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Building Regulations &
Design Guidelines - MEP

Department of Planning and Development - TRAKHEES

Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation
Government of Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Building Regulations & Design Guidelines - MEP
Second Edition-2014

Prepared & Issued by:
Department of Planning and Development - TRAKHEES
Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation, Government of Dubai
P.O. Box17000
Dubai,United Arab Emirates

2nd Edition

This edition issued in November, 2014

Dubai,United Arab Emirates

All rights reserved to Department of Planning and Development - TRAKHEES - Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation
(PCFC) Government of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). No parts of this publication may be reproduced, stored in Department of Planning and Development - TRAKHEES
any retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation
otherwise, without the prior consent of the copyright owner. These regulations and guidelines have been established
to be applied within Trakhees - PCFC Jurisdiction. Implementation of these regulations out of Trakhees jurisdiction is Government of Dubai, United Arab Emirates
the sole responsibility of the concerned parties, whereby the local authority regulations shall be precedent and govern.

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The Publication of this book could not have been possible without the
valuable efforts put in by a number of individuals working in the Department
of planning and Development - TRAKHEES.

We would like to thank Dubai Municipality and to other National and

International Organizations in the field of Construction whose publications
and articles in terms of local and international standards are frequently

In Addition, our sincere thanks to all those who contributed their comments,
feedback, and suggestions, which have been all considered in this edition.
As there is always room for improvement, Trakhees will continuously
welcome comments/suggestions on this book, and will consider all that
are received. Your comments will continue to improve this book leading to
its ultimate acceptance. As always, it has been a great joint effort.

Mr. Arif Obaid Al Dehail

Chief Executive Officer
Trakhees – Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation

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contents contents
SECTION 3:. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
. 2. 3.1 INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................80
. 2. 3.2 MODE OF POWER SUPPLY.............................................................................. 81
GENERAL . 2. 3.3 PERMANENT POWER REQUIREMENT............................................................... 81
1.1.SCOPE.................................................................................................................. 12 . 2. 3.4 TEMPORARY POWER REQUIREMENT...............................................................82
1.2.INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 12
. 2. 3.5 ADDITIONAL POWER REQUIREMENT...............................................................82
1.3.DEFINITIONS........................................................................................................ 12
. 2. 3.6 EMERGENCY: GENERAL...................................................................................84
1.4.GENERAL CONDITIONS......................................................................................... 13
1.5. STANDARDS AND REFERENCES............................................................................ 16 . 2. 3.7 MAIN DISTRIBUTION BOARDS (MDBS), SUB DISTRIBUTION BOARDS,
1.6. MATERIAL SELECTION AND SUBSTITUTIONS........................................................ 20 . (SMDBS) AND DISTRIBUTION BOARDS (DBS)................................................85
1.7. OPERATIONAL AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTING.............................................. 23 . 2. 3.8 LOW VOLTAGE CONTROL SYSTEM................................................................ 112
1.8. OPERATIONAL AND FIELD PERFORMANCE TESTING.............................................. 23
SECTION 4:. MEP INSTALLATION GENERAL NOTES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
1.9. BUILDING OPERATIONAL RECORDS...................................................................... 23
1.10.DUTIES AND POWER OF AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION (AHJ)........................ 27 2. 4.1 GENERAL...................................................................................................... 146
2. 4.2 PIPING .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
2. 4.3 PLUMBING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
PART-2 2. 4.5 FIRE PROTECTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

SECTION 1:. HVAC SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
. 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................... 33
. 2. 1.2 DESIGN CRITERIA...................................................................................... 34
SECTION 1: . INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 158
. 2. 1.3 INDOOR AIR QUALITY................................................................................ 35 1 GENERAL.....................................................................................................158
. 2. 1.4 SYSTEM SELECTION ................................................................................. 37 2 DOCUMENTATION AND CALCULATION ....................................................... 163

. 2. 1.5 ELEMENTS OF DESIGN............................................................................... 37 SECTION 2: . MICROCLIMATE AND OUTDOOR COMFORT ................................................. 166
. 1 MICROCLIMATE AND OUTDOOR COMFORT................................................. 187
. 2. 1.6 VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY.................................................. 44
. 2. 1.7 PRESSURIZATION AND SMOKE.................................................................. 46
SECTION 3: . VENTILATION AND AIR QUALIT....................................................................... 168
1 VENTILATION AND AIR QUALITY...................................................................168
. 2. 1.8 NOISE CRITERIA......................................................................................... 47 2 THERMAL COMFORT....................................................................................174
. 2. 1.9 ENERGY CONSERVATION........................................................................... 50 3 ACOUSTIC COMFORT ..................................................................................175
4 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.............................................................................176
. 2. 1.11 HVAC EQUIPMENT SELECTION; TECHNIQUES AND EFFICIENCY................. 60 5 DAY LIGHTING AND VISUAL COMFORT.........................................................177
. 2. 1.12 AUTOMATIC CONTROL AND BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM............... 62 6 WATER QUALITY..........................................................................................178

. 2. 1.13 TESTING AND COMMISSIONING............................................................... 64 SECTION 4: . RESOURCE EFFECTIVENESS: ENERGY .................................................. 180
1 CONSERVATION AND EFFICIENCY: BUILDING FABRIC...................................180
2 CONSERVATION AND EFFICIENCY: BUILDING SYSTEMS...............................185
SECTION 2:. PLUMBING SYSTEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 APENDEX A ......................................................................................................................................205
2. 2.1.CODES AND STANDARDS............................................................................ 67 APENDEX B ...................................................................................................................................... 215
2. 2.2.DRAINAGE SYSTEM..................................................................................... 67
2. 2.3.DOMESTIC WATER SYSTEM......................................................................... 73

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Dubai has a natural environment of outstanding visual quality that 1.3.4 “Permanent building” means a building designed and constructed
contributes to a high quality of life and to property values. These with reinforced concrete, or steel with block or metal cladding or
standards exist to ensure buildings integrate with the natural other durable material.
environment, to protect and enhance land and property, to maintain
1.3.5 “Temporary Building” means a building used as a site office or
the values created in the community, and to promote the health, safety
to house construction equipment during the construction period.
and general welfare of the community. Building Services in particular
have a pronounced effect on the environment and should be designed 1.3.6 “The Consultant” means a registered Engineer with CED holding
so as to minimize adverse effects and promote people and environment a valid Consulting Engineers’ license from the Dubai Economic
friendly systems. Department,

1.1 SCOPE 1.3.7 “Regulations” mean these and other Regulations and or
The guidelines shall be read in conjunction with the other local Guidelines issued by the “Authority”.
regulations and applicable international standards, and TRAKHEES, 1.3.8 The “Contractor” means a registered Contractor holding a valid
CED regulations namely, “BUILDING REGULATIONS & DESIGN Contracting license from the Dubai Economic Department and

1.2 INTRODUCTION 1.4.1 Description

These regulations are intended to provide minimum services design Refer to the following General Conditions/definitions of guidelines for
requirements for all buildings. order of precedence of the scope of applications.
Ports, Customs and Free Zone Corporation / TRAKHEES reserves the The guidelines given in one section shall apply to other
right to change any of these regulations and it shall be the duty of sections unless otherwise stated.
consultants, contractors & developers etc, to ensure that they possess Where, in any specific case, different sections of these
the latest updates.
guidelines specify different materials, methods of construction
or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.
Where there is a conflict between a general requirement
1.3.1 The “Authority” or “Authority have jurisdiction (AHJ)“, shall mean and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be
TRAKHEES, Civil Engineering Department of the Ports, Customs applicable.
and Free Zone Corporation, Jebel Ali. Relevant entities shall provide and do everything necessary for
1.3.2 The “Developer” “shall mean the lessee or his authorized Agent the proper execution of the Works according to the intent and
who submits an application to the “Authority” on behalf of the meaning of the local regulations and applicable international
lessee or owner of the plot of land. standards.

1.3.3 The “Project” means the construction of a permanent building or The work to be performed under this guidelines, but is not
any other permanent or temporary structure on a leased property necessarily limited to, the furnishing of all supervision, labour,
including any modifications or installations in existing facilities. materials, temporary works, false work, plant, machinery,

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equipment, parts, tools, supplies, transportation, utilities, 1.4.2 Duties and Coordination: The consultant and contractor shall:
construction facilities, incidentals and logistic support Coordinate construction activities included under various Sections
necessary for the performance and maintenance of the Works,
of these Guidelines to assure efficient and orderly installation of
accomplished in a professional and workmanlike manner.
each part of the Works. Provide the administrative and supervisory personnel Coordinate construction operations included under different
necessary for Project coordination, construction, completion,
Sections of the Guidelines that are dependent upon each other for
commissioning and maintenance.
proper installation, connection, and operation. All work shall be executed by skilled tradesman who shall be A. Where installation of one part of the Work is dependent on
thoroughly acquainted with all aspects of their trade including installation of other components, either before or after its
any special local customs and modes of operation. own installation, schedules detailed design and construction Workmanship of the highest standard only will be accepted. activities in the sequence required to schedule the best results. Contractor/ consultant shall be deemed to have: B. Where availability of space is limited, coordinate installation
of different components to assure maximum accessibility for
A. Based their design and construction on the information in
required maintenance, service and repair.
respect of hydrological, physical and climatic conditions of
the UAE / Emirate of Dubai. C. Make adequate provisions to accommodate items scheduled
for later installation.
B. Inspected the site and its surroundings and satisfied
himself of all conditions before start commence of works... D. Where necessary, prepare memoranda for distribution to
each party involved outlining special procedures required for The authority have jurisdiction and any person authorized by coordination. Include such items as required notices, reports
the Authority shall at all times have access to the Works and and attendance at meetings.
to the Site and to all workshops, stores and places associated
E. Administrative Procedures
with the Works.
Contractor must allow for the above Sub-Clause and for The Contractor shall maintain access to the Site at all times coordinating work as necessary to cause minimum disruption.
and he shall take all necessary steps to ensure the safety of Co ordinate scheduling and timing of required administrative
persons on the Site.
procedures with other construction activities to avoid conflicts and Contractor shall be responsible for safeguarding all other work ensure orderly progress of the work.
sites in the development which are in the vicinity of the Site. Prepare and submit coordination drawings where close and careful
A. Shall ascertain from the public utility authority positions coordination is required:
of all existing underground services.
A. Installation of products
B. Shall maintain and protect or divert them as required.
B. Materials fabricated off site by separate entities The Contractor has to coordinate with all local authorities for C. Where limited space availability necessitates maximum
obtaining all necessary NOC’s for the proper and safe execution utilization of space for efficient installation of different
of the works. components.

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PART 1 GENERAL PART 1 GENERAL Drawings shall indicate: • Relevant IEC / BS Codes and Standards for the Electrical
A. Interrelationship of components detailed on separate shop Works.
drawings. • DEWA Regulations - latest edition.

B. Required installation sequences. Other Guidelines/Regulations

• Dubai – Etisalat / ’du’ Regulations,
1.5 STANDARDS AND REFERENCES • Dubai – Road and Transport Authority (RTA) Regulations.
1.5.1 Standards • Dubai Civil Aviation Authority (DCA) Regulations.
Referenced Standards and Regulations • Dubai Municipality (DM) Regulations
Work and materials shall be in full accordance with the latest rules AABC Associated Air Balance Council
and regulations of the following generic Standards, Handbooks ADC Air Diffuser Council
and Guides for information purposes. Their amendments and AFI Air Filter Institute
addenda should be used during the development process. AIMA Acoustical & Insulating Materials Association.
HVAC AIEE American Institute of Electrical Engineering
• DM Regulations AMCA Air Moving & Conditioning Association
• ASHRAE Handbooks ANSI American National Standards Institute
• SMACNA ARI Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute
• IMC (International Mechanical Code) ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
• CIBSE Guidelines and Air Conditioning Engineers
• DW 142 & 144 ASSE American Society of Sanitary Engineering
Plumbing and Drainage ASTM American Society for Testing & Materials
• DM Regulations AWS American Welding Society
• DEWA Regulations AWWA American Water Works Association
• IPC (International Plumbing Code) BRI Building Research Institute
• UPC (Uniform Plumbing Code ) BS British Standard
• NPC (National Plumbing Code) BSCP British Standard Code of Practice
• CIBSE Guidelines BS EN European Standards
• The Institute of Plumbing Guide BSI British Standards Institution
• BS-EN Standards CDA Copper Development Association
Fire Protection CEE international Commission on Rules for Approval
Please refer to EHS Guidelines and Dubai Civil of Electrical Equipment (Europe)
Defence Regulations CSI Construction Specifications Institute
Electrical CTI Cooling Tower Institute
• IEE Wiring Regulations for Electrical Installations - latest revisions. DEWA Dubai Electricity and Water Authority

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DM Dubai Municipality TIMA Thermal Insulation Manufacturers Association

DIN Deutsche Institute for Normung, Germany UPC Uniform Plumbing Code
ETISALAT Emirates Telecommunications Corporation
1.5.2 References
IEC Int’l. Electro-technical Commission
A. Comply with all codes, regulations, specifications and
IEE Institute of Elect. Engineers of London
standards referred to throughout the guidelines.
IEEE Institute of Elect.& Electronics Engineers
B. All references to codes, regulations, specifications and
IES Illuminating Engineering Society
standards referred to in the Guidelines shall, unless otherwise
ISA Instrument Society of America stated, mean the latest edition, amendment or revision of
ISO International Organization for Standardization, such reference standard in effect as of the date of building
Switzerland permit submission.
MSSVFI Manufacturers Standardization Society of C. Equivalent standards acceptable.
the Valves and Fittings Industries
1. Reference to standards is made throughout the guidelines
NAFM National Association of Fan Manufacturers
to establish a standard of quality required a procedure
NAPF National Association of Plastic Manufacturers to be followed, etc. The reference to one particular
NBHA National Builders Hardware Association standard is not intended to prohibit the use of any other
NBS National Bureau of Standards internationally recognized standard, which achieves the
NEC National Electrical Code (NPFA No.70) same level of quality, or requirement as those specifically
mentioned herein.
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NEMI National Elevator Mfg. Industry, Inc. 2. The guidelines and standards referenced in this code
shall be considered part of the requirements of this code
NFC National Fire Code
to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
differences occur between provisions of this code and
NSC National Safety Council referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this
NSF National Sanitation Foundation code shall apply.
NWC National Water Council, UK
1.5.3 Government Bodies
OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration
All works shall be carried out in strict accordance with all relevant
PDI Plumbing & Drainage Institute, USA current codes, regulations, local and administrative orders,
SDI Steel Door Institute specifications and standards of all Government bodies whether
SIGMA Sealed Insulating Glass Manufacturers listed herein or not. The provisions of these guidelines shall not
Association. be deemed to nullify any provisions of local and /or federal law.
SJI Steel Joint Institute
SMACNA Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractors
National Association
SSPC Steel Structure Painting council

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1.5.4 Certificates and affidavits C. Will coordinate the installation requirements of the
All works shall be carried out in strict accordance with all relevant current substitution and will make all changes necessary for the
Work to be complete in all respects. Cost of such changes Definitions
shall be at the Contractor’s sole expense.
A. Certificate indicates test results, component manufacture, or
D. Waive claims for additional costs resulting from the
installation complies with specified standards.
substitution which may subsequently become apparent.
B. Affidavit is a sworn statement by an officer of the company Substitutions will not be considered when acceptance will
manufacturing the product indicating that the information on the
require substantial revisions to the design intent.
certificate is true and accurate. An affidavit shall accompany all certificates. 1.6.2 Product Acceptance A statement from the consultant, contractor, Subcontractor, All products shall be tested as required by local regulations
equipment supplier, or agent indicating the product meets the and applicable international standards:
requirements of the regulations and codes shall not be considered as A. Product testing shall be by an approved independent
a certificate. laboratory or a recognized testing organization,.
A. Such submittals shall not be approved. B. Contractor shall be responsible for all costs associated
B. Corresponding equipment, products, or components shall not be with product testing including labour, transportation and
accepted. the cost of the test itself.
C. Testing samples shall be taken at the place of origin, place
1.6 MATERIAL SELECTION AND SUBSTITUTIONS of fabrication or from the site as required authority with
jurisdiction representative and
1.6.1 Introduction
C.1. Samples that are of value after testing shall remain Products specified in project specifications shall be described by
the property of the Contractor.
Reference Standards or by description only.
C.2. Samples used for testing may only be incorporated If products are specified by naming one or more manufacturers, into the Work with the written approval of the Employer
only the named manufacturers shall be used. Representative.
A. Where the term “or approved equal” is included, the contractor
D. Contractor shall provide all necessary facilities required
may submit a request for substitution for any manufacturer not
for on site testing of products.
specifically named.
E. Contractor shall ensure that products are made available Request for substitution constitutes a representation of a
for testing sufficiently in advance of intended use so as to
comprehensive justification and that the Contractor:
allow for testing.
A. Has investigated the proposed product and has determined Prior to final inspection, all components, systems and subsystems,
that it meets or exceeds, in all respects, the specified product.
shall be tested to demonstrate compliance with the specified
B. Will provide the same warranty for the substitution as the performance requirements.
specified product.

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Provide new mechanical and / or electrical products, free of Limitations: Product/manufacturer uniformity does not apply to
defects and harmful deterioration at the time of installation. Do raw materials, bulk materials, pipe tube, fittings (except flanged
not use units which have been subjected to destructive testing, and grooved types), insulation, sheet metal, wire, steel bar
or other high-limits testing except where pre-tested products are stock, welding rods, solder, paint, fasteners, motors for various
specified. Provide each product complete with trim, accessories, manufacturers equipment, and similar items used in the work,
finish, guards, safety devices and similar components specified except as otherwise indicated.
or recognized as integral parts of the product, or required by
governing regulations and as described herein: Except where more stringent requirements are indicated, comply
with the product manufacturer’s installation instructions and All materials shall be suitable for the climatic and recommendations, including handling, anchorage, assembly,
environmental conditions prevailing on Site, new, and of the connections, cleaning, testing, charging, lubrication, start-
kinds and qualities described in the regulations and project up, test operation, and shut-down of operating equipment.
specifications. Consult with manufacturer’s technical representatives who are Environmental conditions may be different in different parts of recognized as the technical experts, for specific instructions on
the Works and materials shall be selected and manufactured unique project conditions and unforeseen problems.
items designed accordingly to withstand the relevant corrosive
After all construction is complete and before Taking-Over of any part All materials and products in contact with sewage or sewage
of the works, the Contractor shall perform operational, field and
environment shall be non-biodegradable.
performance tests as called for in the regulations and applicable Assembly Testing: To the greatest extent possible and unless standards.
otherwise indicated, complete the fabrication, assembly,
A. Contractor shall demonstrate operation of the facilities to the
finishing and testing of products prior to delivery to the
Authority showing proper sequence of operation as well as
satisfactory performance of the system and individual components. Contractor to obtain written approval from the Employer B. Any improper operation of the system or any improper, neglected or
Representative approval in writing to material use. faulty construction shall be repaired or corrected to the satisfaction Where materials to be used for any component have not been of design intent.
laid down in the specification: Contractor shall use only those C. Contractor shall make such changes, adjustments or replacement
materials in such compositions as have been proved in actual of equipment as may be required to comply with the specifications,
service to be the most suitable for the particular purpose. or replace any defective parts or material. Uniformity: Where multiple units of a generic product are required
for a single major system of the mechanical and /or electrical 1.9 BUILDING OPERATIONAL RECORDS
work, provide identical products by the same manufacturer. 1.9.1 Building Installations and Systems
A. The contractor shall submit Category wise, list of all Mechanical,
Electrical and other Installations, made in the building.

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B. The contractor shall also supply a list of all Testing and B. Maintenance schedules shall include:
monitoring Equipment installed. A plan showing such 1. A list of all bearings with type and period of lubrication.
installations will be attached.
2. Equipment manufacturers printed data on care and
C. Test Certificates for each installation certifying it has been maintenance of bearings and other parts.
successfully installed and tested. The date of testing and
agency carrying out tests will be clearly stated. 3. System wiring and control diagrams and detailed
description of the operation of control systems.
D. Diagrammatic drawings of each system indicating principal
items of plant, equipment, valve etc. shall be included. 4. Periodicity/ frequency of maintenance with requirements
of materials and parts required.
1.9.2 Testing and Commissioning
5. Details of all lubricating oils and greases required and
A. Testing and Commissioning of each and every Equipment and filter replacements.
Installation shall be done as per Manufacturer’s specifications
C. Man hour requirements for each of the activity mentioned in
and manuals and relevant standards and regulations.
the Maintenance Schedule will also be specified.
B. A copy of Testing and Commissioning certificates will be
supplied by the contractor to the Employer’s Representative 1.9.4 Operation and Maintenance Manuals:
and Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) within two weeks of A. The Operation and Maintenance Manuals will provide full
the tests. information in regard to all Equipments and Installations
C. Tests: Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance provided in each building. These would serve as an
with the provisions of these guidelines, or evidence that a information source and guide to the Owner and end user to
material or method does not conform to the requirements, understand the Building, Installations and systems.
or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials B. The operating instructions shall include:
or methods, the AHJ (TRAKHEES) shall have the authority to 1. A general description of the system, equipment included,
require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no and control operation.
expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified
in these guidelines or by other recognized test standards. 2. Instructions on how to start and stop the plant, noting any
In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, safety and /or sequencing arrangements.
the AHJ shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be 3. A trouble-shooting table, showing where to look for trouble
performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall under various conditions of malfunction.
be retained by the building consultant for the period required 4. Operating temperatures at critical points in the systems.
for retention of building records.
5. Manuals will contain clear instructions in regard to the
1.9.3 Maintenance Schedules operation and maintenance of the equipment, Installation
A. Detailed maintenance schedules for each and every equipment and Systems, which will be adequate to enable the end user
and installation shall be prepared by the Contractor and to operate and maintain these facilities safely and effectively.
submitted with test reports.

