3 m3/s .for entrance hL1 = KL1v2/2g = 0.79 therefore hL2 = KL2v2/2g = 0.81)] = 155083Q2 for sudden enlargement KL2 = [1 – (D1/D2)2]2 = [1– (0.022/4)2]/[2(9.