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# ASSIGNMENT

SOLUTIONS
DR. Mohammed N.
Abbas
Department of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

## ALI RASHEED MAHDI

ALI RASHEED
ELECTRONIC LAB. ASSIGNMENT

Type chapter title (level 1) .......................................................................................................... 1
Type chapter title (level 2) ....................................................................................................... 2
Type chapter title (level 3) ................................................................................................... 3
Type chapter title (level 1) .......................................................................................................... 4
Type chapter title (level 2) ....................................................................................................... 5
Type chapter title (level 3) ................................................................................................... 6

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## 1. From where starting voltage for the oscillator is derived ?

Ans:-
We can simply describe the source of the starting voltage of the oscillator using
johnson-Nyquist noise formula , which states the (N = 4KRT) as :-
N: system noise
K: Boltzman constant
R: resistance of the circuit
T: absolute temperature
This formula is applied only in case that absolute temperature is more than zero.
Such that our circuit operates at room temperature ( about 300k )
And the circuit consists of resistors , so a thermal noise will generate as an
electrical energy of value N , As this noise occurs across a very wide bandwidth,
there is always some electrical noise at the frequency of operation of the
oscillator. The oscillator circuit will amplify this specific frequency, such that very
rapidly, the oscillator will be ramped up to full output.

Mark :

## 2. Why in practice Aβ is kept greater than unity ?

Ans:-
There are two considerable reasons :-
a. The value of Aβ must equal to 1 to verify barkhause condition of oscillation ,
such that the values of components is not perfect so we must take in our
consideration this error percentage and kame the value of Aβ greater than 1
b. The noise voltage specified in the part above as said is need to be amplified
by the oscillator circuit , the value of Aβ controls this amplification so we must
initialy set this value greater than 1

Mark:

## 3. Explain the concept of positive feedback ?

Ans:-
The positive feedback is defined as a positive gain around a closed loop of
cause and effect , it is also called the regenerative feedback

##  The feedback in the amplifier section of an oscillator must be POSITIVE

FEEDBACK. This is the condition where a fraction of the amplifier's output

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signal is fed back to be in phase with the input, and by adding together the
feedback and input signals, the amplitude of the input signal is increased. For
example, a common emitter amplifier creates a phase change of 180°
between its input and output, the positive feedback loop must therefore also
produce a 180° phase change in the signal fed back from output to input for
positive feedback to occur.
 The result of a small amount of positive feedback in amplifiers is higher gain,
though at the cost of increased noise and distortion. If the amount of positive
feedback is large enough however, the result is oscillation, where the
amplifier circuit produces its own signal. When an amplifier is operated
without feedback it is operating in "open loop" mode. With feedback (either
positive or negative) it is in "closed loop" mode. In ordinary amplifiers negative
feedback is used to provide advantages in bandwidth, distortion and noise
generation, and in these circuits the closed loop gain of the amplifier is much
less than the open loop gain. However when positive feedback is used in an
amplifier system the closed loop gain (with feedback) will be greater than
the open loop gain, the amplifier gain is now increased by the feedback.
Additional effects of positive feedback are reduced bandwidth, (but this
does not matter in an oscillator producing a sine wave having a single
freqency), and increased distortion. However even quite severe distortion in
the amplifier is allowed in some sine wave oscillator designs, where it does not
affect the shape of the output wave.
In oscillators using positive feedback it is also important that amplitude of the
oscillator output remains stable. Therefore the closed loop gain must be 1 (unity).
In other words, the gain within the loop (provided by the amplifier) should
exactly match the losses (caused by the feedback circuit) within the loop. In this
way there will be no increase or decrease in the amplitude of the output signal

mark:-

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shift oscillator ?
Ans:-

 Its circuit is simple to design
 It could be used as a fixed frequency oscillator
 It is suitable for lower frequencies
 Its not requires any negative feedback and stabilization arrangements
 The output of it is sinusoidal of quite distortion free
 Useful for the applications in audio range frequencies

 The output is small because of the smaller feedback
 Requires high Vcc for large feedback
 Poor frequency stability (any chane in components value cause to change the
frequency of oscillation and therefor the circuit falls)
 Its hard for the circuit to start oscillations

Mark :

## 5. What will be happen for the below astable multivibrator circuit

if the following faults are occurred. Specifically , identify the finl
states of the transistors ( on or off ) resulting from each fault .
consider each fault independently (i.e. one at a time , no
multiple faults )