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C. The names, addresses and telephone numbers of the B. The training shall be carried out by the qualified
manufacturer of every item of plant and equipment, type and commissioning staff, for each particular service and shall
model, serial number, duty and rating together with catalogue continue till the operators or maintenance staff is fully
list numbers. conversant with aspects of operations.
D. The format of the Contents Layout for all Operation and
Maintenance Manuals shall be as suggested below:
• Building, System or Plant installed. 1.10.1 Responsibilities and Disputes

• Detailed Description of the system or Plant installed. At the discretion of the Authority the BUILDING PERMIT may be
cancelled or suspended if:
• Equipment Schedules.
A. Work was carried out in contravention of the conditions of
• General Maintenance Procedures.
the BUILDING PERMIT or of any regulations issued by the
• Specific Maintenance instructions. Authority.
• System, Plant Commissioning. B. It is subsequently revealed that the BUILDING PERMIT was
• Drawings. issued on the basis of erroneous information supplied by
the developer or his agent.
• Parts identification and recommended spares.
• Spares Policy. The Authority is empowered to change, amend, replace and/
or update the regulations without notice. It is the developer’s
• Manufacturer’s literature. responsibility to obtain updated regulations and ensure compliance.
• Warranties as applicable. It is the responsibility of the developer to apply the up-to-date
E Suppliers and Manufacturers regulations, TRAKHEES, CED Notices, etc. that may supersede those
E.1 Names, addresses, telephone, e-mail and fax numbers of mentioned in these regulations.
contractors, sub-contractors, suppliers and manufacturers The Authority reserves the right to reject the appointment of
responsible for the supply and installation of any consultants or contractors for particular jobs if they are not deemed
equipment, plant or system, shall be supplied by the competent enough to fulfil the related responsibilities.
contractor. The Authority reserves the right to suspend a consultant or a
E.2 List of suppliers manufactures, who could be alternate contractor for non compliance with the regulations, and/ or for the
source of supply of spare parts, maintenance services convenience.
shall also be supplied by the contractor. Neither the checking of the drawings, nor the checking of the
1.9.5 Training calculations, nor inspection of the work during the progress of
A. The contractor shall be responsible to train adequate number construction, shall be construed in any way to impose responsibility
of Operators or Maintenance Staff deputed by the Employer and/or liability on the Authority or their agents. The developer
Representative. They shall be trained for correct operation, and his agents shall remain entirely responsible for all errors in the
safety devices, control and maintenance of all air conditioning design and execution of the project and for the stability and safety of
and MEP services. construction during the progress of the works and after completion.

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PART 1 GENERAL PART 1 GENERAL All complaints and disputes concerning BUILDING PERMITS and 1.10.4 Violations
the erection of buildings shall be referred to the Authority. Any Unlawful Acts
financial disputes shall be referred to Dubai Courts
It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect,
1.10.2 Use and Occupancy construct, alter, extend, repair, move, remove, demolish or
occupy any building, structure or equipment regulated by this No building or structure shall be used or occupied, and no
guidelines, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in
change in the existing occupancy classification of a building
violation of any of their provisions.
or structure or portion thereof shall be made until the
AHJ- TRAKHEES has issued a certificate of occupancy and Notice of Violation
/ or completion. Issuance of such certificates shall not be The AHJ- TRAKHEES is authorized to serve a notice of
construed as an approval of a violation of the provisions of violation or order on the person responsible for the erection,
these guidelines or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. construction, alteration, extension, repair, moving, removal,
Certificates presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the demolition or occupancy of a building or structure in violation
provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction of the provisions of regulations, or in violation of a permit or
shall not be valid. certificate issued under the provisions of AHJ regulations.
Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action
1.10.3 Service Utilities
or condition and the abatement of the violation. Connection of Service Utilities Violation Penalties
No person shall make connections from a utility, source of
Any person who violates a provision of these guidelines or
energy, fuel or power to any building or system for which a
fails to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who
permit is required until approved by TRAKHEES, CED.
erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or structure in Temporary Connection. violation of the approved construction documents or directive
TRAKHEES, CED. Shall have the authority to authorize and of the AHJ, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.
approve the temporary connection of the building or system
to the utility source of energy, fuel or power. Authority to disconnect service utilities
TRAKHEES shall have the authority to authorize disconnection
of utility service to the building, structure or system in case of
emergency where necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard
to life or property or when such utility connection has been
made without the approval required by above mentioned
Sections. TRAKHEES shall notify the serving utility and
whenever possible the owner and occupant of the building,
structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior
to taking such action if not notified prior to disconnection. The
owner or occupant of the building, structure or service system
shall be notified in writing as soon as practical thereafter.

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2.1 Section

In the design of all HVAC systems and equipment, energy conservation,
durability and ease of maintenance shall be emphasized consistent
with required performance characteristics.
The general design development shall be based on quality,
performance, function, aesthetic appearance, selection of materials,
equipment, finishes, type of construction and method of construction
to achieve the following advantages:
• Long life time
• Economical Construction
• Low maintenance, easily control quality, and free from climatic
The engineering techniques should be used to analyze the function (s)
of ietems, products, equipment, processes or procedures to ensure
that all required functions are accomplished at the lowest total cost.
This cost includes initial cost as well as operating and maintenance
costs throughout the life cycle of the project.

32 33

2.1.2 DESIGN CRITERIA b) All floor plans Outdoor Design Conditions c) Building elevations and sections

Summer d) Doors and windows schedule
North latitude 25° N e) Construction details (for U-Values calculations)
Design Temp f) Any special requirements for special applications like
Dry Bulb 115 °F – 46 oC (hospitals, stadiums, education facilities, malls, .....etc)
Wet Bulb 85 °F - 29.4oC Mechanical engineers shall coordinate HVAC requirements
Outdoor daily range 25 °F , 13.8oC with the architectural consultant considering equipments
Max. Ambient temperature 125 °F size and maintenance space required for proper installation.
Coordination for all MEP services will be the main consultant’s
Extend of variation in the temperature on the day of design
(Outdoor Daily Range) 13.8oC
• Units: HVAC systems design to be submitted for approvals Internal load Parameters
shall be presented in SI units Occupancy: The total no. of people who will occupy the
building shall be calculated based on the furniture plans and
• Chillers and A/C equipment shall be selected at Max. Ambient
as per ASHRAE Standard 62 recommendations
b) Lighting: shall be as per ASHRAE Standard 90
• Fresh air handling unis shall be calculated and selected based
on 31 oC temperature wet.
c) Miscellaneous loads: shall be as per ASHRAE Indoor Design Conditions recommendation for application type.
Indoor design conditions vary from application to another, so the
d) Infiltration: shall be as per ASHRAE recommendation
ASHRAE Handbook HVAC APPLICATIONS shall be the reference
for all indoor design conditions for all types of applications. Outside Air load Parameters
a) Ventilation: shall be as per ASHRAE standard 62.1-2007 Heat Gain And Loss Calculations
Cooling and Heating loads will be estimated using latest HAP 2.1.3 INDOOR AIR QUALITY
version program, Hourly Analysis program HAP version 4.20, 4.3
Basics of Indoor Air Quality Control
or later or any equivalent and load estimate program approved
by TRAKHEES. This guidelines edition does not address investigation and mitigation
of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) problems in existing or new buildings. HVAC Design Parameters However, good HVAC design can help to prevent problems such as sick External Load Parameters building syndrome from arising. Acceptable IAQ should follow where
are these design methods described. However, the designer should
The architectural consultant shall provide the mechanical
have explicit knowledge of the basic principles that control air quality
engineer with the following parameters for heat load
and comfort in buildings. In particular, setting up and mandating a
calculations but not limited to:
good control system is essential. Reference has been made in earlier
a) Building orientation chapters to ASHRAE Standard 62 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air

34 35

Quality. Standard 62 defines acceptable Indoor Air Quality as follows: 2.1.4 SYSTEM SELECTION
Air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations as HVAC system maintains desired environmental conditions in a space.
determined by cognizant authorities and with which a substantial majority In almost every application, many options are available to the design
(80% or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.. engineer to satisfy a client’s building program and design intent. In
Standard 62 sets criteria not only for outdoor air ventilation, but also the analysis, selection, and combination of these options, the design
for control of contaminant sources, system geometry, and maintenance. engineer should consider the criteria defined here, as well as project-
Filtration, also an important factor for acceptable indoor air quality, is specific parameters to achieve the functional requirements associated
covered by ASHRAE Standard 52.2 Method of Testing General Ventilation with the project design intent.
Air Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size. The designer The design engineer should consider sustainability as it pertains
must be familiar with both of these documents because both are to responsible energy and environmental design, as well as
incorporated into most local building codes. constructability of the design. HVAC systems are categorized by the
Acceptable indoor air quality begins with maintaining space dry bulb method used to produce, deliver, and control heating, ventilating,
temperature and relative humidity within the guidelines of ASHRAE and air conditioning in the conditioned area. This chapter addresses
Standard 55 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. procedures for selecting the appropriate system for a given application
Beyond this, the following principles apply for humid climates: while taking into account pertinent issues associated with designing,
1. Maintaining positive pressure in the building at all times during building, commissioning, operating, and maintaining the system. It
occupancy. also describes and defines the design concepts and characteristics
of basic HVAC systems. Chapters 2 to 5 describe specific systems
2. Selecting HVAC systems that can maintain average relative humidity and their attributes, based on their heating and cooling medium and
below 60% under all conditions. commonly used variations, constructability, commissioning, operation,
3. Ensuring that the building pressure envelope and thermal envelope and maintenance.
coincide and that both are continuous. These guidelines are intended as a guide for the design engineer,
4. Ensuring that cabinets or closets containing volatile materials are builder, facility manager, and student needing to know or reference
properly exhausted to the outside. This is a requirement of many the analysis and selection process that leads to recommending the
codes, but where no code requirement exists, the responsibility lies optimum system for the job. The approach applies to HVAC conversion,
with the design team. building system upgrades, system retrofits, building renovations and
expansion, and new construction for any building:
5. Ensuring that commercial cooking and dishwashing operations
have properly designed hoods in accordance with NFPA 96.
6. Ensuring that processes that may be conducted within a zone have
properly designed exhaust hoods, as described in the Industrial AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS CLASSES:
Ventilation Manual. Air conditioning systems can be divided into two classes: chilled
water system and direct expansion system (dx).. For small
7. Ensuring that no mechanical exhaust or outdoor air intake is
residential and commercial systems, chilled water system is
operating when a zone is unoccupied and AC equipment is off. This
generally impractical. Dx air conditioning may be cost effective,
is a control function.
especially in cold climates.
The basic preliminary design decisions will be as follows:

36 37

Air source or water source units

Split systems or packaged units
Matched air conditioning units of five tons or less are often
designated by equipment manufacturers as residential. However,
such systems are frequently applied to small commercial and
institutional buildings. DX Air Source Systems
These systems are most likely to be chosen for cooling the
small residential and commercial systems. Air source refers to
outdoor air as the source for heat or heat rejection, and air
as the heat transfer medium to add or remove heat from the
space. Refrigerant transfers the heat from the space to the Figure 1: Duct-work Distribution
outdoor air. Split System or Packaged record shall determine which engineering solution is used.
Matched split system air conditioners and heat pumps are available For primary/secondary systems only: 2-way control valves
in sizes from 1.5 to 25 tons. Packaged systems, with the evaporator with variable frequency drives on the secondary pump and
and condenser in the same housing, can be used where inside by-pass line (de-coupling) shall be used to ensure proper flow
space is unavailable, and can be used on the ground outside, or on and pressure in the hydronic cooling and heating systems.
the roof. In either case, the architect must provide the space in the A variable volume outside air system utilizing heat recovery
context of the interior layout or the visual impact on the building equipment (Sensible/Latent), sized to provide the amount of
elevations. Preliminary design and planning should not be a time- outside air required by code shall be considered.
consuming or complex task. Its purpose is to coordinate with the DDC controls shall be installed to control the HVAC systems
owner and architect to ensure that the HVAC system meets their including air handling equipment, exhaust fans, pumps,
requirements and can be incorporated into the building and site. It chillers, etc., to control temperature and humidity and to allow
will also help the engineer as the project is developed. for remote monitoring. Chilled Water Systems • All occupied spaces shall be air conditioned.
These systems are most likely to be chosen for cooling large • All ductwork shall be inside the building when possible.
residential and commercial systems to save energy. These
• All ductwork shall be concealed wherever possible.
system can be divided into two major types:
• All mechanical systems shall be designed to minimize
1) Air cooled chilled water system
the sound levels in occupied spaces. The maximum
2) Water cooled chilled water system acceptable sound levels shall be as data mentioned in
For primary systems only: A combination of 2-way and 3-way ASHARE applications handbook.
control valves or a pressure differential bypass and 2-way The following table indicated the recommended HVAC systems
control valve shall be used to ensure proper flow and pressure for various buildings and applications to comply with energy
in the hydronic cooling and heating system; the engineer of saving considerations.

38 39

Building Total Totalload RECOMMENDED HVAC Outdoor for terminal devices consists of selecting devices that meet the
Type Built-up estimate DX Air design goal under all operating conditions and installing them
Water District Treated
Area (T.R.) properly so that no additional sound is generated. The sound
Cooled Cooled Cooling Fresh air
(M2) power output of a fan is determined by the type of fan, airflow,
Water Water Plant Ventilation
and pressure. Sound control in the duct system requires proper
Chillers Chillers (DCP) with Heat
Recovery duct layout, sizing, and provision for installing duct attenuators,
if required. Noise generated by a system increases with both duct
------ ------ * Optional velocity and system pressure.
Villas Testing and Balancing
<6000 m2 Les 300 * * * *
Each air duct system should be tested, adjusted, and balanced.
Residential >8000m2 Above 400 * * *
Detailed procedures are given ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC
High Rise Above 1500 * * * Applications. To properly determine fan total (or static) pressure
<6000 m2 Les 300 * * * * from field measurements taking into account fan system effect.
Offices >8000m 2
Above 400 * * * It is important that system effect magnitudes be known prior to
testing. For TAB calculation procedures of numerous fan/ system
High Rise Above 1500 * * *
configurations encountered in the field, refer to AMCA.
<400 m 2
Les 250 * * * *
Educational Duct Design Methods
>1000m2 Above 500 * * *
Duct design methods for HVAC systems and for exhaust systems
<5000m2 Les 250 * * * * * conveying vapours, gases, and smoke are the equal-friction
>6000 m2 Above 300 * * * * method, the static regain method, and the T-method. The
<5000m 2
Les 250 * * * * * section on Industrial Exhaust System Duct Design presents the
Hospitals design criteria and procedures for exhaust systems conveying
>6000 m2 Above 300 * * * *
particulates. Equal friction and static regain are non-optimizing
>4000m2 Above 300 * * * * methods, and the T-method is a practical optimization method
Malls introduced by Tsal et al. (1988). To ensure that system designs
are acoustically acceptable, noise generation should be analyzed
Table 1: Recommended HVAC Systems for Various Buildings and sound attenuators and/or acoustically lined duct provided
and Applications where necessary. Equal-Friction Method DUCT DESIGN AND AIR DISTRIBUTION
In the equal-friction method, ducts are sized for a constant System and Duct Noise pressure loss per unit length. When energy cost is high and
The major sources of noise from air-conditioning systems are installed ductwork cost is low, a low friction-rate design is
diffusers, grilles, fans, ducts, fittings, and vibrations. Chapter more economical. For low energy cost and high duct cost,
47 of the ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications discusses a higher friction rate is more economical. After initial sizing,
sound control for each of these sources, as well as methods calculate total pressure loss for all duct sections, and then
for calculating required sound attenuation. Sound control resize sections to balance pressure losses at each junction.

40 41
PART 2 MEP SYSTEMS PART 2 HVAC SYSTEMS Static Regain Method self-balancing at design loads and VAV boxes compensate
This design method is only applicable to supply air for inaccuracy in fitting data or data inaccuracy caused by
systems. The objective is to obtain the same static pressure close-coupled fittings (at design loads) and system pressure
at diverging flow junctions by changing downstream duct variation (at part loads). Balancing dampers, however, are
sizes. required for systems designed using the non-self-balancing
equal-friction method. For systems designed using any T-Method
method, dampers should not be installed in the inlets to VAV
T-method optimization (Tsal et al. 1988) is a dynamic boxes.
programming procedure based on Bellman’s (1957)
tee-staging idea, except that phase-level vector tracing Industrial Exhaust System Duct Design
is eliminated by optimizing locally at each stage. This Chapter 30 of the ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications
modification reduces the number of calculations, but discusses design criteria, including hood design, for industrial
requires iteration. exhaust systems. Exhaust systems conveying vapors, gases,
and smoke can be designed by the equal-friction or T-method. Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components
Systems conveying particulates are designed by the constant
See Table 8 in Chapter 21 (Duct Design) of the 2009 ASHRAE velocity method at duct velocities adequate to convey particles
Handbook—HVAC Fundamentals. to the system air cleaner. For contaminant transport velocities, Balancing Dampers see Table 2 in Chapter 30 of the ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC
Constant-Volume (CV) Systems Dampers should be provided Applications.
throughout CV systems. Systems designed using the
inherently non-self-balancing equal-friction method should
have balancing dampers at each branch throughout the Fresh Air Ventilation
system, unless sections are resized to balance pressure
losses at each junction. Self-balancing design methods,
such as static regain and the T-method, produce fairly well-
balanced systems and theoretically do not need balancing Ventilation equipment size is exaggerated here for clarity.
This system is separate from forced-air heating and cooling.

dampers; however, because of the accuracy limitations of ventilation

The HRV unit must be accessible for
maintenance and filter replacement.

fitting data (loss coefficients), use of fittings for which no data Master
Balanced heat-recovery
ventilation (HRV) unit.

are available, and effects of close-coupled fittings, dampers


should be provided.

Bedroom Kitchen Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) Systems

Living Room



VAV systems in balance at design loads will not be in balance ventilation control
ceiling exhaust grilles

at part-load conditions, because there is no single critical path direction of air flow
ceiling supply grilles

in VAV systems. The critical path is dynamic and continually Intermittent

ventilation supply ducts

ventilation exhaust ducts

exhaust fan
changing as loads on a building change. In general, balancing
dampers are not needed for systems designed by the static
regain or T-method, because these design methods are

Figure 2: Fresh Air Ventilation

42 43

Minimum outdoor fresh air required for varies applications as per The ICC’s (2003a) International Mechanical Code requires
the following Table and as per ASHARE Standard 62-2004. ventilation be provided to limit CO concentrations to 29 mg/
m3 (25 ppm) or below.In Europe, an average concentration Parking Garages
of 40 mg/m3 (35 ppm) and a maximum level of 230 mg/m3 Automobile parking garages can be either fully enclosed (200 ppm) are usually maintained in parking garages. Various
or partially open. Fully enclosed parking areas are often agencies and countries differ on the acceptable level of CO
underground and require mechanical ventilation. Partially in parking garages, but a reasonable solution is a ventilation
open parking garages are generally above-grade structural rate designed to maintain a CO level of 40 mg/m3 (35 ppm)
decks having open sides (except for barricades), with a for 1 h exposure, with a maximum of 130 mg/m3 (120 ppm),
complete deck above. Natural ventilation, mechanical or 29 mg/m3 (25 ppm) for an 8 h exposure. Because the
ventilation, or a combination can be used for partially time associated with driving in and parking, or driving out of
open garages. Operating automobiles in parking garages a garage, is on the order of minutes, 40 mg/m3 (35 ppm) is
presents two concerns. The more serious is emission of CO, probably an acceptable level of exposure. However, Figure 14
with its known risks. The other concern is oil and gasoline provides nomographs for 15 and 25 ppm maximum exposures
fumes, which may cause nausea and headaches and also as well, to allow the designer to conform to more stringent
represent potential fire hazards. Additional concerns about regulations.
NOx and smoke haze from diesel engines may also require Number of Cars in Operation. The number of cars operating
consideration. However, the ventilation rate required to dilute at any one time depends on the type of facility served by the
CO to acceptable levels is usually satisfactory to control the parking garage. For distributed, continuous use, such as an
level of other contaminants as well, provided the percentage apartment building or shopping area, the variation is generally
of diesel vehicles does not exceed 20%. For many years, the 3 to 5% of the total vehicle capacity. The operating capacity
various model Ventilation Requirements and Design ASHRAE could reach 15 to 20% in other facilities, such as sports
Research Project RP-945 (Krarti and Ayari 1998) found that stadiums or short-haul airports.
the design ventilation rate required for an enclosed parking Length of Time of Operation
facility depends chiefly on four factors:
The length of time that a car remains in operation in a parking
• Acceptable level of contaminants in the parking facility
garage is a function of the size and layout of the garage, and
• Number of cars in operation during peak conditions the number of cars attempting to enter or exit at a given time.
• Length of travel and the operating time for cars in the The operating time could vary from as much as 60 to 600 s,
garage but on average, it usually ranges from 60 to 180 s. Table 2 lists
approximate data for average vehicle entrance and exit times;
• Emission rate of a typical car under various conditions
this data should be adjusted to suit the specific physical
Contaminant Level Criteria. ACGIH (1998) recommends a configuration of the facility.
threshold CO limit of 29 mg/m3 (25 ppm) for an 8 h exposure,
and the U.S. EPA (2000) determined that exposure, at or
near sea level, to a CO concentration of 40 mg/m3 (35 ppm)
for up to 1 h is acceptable. For parking garages more than
1000 m above sea level, more stringent limits are required.

