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3. Name the type of reaction between magnesium and
ACTIVITY 1 (NCERT Pg 1) Ans The reaction between magnesium and oxygen to form
magnesium oxide is a combination reaction.
Objective 4. Is the nature of magnesium oxide (MgO) acidic or basic?
To study the combustion reaction (exothermic) by taking the
example of burning of magnesium in air. Ans Magnesium oxide is basic in nature and turns red litmus
Materials Required blue.
Magnesium ribbon (approximately 2 cm long), sandpaper, a 5. Burning of magnesium is an exothermic or endothermic
pair of tongs, burner and watch glass.
Ans Burning of magnesium is an exothermic reaction.
1. Take a piece of magnesium ribbon of nearly 2 cm length
and rub it with a sandpaper.
2. Now, hold it with a pair of tongs and heat over the flame of

a burner. Objective
Tongs To study an exothermic combination reaction with the
help of the reaction between calcium oxide and water.
Materials Required
Magnesium ribbon Quicklime, water, beakers (2), thermometer and glass rod.
Watch glass Procedure
Magnesium oxide 1. Take a small amount (approximately 5 g) of quicklime
(White powder) (calcium oxide) in a beaker with a glass rod in it.
Burning of a magnesium ribbon in air and 2. Take some water in another beaker and measure its
collection of magnesium oxide in watch glass temperature.
3. Now, add water slowly to the beaker containing
Observation quicklime.
Magnesium ribbon burns with a dazzling or brilliant white 4. Observe the changes and note the temperature of the
flame and a white powder of magnesium oxide is formed. solution formed.
Chemical Reaction Glass rod
2Mg(s ) + O2 ( g ) → 2MgO(s ) + Heat
Magnesium ribbon Magnesium oxide Beaker
(From air)
(White powder) Water

Calcium oxide (quicklime)
Given reaction is a combustion (exothermic) reaction
accompanied by the evolution of heat and light. Moreover, Formation of slaked lime by the
here oxidation of magnesium occurs. reaction of calcium oxide with water

Note When MgO is dissolved in water, it forms magnesium Observation

hydroxide which is basic in nature, i.e. it turns red litmus blue
because of its basic nature. The reaction is vigorous and highly exothermic. The
temperature rises as the reaction proceeds.

Check Yourself Chemical Reaction

CaO(s ) + H 2O(l ) → Ca(OH)2 (aq ) + Heat
1. Combustion reaction is an example of physical change or Quicklime Water Slaked lime
chemical change.
Ans Combustion reaction is an example of chemical change. Conclusion
2. What are the burning characteristic of magnesium ribbon? It is a combination reaction which is exothermic in
Ans Magnesium ribbon burns in air with a dazzling white flame. nature.
Chemical Reactions and Equations 11

Check Yourself
Chemical Reactions
1. Write the chemical formula of quicklime.

