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Experiment 1:



Conduction is the transfer of heat between substances that are in direct contact with each other.
The better the conductor, the more rapidly heat will be transferred. Metal is a good conduction
of heat. Conduction occurs when a substance is heated, particles will gain more energy, and
vibrate more. These molecules then bump into nearby particles and transfer some of their
energy to them. This then continues and passes the energy from the hot end down to the colder
end of the substance.


Thermal energy is transferred from hot places to cold places by convection. Convection occurs
when warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas in the liquid or gas. Cooler liquid or
gas then takes the place of the warmer areas which have risen higher. This results in a
continous circulation pattern. Water boiling in a pan is a good example of these convection
currents. Another good example of convection is in the atmosphere. The earth's surface is
warmed by the sun, the warm air rises and cool air moves in.


Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not rely upon any contact between the heat
source and the heated object as is the case with conduction and convection. Heat can be
transmitted through empty space by thermal radiation often called infrared radiation. This is a
type electromagnetic radiation . No mass is exchanged and no medium is required in the
process of radiation. Examples of radiation is the heat from the sun, or heat released from the
filament of a light bulb.

B. terminal difference

There is always a temperature difference between the bled steam entering the feedwaterheater and the
exit temperature of the subcooledwater in the pipes, this is called Terminal Temperature Difference

C. arithmetic mean temperature difference

Arithmetic Mean Temperature Difference is the difference between the average temperatures
of hot and cold fluids. This method is used to understand heat transfer in systems such as heat
AMTD = ((HTs + HTe)/2) - ((CTs + CTe) /2) Where, HTs and HTe denotes the start and
end temperature of Hot Stream. CTs and CTe denotes the start and end temperature of Cool

D. logarithmic mean temperature difference

The LMTD Method

The LMTD method is perhaps the most commonly known method used to analyze heat transfer
in heat exchangers and is described in the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
(TEMA) Standards and other well-known industry references. The equation to calculate the
heat transfer rate is given by:


 Q˙Q˙= Heat Transfer Rate (BTU/hr or W)

 UA = Heat Exchanger Thermal Capacity (BTU/hr·°F or W/°C)
 U = Heat Transfer Coefficient (BTU/hr·ft2·°F or W/ m2·°C)
 A = Heat Transfer Area (ft2 or m2)
 CMTD = Corrected (or True) Mean Temperature Difference (°F or °C)
 LMTD = Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (°F or °C)
 CF = Configuration Correction Factor (dimensionless)

Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) is calculated using the equation for the counter
current flow pattern (unless it is a completely single path parallel flow pattern):


 dTA = (T hot in – T cold out)

 dTB = (T hot out – T cold in)

The logarithmic mean temperature difference (also known as log mean temperature
difference or simply by its initialismLMTD) is used to determine the temperature driving force
for heat transfer in flow systems, most notably in heat exchangers. The LMTD is a logarithmic
average of the temperature difference between the hot and cold feeds at each end of the double
pipe exchanger. The larger the LMTD, the more heat is transferred. The use of the LMTD arises
straightforwardly from the analysis of a heat exchanger with constant flow rate and fluid thermal

E. Emissivity

Emissivity is defined as the ratio of the energy radiated from a material's surface to that radiated
from a blackbody (a perfect emitter) at the same temperature and wavelength and under the
same viewing conditions. It is a dimensionless number between 0 (for a perfect reflector) and 1
(for a perfect emitter). The emissivity of a surface depends not only on the material but also on
the nature of the surface. For example, a clean and polished metal surface will have a low
emissivity, whereas a roughened and oxidised metal surface will have a high emissivity. The
emissivity also depends on the temperature of the surface as well as wavelength and angle.
F. Surface Condensers

A surface condenser is a commonly used term for a water-cooled shell and tube heat
exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from a steam turbine in thermal power
stations.[1][2][3] These condensers are heat exchangers which convert steam from its gaseous to
its liquid state at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. Where cooling water is in short
supply, an air-cooled condenser is often used. An air-cooled condenser is however, significantly
more expensive and cannot achieve as low a steam turbine exhaust pressure (and temperature)
as a water-cooled surface condenser.
Surface condensers are also used in applications and industries other than the condensing of
steam turbine exhaust in power plants.

It is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger in which steam is condensed on the shell-side while

cooling water flows through the tubes. The condensate and cooling water leave the system

A device for condensing steam in which the steam and the water do not come in contact with
each other. ( shell tube exchanger)

G. Dearation

Mechanical and chemical deaeration is an integral part of modern boiler water protection and
control. Deaeration, coupled with other aspects of external treatment, provides the best and
highest quality feed water for boiler use.
Simply speaking, the purposes of deaeration are:
1. To remove oxygen, carbon dioxide and other noncondensable gases from feed water
2. To heat the incoming makeup water and return condensate to an optimum temperature for:
1. Minimizing solubility of the undesirable gases
2. Providing the highest temperature water for injection to the boiler
Deaerators are typically elevated in boiler rooms to help create head pressure on pumps
located lower. This allows hotter water to be pumped without vapor locking should some steam
get into the pump.

Deaerators are found in all industrial plants using fired boilers for process steam production.
Feedwater heaters of the type described here are usually found only in power generating
plants using steam turbines as they rely on steam bled from the turbine as their heat source.
BY: Deaerators and Feedwater Heaters
 Authors
 Authors and affiliations
 Peter O’Kelly

H. Cleanliness factor

Cleanliness factor is the matric to drive the following prediction feature, for which we can predict the
next expected cleaning date for an exchanger. The input parameters can be measured with the help of
conventional instruments. The data sources can be varied by manual recording of local gauges.
Pre-determination of the Fouling and Cleanliness Factor of the Heat Exchanger Simarpreet Singh
M-Tech scholar, Thermal Engineering, BCET ,Gurdaspur Punjab, India

I. Air-cooled condensers

Air cooled condensers (ACCs) are not

typically paired with dry or flash steam geothermal power plants, but can be a viable
solution to eliminate the extensive water usage and vapor emissions related to water
cooled systems.
THESIS from University of Iceland
Air cooled condensers are preferred to water cooled
condensers when there are special environmental or watershortage
conditions. The steam condenser is a vacuum-tight,
air cooled heat exchanger, usually with bundles sloped at
approximately 30° to reduce the footprint and with 100%
fully welded connections.
BY: Air cooled heat exchangers
Robust and reliable for all loads and applications

Air Cooled Heat Exchanger’s also known as Fin Fan heat exchangers are typically used in applications where water is not
available or the desired process outlet temperature can be achieved given the maximum ambient temperatures. Also, air
cooled equipment can be a more simple solution against water cooled because in water cooled systems typically there is
also a need for more pumps, piping, central chiller or cooling towers increasing the operating cost and maintenance of the

Air Cooled Heat Exchangers are used in a wide variety of applications. They can be used as lube oil coolers, water and
glycol coolers, inter/aftercoolers on compressors, jacket water cooler, engine radiators, belt guard after-coolers, hydraulic oil
coolers (both stationary and mobile), closed loop cooling systems, and condensers.

J. Direct Contact Condensers

The direct-contact condenser is one in which the coolant is brought into contact with the
vapor. It has the advantage of low cost and simplicity of mechanical design, but its use is
restricted to those applications in which mixing of the vapor and coolant is permissible.