44 45
PART 2 MEP SYSTEMS PART 2 HVAC SYSTEMS Car Emission Rate for example, nursing home requirements are different from those for
Operating a car in a parking garage differs considerably from office buildings.
normal vehicle operation, including that in a road tunnel. Most Two basic approaches to fire protection are
car movements in and around a parking garage occur in low (1) To prevent fire ignition.
gear. A car entering a garage travels slowly, but the engine
is usually hot. As a car exits from a garage, the engine is (2) To manage fire effects
usually cold and operating in low gear, with a rich fuel mixture. Before methods of smoke control were developed, HVAC systems were
Emissions for a cold start are considerably higher, so the shut down when fires were discovered because the systems frequently
distinction between hot and cold emission plays a critical role transported smoke during fires.
in determining the ventilation rate. Motor vehicle emission In the early stages of a fire, the HVAC system can aid in fire detection.
factors for hot- and cold-start operation are presented in Table 3. When a fire starts in an unoccupied portion of a building, the system
An accurate analysis requires correlation of CO readings with can transport the smoke to a space where people
the survey data on car movements (Hama et al. 1974); the data can smell it and be alerted to the fire. However, as the fire progresses,
should be adjusted to suit the specific physical configuration the system transports smoke to every area it serves, thus endangering
of the facility and the design year. life in all those spaces. The system also supplies air to the fire space, Refer to page 218 which aids combustion. Although shutting the system down prevents
it from supplying air to the fire, it does not prevent smoke movement
2.1.7 PRESSURIZATION AND SMOKE through the supply and return air ducts, air shafts, and other building
The idea of using pressurization to prevent smoke infiltration of openings because of stack effect, buoyancy, or wind.
stairwells began to attract attention in the late 1960s. This concept Fire and Smoke Dampers
was followed by the idea of the pressure sandwich (i.e., venting or Openings for ducts in walls and floors with fire resistance ratings
exhausting the fire floor and pressurizing the surrounding floors). should be protected by fire dampers and ceiling dampers, as
Frequently, a building’s ventilation system is used for this purpose. required by local codes. Air transfer openings should also be
Smoke control systems use fans to pressurize appropriate areas to protected. These dampers should be classified and labeled in
limit smoke movement in fire situations. Smoke management systems accordance with Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 555.
include pressurization and all other methods that can be used singly or Figure 11 shows recommended damper positions for smoke
in combination to modify smoke movement. control.
These guidelines discuss fire protection and smoke control systems in (FIRE AND SMOKE MANAGEMENT) ASHRAE applications to be
buildings as they relate to HVAC. For a more complete discussion, refer applies for this section to calculate the required air flow for
to Principles of Smoke Management (Klote and Milke 2002). National pressurization and smoke evacuation system.
Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 204 provides information
about venting large industrial and storage buildings. For further 2.1.8 NOISE CRITERIA
information, refer to NFPA Standards 92A and 92B. General
The objective of fire safety is to provide some degree of protection
a) Values and ranges are based on judgment and experience, not
for a building’s occupants, the building and property inside it, and
on quantitative evaluations of human reactions. They represent
neighboring buildings. Various forms of analysis have been used to
general limits of acceptability for typical building occupancies.
quantify protection. Specific life safety objectives differ with occupancy;

46 47

Higher or lower values may be appropriate and should be based

on careful analysis of economics, space use, and user needs.
b) When sound quality in the space is important, specify criteria
in terms of RC(N). If sound quality in the space is of secondary
concern, the criteria may be specified in terms of NC or NCB
levels of similar magnitude.
c) An experienced acoustical consultant should be retained for
guidance on acoustically critical spaces (below RC 30) and for
all performing arts spaces.
d) Some educators and others believe that HVAC-related sound
criteria for schools, as listed in previous editions of this table,
are too high and impede learning for affected groups of all
ages. See ANSI Standard S12.60-2002 for classroom acoustics

Buildings / Spaces RC(N) Buildings / Activities RC(N)

Performing Arts
Apartments, 25 to 35
Spaces Figure 3: Design Guidelines for HVAC - related Background
Drama theaters, con- Sound in Rooms
Hotels/Motels 25
cert and recital halls
Individual rooms or Music teaching stu-
25 to 35 25 and a justification for lower sound criteria in schools. The
suites dios
HVAC component of total noise meets the background noise
25 to 35 Music practice rooms 30 to 35 requirement of that standard if HVAC-related back- ground
sound RC 25(N).
Corridors, lobbies 35 to 45 e) RC or NC criteria for these spaces need only be selected for
(with fume hoods)
Testing/research, the desired speech and hearing conditions.
35 to 45 minimal speech 45 to 55 HVAC Noise Reduction Design Procedures
These HVAC system design procedures address the 63 to 4000
Research, extensive Hz octave band mid frequency range. Although it is desirable
Office Buildings telephone use, 40 to 50 to extend this frequency range down into the 31.5 Hz octave
speech band, acoustical calculations below the 125 Hz octave band
Executive and are not reliable. With a few exceptions, if acoustical design
25 to 35 communication
private offices criteria are met at 4000 Hz, then the 8000 Hz requirements are
also met. Guidelines in this chapter and other guides maximize
Table 4: The minimum Noise criteria recommended by
the probability of meeting acoustical design criteria in the 31.5
ASHARE standards

48 49

to 8000 Hz octave bands. There is reasonable probability that it is also the responsibility of
the acoustical design criteria will be met when the following the HVAC designer to advise
requirements are satisfied: the architect and lighting
• Systems are designed in accordance with the equipment designer regarding the
selection, placement, and integration guidelines in this energy code requirements
chapter, other ASHRAE guides, and manufacturers’ of the building envelope,
application notes and bulletins. lighting, and equipment. This
is because these elements
• Acoustical calculations based on the information included in of the building design are
this chapter and the information provided by the equipment addressed in Standard 90.1
manufacturer indicate that the system will not exceed the and strongly affect the size,
selected acoustical design criteria values in the 63 to 4000 Hz type, and configuration of the
octave band frequency range. HVAC system. This chapter will
The following suggested design procedure uses the NC method, outline the requirements of
which is the most commonly used. Other criteria, such as NCB 90.1, define critical terms, and
or RC, may be used. However, it is often difficult to acquire low Figure 4: Plate Heat Exchanger discuss the implementation of
frequency sound data, and low-frequency acoustical calculations energy efficient design.
for HVAC system components are not reliable. COP. Coefficient of Performance. This is the ratio of heat removed
a. Determine the design goal for HVAC system noise for each or added by the unit, in Btuh to the energy input to the unit in
critical area according to its use and construction. Choose the Btuh.
desirable NC criterion from Table 42, assuming that the RC(N) Electric heaters have a COP of unity because all of the electric
listed are comparable to the NC. energy input appears as heat in the air stream. Reverse cycle heat
b. Select equipment and fittings (e.g., air inlet and outlet grilles, pumps have a COP greater than unity because they transfer heat
registers, diffusers, and air terminal and fan-coil units that from outdoors to indoors. HSPF . Heating Season Performance
radiate sound directly into a room) that will be quiet enough Factor. Basically, the .average COP. for an entire heating season,
to meet design goals. based on a standardized test defined by the Air Conditioning
and Refrigeration Institute (ARI). It is applied to heat pumps with
c. Complete initial design and layout of the HVAC system.
capacity of less than 65,000 Btuh.
Include typical duct lining where appropriate. Provide space
for duct sound attenuators. EER. Energy Efficiency Ratio. This is the ratio of cooling capacity
in Btuh to input energy in Watts. It is applied to cooling units with
2.1.9 ENERGY CONSERVATIONS capacity of 65,000 Btuh or larger. Note that EER is simply COP
multiplied by the factor to convert electric input energy to Btuh( ENERGY EFFICIENT DESIGN 3.14) .
The HVAC designer is responsible for providing the building owner IPLV. Integrated Part Load Value. This is a seasonal .average.
an efficient HVAC system that meets or exceeds ASHRAE Standard EER for units rated commercial. (65,000 Btuh or larger). Lighting
90.1 and local energy codes and LEED certificate (if it is required). Power Density. The total wattage of lighting in a particular space.
In the discussion of HVAC Design Parameters it was noted that Maximum lighting power densities are set forth in Standard

50 51

90.1 for various space occupancy categories such as offices, ENERGY CONSERVATION
auditoriums and lobbies. The lighting power density of a space (INSULATION FOR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS)
is required to compute the space design sensible cooling load Thermal insulation is commonly used to reduce energy
and assign a supply air flow. The HVAC designer must review consumption of HVAC systems and equipment. Minimum insulation
the lighting plan for code compliance as well as for cooling load levels for ductwork and piping are often dictated by energy codes,
calculations. many of which are based on ASHRAE Standards 90.1 and 90.2. In CONSULTATION WITH OTHER DISCIPLINESS many cases, it may be cost-effective to go beyond the minimum
levels dictated by energy codes. Thicknesses greater than the
During the preliminary design phase, the HVAC designer should
optimum economic thickness may be required for other technical
advise the architect and lighting designer on the following
reasons such as condensation control, personnel protection, or
energy points Explain to the architect and lighting designer
noise control. Tables 1 to 3 contain minimum insulation levels
that reducing lighting power densities below the Standard 90.1
for ducts and pipes, excerpted from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
maximum recommendations will have a profound effect on the
90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise
size of the HVAC systems, besides reducing energy costs for the
Residential Buildings. Interest in green buildings (i.e., those that
owner. Review the architectural design and advise the architect
are environmentally responsible and energy efficient, as well as
of tramp air sources such as gaps in the pressure and thermal
healthier places to work) is increasing. The LEED® (Leadership
envelopes at eves. Review the proposed building insulation for
in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating
code compliance, good practice, and A/C unit size reduction.
System™, created by the U.S. Green Building Council, is a voluntary
Check that the thermal envelope either coincides with or is inside
rating system that sets out sustainable design and performance
of the pressure envelope. Notify the designer of problems found.
criteria for buildings. It evaluates environmental performance
Advise the building designer regarding glazing, insulation and
from a whole-building perspective and awards points based on
tinting . low e, insulated, tinted. Large glass surfaces can cause
satisfying performance criteria in several different categories.
occupant discomfort if radiation from the glass is not mitigated
Different levels of green building certification are awarded based
by multi-pane insulation (winter) and tinting (summer).
on the total points earned. The role of mechanical insulation in MINIMUM EFFICIENCY reducing energy usage, along with the associated greenhouse gas
In general, the air conditioning equipment offered by U.A.E. emissions, can help to contribute to LEED certification and should
manufacturers and supplier for approved international be considered when designing an insulation system.
equipments will meet or exceed the requirements of Standard ANSI/ASHRAE
90.1. While this should be verified, the designer challenge will Standard 90.2-2007 Energy-Efficient Design of Low-rise
be whether to select a unit that exceeds the minimum. Even Residential Buildings
though selecting improved efficiency will probably increase ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA
first cost, the owner’s long term objectives are best met by
Standard 90.1-2007 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Lowrise
selecting the highest efficiency unit that will meet satisfy the
Residential Buildings
project psychrometric requirements. High EER cooling units may
have high sensible heat ratio and poor moisture removal. This DESIGN PROCESS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT PROJECTS
will show up with psychrometric analysis, but should also be Consider energy efficiency at the beginning of the building design
reviewed for off design performance. Heat pipes can mitigate this process, because energy-efficient features are most easily and
problem. ASHRAE tables.

52 53

effectively incorporated at that time. Seek the active participation • Address more than one problem at a time when developing
of all members of the design team, including the owner, architect, design solutions, and make maximum use of the building’s
engineer, and often the contractor, early in the design process. advantageous features (e.g., windows, structural mass).
Consider building attributes such as building function, form, • Examine design solutions that consider time (i.e., when
orientation, window/wall ratio, and HVAC system types early energy use occurs), because sufficient energy may
in the process, because each has major energy implications. already be present from the environment (e.g., solar heat,
Identify meaningful energy performance benchmarks suited to night cooling) or from internal equipment (e.g., lights,
the project, and set project-specific goals. Energy benchmarks computers) but available at times different from when
for a sample project are shown in Table 1. Consider energy needed. Active (e.g., heat pumps with water tanks) and
resources, on-site energy sources, and use of renewable energy, passive (e.g., building mass) storage techniques may need
credits, or carbon offsets to mitigate environmental impacts of to be considered.
energy use. Address a building’s energy requirements in the
following sequence: • Examine design solutions that consider the anticipated use
of space. For example, in large but relatively unoccupied
1. Minimize the impact of the building’s functional requirements spaces, consider task or zone lighting. Consider transporting
by analyzing how the building relates to its external excess energy (light and heat) from locations of production
environment. Advocate changes in building form, aspect and availability to locations of need instead of purchasing
ratio, and other attributes that reduce, redistribute, or delay additional energy.
(shift) loads. The load calculation should be interactive so
that the effect of those factors can be seen immediately. • Never reject waste energy at temperatures usable for space
conditioning or other practical purposes without calculating
2. Minimize loads by analyzing external and internal loads the economic benefit of energy recovery or treatment for
imposed on the building energy-using subsystems, both reuse.
for peak- and part-load conditions. Design for efficient and
effective operation off-peak, where the majority of operating • Consider or advocate design solutions that provide
hours and energy use typically occurs. more comfortable surface temperatures or increase the
availability of controlled daylight in buildings where human
3. Maximize subsystem efficiency by analyzing the diversified occupancy is a primary function.
energy and power equirements of each energy-using
subsystem serving the building’s functional equirements. • Use easily understood design solutions, because they
Consider static and dynamic efficiencies of energy conversion have a greater probability of use by building operators and
and energy transport subsystems, and consider opportunities occupants.
to reclaim, redistribute, and store energy for later use. • Where the functional requirements of a building are likely
4. Study alternative ways to integrate subsystems into the to change over time, design the installed environmental
building by considering both power and time components system to adapt to meet anticipated changes and to provide
of energy use. Identify, evaluate, and design each of these flexibility in meeting future changes in use, occupancy, or
components to control overall design energy consumption. other functions. Develop energy performance benchmarks,
Consider the following when integrating major building metrics, and targets that will allow building owners and
subsystems: operators to better realize the design intent. Differentiate
between peak loads for system design and selection and
lower operating loads that determine actual energy use.

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Effective control of solar radiation is critical to energy- electric lighting. Design should be sensitive to window glare,
efficient design because of the high level of internal heat sudden changes in luminances, and general user acceptance
production already present in most commercial buildings. of daylighting controls. Carefully select window treatment
In some climates, lighting energy consumption savings from (blinds, drapes, and shades) and glazing to control direct
daylighting techniques can be greater than the heating and solar penetration and luminance extremes while maintaining
cooling energy penalties that result from additional glazed the view and daylight penetration.
surface area required, if the building envelope is properly • Design the lighting system so that illumination required
designed for daylighting and lighting controls are installed for tasks is primarily limited to the location of the task and
and used. (In other climates, there may not be net savings.) comes from a direction that minimizes direct glare and
Daylighting designs are most effective if direct solar beam veiling reflections on the task. When the design is based on
radiation is not allowed to cause glare in building spaces. nonuniform illuminance, walls should be a light to medium color
• Design transparent parts of the building envelope to or illuminated to provide visual comfort. In densely occupied
prevent solar radiant gain above that necessary for effective work spaces, uniform distribution of general lighting may be
daylighting and solar heating. On south-facing facades (in most appropriate. Where necessary, provide supplementary
the northern hemisphere), using low shading coefficients task illumination. General ambient illumination should not be
is generally not as effective as external physical shading lower than a third of the luminance required for the task, to
devices in achieving this balance. Consider low-emissivity, help maintain visually comfortable luminance ratios.
high-visible-transmittance glazings for effective control of • Use local task lighting to accommodate needs for higher lighting
radiant heat gains and losses. For shading control, judicious levels because of task visual difficulty, glare, intermittently
use of vegetation may block excess gain year-round or changing requirements, or individual visual differences (poor
seasonally, depending on the plant species chosen. or aging eyesight). LIGHTING • Group similar activities so that high illuminance or special
Lighting is both a major energy end use in commercial buildings lighting for particular tasks can be localized in certain rooms
(especially office buildings) and a major contributor to internal or areas, and so that less-efficient fixtures required for critical
loads by increasing cooling loads and decreasing heating loads. glare control do not have to be installed uniformly when they
Design should meet both the lighting functional criteria of the are only required sparsely.
space and minimize energy use. IESNA (2000) recommends • Use lighting controls throughout so lighting is available when
illuminance levels for visual tasks and surrounding lighted and where it is needed, but not wasted when tasks are less
areas. Principles of energy-conserving design within that context critical or spaces are not fully occupied. Also consider user
include the following: acceptance of control strategies to maximize energy saving.
• Energy use is determined by the lighting load (demand power) • Limit use of lower-efficiency lamps (e.g., incandescent)
and its duration of use (time). Minimize actual demand load to applications where their color, lumens, or distribution
rather than just apparent connected load. Control the load characteristics cannot be duplicated by other sources. Limit
rather than just area switching, if switching may adversely use of extended service incandescent lamps to applications
affect the quality of the luminous environment. where fixtures are difficult to reach and/or maintenance costs
• Consider daylighting with proper controls to reduce costs of for replacing lamps would be excessive.

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• Carry lighting design through the rest of the building’s interior 2.1.10 HVAC SYSTEM DESIGN; ZONING
design. Reduced light absorption may be achieved by using • Consider separate HVAC systems to serve areas expected to operate
lighter finishes, particularly on ceilings, walls, and partitions. on widely differing operating schedules or design conditions. For
• Common areas which are regularly occupied such as corridors instance, systems serving office areas should generally be separate
and lobbies, should reduce lighting levels to no more than from those serving retail areas.
twenty five percent (25%) of normal when unoccupied. • Arrange systems so that spaces with relatively constant, weather
• In offices & education facilities all lighting zones must be independent loads are served by systems separate from those
fitted with occupant sensor control capable of switching the serving perimeter spaces. Areas with special temperature or
electrical lights on & off according to occupancy unless is humidity requirements (e.g., computer rooms) should be served
required for safety purposes by systems separate from those serving areas that require comfort
• In offices, if the average designs lighting power density is less heating and cooling only. Alternatively, provide these areas with
than six (6) watts per square meter of floor area (GFA) the supplementary or auxiliary systems.
control requirements of parts B &C of this regulation need not • Sequence the supply of zone cooling and heating to prevent
apply. simultaneous operation of heating and cooling systems for the same
• It is recommended ( optional that, the artificial lighting in space, to the extent possible. Where this is not possible because of
spaces within six ( 6) meters in depth from exterior windows ventilation, humidity control, or air circulation requirements, reduce
must be fitted with lighting control incorporating photocells air quantities as much as possible before incorporating reheating,
sensors capable of adjusting the level of electric lighting re-cooling, or mixing hot and cold airstreams. For example, if reheat
to supplement natural daylight only when required. The is needed to dehumidify and prevent overcooling, only ventilation
combined artificial and daylight must provide an illumination air needs to be treated, not the entire recirculated air quantity.
level at the working plan between four hundred (400) and Five Finally, reset supply air temperature up to the extent possible to
Hundred (500) lux. When there is hundred percent (100 %) reduce reheating, re-cooling, or mixing losses.
daylight, the lux levels may exceed five hundred (500) lux. • Provide controls to allow operation in occupied and unoccupied
modes. In the occupied mode, controls may provide for a gradually OTHER LOADS
changing control point as system demands change from cooling to
• Minimize thermal impact of equipment and appliances on heating. In the unoccupied mode, ventilation and exhaust systems
HVAC systems by using hoods, radiation shields, or other should be shut off if possible, and comfort heating and cooling
confining techniques, and by using controls to turn off systems should be shut off except to maintain space conditions
equipment when not needed. Where practical, locate major ready for the next occupancy cycle.
heat-generating equipment where it can balance other heat
• In geographical areas where diurnal temperature swings and
losses. Computer centers or kitchen areas usually have
humidity levels permit, consider judicious coupling of air
separate, dedicated HVAC equipment. In addition, consider
distribution and building structural mass to allow nighttime cooling
heat recovery for this equipment.
to reduce the requirement for daytime mechanical cooling.
• Use storage techniques to level or distribute loads that vary
on a time or spatial basis to allow operation of a device at
maximum (often full-load) efficiency.