Ans The chemical formula of quicklime is calcium oxide (CaO). FeSO4 ⋅ 7H 2O(s ) → FeSO4 (s ) + 7H 2O( g )
(Green crystals) (Dirty white) Water
2. Name the product formed when quicklime reacts with water.
Ans When quicklime reacts with water, slaked lime [Ca(OH) 2 ] is 2FeSO4 (s )  → Fe 2O3 (s ) + SO2 ( g ) + SO3 ( g )
Ferrous Ferric oxide Sulphur Sulphur
formed. sulphate (Brown) dioxide trioxide
3. Is there any change in temperature during the above
reaction? Conclusion
Ans Yes, the mixture will appear to be boiling thus, the This reaction is an example of dehydration and thermal
temperature will rise. decomposition as the crystals first lose water molecules
4. A solution of a substance X is used for white washing. Name then break into the constituents on heating.
the substance X. The characteristic odour of burning sulphur is due to SO2
Ans Substance X is quicklime (CaO) which is used for white and SO3 gases.
5. Name the compound used to test the evolution of carbon
dioxide gas. Check Yourself
Ans Calcium hydroxide solution [ Ca(OH) 2 ] (freshly prepared) is
used to test the evolution of CO2 gas. 1. What is the formula of crystalline ferrous sulphate?
Ca(OH) 2( aq) + CO2 → CaCO3 ( s) + H2O Ans FeSO4 ⋅7H2O
2. What is the other name of hydrated ferrous sulphate?
Ans Green vitriol
ACTIVITY 3 (NCERT Pg 8) 3. Name the products formed when anhydrous ferrous
sulphate is heated.
Ans On heating, anhydrous ferrous sulphate gives ferric oxide
Objective (Fe2O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide (SO3).
To study the decomposition of ferrous sulphate. 4. What is the type of reaction when crystals of ferrous
Materials Required sulphate are heated strongly?
Ans Thermal decomposition reaction
Ferrous sulphate crystals ( 2 g), boiling tube, burner and a
pair of tong. 5. What is the valency of iron in ferrous sulphate?
Ans Valency of iron in ferrous sulphate is + 2, i.e. Fe 2+ .
1. Take some ferrous sulphate crystals in a dry test
tube and heat it on the flame of a burner. ACTIVITY 4 (NCERT Pg 9)
2. Observe the changes.
Objective To study the electrolysis of water.
Boiling tube
SO2 and SO3 gases
Materials Required
Ferrous sulphate Plastic mug with 2 holes, a few drops of concentrated
crystals A pair of tong sulphuric acid, 2 graphite rods, 2 test tubes, water, wires
and battery (6 V).
Burner 1. Take a plastic mug, drill two holes at the base, fit rubber
stoppers in these holes and insert graphite rods (electrodes)
in these rubber stoppers.
Decomposition of ferrous sulphate crystals 2. Now connect these electrodes to a 6 V battery with the
help of wires.
Observation 3. Fill the mug (upto half ) with acidulated water.
When green coloured ferrous sulphate crystals are heated, Remember, that the electrodes should be immersed in
first a dirty white powder is formed (anhydrous salt), then on
4. Now take two test tubes filled with water and invert
further heating, a brown residue is formed and characteristic
them over the two graphite electrodes. Test the gases
odour of sulphur is observed. evolved in test tubes.

Plastic mug
Test tube
Hydrogen ACTIVITY 5 (NCERT Pg 9)
rod Rubber To study the effect of sunlight on silver chloride.
Anode Cathode Materials Required
6V Silver chloride and China dish.
Electrolysis of water Procedure
1. Place a small amount of
Observation silver chloride (about 2
After some time, some gas bubbles arising in water at both g) in a China dish. Sunlight

the electrodes. Observe its colour.

2. Place this China dish in China dish
The gases formed at two electrodes go on collecting in the Silver chloride
top parts of the inverted test tubes. In one test tube sunlight for some time.
(at cathode), the volume of the gas (H 2 ) is double than the Observe the colour
other (O2 ) at anode. change.

Chemical Reaction Observation

After some time, the colour of the material changes
2H 2O(l )  →
2H 2 ( g ) + O2 ( g )
Hydrogen Oxygen
(to grey).
Conclusion Chemical Reaction
This reaction is an example of decomposition. As it 2AgCl(s ) → 2Ag(s ) + Cl 2 ( g )
takes place by passing electric current, so it is called Silver chloride Silver Chlorine
electrolysis. In water, H 2 and O2 gases are present in ratio (White) (Grey)
2 : 1 by volume.
Note A few drops of acid are added to water that make it good This is a decomposition reaction. As it takes place in the
conductor of electricity. presence of light, so it is also called photolysis or
photochemical decomposition.

Check Yourself Check Yourself

1. Which one is a chemical change, electrolysis of water or
sodium chloride exposed in sunlight? 1. What change in colour is observed when white silver
Ans Electrolysis of water is a chemical change. chloride (AgCl) is left exposed to sunlight?
Ans The white solid silver chloride turns grey when exposed
2. In what ratio H2 and O 2 are present in electrolytic to sunlight.
decomposition of water?
2. What type of chemical reaction is this?
Ans In electrolytic decomposition of water, H2 and O2 are present
in 2 : 1 ratio by volume.
Ans Photodecomposition reaction.