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Ans:-

##  C1 is removed :- when removing c1 so no time delay exist for Q2 , therefor

Q2 will directly be ON but c2 is still exist so there will be a time delay before Q1
being ON
 C2 is removed :- when removing c2 so no time delay exist for Q1 , therefor
Q1 will directly be ON but c1 is still exist so there will be a time delay before Q2
being ON

##  R1 is removed :- we know that the principle of working of the transistor

depends upon the base current ,, by removing R1 the base current of Q2 is not
affected but no collector current exist so Q1 is ON , at the same time no
changes happens to Q2 so it will be ON
 R4 is removed :- we know that the principle of working of the transistor
depends upon the base current ,, by removing R4 the base current of Q1 is not
affected but no collector current exist so Q2 is ON , at the same time no
changes happens to Q1 so it will be ON

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## ** removing R4 as shown above ,, ( removing R1 will give the same

result because of circuit symmetry)

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##  R3 is removed :- by removing R3 , no bias current exist for Q1 so Q1 will be off

and Q2 will be on
 R2 is removed :- by removing R2 , no bias current exist for Q2 so Q2 will be off
and Q1 will be on

## ** removing R3 as shown above ,, ( removing R2 will give the same

result because of circuit symmetry)

Mark :-

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## 6. The astable multivibrator circuit shown below will oscillate with

a 50% duty cycle if the components are identical
Determine which component(s) would have to be changed to
produce a duty cycle other than 50%. ??

Ans :-
we know that C1 & R2 are responsible on the determination of the width of positive half
of the wave and C2 & R3 for the negative half ,, so changing one of these four values
will change the width and therefor get duty cycle other than 50% but changing R1 &R4
will not effect on the duty cycle as below

* changing C1 or C2

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## ** changing R2 or R3 ( above picture )

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## ** changing R1 or R4 ( not effective on the value of duty cycle ,, it effects only on

the charging and discharging time as shown previously )

Mark :-

## 7. The circuit shown below is for light flashing ,Which

component(s) in this circuit form the oscillator section? What
type of oscillator is used in this circuit? Which component
values have a direct influence on the frequency of the flash
tube’s output?

Ans:-
 The oscillator part is the UJT ,R1 , R2 R3 & C1
 Type of oscillator is phase shift (relaxation) oscillator
 R1 , R2 & C1 are the component which effect on the oscillator directly , so it
will effect the frequency of oscillation and therefor effect the frequency of the
flasher tube

Mark:-

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## 8. Under certain conditions it is possible for a simple one-

transistor voltage amplifier circuit to oscillate , how could the
parasitics effects the amplifier below to become an oscillator ?
what should be the load ?

Ans:-
We know that a parasitic capacitor exist in any junction of the bipolar transistor
So if the load is a capacitor and we took in our consideration the effect of C 𝜋
(between base & emitter ) so the circuit will be like :-

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as shown in the previous figure , if we make the load capacitive load and
operate in a high frequency region such that the base-emitter capacitance is
not neglected and we must also notice that the source must be removed
because the principle of oscillator is that generating output signal with no actual
input existence ,, after all previous conditions the circuit will become a general
oscillator circuit because of existence both inductance and capacitance ,, the
type of this general oscillator is colpitts oscillator

mark:-

Ans:-

## The output of this circuit as shown in the simulator (for 5v voltage

source) :

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## The zoomed_in output :

Mark;-

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## 10. RC phase-shift oscillator circuits can be designed with

different numbers of RC sections. Figures below shows are
schematic diagrams for three- and four-section RC oscillators:

## What difference will the number of sections in the oscillator circuit

make?
Ans:-
We know that the common emitter amplifier makes 180o phase shift , so we the
feedback circuit (which consists of stages of RC circuits) tends to equalize this shift and
make the oscillator work

In the first figure , there are 3 stages , so by dividing 180 on 3 means that each
capacitor need to give 60o phase shift

The second figure which consists of 4 stages means that each capacitor need to give
45o of shifting

So the number of stages effects the amount of required shifting from each RC stage

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By changing the number of stages and such that Xc=1/wc  w will also effect and
therefor we can say that changing the number of stages will not effect only on the
amount of shifting but it will also change the frequency of oscillation

Mark:-

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