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• High ventilation rates, where required for special applications, can 3. Single-phase liquid/fluid pipe (water, glycol, etc.)
impose enormous heating and cooling loads on HVAC equipment. 4. Air duct Select a distribution system that complements other
In these cases, consider recirculating filtered and cleaned air to parameters such as control strategies, storage capabilities,
the extent possible, rather than 100% outside air. Also, consider conversion efficiency, and utilization efficiency.
preheating outside air with reclaimed heat from other sources.
The following specific design techniques may be applied to
thermal energy transport systems:
Steam Systems. BREIF
• Include provisions for seasonal or non-use shutdown.
• Consider separate HVAC systems to serve areas expected
• Minimize venting of steam and ingestion of air, with design
• To allow HVAC equipment operation at the highest efficiencies, match directed toward full-vapor performance.
conversion devices to load increments, and sequence the operation of
• Avoid subcooling, if practical.
modules. Oversized or large-scale systems should never serve small
seasonal loads (e.g., a large heating boiler serving a summer-service • Return condensate to boilers or source devices at the highest
water-heated load). Include specific low-load units and auxiliaries possible temperature.
where prolonged use at minimal capacities is expected. Select the Hydronic Systems
most efficient (or highest-COP) equipment practical at both design • Minimize flow quantity by designing for the maximum
and reduced capacity (part-load) operating conditions. practical temperature range.
• When selecting large-power devices such as chillers (including • Vary flow quantity with load where possible.
their auxiliary energy burdens), economic analysis of the complete
life-cycle costs should be used. See Chapter 36 of the ASHRAE • Design for the lowest practical pressure rise (or drop).
Handbook—HVAC Applications for more information on detailed • Provide operating and idle control modes.
economic analysis. • When locating equipment, identify the critical pressure path
• Keep fluid temperatures for heating equipment devices as low as and size runs for the minimum reasonable pressure drop.
practical and for cooling equipment as high as practical, while still Air Systems
meeting loads and minimizing flow quantities.
• Minimize airflow by careful load analysis and an effective
• HVAC equipment shall be examined through three actual based site distribution system. If the application allows, supply air
conditions. quantity should vary with sensible load (i.e., VAV systems). HVAC EQUIPMENT SELECTION; EFFICIENCY TECHNIQUES: Hold the fan pressure requirement to the lowest practical
value and avoid using fan pressure as a source for control
Energy should be transported as efficiently as possible. The
following options are listed in order of efficiency, from the lowest
energy transport burden (most efficient) to the highest (least • Provide normal and idle control modes for fan and
efficient): psychrometric systems.
1. Electric wire or fuel pipe • Keep duct runs as short as possible, and keep runs on the
critical pressure path sized for minimum practical pressure
2. Two-phase fluid pipe (steam or refrigerant)

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Power Distribution. computer at an off-site location. Building size has little to no effect
• Size transformers and generating units as closely as possible on modern computerized controls: programmable controls can be
to the actual anticipated load (i.e., avoid oversizing to furnished on the smallest HVAC equipment for the smallest projects.
minimize fixed thermal losses). Chapter 41 of the ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications covers
building operating dynamics.
• Consider distribution of electric power at the highest practical
Automatic controls can be pre-packaged and prewired on the HVAC
voltage and load selection at the maximum power factor
equipment. In system analysis and selection, the design engineer
consistent with safety.
needs to include the merits of purchasing pre-packaged versus
• Consider tenant submetering in commercial and multifamily traditional building automation systems. Current HVAC controls and
buildings as a cost-effective energy conservation measure. (A their capabilities need to be compatible with other new and existing
large portion of energy use in tenant facilities occurs simply automatic controls. Chapter 39 of the ASHRAE Handbook— HVAC
because there is no economic incentive to conserve.) Applications discusses computer applications, and ASHRAE Standard
Domestic Hot-Water Systems. 135 discusses interfacing building automation systems. Using
• Choose shower heads that provide and maintain user comfort computers and proper software, the design engineer and building
and energy savings. They should not have removable flow- manager can provide complete facility management. A comprehensive
restricting inserts to meet flow limitation requirements. building management system may include HVAC system control, energy
management, operation and maintenance management, medical gas
• Consider point-of-use water heaters where their use will system monitoring, fire alarm system, security system, lighting control,
reduce energy consumption and annual energy cost and other reporting and trending software. This system may also be
• Consider using storage to facilitate heat recovery when the integrated and accessible from the owner’s computer network and the
heat to be recovered is out of phase with the demand for hot Internet. The building management system is an important factor in
water or when energy use for water heating can be shifted to choosing the optimum HVAC system. It can be as simple as a time clock
take advantage of off-peak rates. to start and stop equipment, or as sophisticated as a computerized
building automation system serving a decentralized HVAC system,
2.1.12 AUTOMATIC CONTROL AND BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM multiple building systems, central plant system, and/or a large campus.
Basic HVAC system controls are available in electric, pneumatic, With a focus on energy management, the building management system
or electronic versions. Depending on the application, the design can be an important business tool in achieving sustainable facility
engineer may recommend a simple and basic system strategy as a management that begins with using the system selection matrix. Security
cost-effective solution to an owner’s heating, ventilation, and cooling should be an integral part of system design and building management.
needs. Chapter 46 of the ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications and Hazardous materials and contaminated air can be introduced into the
Chapter 15 of the 2005 ASHRAE Handbook— Fundamentals discuss building through ventilation systems. When recommending the optimum
automatic control in more detail. HVAC system for the project, security should not be overlooked, no matter
The next level of HVAC system management is direct digital control what the application. Planning in the design phase the early compilation
(DDC), with either pneumatic or electric control damper or valve of record documents (e.g., computer-aided drawing and electronic word
actuators. This automatic control enhancement may include energy files, checklists, digital photos taken during construction) is also integral
monitoring and energy management software. Controls may also to successful building management and maintenance.
be accessible by the building manager using a modem to a remote

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2.1.13 TESTING AND COMMISSIONING • Performance accountability through construction

Commissioning implements a quality-oriented process for achieving, observation, issue management, and testing
verifying, and documenting that the performance of facilities, • Documented verification of system and assembly
systems, and assemblies meets defined objectives and criteria. The performance thorough training requirements in
defined objectives and criteria are often referred to as the owner’s construction documents
project requirements (OPR), which involve achieving, verifying, and
• Verifying training completion
documenting the performance of each assembly or system to meet
the building’s operational needs. The commissioning process uses the • Formal acceptance testing at completion
owner’s project requirements as the reference to determine acceptance 3. Occupancy and operations (including maintenance)
of the design. Commissioning includes verifying and documenting that
• Thorough documentation in construction documents
the project operational and maintenance documentation and training
of operation and maintenance personnel occur. The result should be • Verifying documentation submittals Commissioning also
fully functional systems that can be properly operated and maintained reduces potential change orders, contractor callbacks,
throughout the life of the building. and time required to fine-tune and debug systems during
occupancy, and smooths turnover. Building performance Benefits: improvements give better building and system control,
The primary benefits of commissioning include improvementsin enhance indoor environmental quality, and contribute to
all of the following areas: increased occupant productivity.
1. Predesign and design Submittals:
• Owners develop better understanding of what they want Contractor should submit testing and commissioning report for all
and need through clear, documented OPR MEP systems done by Specialist Company in the same field and
• Designers understand better what the owner is requesting to be accepted and done in the presence of the MEP consultant.
• Designers reduce their risk with better communication
and input from the owner
HVAC or CHVAC system approval shall be submitted by specialist MEP
• Owners understand better what designers are proposing consultant approved and certified from AHJ (TRAKHEES).
through a clear, documented basis of design General
• Experts review and improve commissioning documents
The submittal shall include but not limited to the followings:
2. Construction (including system and assembly performance)
1) U-values calculations (DM sheet)
• Improved specifications and drawings, resulting in
2) HVAC Design brief report
improved coordination between all groups
3) Doors and windows schedule (DM sheet)
• Specifying systems that can be properly commissioned
and tested, and are within the owner’s ability to maintain 4) HVAC summary load (DM sheet)
• Tools to help contractors perform better installations 5) HVAC floor layouts
(e.g., construction checklists) 6) Fresh air calculation and central ventilation calculations

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7) HVAC schedule of equipments 2.2.1 CODES AND STANDARDS

8) Air Riser Diagram The plumbing systems shall be designed in accordance with the
requirements of the following codes:
9) Water Riser Diagram
1) DM Local Regulations
10) Pressurization and smoke evacuation layouts and riser
diagrams 2) UPC Uniform Plumbing Code.
11) Ventilation layouts. 3) IPC International Plumbing Code.
12) Schedule of equipments 4) NPC National Plumbing Code.
13) MEP specifications. 5) ASPE Code
MEP Consultant Undertaking Letter for the design 6) NFPA Codes
2.2.2 DRAINAGE SYSTEM Calculations
The following calculations shall be submitted but not limited to
the following:
1) Heat load calculations
2) Garage ventilation calculations
3) Smoke calculations and smoke strategy
4) Stairwell pressurization calculations
5) Elevators pressurization calculations Villas
Compliance with relevant DM circular shall be provided for review
and approval
Figure 5: Central Drainage & Sewage System OVERVIEW
This section addresses drainage systems within and to five feet
beyond building perimeter to be done, designed and calculated
as per the above mentioned Codes and Standards. GENERAL
1. Consultant shall apply for drainage NOC for design purpose
on RTA website and submit it to AJH.

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6. Coordinate location of all plumbing fixtures with structural

members, windows, lower-floor ceilings or other building
components that may interfere with the installation of code
compliant piping. This task shall be accomplished during the
schematic design phase of the Project.

1/2" cold riser

7. Coordinate location of plumbing fixtures on upper levels with
3/4" cold =
kitchen plus
1/2" hot riser spaces below to avoid areas where water leakage would cause
full bath
3 / 4 " hot = kitchen
plus full bath
major property loss or contamination, including but not limited
to substation, LV room Generator room, and Telecommunication
room etc.
8. Do not locate plumbing fixtures above electrical or
Water heater
meter telecommunications rooms.
Water 1/2 " line to
softener hose bibb,
not shared 9. Fixtures shall be mounted at heights recommended by the
with any
Main shutoff
1" municipal
fixtures manufacturer, as required by accessibility standards.
water service
10. Coordinate sink/lavatory types and sizes with other toilet
accessories and casework details to insure proper installation of
Figure 6: District Drainage System fixtures.
11. When developing floor plans, the AE shall coordinate location of
plumbing fixtures with lower floor levels to avoid the need to route
2. FIC location, depth, conditions and restrictions from RTA to be drainage, waste or sanitary vent piping within the ceilings of or
applied. exposed above sensitive equipment or areas where water leakage
could cause.
3. Final selection of plumbing fixtures and trim shall be
determined by close coordination with AE and the Owner’s 12. All plumbing fixtures and trim shall be scheduled on the Contract
Project Manager to determine functionality requirements for Drawings indicating sufficient additional information to allow
selection of appropriate fixture and trim types. Requirements cross referencing to other acceptable manufacturer’s products.
may vary from facility to facility and even from department to Fixtures scheduled on Drawings shall not conflict with specification
department. requirements.

4. AE shall modify Master Construction Specifications as 13. Include a fixture rough in schedule on the Contract Drawings
required to ensure conformity between Drawing schedules identifying minimum service pipe sizes required by code and as
and Specifications. recommended by the manufacturer for all fixtures and trim to be
installed within the Project.
5. Quantities of plumbing fixtures shall be determined by
compliance with the International Building Code requirements 14. Include schedules and/or detail elevations on Contract Drawings
for minimum number of facilities. Consult with Owner to identifying required mounting heights for all fixtures and trim to be
determine additional fixtures . installed within the Project.

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15. Sanitary waste and vent systems shall be provided for all shall be installed only where installation of a wall cleanout is
plumbing fixtures, floor drains, food service fixtures and not practical. Provide a wall cleanout for each water closet or
equipment, and all other domestic waste producing equipment, battery of water closets. Locate wall cleanouts above the flood
systems and devices that are required by code to discharge level rim of the highest water closet but no more than twenty
into the sanitary sewer. four inches above the finished floor. Coordinate the location of
16. Waste and vent systems shall be designed using fixture drain all cleanouts with the architectural features of the building and
loads established by code and provide proper operation during obtain approval of locations from the Project Architect.
periods of peak demand. 22. No buried waste line shall be smaller than 2 inches. No vent line
17. Main waste and vent stacks shall utilize chases or be located shall be smaller than 1-1/2 inches. No roof vent terminal shall
adjacent to columns where possible for vertical routing to be smaller than 3 inches. Waste piping serving water closets
multiple floor levels. shall not be smaller than 4 inches.

18. Capped waste and vent connections for future extensions shall 23. Locate all sanitary vent terminals a minimum of 25 feet
be located accessibly and not extend more than 24 inches from horizontally from or 3 feet vertically above all air intakes,
an active line. Waste and vent connections shall be located at operable windows, doors and any other building openings.
elevations that will allow future installation of properly sloped 24. Provide floor drains in all toilet rooms designed to be occupied
piping without the need to dismantle or relocate installed by more than one user at a time (i.e., containing two or more
ductwork, piping, conduit, light fixtures, etc. water closets or a combination of one water closet and one
19. The building system is anticipated to flow by gravity to the urinal).
exterior municipal sanitary sewer. Sanitary waste serving 25. All drain traps shall be properly vented in accordance with the
fixtures located below the ground level or waste that cannot be Uniform Plumbing Code.
discharged by gravity shall flow into a gas-tight, covered and 26. Provide automatic trap primers for all floor, floor sinks and hub
vented sump from which the waste shall be lifted by automatic drains that may be susceptible to trap seal evaporation. Trap
pumping equipment and discharged into a sanitary waste seal guard inserts may be provided in lieu of automatic trap
drain capable of gravity flow. Sewage ejector pumps shall be primers on condition that the inserts are applied in accordance
minimum duplex system sized to discharge peak calculated with the manufacturer’s published product data.
load with one pump out of service. Pumps shall be connected
to emergency power source. Sumps and ejectors handling 27. Provide submersible sump pump(s) in each elevator pit in
sewage shall not receive storm or subsoil/foundation drainage. accordance with the edition of ASME A17.1. Pump effluent
shall discharge indirectly into the sanitary waste system. The
Above ground floor drains, P-traps and first 20 feet of elevator pit pumping system shall be designed to prevent
connected drainage piping receiving condensate shall be pump effluent, sewage, odors and gases from entering building
properly insulated to prevent condensation. spaces and the elevator pit. Provide a sanitary indirect waste
21. Provide cleanouts at locations and with clearances as required receptor having a capacity greater than the maximum flow
by the code, at the base of each waste stack and at intervals rate discharge of the pump(s). Pump electrical service shall be
not exceeding 75 feet in horizontal runs. All interior cleanouts connected to emergency power source.
shall be accessible from walls or floors. Provide wall cleanouts
in lieu of floor cleanouts wherever possible. A floor cleanout

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28. Design and size indirect waste receptors and associated 2.2.3 DOMESTIC WATER SYSTEM
piping receiving discharge from equipment and relief valves OVERVIEW
to evacuate the maximum possible flow.
This section addresses domestic cold and hot water distribution systems
29. Develop plans, schedules, isometric or flat riser diagrams and
within and to five feet beyond building perimeter. And for any existing services
details indicating all information required to clearly illustrate
to be done as per DEWA regulations complying with the following notes:
the intent of system design. All piping shall be located and
sized on the Contract Drawings. GENERAL
30. Floor plans and riser diagrams shall include, but not be limited a) Consultant shall apply for Water NOC for design purpose on
to identification of all sanitary waste piping from fixtures to DEWA website and submit it to AJH.
connection to exterior sewer, all vent piping from fixtures and b) Domestic daily water required to be calculated as per DEWA
stacks to termination through roof, cleanouts, fixture and requirements and regulations and to be submitted to AHJ.
equipment identification, traps and trap primer lines.
c) Water meters room to consider as per DEWA regulations.
31. Invert elevations shall be noted at all Manholes exiting
the building perimeter, connections to exterior sewers, d) Domestic water shall be provided for all plumbing fixtures,
uppermost point of each main and branch line located below equipment, and all other systems, equipment, and devices that
ground level, and all other points where required to clearly require domestic water supply.
establish proper slope and coordination with other piping e) Building domestic water distribution systems shall be metered
systems and building components. and isolated from the municipal water supply in accordance with
32. Graphically identify each stack on plans and riser diagrams. the municipality’s requirements.
Stack identification on riser diagrams shall correspond to f) The design of building supply and distribution systems shall
stack identification on plans. Graphically indicate floor levels provide a volume of water at the required flows, pressures
and floor elevations on riser diagrams. and temperatures to ensure safe, efficient and code compliant
33. Details shall be provided for, interceptors, cleanouts, roof operation during periods of peak demand. Piping shall be sized
penetrations, floor and wall penetrations, sewage ejector at a velocity not exceeding six feet per second (fps) for cold and
pump systems and all other components that require hot water and four fps for hot water return.
installation explanation beyond the information included g) Main distribution piping risers shall utilize chases within the
within plans and riser diagrams. building footprint for vertical routing to multiple floor levels
34. Schedules shall clearly identify: Capacity, size, model, options where possible. Accessible shut-off valves shall be provided at
and other requirements for all interceptors and sewage the base of each riser and at each branch connection to risers.
ejector pump equipment. h) Do not locate water piping within stairways, electrical or
telecommunications rooms.
i) Interior cold water piping shall be insulated to prevent
condensation. Interior hot water piping shall be insulated as
required by code and per latest ASHRAE Standard A90.1 Table

72 73

j) Provide water softener systems to reduce hardness as SYSTEM PRESSURES

required to supply food service equipment, water heating a) System may consist of underground water tank with transfer
equipment, pure water production equipment, and other pump set to lift the water to roof tank with boosting pump
systems, fixtures and equipment which hard water may system to serve first four floors and the other floors to be
adversely affect operation or longevity.. served by gravity.
k) Provide a hose bib with backflow preventer and a minimum b) Water tanks capacity shall be calculated as per DEWA
of one floor drain in each mechanical room and roof for requirements and regulations.
c) Lower building levels may utilize municipal water system to
l) Provide manufactured water hammer arrestors in water a height allowed by verified available minimum pressure but
supply lines in accordance with Standard PDI-WH201. shall not serve areas exceeding thirty feet above street grade
m) Provide accessible check valves in the individual cold and hot elevation.
water fixture supply lines serving mixing valve type faucets d) Static pressure shall be limited to 55 psig (preferred), 80
or assemblies having hose connection outlets that are not psig (maximum), on each floor level by accessible pressure
equipped with integral check stops. regulating valves. Pressure regulating valves shall not be
n) Provide line shut-off valves at locations required for proper required for municipal pressurized system unless necessary
operation, servicing and troubleshooting of the domestic for proper operation of individual equipment.
water distribution system and connected components. e) Pressure reducing valves shall be duplexed full-size where
Locations shall include but not be limited to the following; located within domestic water lines serving in-patient areas,
at each fixture and piece of equipment, at each branch take- critical research areas, and/or any area or equipment where
off from mains, at the base of each riser, at each battery of un-interruptible (24 hour) water service is required.
fixtures, where recommended by equipment manufacturers
and at strategic locations to allow sectional isolation while f) Provide isolation valve, strainer and pressure gauge
limiting disruption of services to large portions of the system. immediately upstream of each pressure regulating valve.
Provide pressure gauge and isolation valve immediately
o) Accessible capped valves shall be provided where required downstream of each pressure regulating valve.
for future connections.
g) Design of pressure regulating assemblies shall incorporate
p) All valves shall be accessible for operation and servicing. Provide prevention of over pressurization of downstream piping in the
access panels for all concealed valves. Coordinate the location of event of valve malfunction. Utilize pressure relief valves only
access panels with the architectural features of the building and where maximum flow discharge can be evacuated without
obtain approval of locations from the Project Architect. causing water damage. Automatic solenoid shut-off valves
q) Trap Priming devices that rely upon line pressure differential for may be provided in lieu of relief valves where approved by
activation are not allowed. Each electronic trap primer device Owner.
shall be provided with a readily serviceable strainer immediately h) Automatic shut-off valves shall be connected to the building
upstream of the device solenoid valve. automation system to annunciate activation.

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a) Where municipal system pressure is inadequate, a packaged
domestic water booster pump system shall elevate the
incoming water pressure as required to serve fixtures and
equipment. Selection of pumping system type shall be based
upon flow and pressure demand, efficiency of operation, life
expectancy and maintenance requirements of the equipment.
b) Specify variable frequency drives for booster pump systems
requiring five horsepower and greater motors and when
considered applicable by the AE and approved by Owner.
c) Specify constant speed pressure regulated type booster
systems when required pump motors are less than five
horsepower and when considered applicable by the AE and Figure 7: Domestic Water System
approved by Owner.
c) Hot water heating equipment serving areas may be generated
d) Booster pump systems shall be designed to deliver calculated by centralized heaters or point-of-use heaters as determined
peak flow at required pressure with one pump out of service. by economics, space requirements and good engineering
e) Connect booster pump system to emergency power source. practices. All hot water shall be 110 degrees F maximum at
d) Where centralized heaters are provided, utilize semi-
a) Domestic hot water systems shall be designed to reasonably instantaneous type with steam to hot water or hot water to hot
assure an expeditious flow of hot water at all outlets within. water double wall heat exchangers. Natural gas fired heaters
Provide pumped circulating systems where required. Electric may be provided where natural gas service is readily available
heat maintenance cable may be utilized only when considered and when considered applicable by the AE and approved by
applicable by the AE and approved by Owner. Owner.
b) In case of central heating system, size of hot water return e) Water heating equipment shall meet latest ASHRAE standard
lines by the heat loss method as outlined in the ASHRAE A90.1 Table 7.2.2.
Guide and Data Book, not to exceed 10 degrees F heat loss.
f) Provide NSF and ASME compliant pre-pressurized steel thermal
Developed length of branch piping from fixture outlet to
expansion tank with membrane on the cold water supply line of
circulated mains shall not exceed 20 feet. C. Water heaters
all water heating equipment where cold water service contains
installed and utilized for food service areas shall comply with
check valves, pressure reducing valves or backflow preventers.
National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standard Number 5 and
Thermal expansion tanks shall be sized in accordance with
be separate from water heating equipment and piping serving
manufacturer’s published recommendations.
other areas of the building. Hot water serving food service
commercial dishwasher and pot sink shall be 140 degrees F.
All other hot water shall be 110 degrees F maximum at outlets.

76 77
PART 2 MEP SYSTEMS PART 2 PLUMBING SYSTEMS CONTAMINATION PREVENTION e. Vacuum breakers for hose connections in health care or
a. Design of domestic water systems shall avoid all cross laboratory areas shall not be less than 72 inches above the
connections and eliminate the possibility of water floor with the following exceptions:
contamination. On each water supply line serving a plumbing i. Vacuum breakers integral with faucets or equipment;
fixture, item of equipment, or other device which has a water ii. Vacuum breakers for bedpan washer hoses shall not be
supply discharge outlet below the overflow rim, or where located less than 60 inches above the floor.
cross contamination may occur, provide an approved vacuum
breaker or backflow preventer. Location of vacuum breakers f. Do not install vacuum breakers above ceilings, above
shall prevent any possible backflow through them. equipment, concealed within walls or any location where
water leakage can cause damage.
b. Backflow preventers shall be duplex where located within
lines serving in-patient areas, critical research areas, and/or g. Vacuum breakers (including vacuum breakers that are integral
with faucets) shall not be installed under exhaust hoods or
similar locations that may contain toxic fumes or vapors.
h. Air chambers, dead-legs, or any other piping arrangement
that may allow water to stagnate shall not be allowed within
domestic water systems.
i. Valves provided for future connections shall not extend more
than 24 inches from an active main.
j. Where permanently disconnecting domestic water supplies
serving fixtures or equipment, remove all associated piping
back to active main to avoid stagnation.