3. Why decomposition reaction of water is called electrolysis 3. Name the products obtained when silver chloride is
of water? exposed to sunlight.
Ans This decomposition reaction takes place by the action of Ans Silver and chlorine.
electricity. So, it is called electrolysis of water. 4. Name two salts that are used in black and white
4. What conclusion can you draw from electrolysis of water? photography.
Ans Electrolysis of water shows that water is a compound made up Ans Silver chloride (AgCl) and silver bromide (AgBr).
of 2 parts of hydrogen and 1 part of oxygen. So, the formula 5. Write the decomposition reaction of silver bromide (AgBr).
of water is H2O. Light
Ans 2AgBr ( s)  
→ 2Ag( s) + Br2( g)
5. Name the gas which burns with pop sound. (Decomposition) Silver Bromine
Ans Hydrogen gas. bromide
Chemical Reactions and Equations 13


Check Yourself
Objective 1. Which gas is produced when zinc granules react with dilute
hydrochloric acid?
To study the displacement reaction with the example of Ans When zinc granules react with dilute hydrochloric acid then
reaction between zinc and dilute hydrochloric acid. hydrogen gas is produced.

Materials Required 2. Name the type of reaction when zinc reacts with dilute
Zinc granules, dil.HCl, conical flask, thistle funnel, cork hydrochloric acid.
with three bores, delivery tube, gas jar and thermometer. Ans Displacement reaction
3. Name the type of reaction in which heat is evolved.
Ans Exothermic reaction.
1. Take a few zinc granules in a conical flask and place a
cork over it with a thistle funnel, thermometer and 4. Why zinc granules are preferred over zinc strip for the
delivery tube. reaction of Zn with HCl?
2. Now, add some dil. HCl solution in the conical flask Ans Zinc granules make the reaction comparatively faster that’s
with the help of thistle funnel. why, they are preferred over zinc strip.
5. How will you test for the presence of hydrogen gas?
Thistle Thermometer Delivery tube Ans When a burning splinter is brought near the mouth of the gas jar
filled with hydrogen gas, it burns with a pop sound.
Cork Hydrogen gas
Gas jar

flask ACTIVITY 7 (NCERT Pg 10)
granules Water
To study displacement reaction of copper by iron in copper
Formation of hydrogen gas by the action of dilute sulphate solution.
hydrochloric acid on zinc granules
Materials Required
3. Note the temperature at the beginning and at the end of Iron nails (2), test tubes (2) and copper sulphate solution.
the reaction. Procedure
4. Collect the gas produced in the gas jar and test it for 1. Take two iron nails and clean them by rubbing with
identification. sandpaper.
Observation 2. Take two test tubes marked as A and B and put
10 mL CuSO4 in both.
1. Bubbles of the gas are evolve. On testing, the gas is
3. Tie one iron nail with a thread and immerse it in test tube
found to be hydrogen (burns with pop sound).
B, for about 20 min.
2. The temperature rises during the reaction.
Chemical Reaction 4. Keep solution A as such and second iron nail aside for
Zn(s ) + 2HCl(aq ) → ZnCl 2 (aq ) + H 2 ( g ) comparison.
Zinc Hydrochloric Zinc chloride Hydrogen
Test tube (B)
Conclusion Thread
1. It is a displacement reaction. Zinc is present above
hydrogen in the reactivity series of metals. Hence, Zn Copper sulphate
solution (blue)
displaces it from HCl. Stand
Iron nail
2. The reaction is exothermic as it is accompanied by the
evolution of heat.

Note This activity can also be performed by using dilute

sulphuric acid instead of dilute hydrochloric acid. The
reaction is as follows: (a )
(a) Iron nail dipped in copper sulphate
Zn( s) + H 2SO4 ( aq ) → ZnSO4 ( aq ) + H 2 ( g )
Zinc Sulphuric acid Zinc Hydrogen
solution in test tube B
(dilute) sulphate

Iron nail
(before experiment)
Iron nail taken
out from copper
sulphate solution

(Brown deposit)
To study double displacement reaction by taking an example
of reaction between lead nitrate and potassium iodide.
Ferrous sulphate
Copper solution (green)
Materials Required
sulphate Test tube stand Two beakers, lead nitrate, potassium iodide and water.
(blue) Procedure
1. Prepare the aqueous solutions of lead nitrate and potassium
iodide in separate beakers.
(b )
2. Now, add potassium iodide solution slowly to the lead
(b) Iron nails and copper sulphate solutions
compared before and after the experiment nitrate solution.

