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**2 State Feedback and Pole Placement
**

Consider a linear dynamic system in the state space form

In some cases one is able to achieve the goal (e.g. stabilizing the system or improving its transient response) by using the full state feedback, which represents a linear combination of the state variables, that is

so that the closed-loop system, given by

has the desired speciﬁcations. The main role of state feedback control is to stabilize a given system so that all closed-loop eigenvalues are placed in the left half of the complex plane. The following theorem gives a condition under which is possible to place system poles in the desired locations. Theorem 8.1 Assuming that the pair is controllable, there exists a feedback matrix such that the closed-loop system eigenvalues can be placed in arbitrary locations.

1

. ¢ . . . it exists a nonsingular transformation such that . For single-input single-output systems the state feedback is given by After closing the feedback loop with get from (8.e.5) . ... . . the reader is referred to Chen (1984). . .7). ¡ . the original system can be transformed into the phase variable canonical form. . If the pair is controllable. which is much more complicated. ¢ ¢ £ ¡ ¤ ¦¥£ ¡ ¤ ¦¥£ £ § . . . . as given by (8.. where ’s are coefﬁcients of the characteristic polynomial of that is ¡ ¢ ¤ ¥£ ¢ ¤ ¨£ ¡ ¤ ©¨£ 2 . . . . . . . . . we £ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ . .This important theorem will be proved (justiﬁed) for singleinput single-output systems. ¡ ¡ . . . i. For the general treatment of the pole placement problem for multi-input multi-output systems. ¡ ¤ ¦¥£ ..

Since the last row in (8. it follows from (8. The desired characteristic polynomial is obtained from (8.8) contains coefﬁcients of the characteristic polynomial of the original system after the feedback is applied.9) that the required feedback gains must satisfy The pole placement procedure using the state feedback for a system which is already in phase variable canonical form is demonstrated in the next example. Example 8.8) and (8.1: Consider the following system given in phase variable canonical form It is required to ﬁnd coefﬁcients such that the closed-loop system has the eigenvalues located at . then the desired characteristic polynomial will be given by the .9) as #" ! 3 ¥ ¨ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¥ ¨ ¥ If desired closed-loop eigenvalues are speciﬁed by .

in the original coordinates it is obtained as (similarity transformation) $ 0 2 2 1 $ 0 ' ¥) 0 ' ¨) 0 $ ¥) 0 $ ¥) ' 0 $ ¨) & ' ) %' $% %& ) $ $ ' ( 0 $ ¥) ' $ . . . It can be shown (Chen.10) we have $ 4 In general. After the feedback gain has been found for phase variable canonical form. . This transformation can be obtained by using the linearly independent columns of the system controllability matrix . 1984) that the required transformation is given by ) ' $ 0 $ ¥) ' where 0 $ ¥) ) ' 0¥) 0 $ ¥) ) 0 ' ¨) 0 $ ¨) ) where ’s are coefﬁcients of the characteristic polynomial of matrix . . . . . . . . .so that from (8. . in order to be able to apply this technique to all controllable single-input single-output systems we need to ﬁnd a nonsingular transformation which transfers the original system into phase variable canonical form.

12) as 3 .2: Consider the following linear system given by The characteristic polynomial of this system is 4 5 Its phase variable canonical form can be obtained either from its transfer function (see Section 3.1. The system transfer function is given by 4 3 6 75 Using results from Section 3.11) and (8.2) or by using the nonsingular (similarity) transformation (8.Example 8.11).1.2 we are able to write new matrices in phase variable canonical form representation as 8 8 8 The same matrices could have been obtained by using the similarity transformation with 8 6 ©5 8 6 ©5 8 with obtained from (8.

13) Using this gain in order to close the state feedback around the system we get It is easy to check by MATLAB that the eigenvalues of this systems are located at . Comment: Exactly the same procedure as the one given in this section can be used for placing the observer poles in the desired locations. Choosing the observer gain such that the closed-loop observer matrix has the desired poles corresponds to the problem 9 .6. then A @ B C A B 9 C 9 9 A B E B A @ D 6 From equation (8.Assume that we intend to ﬁnd the feedback gain for the original system such that its closed-loop eigenvalues are located at . The observers have been considered in Section 5.10) we get expressions for the feedback gains for the system in phase variable canonical form as In the original coordinates the feedback gain is obtained from (8.

and hence the is controllability condition stated in Theorem 8. replaced by and replaced by . F F F F F F F F F F 7 .of choosing the feedback gain such that the closed-loop system has the same poles. Thus.1—the pair controllable. for the observer matrix pole placement problem. which for observer pole placement requires that the pair be controllable—is satisﬁed by assuming that the pair is observable. matrix should be replaced by . In addition. it is known from Chapter 5 that the observability of the pair is equal to the controllability of the pair .

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