Figure 8: External Drainage System

any area or equipment where un-interruptible (24 hour) water

service is required.
c. Backflow preventer test ports shall not be located more than
72 inches above finished floor or permanent platform.
d. Pipe relief from backflow preventer indirectly to drain of
sufficient size to evacuate maximum flow discharge.

78 79

Power requirements for all developments are provided by Dubai DEWA shall be responsible for providing power connection up to the
Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) and their rules and regulations consumer metering point located at the plot fence line or within the plot
have to be complied with in all aspects. with full access to DEWA for 24 Hours. Pocket substation (if required)
The developer shall confirm maximum installed power capacity in kW, shall be located within the leased property with full access to DEWA
required for his operations on the property he intends to lease from maintenance personnel.
JAFZA or other Dubai World Business Units. The above requirements 132kV/11kV distribution network shall be provided by DEWA up to
of electric power shall be duly filled in at the appropriate space on the leased plot and downstream distribution shall be the responsibility of
lease application form. the Developer. Electricity supply will be provided either at 11kV, 50 Hz
CED also requires an NOC (No Objection Certificate) from DEWA’s or 400 Volts, 50Hz at the discretion of DEWA.
Electricity Department before issuing a Building Permit. Similarly DEWA As per DEWA’s Regulations, a single source of power connection shall
requires an NOC from CED before supplying power, permanently or be provided to each plot unless otherwise special arrangements have
temporarily during the construction process. been made with DEWA.
Total connected loads equal to or greater than 1000 kVA are generally
provided only through dedicated substations.

Generally all Electrical Installations shall comply with particular

requirements of CED regulations and latest General Guidelines of
local Authority (DEWA). In case of any discrepancy, the same shall be 2.3.3 PERMANENT POWER CONNECTION
referred to CED. Following are some of these General Guidelines current Developer shall liaise directly with DEWA for obtaining permanent
at the time of publication and the developer or his agents are advised power connections by completing all DEWA formalities as stipulated
to check any updates to these upon application. in DEWA Regulations. All related permanent power connection charges
Materials, design and workmanship for all electrical installations shall due to the Service Authorities shall be borne by the developer /lessee.
be in strict accordance with the current IEE Wiring Regulations and to Any 11kV switchgear used shall comply with the latest edition of
acceptable international standards similar to the BS. relevant IEC Standards or equivalent. Generally, switchgear which
is metal clad and utilizes withdrawable circuit breaker trucks having

80 81

an integral earthling facility with essential foolproof interlocks shall LIGHTNING PROTECTION
conform to the requirements of DEWA. The technical specifications Suitable lightning protection system shall be designed and
of 11kV switchgear and transformers supplied and installed by the installed as per the latest edition of relevant BS-EN Standards.
developer shall be submitted to DEWA for approval prior to installation. VECTOR GROUP
Relay setting calculation shall be submitted for DEWA approval prior to
release of permanent power connection. The Vector Group of any power distribution transformers used
shall conform to the requirements of the DEWA power system.
The terms and conditions for supply of electricity to the developer’s
premises shall be as stipulated on DEWA’s composite application form. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION AND UNDER VOLTAGE
The internal electrical distribution system at the developer’s
Any temporary power supply for site services during construction shall premises shall comply with DEWA’s General Guidelines for Power
be the responsibility of the developer. Factor Correction and Under Voltage Protection.
NOC to DEWA shall be obtained from CED Services. A request which Harmonic suppression equipment shall be installed at the load
indicates the Plot Number, Client Name / Project Name, Consultant side if the types of load generate more harmonics than that is
Name, Contractor Name and the power requirement in kW shall be sent allowed as per the standard.
via Email to CED Services. LIGHTING
2.3.5 ADDITIONAL POWER REQUIREMENT Artificial lighting to habitable rooms shall be to Standards stipulated
Any additional power requirement for existing facilities, the Developer/ in IEE Wiring Regulations. Lighting installations at warehouses/
lessee shall directly approach DEWA after obtaining CED NOC. A industrial areas/offices and other common purpose areas shall
request for this NOC indicating the Plot number, Client name / Project comply with the requirements of relevant British Standards
name, Consultant name, Contractor name, additional power in kW shall or equivalent Standards approved by DEWA. All external area
be sent via Email to CED Services. lighting shall be controlled via timer & photocell controlled circuit
with over riding facility unless otherwise specified separately. STANDBY POWER SUPPLY
If Standby Generators are used, they shall be connected to the
electrical distribution system only through an approved electrical
and mechanical interlocking device, to prevent paralleling of
generator supply to incoming mains.
EHS approval shall be obtained prior to the installation of
Generator at site. (Refer to EHS Regulations) EARTHING
Suitable earthling systems shall be designed and installed as per
latest edition of relevant BS- EN Standards.
Neutral earthling arrangements shall be compatible with the existing
earthling system of the DEWA electrical distribution network

82 83

2.3.6 EMERGENCY: GENERAL e) Main contacts: high quality silver alloy, protected by an
These technical guidelines shall be considered for all Electrical arching contact, capable of handling both non-inductive
Installations pertaining to buildings, prefabricated buildings, loads and allowing for in-rush current of 2.25 times
temporary constructions, modular buildings for assembly at site and continuous rating.
buildings of the port cabin type. They are to be read in conjunction with f) Main contacts shall meet with a rolling wiping action.
the relevant British Standards & IEC Standards, DEWA Regulations,
g) Provision for interface with Building Automation System BAS
EHS Regulations and other CED Regulations.
A. Emergency Generator sets (SMDBS) AND DISTRIBUTION BOARDS (DBS)
1. Classification and Ratings: GENERAL
a) The generator set shall be standby-rated for continuous 1. Provide complete distribution equipment which shall
duty during the interruption of normal power, 230/400V comprise main low tension switch boards, moulded case
alternating current service, three phase at 0.8 power factor circuit breakers (MCCBs), isolators, switch fuses, lighting
lagging and 50Hz at a speed of 1500RPM. contactors etc.
b) The set shall have an output as indicated. 2. The supply and distribution arrangement shall be as indicated
c) The generator set rating is based on SAE J1349 standard on schematic diagrams in the Drawings and as per DEWA
conditions. These ratings also apply at ISO3046/1, DIN6271 regulations.
and BS5514 standard conditions. 3. Evidence of country of origin should be produced on request.
d) The machine must be capable of operation at ambient 4. Complete range of switchboards mainly LV PANELS, MDBs,
temperature of 55 Deg.C. SMDBs and Motor Control Centres (MCCs) shall totally typed
e) Efficiency: Not less than 90% at full load. tested assemblies as per IEC60 439 standards. Comparison
study of proposed switchboards with the type tested
B. Automatic Load Transfer Switch:
assemblies for all seven type tests specified in IEC60 439 shall
1. Generally be submitted for approval.
The switch shall be a separate unit, mounted in a cubicle. The prototype assemblies shall conform to the following 7 type
2. Switch: test defined in IEC 439-1:-

a) Electrically operated, mechanically held, 240/415 V, 4 pole, a) Verification of temperature rise.

4 wire 50Hz. b) Verification of dielectric properties.
b) To have a time delay of 6 seconds starting impulse for the c) Verification of short circuit with stand strength.
engine. d) Verification of the effectiveness of protective circuit.
c) To have forcing terminals with disconnect blocks. e) Verification of clearances and creep age distances.
d) Rating shall be shown on the Drawings. f) Verification of mechanical operation.
g) Verification of degree of protection.

84 85
PART 2 MEP SYSTEMS PART 2 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Main DISTRIBUTION BOARDS (MDBs) 11. The switchboards shall have top or bottom cable entry as
required. Main incoming cables shall be bottom entry, General
with necessary cable glands.
1. The main low tension switch boards shall be of indoor
12. The switchboards shall contain the air circuit breakers,
construction, dead front, metal enclosed multi-cellular cubicle
bus-bars, bus couplers, MCCBs, instruments, etc., as
type, free standing, dust and vermin protected, front operated and
specified hereunder with ratings and arrangement as
of clean and modern appearances.
shown on the Drawings and shall be complete with all-
2. The switchboards shall be assembled and co-ordinated by one internal wiring and connections.
manufacturer and shall be constructed in accordance with IEC 439
13. The switchboards shall be provided with anti-condensation
– 1 or BS 5486 Part 1.
3. The switchboards shall be made of folded steel construction;
14. Bus-Bar trunking shall be connected with adequate copper
minimum 1.5mm thickness, fully rust proofed and stove
bars purpose made inside the panel, only bus bar insulated
flange and trunking can be outside the panel.
4. All exposed bolts or screw heads shall be chrome or cadmium
15. The switchboards shall be tested, at the manufacturers’
premises as well as after installation in accordance with
5. All doors and removable covers or plates shall be provided with tests stipulated in IEC 439 and witnessed by the Engineer.
suitable PVC or neoprene gaskets to prevent the ingress of dust, Test certificates shall be submitted to the Engineer.
vermin and insects. Bus-bars
6. The switchboards shall be of IP 54 construction in accordance with
IEC 144 with form 4 degree of separation. 1. Bus-bars shall be of electrolytic hard drawn copper, high
conductivity 99.9% purity to B.S. 159. Rating as indicated
7. Each unit of the switch board shall be housed in its own cell fitted on the Drawings, air insulated and rigidly supported by
with a hinged door mechanically interlocked in such a manner that suitable non-hygroscopic, anti-tracking insulators so as to
the cell door can only be opened when the switch is in the “OFF” withstand forces due to thermal expansion under normal
position. operating conditions and the fault currents specified and
8. Switching units shall be arranged in separate compartments or neatly arranged for 500 V, 50 Hz, 3 phase, 4 wire operation.
sections to prevent when handling the elements in the section and The Neutral Bus-bar shall be of the same cross section as
to prevent the spreading of faults from one section to the other. the phase bus bar.
9. Adequate cableways shall be provided in the switchboard 2. A copper Earth Bus-bar sized at least 50% of the phase
accessible by hinged lids or removable covers. Bus-bar or 300 sq mm, whichever the greater, shall be
10. The equipment in the switch boards shall be accessible with provided along the full length of the board.
indicating instruments mounted not higher than 2 m and the 3. Bus-bars shall extend through the length of the board with
centre lines of operating devices not higher than 1.9 m above the same cross section throughout.
switch boards base. The switchboard shall be properly fixed to
the floor with foundation bolts grouted in the floor or bolted to
channels laid across the cable trench.

86 87

4. Bus-bars bracing shall maintain the same mechanical 2. The operating mechanism shall be of the O-C-O stored
strength and current carrying capacity under normal energy spring type with a closing time less than or equal
operating conditions and fault conditions as indicated on to 80 millisecond. Electrically operated circuit breakers
the drawings for LT SWB bus-bars. shall have the spring charging motor connected so
5. Bus-bars shall be housed in separate adequately that the springs remain charged always with the motor
ventilated compartment, which shall not contain any disconnected after charging. A standby manual operating
wiring or apparatus other than that required for connection handle for spring charging shall be provided for operating
to bus-bars. Access to bus-bars and bus-bar connections the circuit breaker in case of power or motor failure. Anti-
shall be gained only by removal of covers secured by bolts pumping function shall be provided by integral devices
or studs. Bus-bars shall be covered with coloured PVC to prevent re-closing after a close-open operation if
sleeves or painted for phase identification at the ends. the closing impulse is maintained after the breaker has
opened. Air Circuits Breakers
3. The circuit breaker shall have three positions of the draw-
1. The air circuit breakers shall be of the air break, trip out mechanism, namely service position where all main
free, draw out type with the main contacts encased in a and auxiliary contacts are made, test position where main
reinforced polyester casing and offer double insulation contacts are open but auxiliary contacts are closed and
from the operators on the breaker front face. The air isolated position where all contacts are open. Mechanical
circuit breaker shall be fully tropicalized (T2) as defined in indication on the front of the ACB shall be provided to
IEC 68.2.30 and shall have salt spray resistance as per IEC indicate a) main contacts closed ‘ON’, b) main contacts
68.2.11. The ACB shall comply with IEC 947.2 utilisation open ‘OFF’, c) springs charged, d) springs discharged e)
category B with Ics=Icu=Icw and shall accept reverse service position, f) test position, and g), isolated position
feeding without reduction of performance. The ACB shall for draw-out mechanism.
comply with the isolating function requirements of IEC
4. Any attempt to withdraw or insert the breaker when it is
947.2 section 7.1.2 and shall have minimum 500V 50 Hz
‘ON’ shall trip the breaker automatically. An interlocking
operational voltage, 1000 V 50 Hz rated insulation voltage
shall be provided to prevent insertion of a circuit breaker
and 12kV withstand surge voltage (Vimp). The 3-pole
having a rating higher than the current rating of the ACB
and 4-pole versions shall have ratings as shown in the
drawings. In the 4-pole version the neutral pole shall have
the same current rating as the other poles from the 800 to 5. Insulated safety shutters shall screen all live parts in the
2500A .The ICS breaking capacity shall be minimum 65kA ACB cradle when the breaker is in the isolated or racked
symmetrical, short time withstand ICW shall be minimum out position.
65kA for 1 seconds. Evidence of the service breaking 6. The moving contacts comprising the main and arcing
capacity (ICS) shall be produced by test certificates contacts shall have visual wear indicator and be of the
from one of the internationally recognised High Voltage spring-loaded type. The main contacts and clusters shall
Laboratories (ASTA, CESI, ESEF/ASEFA, KEMA, PEHLA, be site replaceable.

88 89

7. The circuit breakers shall have sufficient number of markings. The length of scales shall not be less than 90
auxiliary contacts for interlocking system as indicated degrees and uniformly divided. The instrument cases
and described on the drawings and shall be suitable for shall be semi-flush mounted and shall be approximately
interfacing with building automation system (BAS). It shall 72 x 72 mm square. Accuracy shall be one per cent of full-
be possible to connect all auxiliary wirings from the front scale values. Moving elements shall be provided with zero
face of the air circuit breakers and these wirings shall be adjustments external to the cases.
taken trough a set of disconnecting contacts, so that all 3. Ammeters shall be moving iron type, to BS 89 scaled
auxiliary wirings are automatically disconnected in the 0-20000 A for main incoming supply.
isolated and draw-out positions.
4. Voltmeters shall be moving iron type to BS 90 scaled
8. Protection / Control unit for Air Circuit Breakers 0-500V and provided with 7-position selector switches
• The control unit shall be interchangeable on site for allowing off position, reading of line to line and line to
adaptation to changes in the installation. neutral voltages.
• Sensors shall be non-magnetic or of the Rogowsky 5. Maximum demand indictors/ recorder shall be of the
type for accurate current measurements. thermal type with a 20-minute time delay.
• The control unit shall measure the true rms value of the 6. Digital indicators for above mentioned measuring
current. instruments may be provided subject to the Engineer’s
• The control unit shall comprise a thermal memory to approval.
store temperature-rise data in the event of repeated Moulded Case Circuit Breakers
overloads or earth faults. It shall be possible to disable
1. The moulded case circuit breakers shall comply with IEC
this function if necessary.
947-1 and IEC 947-2 standards and shall be of the quick Current Transformers make and quick break type having free toggle mechanism
Current transformer shall be of the bar primary type, air cooled ensuring full contact pressure until time of opening,
and suitably insulated. They shall be of Class 1 accuracy for whether actuated automatically or manually. They shall
measurements and of Class 10P10 accuracy for protection be of utilisation category ‘A’ having rated service breaking
in accordance with IEC 185. The secondary windings shall capacity (Ics) as indicated in the drawings. The circuit
be rated at 5A and the rated output shall be suitable for the breakers shall be suitable for isolation as per IEC 947-2
burden. and shall have rated operation voltage of 500V 50 Hz and
the insulation voltage of 750 V, 50 Hz. The breaker shall Instruments
be available in 3 or 4 pole version as per the drawing. All
1. The measuring instruments shall include ammeters, poles shall operate simultaneously for circuit breaker
voltmeters, maximum demand indicators/ recorder, P.F. opening, closing and tripping. The mechanism shall be
meter, KWH meter, indicating lamps and selector switches completely enclosed in the compact moulded bakelite
as indicated on the Drawings. case. The moulded case circuit breaker shall provide class
2. The instruments shall have anti-glare glass fronts, anti- II insulation (according to IEC 664) between the front and
parallax scales and white faces with black numerals and internal power circuits. The breaker shall be designed
for both vertical and horizontal mounting and it shall

90 91

be possible to supply power either from the upstream 5. It shall be possible to equip the moulded case circuit
or downstream side without any adverse effects on the breaker with a motor mechanism if needed and closing
electrical performance. Evidence of the service breaking of mechanism shall take place in less than 80 ms. The
capacity (Ics) shall be produced by test certificates operating mechanism shall be of the stored energy type
from one of the internationally recognised High Voltage only. The addition of motor mechanism or a rotary handle
Laboratories (ASTA, ACAE, CESI, ESEF/ASEFA, KEMA, shall in no way affect circuit breaker characteristics and
PEHLA, ACAE or SATS). shall not block the device settings.
2. Breakers contacts shall be made of non-welding and 6. The MCCB’s shall be designed for adding auxiliary contacts
non-corrodible composition. Circuit breakers shall be such as shunt or undervoltage releases after installation at
actuated by a toggle or handle that clearly indicates the site. The auxiliaries shall be separated from power circuits.
three positions ‘ON’, ‘OFF’ and ‘TRIP’ thus indicating 7. It shall be possible to assemble earth fault protection of
clearly abnormal conditions of the circuit. In order to MCCB’s by adding a residual current device directly to the
ensure suitability for isolation complying with IEC-947-2, circuit breaker case and it shall operate without an auxiliary
the operating mechanism shall be designed such that the power supply. The add-on RCD’s shall comply with
toggle or handle can only be in OFF position if the power are appendix B of IEC 947-2 standard. They shall be immunised
all actually separated. The moulded case circuit breakers against nuisance tripping as per IEC 255 and IEC 801-2 to
shall be able to receive a locking device in the “isolated” 801-5 standards.
position and there shall be a “push to trip” button in front
to test the operation and the opening of the poles. The 8. MCCB with ratings up to 250A shall be equipped with
circuit breaker rating, the push to trip button, outgoing thermal magnetic or electronic trip units, which are fully
circuit identification and the contact position indication interchangeable. Minimum frame size shall be 200A. The
must be clearly visible and accessible from the front, breakers with ratings over 250A shall be equipped with
through the front panel or the door of the switchboard. electronic trip units, which shall remain operational for
Single pole breakers with a handle tie or a bar equivalent ambient temperatures up to 60oC. Electronic trip unit shall
construction are not acceptable for a multipole breaker. comply with appendix F of IEC 947-2 standard. It shall be
Moulded case circuit breakers shall be the fixed type. Plug possible to fit lead seals to prevent unauthorised access
in type breaker connection are not acceptable. to the settings of the electronic and thermal magnetic trip
3. Breakers shall have the ratings and rated service breaking
capacities (Ics) as per IEC 947-2 as indicated in the 9. MCCB’s equipped with thermal magnetic trip units shall
drawings. The breakers shall be of current limiting type. have adjustable thermal protection and fixed magnetic
protection for current ratings up to 250A.
4. Circuit breakers shall have inverse time tripping
characteristic with automatic release secured through 10. MCCB’s above 250A up to 630A frame size shall be equipped
action of a combination of thermal-magnetic or electronic with electronic trip units shall sense the actual RMS values
trip units which shall trip free of the handle and operate in for: a) long time protection from 40% to 100% of the trip
response to an overload or a short circuit. unit rating, b) the instantaneous protection shall have the
threshold fixed between 12 and 19 times nominal current,
depending on the rating. c) Short time delayed protection.

92 93
PART 2 MEP SYSTEMS PART 2 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Current Limiting Circuit Breakers Current Sensors (Toroids)

1. To be similar to moulded case circuit breakers, but shall be a. Shall be a rectangular type for busduct feeders
capable of interrupting heavy short circuits current similar b. Shall be circular/ring type for cable feeders
to the cut off characteristic of high rupturing capacity
fuses. c. The toroids shall be of the closed type with an inside
diameter ranging from 29mm to 210mm.
2. To incorporate electromagnetic repulsing mechanism,
shall have a breaking capacity of 100KA @ 415 V and shall d. The toroids shall have cable guides to ensure that
limit the symmetrical fault current to 9.0KA. feeder cable is centred within the toroid.
e. The maximum link resistance from the toroid to the Earth Leakage Relays
relay must not exceed 3 ohms. General Bus Section Couplers
a. The relay shall comply with IEC 60755 – 1983, should be time
Bus section couplers shall be air circuit breakers as
and current selectable.
specified before but without protection.
b. The relays shall be protected against nuisance tripping cause Earth Bus-bar
by switching surges or by lightning surges.
A copper Earth Bus-bar sized at least 50% of the phase
c. The relays shall be of solid state type (mechanical type shall Bus-bar or 50 x 6-mm, whichever the greater, shall be
not be accepted). extending throughout the length of the switchboard and
d. Self protected from high magnitude earth-faults and fixed to brass nuts brazed to the steel members of the
protected against dirt, vibration and moisture. switchboards. The earth bus shall be extended at the
e. The relays shall be able to operate in the presence of fault ends for connection to the earth electrodes and shall have
currents with DC components. provision for terminating earth continuity conductors.

f. Each relay shall accept a wide range of auxiliary supply Circuits and Connections
voltages from 48V to 240V AC and 48V to 300 V DC as per the 1. All outgoing circuits shall have separate compartment
requirement in the drawings. and/or be screened so that equipment for any one
g. The sensitivity of relays shall be as per the requirement in the circuit can be maintained without risk of contact with
drawings from 0.03A to 1A. live connections on any other circuit.

h. The size of the relays shall be compact. They shall be suitable 2. Feeders for circuits rated up to 63A shall be connected
for mounting on a symmetrical rail horizontally or vertically. to terminal blocks located in separate compartments
at top or bottom, conveniently arranged to facilitate
i. The relays shall be equipped with one changeover output
termination of cables and suitably identified.
contact. The continuity of the measurement circuit shall be
monitored to ensure that the toroid circuit is not open. 3. For feeders rated more than 63A copper links shall
be suitably extended, rigidly supported and covered
with coloured PVC sleeves or painting for phase

94 95

4. All feeders shall be provided with cable lugs and brass B. Cabinet:
cable glands. 1. To be suitable to withstand the fault current stresses
5. Removable gland plates suitable for the glands required available.
for the specified cables shall be provide. Where cables 2. To be constructed from sheet metal panels built up on
are single core, the gland plates shall be of a non-ferrous a substantial rolled steel or folded sheet steel sections
metal. framework.
6. All small wiring shall be of stranded copper, not less than 3. Cabinet shall have stiffeners to ensure a rigid structure.
1.5 mm2 with PVC insulation to B.S.231. Small wiring shall
be neatly bunched and cleated in harness form, or shall 4. Sheet metal for the build up of large panels shall be not
be enclosed in purpose made plastic trunking or trough. less than 16 SWG.
Wiring cleated to metal surfaces shall be insulated from 5. Switchboard shall be divided integrally with sheet
the metal. Where wiring runs through sheet steel panels metal webs to separate low voltage equipment from
holes shall be grommets with suitable grommets. instruments and control equipment and to ensure
7. Small wiring associated with external circuits shall be overheating does not occur.
connected to terminal strips conveniently arranged. 6. Access doors shall have concealed hinges, stops and
8. Each connection shall have separate incoming and interlocks where required, and a dust excluding gasket
outgoing terminals and no more than two wires shall be contained in a rebate.
connected to any terminal. 7. Door handles shall be the rotating type closing onto
9. All spare contacts shall be wired to terminal strips ramps, of approved pattern, finished in a black, hard
suitably positioned. wearing non conductive material.