The blue colour of copper sulphate solution in test tube Potassium
B fades away, while the blue colour in test tube A iodide solution
remains as such. Lead nitrate
The brown deposits appeared on the iron nail that is Lead iodide
(Yellow ppt.)
taken out from test tube B.
Formation of lead iodide (yellow
Chemical Reaction precipitate) and potassium nitrate

Fe(s ) + CuSO4 (aq ) → Cu(s ) + FeSO4 (aq ) Observation

Iron Copper sulphate Copper Ferrous sulphate
A yellow precipitate of lead iodide is formed.
(Light green colour)
Chemical Reaction
Conclusion Pb(NO3 )2 (aq ) + 2KI(aq ) → PbI2 (↓ ) + 2KNO3 (aq )
Lead Potassium Lead iodide Potassium
The more reactive element, iron, displaces copper from nitrate iodide nitrate
copper sulphate solution. This is a displacement (Yellow ppt.)
reaction. Conclusion
Above reaction is an example of double displacement reaction
as well as precipitation reaction.
Check Yourself
1. What changes in the colour of iron nails and copper Check Yourself
sulphate solution do you observe after keeping the
iron nails dipped in copper sulphate solution for about 1. Name the type of reaction between lead nitrate and potassium
20 min? iodide.
Ans Iron nails become brownish in colour and the blue colour Ans Reaction between lead nitrate and potassium iodide is double
of copper sulphate solution fade. displacement reaction.
2. Why the blue colour of copper sulphate fades by 2. What is the colour of the precipitate formed?
adding iron nails in it?
Ans A yellow precipitate of lead iodide (PbI2) is formed.
Ans This happens because iron being more reactive than Cu,
displaces Cu from CuSO4 solution and forms new 3. Reaction between lead nitrate and potassium iodide is an
products, iron sulphate (FeSO4 ) and copper metal. example of two types of reactions. Name them.
3. What is the formula of crystalline copper sulphate? Ans These two types of reactions are:
Ans CuSO4 ⋅5H2O (i) double displacement reaction
(ii) precipitation reaction
4. Is it safe to store the solution of iron (II) sulphate in a 4. What is the valency of lead (Pb) in lead nitrate?
copper vessel?
Ans Yes, it is safe to store iron (II) sulphate solution in a Ans Valency of lead is +2(Pb2+) in lead nitrate.
copper vessel because copper is less reactive than 5. Name the products formed in the reaction between lead
iron. nitrate and potassium iodide.
5. Name the type of reaction in the above activity. Ans Products formed are lead iodide (PbI2) and potassium nitrate
Ans The reaction is a redox displacement reaction. (KNO3 ).
Chemical Reactions and Equations 15


To study the double displacement reaction of barium chloride and sodium sulphate solution.
Materials Required
Test tubes (2), 3 mL barium chloride solution and 3 mL sodium sulphate solution, stirrer rod and conical flask.
1. Take 3 mL of sodium sulphate solution in one test tube and 3 mL of barium chloride solution in another test tube.
2. Then add these two solutions in conical flask and stirrer it by using stirrer rod.
A white substance, which is insoluble in water is formed. This insoluble substance is a precipitate of barium sulphate (BaSO4 ).
Chemical Reaction
Na 2 SO4 (aq ) + BaCl 2 (aq ) → BaSO4 ↓ + 2NaCl (aq )
Sodium sulphate Barium chloride Barium Sodium chloride
(White ppt .)

The reaction is an example of double displacement reaction and precipitation reaction.

Check Yourself
1. Name the reaction in which two compounds exchange their ions to form two new compounds.
Ans Double displacement reaction.
2. What is the insoluble substance formed in a reaction between barium chloride and sodium sulphate?
Ans In a reaction between barium chloride and sodium sulphate, a precipitate of barium sulphate (BaSO4 ) is formed which is insoluble.
3. What is the colour of barium sulphate precipitate in a reaction?
Ans A white precipitate of barium sulphate (BaSO4 ) is formed.
4. State the physical conditions of reactants in which the reaction between barium chloride and sodium sulphate will not take place.
Ans Reaction will not take place if the two reactants are in the solid state.
5. Write a chemical equation if ammonium sulphate is used in place of sodium sulphate in above activity.
Ans (NH4 ) 2 SO4 + BaCl2 → BaSO4 ↓ + 2NH4 Cl
Ammonium Barium Barium Ammonium
sulphate chloride sulphate chloride
(white ppt. )