10. All wiring shall be identified using plastic ferrules at both 8. Cabinet shall have adequate means for lifting and
ends. shall be capable of being rolled or moved into the
installation position and bolted directly to the floor. Sub Main Distribution Boards (SMDBS)
9. Switchboards shall have necessary cut-outs, drillings General and the point of entry of bus-duct feeders.
A. Sub-main Switchboard: 10. After fabrication, steelwork shall be cleaned; zinc
1. To be floor standing, totally enclosed, cubicle type, sprayed and stove enamelled with one primer coat,
dust protected and vermin proof, containing the main two undercoats and one finishing coat, the surface
components shown on the drawings and/or specified. being rubbed down after each coat.
Fabricated to BS 5486: Part 1 and shall be type tested 11. Finished colour: light grey.
design. Fault level minimum 35KA along with Switchgear 12. Minimum degree of separation will be Form 2.
2. To withstand thermal and mechanical stresses set up
by short circuit conditions from a source fault level as
indicated on drawing.

96 97

C. Components: G. Residual Current Circuit Breaker (previously COELCB)

1. Components shall be the product of one manufacturer 1. RCCB shall comply with CEE 227 pr IEC 1008 standards.
for discrimination and coordination between upstream The RCCB shall provide the functions of isolation,
and downstream level. switching and earth leakage protection of electrical
2. Switching and protective devices shall have clear on/ circuits. They shall have a residual current operated
off identification. electromechanical release, which operates, without
auxiliary source of supply to an earth leakage fault
3. Circuit devices shall be mounted in a cubicle form, front between active conductor and earth.
accessible for installation, adjustment and inspection
and rear accessible for connection with line and load RCCBs shall incorporate a filtering device preventing
connection terminals. The operating handles of each the risk of unwanted tripping due to transient voltage.
protective device shall project from cut outs in the front They shall provide a high degree of protection against
door. earth faults, fire hazards and electric shock.

4. Components shall be labelled for easy identification. 2. RCCBs shall be available in 2 and 4 pole versions with
current ratings from 16A to 100A and an earth leakage
D. Internal Wiring: trip rating as specified in the schedule of points. They
1. PVC insulated, colour coded cables. shall be suitable for operation on 415V, 3 phase, 4
2. Factory installed, neatly bunched and supported wire, 50 Hz supply. They shall have an operating
and extended on to labelled terminal boards for the temperature from -5 to + 60oC. RCCB shall have a trip
connection of external services. indication on the front face by a red mark. It shall be
possible to achieve vertical discrimination with RCCBs.
3. Terminals: anti-turn solder-less type suitable for cable
sizes shown on the Drawings. 3. RCCB alone shall have a short circuit withstand capacity
of minimum 6 KA. RCCB must be protected with short
E. Current Limiting Circuit Breakers circuit protective devices installed upstream.
1. To be similar to moulded case circuit breakers, but 4. RCCB shall consist of the following parts mounted in a
shall be capable of interrupting heavy short circuits robust body of all insulated material:
current similar to the cut off characteristic of high
rupturing capacity fuses. a) A current transformer

2. To incorporate electromagnetic repulsing mechanism, b) A tripping coil with contact assembly

shall have a breaking capacity of 100KA @ 415 V and c) Main supply contact
shalllimit the symmetrical fault current to 10KA. d) On/off switch
F. Non-Automatic Circuit Breaker e) A test button
Shall be similar to the moulded case circuit breaker in f) A trip free mechanism
every respect but without the over-current protection.
5. Where a RCCB is used as a separate item and not
housed within a distribution or switchboard, it shall
be housed in a dust protected enclosure to prevent
accidental contact with live terminals.

98 99

H. Bus Bars: sequences, and emergency procedures, fabricate frame of

1. Electro-tinned, hard drawn, high conductivity copper finished wood or metal and cover instructions with clear
suitably sleeved for phase identification to BS 159, at acrylic plastic. Mount on the front of the switchboards.
the ends. 5. Identify field-installed wiring and components and provide
2. Rating: as indicated on the Drawings. The Neutral Bus- warning signs as specified and required.
bar shall be of the same cross section as the phase bus Distribution Boards (DBs)
bar. Description
3. To be adequately supported by porcelain or moulded
A. General
insulators spaced at suitable centres so that the
complete assembly can withstand the maximum 1. Submit fully detailed specifications for the enclosures
mechanical stresses to which it may be subjected and components of distribution boards with relevant
under fault conditions. sheets of manufacturer’s catalogues.

4. To be enclosed in separate compartments and 2. Confirmation that boards offered comply with the
arranged so that all conductors can be brought onto relevant specifications.
the bars without undue bending. B. Products:
5. Bus bar compartments shall not be used as switchboard 1. LIGHTING AND APPLIANCE DISTRIBUTION
wiring ways. BOARDS

6. A copper Earth Bus-bar sized at least 50% of the phase A. Distribution Boards feeding lights, fans, sockets
Bus-bar or 25 x 3mm, whichever the greater, shall be outlets and other appliances:
provided for the full length of each switchboard with 1. To be totally enclosed, dust protected, vermin
each separate section of the board bonded to it. proof, recess mounting type, containing all the MDBs and SMDBs Installations necessary switching and protective devices, bus-
bars and neutral connector block.
1. Install main low-tension board as indicated in accordance
with equipment manufacturer’s written instructions and 2. Lighting Sections of the distribution boards
with recognized industry practices to ensure that the as shown on drawings shall be provided with
equipment fulfils requirements. contactors of proper ratings for remote control.

2. Provide earthing connections for the main switchboard as 3. Separate neutral and earth link shall be provided
indicated on the drawings. Tighten connections to assure with isolator inside all distribution boards.
permanent and effective grounding. B. Cabinet:
3. Prior of energizing the main switch board, check with 1. Construction: robust sheet steel, fully rust proofed
megger tester to ensure requirements of IEE Wiring and stove enamelled.
Regulations are fulfilled.
2. Cabinet shall have a hinged door fitted with a lock
4. Frame and mount printed, basic operating instructions and key.
for switch boards, including control and key interlocking

100 101

3. The cabinet shall be constructed so that it is 8. The instantaneous magnetic trip shall operate
necessary to open the door to operate miniature at 5 to 10 times the rated current for 1P, 2P, 3P or
circuit breakers. Access to interior components and 4P breakers, unless otherwise indicated on the
internal wiring shall be gained by dismantling and drawings.
removing a separate barrier within the enclosure. 9. It shall be possible to replace 3 single-phase units
C. Bus Bars: with one 3-phase unit.
1. To be of appropriate current carrying capacity 10. The breakers shall be of DIN type.
at least equal to the rating of the main incoming 11. Evidence of the ultimate breaking capacity (Icu)
MCCB isolator. shall be produced by test certificates from one of the
2. To be copper. internationally recognised High Voltage Laboratories
D. Moulded Circuit Neutral Connector Block: (ASTA, CESI, ESEF/ASEFA, KEMA, PEHLA or SATS).

To be of ample size to ensure a separate way is available 12. The operating mechanism shall be mechanically trip
on the connector block for the neutral conductor of free from the operating handle so as to prevent the
each circuit. contacts from being held closed against short circuit
and overload conditions. It shall be “automatic
E. Miniature Circuit Breakers: resetting type”.
1. MCB shall comply with IEC 947-2 or IEC 898 and shall 13. The operating handle shall be of the toggle type with
be symmetrical rail mounted type available in one, possibility of padlocking facility and rotary handle.
two, three or four poles version.
14. Each pole shall be provided with bi-metallic thermal
2. They shall be trip free types with quick make, quick element for overload protection and magnetic
break mechanism. element for short circuit protection.
3. The rated ultimate breaking capacity (Icu) of the 15. Current discriminations tables shall be provided for
MCB’s shall be at least equal to the prospective fault each rating of the breaker.
level at the point of the distribution system where
they are installed. 16. The terminals shall be of the tunnel type (IP-20) in
order to minimise the risk of direct contact.
4. The minimum rated ultimate breaking capacity (Icu)
of the MCB shall be 10KA if not indicated on the F. Lighting Contactors:
drawings. 1. To IEC 158.
5. It shall be possible to reverse feed the MCB without 2. Single coil, electrically operated, mechanically held
reduction in performance. type.
6. Trip ratings as indicated on the schedules of points. 3. Positive locking shall be obtained without the use of
7. The MCB shall have thermal overload trip to accept hooks, latches or semi-permanent magnets.
5% overload and to trip at 30% of rated current as per 4. Contactor rating and number of poles: as shown on
IEC 947-2. the drawings.

102 103

5. Operating coil; suitable for 240V, 50Hz supply. 2. The boards shall be properly earthed by connecting an earthing
6. Main contacts: double break silver to silver type protected conductor from the main distribution earth bus bar to an earth
by arcing contacts. connector welded to the cabinet and earthing bushings on the
incoming and outgoing feeder circuits.
7. Contacts: self-aligning, renewable from the front panel. Field Quality Control
8. Solenoids: shaded pole pattern of such construction that
lamination noise is eliminated. A. Manufacturer’s Field Services: Arrange and pay for the
services of a factory-authorised service representative to
9. Control of contactor: by local or remote switches as
supervise the pre-testing and adjustment of switchboard
indicated. A manual operating lever shall also be included.
10. Separate bus bar shall be provided in the distribution
B. Testing Organisation: Arrange and pay for the services of an
boards for the contactors controlling part of the lighting
electrical testing organisation to perform quality control
electrical testing and calibration, visual and mechanical
11. Lighting contactors controlling all or part of the lighting inspections, and tests of over-current protective devices
circuits of distribution boards shall be mounted in the switchboards.
board enclosures.
C. Pre-testing: Upon completing installation of the system,
2. OVER CURRENT PROTECTIVE DEVICE perform the following preparations for tests:
a. Current Limiting Circuit Breakers: 1. Make insulation resistance tests of switchboard buses,
1 To be similar to moulded case circuit breakers, but shall components, and connecting supply, feeder, and
be capable of interrupting heavy short circuit current control circuits.
similar to the cut off characteristic of high rupturing 2. Make continuity tests of circuits.
capacity fuses.
3. Provide set of Contract Documents to test organisation.
2 To incorporate electromagnetic repulsing mechanism, Include full updating on final system configuration
shall have a breaking capacity of 100 kA at 415V and shall and parameters where they supplement or differ from
limit the symmetrical fault current to 10 kA. those indicated in original Contract Documentw.
b. Non-Automatic Circuit Breaker 4. Provide manufacturer’s instructions for installation
Shall be similar to the moulded circuit breaker but without and testing of switchboard to test organisation.
over-current protection. D. Quality Control Testing Program: Conform to the following:
c. Residual Current Circuit Breakers . 1. Program Objectives: To assure switchboard installation Distribution Board Installation meets specified requirements, is operational within
specified tolerances, provides appropriate protection
1. Distribution board shall be flush mounted/surface mounted to
for systems and equipment, and is suitable for
suit the situation and as directed by the Engineer at site. They
shall be installed with the vertical sides plumb and the top of
DB at 180cm above finished floor level or as directed by the

104 105

2. Procedures: Make field tests and inspections and 7. Perform visual and mechanical inspection and related
prepare switchboard for satisfactory operation in work for Over-current Protective Devices.
accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations F. Electrical Tests: Include the following items performed in
and these specifications. accordance with manufacturer’s instruction:
3. Schedule tests and notify Engineer at least one week in 1. Insulation resistance test of buses and portions of
advance of test commencement. control wiring that disconnect from solid state devices
4. Reports: Prepare written reports of test results through normal disconnecting features.
and observations. Report defective materials 2. Ratio and polarity tests on current and voltage
and workmanship. Include complete records of transformers.
adjustments and remedial efforts.
3. Ground resistance test on system and equipment
5. Labelling: Upon satisfactory completion of tests and ground connections.
related effort. Apply a label to tested components
indicating test results, person responsible, and date. 4. Verify appropriate capacity, over-current protection,
and operating voltage of control power elements
6. Protective Device Ratings and Settings; Verify indicated including control power transformer and control power
ratings and settings and make the final system wiring.
adjustments of Over-current Protection Devices.
5. Check phasing of alternate supply sources to the same
E. Visual and Mechanical Inspections: Include the following bus.
Inspections and related work:
6. Test over-current protective devices as specified for
1. Inspect for defects and physical damage, testing compliance.
laboratory, labels, and nameplate compliance with up-
to-date circuit connections. G. Retesting: Correct deficiencies identified by tests and
observations and retest switchboards. Verify by the
2. Verify that potential transformers, including their over- retests that switchboards meet specified requirements.
current protection and current transformers, meet
specified requirements. Training
Arrange and pay for the services of factory-authorised service
3. Perform operational test and exercise of mechanical
representatives to demonstrate switchboards and train
components and other operable devices in accordance
Owner’s maintenance personnel.
with manufacturer’s instruction manual.
4. Check switchboard anchorage, area clearances, and Earthing
alignment and fit of components. QUALITY ASSURANCE
5. Check tightness of bolted electrical connections with The Contractor shall comply with the following standards
calibrated torque wrench. Refer to manufacturer’s and regulation:
instructions for proper torque values. • BS 7430.
6. Clean switchboard interior and exterior-using • IEE wiring Regulations
manufacturer’s approved methods and materials.
• DEWA Regulations.

106 107

A. Generally High copper alloy or silicone bronze. Ferrous hardware is
Products used in the earthing system shall be copper or not acceptable.
an approved copper alloy, unless otherwise specified, H. Earth Pit Cover
and specifically manufactured for the purpose. A. To be of medium duty cast iron cover.
B. Earth Continuity Conductors B. To have a recessed lifting hook.
1. Sizes shall be as specified by local power-supply C. To have a brass plate, engraved “Electrical Earth
authorities, unless otherwise indicated, but in Below”.
no case shall size be less than half that of the
associated phase conductors. INSTALLATIONS

2. Insulation shall be of the same material as 1. Circuit Wiring

insulation in associated sub-circuits. To have a green/ yellow coloured insulated earth
C. Main Earth Loops continuity cable connecting the earth bus or earth terminal
in panel boards to the outlet or device earthing lugs.
25 x 3mm tinned copper tape, unless otherwise
indicated. 2. Main Earth Loops

D. Rod Electrodes: a) Fix in mechanical equipment rooms and other areas

indicated on the drawings, in convenient locations,
1. To be the earth rod electrode type, unless
allowing two return paths to earth.
impracticable to drive deep into the particular soil.
b) Fix copper tape to structure with copper or brass
2. Earth rod electrodes: 16mm diameter steel core
saddles and/or screws. Make tees and straight joints
copper jacketed type, comprising a high strength
by riveting and seating, welding or brazing.
steel alloy core with a molten welded copper
covering. c) Make branch connections between main loop and
major equipment, such as switchboards, large motors
3. To be 3.6m long, in 1.2m sections coupled by strong
and motor control boards, with copper tape of same
bronze couplers.
size as main loop tape.
E. Earth Connectors
d) Make other branch connections to equipment with
For connection of rod electrodes: bolted type. copper conductors of size not less than half that of the
F. Removable Earth Links relative phase conductor.

To comprise a bolted copper link fixed on porcelain 3. Removable Earth Links

insulators and complete with studs, nuts and washers a) Fix in every main earth lead to enable the electrode
to take the earth tape and a bolted lug adequately system to be disconnected for testing.
sized for the final connection of the earth electrode.
b) Install in an accessible position, above ground as
close as possible to the earth electrode.

108 109

4. Exposed Earth Cables 9. Fire Fighting Equipment

Install and locate to provide maximum mechanical Earth on a separate ring system.
protection, utilising ceiling corners, suspended ceiling 10. Motors Earthing
and webs of beams as much as possible.
a) Connect the motor terminal box to the relative earth
5. Bolted Connections loop. The terminal must be mechanically connected
a) Multiple bolt type. to the frame or, where this is not feasible.
b) Where bare copper is bolted in connections contact b) Extend the earthing conductor through an insulated
surfaces shall be silver electroplated. bushed opening in the connection box and connect
6. Brazed Connections to the frame.

Where earthing terminal connections are to be brazed 11. Main Switchboards Earthing
to equipment, thoroughly clean metal prior to brazing a) Connect the special earthing lug or busbars inside
and repaint impaired surfaces to prevent corrosion. the cabinet to the main earth copper tape.
7. Connections Between Dissimilar Metals Protect by: b) Connect all parts of the switchboard, other than
a) Painting with a moisture resistant bituminous paint “live” parts, to the earth bar in the board in an
or compound, or approved manner.

b) Wrapping with protective tape to exclude moisture. 12. Distribution Boards Earthing

8. Equipment Earthing Connect an earthing conductor from the main

distribution earth busbar to an earth connector welded
a) Connect all non-current carrying metallic parts to the cabinet and earthing bushings on the incoming
of the electrical/mechanical installation to the and outgoing feeder conduits.
earthing system.
13. Bus-bar Trunking (Busways) Feeders Earthing
b) Non-current carrying metallic parts of the electrical
installation include: Connect the green coded earth bus-bar directly to the
earth bus-bar in main switchboard.
1. Metal conduit cable armour (steel and
aluminium) raceways, outlet boxes, cabinets, 14. Cable Armour Earthing
and the like. Connect steel and aluminium armour to the earthing
2. Exposed metal parts of apparatus. system.
3. Enclosures, doors, grilles, barriers and the like 15. Fountain/swimming pool Earthing
protecting or shielding electrical equipment a) Connect all electrical equipment, lighting,
from direct access. transformers, and accessories to the earthing
4. Series earthing of one piece of equipment to system.
another is not acceptable.
b) Bond all metallic parts of the fountain/ swimming
pool and metallic parts of the electric equipments.

110 111

16. Earth Rod Electrodes b) Equipment manufacturer’s Authorized Representative: test

a) Drive extensible rods of the same diameter into the installed system, instruct Owner’s designated personnel in
ground, either manually or by power driven hammer, to operation of the system.
a suitable depth to obtain low resistively in the particular c) The system: a complete functioning apparatus consistent
soil. with the current state of the art practice and including
b) Weld earth connectors to the top of the rods, in sufficient all components necessary for the operational functions
number to take all incoming cables. specified, whether or not each separate device is
specifically mentioned.
17. Earth Plate Electrodes
d) Attention is called to the requirement to protect control
a) Use where: electronics from momentary voltage changes, which may
1. Ground resistance is low but increases with depth; be caused by other systems.
2. Where it is not possible to go deep into soil. 2. Standards

b) Protect terminations against corrosion. a) All Equipment and Work: comply with “Codes and
18. Earth Pit
b) All Equipment: C.E. Listed. Proof of listing shall be provided.
Construct a small concrete pit, complete with removable cast
iron cover with recessed lifting hook, at the head of the earth c) All Equipment: the products of one manufacturer or
rod, to protect the rod and allow access to connections for supplier; complete with all required apparatus, devices,
testing. controls, accessories, etc. TESTING d) System rough in wiring and installation shall be made

according to manufacturer’s instructions and wiring
A. Test earthling systems by the earth megger test.
B. The resistance of any point in the earth continuity system
e) Control wiring for devices using the manufacturer’s
to the main earth electrode shall not exceed 1 ohm.
proprietary protocol shall conform to the manufacturer’s
C. Install additional earth electrodes if these figures are not installation and termination instructions in all respects
met. 3. Description Of Work

2.3.8 LOW VOLTAGE CONTROL SYSTEM a) It is the intent of the specification to provide a complete
low voltage control system as specified and enumerated lighting control herein and on the drawings including installation. Include GENERAL sufficient quantities and level of control product to satisfy
the operational functions specified.
1. Scope
b) All components, consoles, devices, etc.: complete and
a) The Electrical Contractor shall furnish, install and connect
functioning units internally wired complete to numbered
the complete Low Voltage Lighting Control System and other
terminal strips to facilitate connection to the building wiring
equipment as described herein and shown on drawings.

112 113

4. Proposal Forms practice. All bolts and rivets shall be sized and located
a) Furnish a Bill of Materials and a full description of all in conformity with minimum acceptable standards as
items and devices, which are proposed to be a part of set forth in the Machinery’s Handbook and all revisions
the total system. to date.

b) Include complete product descriptions including any c) All moving parts: have acceptable tolerances,
changes required in the wiring schematic shown on mountings, connections, and accessories coordinated
the drawings to connect the proposed system into the into the system in a manner approved by the Owner
building. Provide adequate data for product evaluation and Consultant. No wood construction or equipment
and installation criteria. shall be incorporated into the system excepting as may
be set forth in the specifications.
5. Submittals
d) All electrical and electronic parts and components:
a) Submit complete shop drawings and riser diagrams.
selected and installed consistent with good practice
b) In addition to the copies required for general and conservatively rated in their use in the circuit
distribution, submit one set of informational prints design. Each piece of equipment shall meet accepted
directly to the Consultants. Copies of all shipping basic engineering standards.
lists, bills of lading, etc., shall be distributed to the 7. Field Engineering Service
Engineer and Consultant. Nomenclature of items
listed on shipping documents shall be identifiable on a) Manufacturer: furnish engineering assistance as
the original Bill of Materials for confirmation of items needed during delivery and installation to assist
received in the field. contractor. A qualified Field Engineer shall check the
installation prior to initial energisation of the system.
c) Provide a written line-by-line review of the specification. The field engineer shall supervise initial turn-on and
d) Include a complete schematic of the system. shall make or cooperate with the installing contractor
6. Workmanship in making any required adjustments or trimming
of components to enable the system to function as
a) The fabrication of all equipment: incorporate only
new and unused materials. This includes all metal
components in various shapes required such as plate, b) The Field Engineer shall be fully experienced in the
bar, rod, castings, structural, stampings, forgings, programming requirements of architectural controllers.
clamps, bolts, and all other accessories not mentioned. c) As a portion of the final inspection, the Field Engineer
b) The mechanical fabrication and workmanship: will demonstrate the system in the presence of the
incorporate neat and mechanically acceptable practices Engineer, Owner and/or Consultant, as directed,
such as clean drilled and punched holes without flash; proving it to be operating properly and shall provide
hand smooth finish for all sheared, machined, and cut instructions in the use and in the Owner performed
edges; and proper fit of component and contiguous maintenance of the system.
parts without irregularity where matching is intended.
Welding shall meet qualifications of AWS Dl.1-81 and
shall be without spatter and other evidence of poor

114 115

8. Testing B. A two-wire bus cable shall link in parallel all sensors (push
a) Standard factory test of manufacturer shall be buttons, brightness sensors, timer schedules, etc.) and
performed and typewritten copies submitted to the actuators (on/off controllers, etc.) to each other. The
owner for record purposes. bus cable shall be a twisted pair, screened & shielded
with solid conductors and shall be capable of handling
b) The manufacturer shall provide for final adjustments information exchange and supplying power to the bus
for systems. devices. Separate power supply to any of the sensors and
9. Harmonized European Standard actuators shall not be acceptable. The bus cable shall
a) All equipment and components: approved and be laid in the building in the form of a linear, star or tree
listed by C.E. where applicable standards have been structure similar to the power mains. Systems requiring
established. fixed wiring configurations shall not be acceptable.

b) All equipment: manufactured and tested in accordance C. The system shall be completely de-centralized and
with the applicable portions of the latest editions of programmable. The programming shall be implemented
Harmonized European and IEEE standards. via a PC or notebook computer located anywhere in the
10. Accessories system and having access level passwords. Programming
via local system switches or with no password security
All loose accessories: delivered to the owner and installed shall not be acceptable. Any device in the system shall
or stored as directed. be accessed for programming from the PC location without
11. Warranty having to manipulate the device locally.
All systems, including all parts and labour, shall be under D. Each device in the system shall be addressable via a
full warranty for a period of not less than two (2) years from software programmable physical address. Any device in
the date of written final acceptance. In the event that any the system shall communicate with any other device via
of the equipment should fail to produce capacities or meet software programmable group addresses (telegrams).
design characteristics as specified, it shall be replaced with Each individual device will respond to only those group
equipment that will meet requirements without additional addresses for which they are programmed to do so. There
cost. After occupancy, any necessary work performed shall shall be an EEPROM storing the physical address, group
be done at the convenience of the Owner’s operational addresses & other software parameters for every device,
schedule, including overtime, if required. thus making it intelligent. No centralized processors or PRODUCTS centralized memory storage devices shall be permitted.

A. The Low Voltage Programmable Lighting Control System E. It shall be possible to program any of the devices on-line
shall be designed & developed in accordance with the at the working site without affecting any of the system
European Installation Bus (EIB) technology to cover devices or the system operation as well as off-line prior to
control of lighting (On/Off and dimming) based on one dispatch of the material to site.
or more applications such as time schedules, daylight & F. The entire system shall consist of bus lines each consisting
brightness, manual switches, etc. of up to 64 devices. Two consecutive lines shall be
connected to each other via line couplers that act as

116 117

network filters and also provide communication between B. The Electrical Contractor shall install equipment
devices in different lines. In the event of failure of a device per specifications and comply with manufacturer’s
in one line, only the control functions controlled by that instructions. System shall not be energized except in the
device shall be affected and all other devices shall continue presence of manufacturer’s field engineer. Provide labour
to operate as normal. Any system with routers / couplers that for checkout of system under direction of field engineer.
require separate power supply shall not be acceptable. COMPLETION
G. The power supply module feeding power to the network
A. Notify Manufacturer four weeks prior to completion of
shall consist of a built in back-up power to compensate
wiring installation to schedule field engineer for system
short voltage interruptions of up to 200 ms. This back-up
turn-on and checkout.
power shall enable the system to put all actuators in a fail-
safe position (either on or off or as it is) in the event of power B. Notify Architect/Engineer and Consultant of field
failure. engineering schedule.

H. The diagnostic modules shall scan the system for any faults C. Deliver system operation manuals and instruction video to
in the bus wiring and display an alarm LED in the event of Architect/Engineer for Owner’s use as soon as received.
faults in the wiring. D. Provide required demonstrations and instruction periods.
I. Each of the devices shall have a built-in push button along E. Provide as-built drawings and full system documentation
with a LED. The LED shall lit in the event the push button is and maintenance manuals.
pressed and if there is power to the device, thus depicting
that the device is communicating in the system. VOICE & DATA COMMUNICATION CABLING SYSTEM

J. In the event of power failure or bus wiring failure each GENERAL
of the system devices (switching modules etc.) shall be A System Description
programmed to attain a fail safe position (controlled circuits
1. The proposed cabling system for the UTP and Fibre
to become “On”, “Off” or “As it is, Last status”)
network cabling and Fibre Links shall be an open
K. All devices in the system should conform to CE standards system and application and vendor independent and
and should be manufactured in accordance with the EMC shall be warranted by an International Vendor for a
guidelines and the low voltage guidelines. minimum of 20 years. The contractor Installers (labour)
L. The Lighting control System shall be interfaced with the and engineers must be trained and certified by this
Building Management System so as to monitor and control vendor to design and install cabling system and must
the required circuits from the BMS workstation. be insured as required by UAE labour laws. INSTALLATION 2. A Main Distribution Frame (MDF) shall be provided at

the ground level of the Building. Each floor is provided
A. It shall be the responsibility of the Electrical Contractor to with one (1) Indipendent Distribution Frame (IDF).
notify the Architect/Engineer and Consultant in a timely The IDFs are located in Telecommunication rooms
manner prior to the execution of the work of any conflict such that the cable run from the IDF to the associated
within the Construction Documents, including the Submittals, telecommunication consolidation point / outlet is
which could affect the execution of the Section of the work. limited to 90m.

118 119

3. Wiring system used shall be star topology i.e. each 7. The Cabling System shall be designed using standard,
telecommunication/data outlet and consolidation proven equipment and materials with the latest
point (CP) is connected directly to the associated floor Technology version or model. If there is any problem
distributor (IDF). during warranty period related to the shortage of
4. Consolidation points (CPs) shall be connected from the Materials, the Contractor shall supply them with no
related IDF on each typical office floor, or as shown, extra cost to the Project.
required and instructed. 8. The design shall fully comply with EIA/TIA 568B & ISO
5. Transmission Media: 11801 in a full star topology configuration collapsing in
the MDF.
For data:
9. The network data cabling systems support at least
a) Vertical runs between floors extending from the 1000 Base-T (Gigabit) Ethernet or faster protocol.
MDF to each IDF in a star topology using fibre optic
cables installed on cable trays. 10. The UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Category 6 cable’s
technical specifications shall be up to the highest
b) Horizontal runs from a telecommunication closet industry standards and should have performance
(IDF) to the data outlets or CP using 4P UTP twisted specifications better than 250 MHz and should exceed
pair cables Cat 6. Detail and No. of CP shall be all proposed requirements for data, video & Gigabit
as shown on the drawings or as instructed during applications.
construction stage.
11. The UTP Category 6 cable’s technical specifications
For voice shall be up to the TIA/EIA-568B.2-1 industry standards
Vertical runs between floors extending from the and should have performance specifications better
MDF to each IDF using multi pair CAT 5, 100MHz than 250 MHz and ample margin compared to the
cables installed on cable tray. Category 6 Standard for performance in factors such
Horizontal runs from a telecommunication as NEXT.
closet (IDF) to the telecommunication outlet or 12. The cables required from the Telecommunication
consolidation point using 4P UTP twisted pair Room (TR) to the Telecommunication Outlet (TO) must
cables Cat 6. be two 4-pairs UTP Category 6 copper cables for data &
6. Data & voice processing system shall be supplied voice respectively.
installed and tested complete in place including but not 13. Both Data & Voice cables may be drawn through the
in a way of limitation, cables, socket outlets, adapters, same conduits and raceways wherever shown in the
connectors, patch panels, 110 wiring blocks, patch drawings.
cords, wire management, floor distributors (racks/ 14. Both Data & Voice may be terminated in the same dual
cabinets). faceplates.

120 121

B Scope 8. The Contractor shall carry out all the necessary

1. The contractor shall carefully examine all of the surveys, design and engineering so as to provide for
specifications to ensure that he is fully conversant the Services, a whole and complete system to ensure
therewith and has included for everything necessary full compatibility of the Services with any of the existing
therein, either expressly provided for or as would facilities pertinent to Cabling System applications &
normally be expected to be provided for by a reputable operations.
contractor specializing in the type and nature of the 9. The scope of the Services include the provision of all
Services described in the Contract. material, labour, supervision, construction, equipment,
2. The contractor is advised that items or matters not tools, temporary, test equipment, spares, consumable
specifically provided for, or partially described or and all other things and services required to engineer,
otherwise missing from the specifications, but which design, supply, install, test and commission the
are nevertheless necessary for the execution and Cabling System.
completion of the Services, shall be deemed to have 10. It is the responsibility of the Contractor to make sure
been included by the Contractor. that the system works at the company environment.
3. The contractor shall ensure that all selected 11. The Vendor must provide a list of project references
manufacturers of equipment and materials provide within the last three years.
with appropriate warranties and guarantees for their 12. The Vendor must have completed a project with a
products. minimum of 1000 points or higher of Category 6
4. Authorized and certified installers registered with their 13. The Vendor must have experience with minimum 500
respective Manufacturers shall execute the installation points of fiber installed and terminated.
of the Cabling system.
C Submittals:
5. The contractor shall also be required to submit, in their
bid, a list of personnel along with their CV, certifying 1. Product Data: Submit manufacturer’s data on signal
that the installers it intends to employ on the services transmission media and components.
have the necessary training and experience. 2. Shop Drawings: Submit layout drawings of computer
6. The LAN cabling system shall meet the emerging cable distribution system and accessories.
EIA/TIA 568A/B and ISO 11801 Category 6, Class E 3. Wiring Diagrams: Submit data transmission wiring
specifications and shall support Gigabit Ethernet, diagrams for computer system, including rack and
Sonet/asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) at rates terminal connections.
(minimum of) 1 Gbits/seconds and analog broadband D. Quality Assurance:
video in addition to existing telecommunication and
multimedia technologies. 1. Manufacturer’s Qualifications: Firms regularly engaged
in manufacture of signal transmission media and
7. The voice backbone cabling system shall meet the accessories of types required, whose products have been
EIA/TIA 568A/B-5 and ISO 11801 Category 5, Class D in satisfactory use in similar service for not less than 5
specifications. years.

122 123

2. Installer’s Qualifications: Firms with at least 5 years of Gbps EtherNet. The complete system shall guarantee a
successful installation experience with projects utilising minimum of 250 MHz & 100 MHz bandwidth performance
systems and equipment similar to that required for this and the products shall be from an internationally reputable
project. manufacturer. The selection of materials shall be subject to
3. Co-ordinate with other electrical work including wires/ approval by the company.
cables, electrical boxes and fittings, and raceways, to 5. The cables that are used to complete the installation
properly interface installation of data system with other shall be Category 6 UTP, capable of carrying high
work. bit rate signals for extended distances in building
4. Sequence installation of data system with other work distribution systems over frequency ranges up to and
to minimise possibility of damage and soiling during potentially beyond 250 or 100 MHz, designed to work
remainder of construction. on an ISO 11801 Class “E” link. PRODUCTS Conductor Identification Coloured Code Abbreviation

A. Copper & Fiber Optic Cable And Connectors White – Blue WT – BL
Pair 1 Blue – (White) BL
1. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) copper & fibre optic
cables shall be approved & recommended by component Pair 2 White – Orange WT – OR
Orange – (White) OR
manufacturer. This is to enable the component
manufacturer to give the necessary product and application Pair 3 White – Green WT – GN
Green – (White) GN
warranties for the system.
Pair 4 White – Brown WT – BR
2. Provide unshielded twisted pair copper cable, fibre optic Brown – (White) BR
cable and connectors, in sizes and types as recommended
by the active equipment manufacturer for indicated Table 5: Cable Colour Codes
applications. Mate and match connector materials to
factory installed equipment. Parameter Specifications
3. Computer cabling System Accessories: Provide computer Cable Type Category 6 UTP
accessories, including modular wall and floor jacks,
Conductor Size(mm) 23 or 24 AWG
junction boxes, connecting blocks and pre wired boxes.
4. The selection and type of material required for the Number of Pairs 4
Services shall conform to the specifications given herein Nominal Outer Diameter (mm) 6.0
and items or matters not specified herein shall conform
Impedance(Ohm) 100+/-15
to ISO/IEC 11801, EN 50173 and EIA/TIA 568B Category 6
Standards as applicable. The Contractor shall also ensure Velocity of propagation (% speed of light) 69
that the materials utilized to complete the cabling system Frequency (MHz) 250
installation are capable of supporting the minimum
expected performance requirements for emerging Max. Atténuation @ 250 MHz (dB) 32.1
applications such as ATM services (1.2 GPS), including 10 Worst case NEXT @ 250 MHz (dB) 38.3

Table 6: Specifications Of UTP Cables

124 125

6. The cable shall be composed of 23 or 24 AWG bare, 2. All fibre optic backbone links between the main cross
solid-copper conductors. The insulated conductors connect and the Telecommunication rooms have a backup
shall be twisted into individual pairs and four such link using a different route from the main fibre optic link.
pairs twisted together. Each of these links shall be 12-core fibre optic cable as
The cables shall be fully colour coded as provided described in this document.
hereunder, colour contrast being such that each pair 3. The Contractor shall be responsible for the supply,
in the cable is easily distinguishable from every other installation, testing and commissioning of the complete
pair. fibre cable backbone interconnection/cross connection
B. Horizontal Cabling Distances requirements of the “building/complex” LAN Cabling
1. The maximum horizontal portion of a cabling system
from work area information outlet to a mechanical 4. The Contractor shall install suitable fibre optic pigtails/
termination at the patch-panel in the wiring closets connectors needed to complete the entire fibre cable
must not be more than 90 meters. The cable run must installation as per the manufacturer’s recommendation
be free of bridges, taps and splices. and shall ensure that the backbone is capable to handle
the traffic and provide error- free universal data transport
2. Both ends of the cable shall be labelled for identification, for the foreseeable future.
i.e., at the patch panel and work area information outlet
according to EIA/TIA 606 administration standards 5. The backbone fibre optic cable shall be run either vertically
for the telecommunication infrastructure cabling of between floors or horizontally to connect wiring closets to
commercial buildings. the MDF.

3. The horizontal cabling system shall be correctly 6. The 12 core fibre optic cables shall be installed from the
designed and the work area outlets in each shown Main Cross-Connect to each telecommunication room.
or required location shall be correctly mapped to an The cable shall be tied down to the designated area at the
appropriate wiring closet. The star topology shall rear side using cable ties around the outer jacket, leaving
be applicable to every individual unit of the of the 2 to 3 meters of excess length of the cables, in addition to
transmission media. the length required to facilitate the termination process.

C. Fiber Optic & UTP Cabling 7. All of the fibres in the backbone shall be terminated with
LC type connectors at the time of the installation. The
1. The backbone cabling interconnecting distribution Contractor shall ensure proper testing of the fibres and
cabinets to the main central distribution cabinet shall make them available whenever they are needed. No fibres
be of multimode fibre cable 50/125 microns; 12-core shall be unterminated, all fibres must be terminated. A
cable with colour-coded fibres. All fibre optic cables document with fibre cable test results for every fibre cable
shall be laid in straight run without intermediate link shall be provided by the Contractor.
splices and all fibres shall be terminated at either end
using suitable fibre cable patch panels mounted on the 8. The contractor shall observe the manufacturer’s
wiring closets. specifications for maximum tension and minimum bend
radius for each fibre optic cable. The contractor shall
provide a copy of the manufacturer’s specifications to the
company prior to the commencement of the work.

126 127

9. Care must be taken when mechanical pulling devices Parameter Dimension

are used, that maximum tension limits are not Core 50 mm ± 3 mm
exceeded. Minimum bend radius specification shall not Core Non-Circularity: <6%
be violated when the cables are routed through walls Core/Cladding Concentricity Error: <3.0 mm
or around corners. The contractor shall ensure that all Numerical Aperture: 0.200 ± 0.015
installation personnel are aware of these limitations. Cladding diameter: 125 mm ± 1 mm
10. The contractor shall follow an intelligent numbering Cladding Non-Circularity: <2.0%
system based upon the destination and channel number. Coloured Fibre Diameter: 250 mm ± 15 mm
The numbering system shall have a prefix ‘F’ to indicate Buffering Diameter: 890 mm ± 50 mm
it is a fibre optic cable, followed by the destination IDF, Minimum Tensile Strength: 100,000 psi
then a hyphen and the channel within the cable. Fibre Minimum Bending Radius: .75 in. (1.91 cm)
Cable Minimum Bending Radius:
11. 100 pairs UTP shall be installed between the Telephone
During Installation: 20 times cable diameter
MDF and the Voice/Data MDF. This cable shall be
After Installation: 10 times cable diameter
of category 5, 100Mhz and shall be terminated
Operating Temp. Range: 32°F to 122°F (0°C to 50°C)
in a rack mounted patch panels installed in the
Storage Temp. Range: -40°F to 149°F (-40°C to 65°C)
telecommunication closet at the MDF.
Maximum Fibre Loss: 3.5 dB/km at 850 NM
12. Multipair, CAT 5, 100Mhz UTP cable shall be installed 1.5 dB/km at 1300 NM
as backbone between the voice MDF to the IDF in each Minimum Bandwidth: 1500 at 850 nm (OFL)
floor/location as indicated in the drawings. 500 at 1300 nm (OFL)
2000 at 850 nm (DMD,
13. Logical labelling should be as per ANSI/TIA/EIA-606. laser)
Labels should be ring and printed type. No labels 500 at 1300 nm (DMD, laser)
should be written by hand.
D. Optical Fibre Cable Technical Specification Table 7: Optical Fibre Cable Technical Specification
1. Fibre optic cables within the premises shall use
multimode, graded-index. E. Data & Voice Outlets
2. Fibres must comply with EIA/TIA 492 specifications and 1 The Contractor shall provide the identification labels at
OM3 fibre specification as in IS 11801 standard. each and every information outlet with clear information
3. Fibres will have dual wavelength capability; transmitting of its connection. (TR, cabinet number, patch panel
at 850 and 1300nm ranges. number and port number). The labelling shall be on the
faceplate of the information outlet according to EIA/TIA
4. All fibres shall be colour coded to facilitate individual 606 Administration Standard.
fibre identification. The coating shall be mechanically
strippable 2. The contractor has to provide clear identification labels
for data & voice.
3. In the process of installing the information outlets, if
the Contractor envisages difficulty in mounting the

128 129

outlet at planned location as indicated in its design/ 8. The plastic used to construct the modular data outlet
engineering drawing, the contractor shall notify the shall be of high impact, flame-retardant, made of
Company of this, the contractor shall not make its own polypheylene oxide with flammability rating meeting
discretion in modifying or changing any information UL 94V-0UL, the jack wires shall be at least 50 micro-
provided in the approved design drawings. inch lubricated gold plating over 100 micro-inch nickel
4. The type of information outlets shall be of modular under plate. The connector shall be of copper alloy, at
RJ45 of 8 position, 8 conductor designed for high speed least 100 micro-inch bright solder over 100 micro-inch
networking applications that use data transmission nickel under plate.
rates over frequency ranges up to and potentially 9. The insulation displacement connector shall accept
beyond 250 MHz & 100 MHz. The outlets shall be of 24/23 AWG solid copper wire conductors. The connector
insulation displacement connectors type (IDC). shall have multicolour labels marking wire terminals
5. Finishes of the outlets shall be as follows: with numbers, assuring fast, accurate installation. The
outlet must support wiring configuration as per T568A
• Inside offices: White Plastic Range. and T568B on the same RJ-45 jack
• All Public Areas: Decorative metallic range to 10. The connector shall be wired using the wire insertion
Architect approval. tool (impact tool). The module shall be wired from
• Service/Plant rooms & external: Metal Clad/ the centre to the outside and shall not untwist paired
Weather Proof range. conductors more than 12.7 mm. In the process of
Note: Telephone & Data outlets have to be of the same terminating the cables in patch panels/outlets the
product range of other wiring accessories. Contractor shall ensure ISO/IEC and TIA/EIA category
5E/6 transmission performance requirements.
6. The 8 position/8 conductor outlet shall meet the
category 6 transmission requirements for connecting F. Data & Voice Outlets
hardware specified in ISO/IEC 11801 and EIA/TIA- 1. The contractor shall supply patch cords for all the
568A/B and Class E design guidelines. installed points on the network switch side as well on
7. The modular outlet shall provide maximum versatility the workstation side. The cord length shall be of two
in designing a premise distribution system. It shall different sizes 5-ft. [1.5 m] on the network switches side
be designed to snap into modular faceplate. When and 10 ft. [3.05 m] on the workstation side.
the outlet is inserted into the faceplate or frame, it 2. The patch cable shall meet the requirements warranted
shall lock into place and shall only be released using to meet ISO/IEC 11801, EN 50173 and EIA/TIA 568A/B
the dual-purpose wire insertion tool. The mounting category 6 wiring standards capable of connecting
and removal system shall allow easy installation and high speed information terminal devices to information
modification. The faceplate jacks must be shutter outlets, to interconnect information terminal devices and
protected and shall include a label window required 8-position modular jack panel applications. The patch
to write circuit identification number. Each port must cord shall be designed to provide support for extended
support a colour icon to identify the port function. multimedia transmission distance over frequency ranges
up to and potentially beyond 100/250 MHz.

130 131

3. The patch cord shall support the computer networking

2. The patch panels shall be of 19-inch rack-mounted
applications over frequency ranges up to and potentially
panels. The rear of the panel shall feature connecting
beyond 250 MHz and shall be compatible with voice and
blocks mounted on a printed wiring board. These
information applications.
connecting blocks shall be capable for use in terminating
4. The construction of the cord shall be of stranded type category 6 station wires, equipment, or tie cables. The
cordage tightly twisted, 24 AWG, 8 conductor. The cord modular patch panel shall be capable of supporting up
shall be terminated to an 8-position RJ-45 modular plug to 24 jack positions (ports) as required by the design
on both ends. The cords shall support the transmission drawings of the voice and data system and shall have
requirements warranted to meet ISO/IEC 11801 Class E, the facility to write the circuit designation details at the
EN 50173 or TIA/EIA 568B Category 6, Class E component front side of each jack. The contractor shall provide
specifications and standards. 20% spare capacity for both voice and data.
5. The contractor supplied cord shall be of factory crimped 3. The insulating displacement connector field in the patch
modular plug at both ends. panel shall be made continuous to the 8-pin modular jack
6. Pre-wired patch cords, 110 to 8 position (RJ45), constructed field on front of the panel through printed wiring board
of 24 gauge, stranded wire in PVC jacket shall be used to connections to enhance the features to confirm to EIA/TIA
add modularity to 110 system. 568A/B cabling recommendations.

G. Patch Cord Organizer 4. The construction of the modular jack panel shall be
of category 6 – compliant and shall have the stringent
1. The contractor shall supply and install sufficient patch
requirements of connecting hardware as specified in EIA/
cord organizers/interbay patch cord organizers that are
TIA 568A/B commercial/ residential building Cabling System
used for routing patch cords in 19-inch (48.3-cm) frames.
The patch cord organizers shall support the requirements
of routing patch cords both at the equipment side as well 5. When the patch panels are tested in accordance with the
as the Category 6-patch panel cabling side at the wiring appropriate test methods described in EIA/TIA 568 A/B
closets. These organizers shall be located in the 19-inch and ISO/IEC 11801, EN 50173 Category 6 specifications. The
frame inside the wiring closet. modular patch panels shall meet the worst-pair near-end
cross talk (NEXT) requirements over the entire frequency
2. The contractor supplied patch cord organizers/interbay
ranges up to and potentially beyond 100/250 MHz on all pair
patch cord organizers shall support the requirements of
routing cords in both horizontal and vertical pathways.
6. Care must be taken to ensure that the cables are terminated
H. Patch Panels (Jack Panels)
correctly at category 6 cross connect hardware (patch
1. The contractor shall supply and install the modular patch panels).
panels to meet the full cabling system requirement of the
7. The pair twist of the cables must be maintained as close
“building/complex”. Every category 6 cables serving the
to the termination at the patch panel IDC Modular outlet
information outlets at work areas shall be terminated at
as possible. Cables shall not be untwisted for more than
the patch panels. The Contractor shall ensure that the
12.7 mm. The cable conductor’s entry shall be at the center
supplied patch panels meet the ISO/IEC 11801, EN 50173
of the IDC module and the module shall be wired from the
and TIA/EIA 568 warranted component specifications and
center to the outside.

132 133

8. The cable conductors shall be terminated as described 5. Maximum insulated conductor outside diameter 0.05”
in EIA/TIA 568A/B and ISO/IEC 11801, EN 50173 6. Complete kit includes connecting blocks, labels and
Category 6, Class E wiring sequence by using the label holders shall be used.
proper insertion tool (impact tool).
7. Jumper troughs shall be used to route cable horizontally
9. When terminating the cables in the insulating and vertically.
displacement connector field, care must be taken to
ensure that the strip – back is limited only as much J. Cabling Cabinet (Steel Cabinet)
cable jacket as is required to perform connecting 1. The contractor shall supply and install cabling System
hardware terminations. The cables shall be properly Cabinets to house the passive and active network
secure terminations. The cables shall be properly equipment. The cabinets shall be freestanding types.
secured to the 19 – inch rack with cable ties as well as 2. The 42U free standing cabinet shall be used in the main
at the patch panels. computer room 25U freestanding cabinet shall be used
10. The IDC connectors must be colour coded to meet both in the IDF. The technical specification is as per the
T568A and T568B wiring Configuration. following:
11. Each port of the patch panel must support colour Icon 3. The contractor who supplied Cabling System cabinets
to identify the port function. shall meet the requirements of accommodating the
12. Each port must be numbered in sequence with white high volume of cabling 19” 24-port patch panels & LAN
printing on black background or other high contrast Equipment fully assembled with the following items.
colours. (Cabinet dimension 42U 600 mm x 800 mm nominal
width & depth). The cabinets must meet the following
13. Each port on the patch panel must have a label place specifications:
holder and for the patch panel number.
• 42U 600 x 800 Ready Rack
14. The IDC connector on the back of the patch panel shall
support 22 to 25 AWG solid conductors’ cables. • 500 KG load rating

15. The package must include frame mounting screws, • 42U 600 4mm Safety Glass Door (On the front).
labels, cable ties and instruction sheet. • 42U 600 1.6 mm steel Door (On the rear).
I. Idc Wiring System • 600 x 800 side vented top cover.
1. The IDC blocks shall be used for the voice cross connect • Castors heavy duty braked.
and should be 19” rack mountable type. • 42U Panel mounting angle kit.
2. The IDC blocks shall be capable of terminating up to • 600 X 800 thermostat controlled Low Noise Fan
336 pairs. Tray.
3. Shall be capable to terminate 22-26 AWG solid A power outlet strip shall have a 2 meter flying lead, (3-
conductors or 22-26 AWG stranded conductors. wire extension cord) with a 3 prong British plug with fuse
4. Shall be made of high-impact UL 94V-0 rated and shall have 13 amp. 250 volt 3 prong British outlets
thermoplastic. with individual on/off switch and indicator light with

134 135

mounting brackets. The AC Mains distribution integral at The cabinets shall be supplied at least with one shelf
the rear pillar of the cabinet should have at least 10 of 13 kit. The shelf should carry a load rating of 50 Kgs.
AMP power outlets. Cable management panel inclusive and shall be manufactured with holes/slots providing
of other accessories such as earthling kits, screws, sufficient airflow to LAN equipment when installed
washers, grip-nuts and a removable shelf, able to resist inside the cabinets.
a weight of 50 to 60 kgs. The cabinets shall be rugged Four steel castors with rubber wheels at least 40 mm
and strong and all steel shall be finished scratch proof in high. These castors shall be mounted at the corners of
a durable enamel Grey paint on both sides. the cabinet and be able to support the total weight of
The cabinets must include Low Noise Thermostat the cabinet and all options.
controlled fans and shall automatically switch on and The cabinets must support the installation of fire
off according to the temperature inside the cabinets, protection units and all 19” equipment including frames
the temperature range shall be from to 10 to 60 degrees for 110-punch block.
centigrade. The dimensions of the tray shall be of 600
mm x 800 mm. The fan tray shall have minimum of The supplied cabinets must meet the following
four fans 250 Volts AC + 6% 50 Hz. The low noise top standards:
mounted fan tray shall aid the cooling requirement of • IEC 297-2
the LAN equipment installed inside the cabinets, and • D/N 4/494 Part 7
in the process of installing the fan tray on top of the
cabinet it shall not occupy any of the usable U height in • D/N 4/491 Part 1
the cabinet. • Load rating 500 Kg
The front glass door shall have at least 4 mm toughened • Rust proof coating
& 50 percent light transmission smoked safety glass • EN 60950
able to resist a weight of 80 to 100 Kgs. Placed within
200 mm of the door centre. The door shall be lockable • VDE 0100
and shall have a swing handle supplied with 2 keys. • Material 1.6mm steel
The rear door shall be the same as the front except the • Paint finish according to RAL 7035
construction of the door shall be of rugged and strong For the 25U freestanding cabinets the specifications is
1.6mm steel finished in a durable enamel Grey paint on as follows:
both sides, and without glass.
The 19” 25U, 600 x 600, rack mounted type. Tempered
The internal panel mounting angles shall be supplied glass front & rear door with key lock for maximum
in pairs to provide 19” mounting positions with hole protection.
patterns to accept captive nuts on universal centres.
In the design of the panel mounts the centres of each A power outlet strip shall have a 2 meter flying lead,
U height shall be notched, to make the positioning of (3-wire extension cord) with a 3 prong British plug with
cage nuts much simpler. The panel mounting shall be fuse and shall have 13 amp. 250 volt 3 prong British
fitted onto panel mount angle supports to allow infinite outlets with individual on/off switch and indicator
adjustment throughout the depth of the track. light. The AC Mains distribution Integral at the rear

136 137

pillar of the cabinet should have at least 6 of 13 AMP • Unique switch gate Door / Cover provides easy
power outlets. access to the door
The cabinet shall be fitted with at least a 2 way low • Edge protected pass through holes for transition of
cables to rear side
Noise Fan Tray and medium duty castors. INSTALLATION
The supplied cabinets must meet the following
standards: 1. Install data transmission media systems in accordance
with manufacturer’s written instructions and with
• IEC 297-2
recognized industry practices.
• D/N 4/494 Part 7
2. Interface building computer system with the operating
• D/N 4/491 Part 1
computer company’s network, after the installation work
• Load rating 500 Kg
has been completed.
• Rust proof coating
3. Tighten electrical connectors and terminals, including
• EN 60950
screws and bolts, in accordance with equipment
• VDE 0100 manufacturer’s published torque-tightening values for
• Material 1.6mm steel equipment connectors.
• Paint finish according to RAL 7035 TESTING AND COMMISSIONING
• 45 U free standing open frame
1. Acceptance testing shall be carried out by the contractor and
• Integrated cable and cord management witnessed by the company personnel. The contractor shall
• Allowance for more efficient and effective cable provide all necessary instruments and accessories required to
management perform the testing
• Focused on accessibility
2. Acceptance testing shall include the minimum physical and
• SYSTIMAX SCS 20-Year Warranty performance tests as follows:
• Extruded aluminium construction
a) The contractor shall take into account the excepted transmission
• Modular open frame design (no doors and side requirements for emerging applications such as 10 Gbps EtherNet
panels to remove)
including ATM Services of 1.2 GB per second are supported by
• Pre-threaded mounting holes the generic cabling specified in international standard of ISO/IEC
• 45U with 270 holes per vertical channel meets EIA/ 11801 and EN 50173 European equivalent. The contractor shall
TIA RMU rack mounting unit dimension ensure that each nominated cable link is warranted to meet
• Mounting screws with pilot point ISO/IEC 11801 and En 50173 Class E link attenuation, near-end
• Cable guides provide an effortless solution to crosstalk and attenuation to crosstalk ratio specifications.
transitioning cables
b) All Cabling System and associated components shall
• Flexible cable guides allow cable to snap-in easily be tested according to EIA/TIA TSB 67 Level II and
for quick cable routing
emerging Level III Specifications for link test, cable length,
• Spacing of cable guides aligns exactly with the characteristic impedance, attenuation to cross-talk ratio
standard ISO 1101 rack
(ACR), near-end cross-talk and shall be measured to satisfy

138 139

the warranted requirements specified in ISO/IEC 11801 No. Test Description

and EN 50173 transmission requirements using required
1 Wire Map
test instruments; the required test instruments shall be
provided by the contractor. A document with test results
for every copper/fibre cable channels shall be provided by 3 FEXT, PS–FEXT
the contractor. 4 ACR, PS–ACR
The excepted channel performance must be as follows: 5 Attenuation
c) The cable testers used to test and certify the cabling system 6 Cable Length
shall meet EIA/TIA, TSB 67 Level II and the emerging Level 7 Propagation
III Specifications and must test the cable from both ends 8 Impedance
and the channel shall be tested at frequencies up to 250 9 Split Detection Pair

No. Frequencies NEXT Loss dB Attenuation Table 9: Minimum Test to be Performed by Contractor
1 10 59.3 5.8
2 62.5 47.4 15.0 WARRANTY
3 200 39.8 29.3 1. The contractor warrants to repair or replace and make
4 250 38.3 32.1 good at its expense any material found defective during a
period of twenty (20) years from the date of the Acceptance
Table 8: Channel Performance Certificate

The following tests shall be performed as minimum by the 2. The contractor shall obtain a twenty (20) years-extended
contractor and witnessed by the company personnel. product warranty and application assurance certificate
from the respective manufacturers of the selected
3. Cables shall be of one continuous length and no joints materials. The extended product warranty shall ensure
are to be introduced in any circuit starting from work area against product defects for all passive structured cabling
outlet to a mechanical termination at the patch panels in system components and assurance of supporting the
the wiring closets. system for which it is designed.
4. The Fibre Cable should be tested with an OTDR before
and after laying to verify the attenuation parameters and
continuity of the fibre, the test results along with the OTDR
printout should be submitted to the company.
5. After the termination and splicing of the Fibre links, it
should be tested from end to end. The power loss should
be less than power budget calculated.

140 141


3. The performance warranty requirement shall guarantee 2.4.1 GENERALS
that cabling systems composed of category 5E/6
1) Provide all materials and equipment and perform all labor required to
components meet certain values for attenuation, near end
install complete and operable mechanical systems as indicated on the
crosstalk (ACR) derived from the latest draft specifications
drawings, as specified and as required by code.
of Category 5E/6 / Class E ISO/IEC 11801 and TIA/EIA
standards. This twenty (20) years performance warranty 2) Contract document drawings for mechanical work (HVAC, plumbing,
shall extend from premises wiring entry point to and fire protection) are diagrammatic and are intended to convey
information terminal and takes into account the backbone scope and general arrangement only.
and horizontal cabling at floor level. 3) Install all mechanical equipment and appurtenances in accordance Telecommunications with manufacturers’ recommendations, contract documents, and
applicable codes and regulations.
Generally all Telecommunication related Installations shall
comply with latest General Guidelines of local Authority 4) Provide vibration isolation for all mechanical equipment to prevent
(Etisalat and/or ‘du’) who would be providing the services. transmission of vibration to building structure.
Any temporary telecommunication services for site during 5) Provide vibration isolators for all piping supports connected to and
construction shall be the responsibility of the developer. NOC within 50 feet of isolated equipment (except at base elbow supports
to Etisalat/’du’ shall be obtained from CED Services.Detailed and anchor points) throughout mechanical equipment rooms. Do the
Telephone System Drawings showing all points and single same for supports of steam mains within 50 feet of boiler or pressure
line diagrams for telephone, fax, internet, cable TV and fiber reducing valves.
optic requirements of the buildings should be submitted at
6) The location of existing underground utilities is shown in an
the Building Permit Application. These should comply with the
approximate way only. The contractor shall determine the exact
Service Provider’s requirements and be accompanied by an
location of all existing utilities before commencing work.
NOC from such provider.
7) The contractor shall pay for and repair all damages caused by failure
to exactly locate and preserve any and all underground utilities unless
other- wise indicated.
8) Coordinate construction of all mechanical work with architectural,
structural, civil, electrical work, etc., shown on other contract document
9) Maintain a minimum of 6’-8” clearance to underside of pipes, ducts,
conduits, suspended equipment, etc., throughout access routes in
mechanical rooms.
10) All tests shall be completed before any mechanical equipment or
piping insulation is applied.
11) Locate all temperature, pressure, and flow measuring devices in
accessible locations with straight section of pipe or duct up- and
downstream as recommended by the manufacturer for good accuracy.

142 143

12) Testing, adjusting, and balancing agency shall be a member of the subcontractors responsibility to coordinate subcon- tractors and the
Associated Air Balance Council (AABC) or the National Environmental associated contracts. When discrepancies arise pertaining to which
Balancing Bureau (NEBB). Testing, adjusting, and balancing shall contractor provides a particular item of the mechanical contract or
be performed in accordance with the AABC Standards. which contractor provides final connections for a particular item of
13) Where two or more items of the same type of equipment are the mechanical contract, it shall be brought to the attention of the
required, the product of one manufacturer shall be used. mechanical contractor, whose decision shall be final.

14) Reinforcement, detailing, and placement of concrete shall conform 20) The locations of all items shown on the drawings or called for in
to ASTM 315 and ACI 318. Concrete shall conform to ASTM C94. the specifications that are not definitely fixed by dimensions are
Concrete work shall conform to ACI 318, part entitled “Construction approximate only. The exact locations necessary to secure the
Requirements.” Compressive strength in 28 days shall be 3,000 psi. best conditions and results must be determined by the project site
Total air content of exterior concrete shall be between 5 and 7 per- conditions and shall have the approval of the engineer before being
cent by volume. Slump shall be between 3 and 4 inches. Concrete installed.
shall be cured for 7 days after placement. 21) All miscellaneous steel required to ensure proper installation and
15) Coordinate all equipment connections with manufacturers’ certified as shown in details for piping, ductwork, and equipment (unless
drawings. Coordinate and provide all duct and piping transitions otherwise noted) shall be furnished and installed by the mechanical
required for final equipment connections to furnished equipment. contractor.
Field verify and coordinate all duct and piping dimensions before 22) Provide access panels for installation in walls and ceilings, where
fabrication. required, to service dampers, valves, smoke detectors, and other
16) All control wire and conduit shall comply with the National Electric concealed mechanical equipment. Access panels shall be turned
Code and Division 16 of the specification. over to general contractor for installation.

17) Concrete housekeeping pads to suit mechanical equipment shall 23)

All equipment, piping, ductwork, etc., shall be supported as
be sized and located by the mechanical contractor. Minimum detailed, specified, and required to provide a vibration free
concrete pad thickness shall be 6 inches. Pad shall extend beyond installation.
the equipment a minimum of 6 inches on each side. Concrete 24) All ductwork, piping and equipment supported from structural steel
housekeeping pads shall be provided by the general contractor. shall be coordinated with general contractor. All attachments to
It shall be the responsibility of the mechanical contractor to steel bar joists, trusses, or joist girders shall be at panel points.
coordinate size and location of concrete housekeeping pads with Provide beam clamps meeting mss standards. Welding to structural
general contractor. members shall not be permitted. The use of C-clamps shall not be
18) All mechanical room doors shall be a minimum of 4’-0” wide. permitted.

19) Where beams are indicated to be penetrated with ductwork 25) Mechanical equipment, ductwork, and piping shall not be supported
or piping, coordinate ductwork and piping layout with beam from metal deck.
opening size and opening locations. Coordination shall be done 26) All roof mounted equipment curbs for equipment provided by
prior to fabrication of ductwork, cutting of piping, or fabrication the mechanical contractor shall be furnished by the mechanical
of beams. When mechanical work (HVAC, plumbing, sheet metal, contractor and installed by the general contractor.
fire protection, etc.) is sub- contracted, it shall be the mechanical

144 145

27) Locations and sizes of all floor, wall, and roof openings shall be 8) All valves shall be installed so that valve remains in service when
coordinated with all other trades involved. equipment or piping on equipment side of valve is removed.
28) All openings in fire walls due to ductwork, piping, conduit, etc., 9) All balancing valves and butterfly valves shall be provided with position
shall be fire stopped. indicators and maximum adjustable stops (memory stops).
29) All air conditioning condensate drain lines from each air handling 10) Provide chainwheel operators for all valves in equipment rooms
unit and rooftop unit shall be piped full size of the unit drain outlet, mounted greater than 7’-0” above floor level; Chain shall extend to 7’-0”
with “P” trap, and piped to nearest drain. See details shown on the above floor level.
drawings or the contract specifications for depth of air conditioning 11) All valves (except control valves) and strainers shall be full size of pipe
condensate trap. before reducing size to make connections to equipment and controls.
Refer to typical details for ductwork, piping, and equipment 12) Unions and/or flanges shall be installed at each piece of equipment,
installation. in bypasses, and in long piping runs (100 feet or more) to permit
disassembly for alteration and repairs.
2.4.2 PIPING
13) Pitch steam piping downward in the direction of flow 1.4 inch in 10 feet
1) Provide all materials and equipment and perform all labor required
(1 inch in 40 feet) minimum. Pitch all steam return lines downward in
to install complete and operable piping systems as indicated on the
the direction of condensate flow 1.2 inch per 10 feet (1 inch in 20 feet)
drawings, as specified and as required by code.
minimum. Where length of branch lines are less than 8 feet, pitch branch
2) Elevations as shown on the drawings are to the centerline of all lines toward mains 1.2 inch per foot minimum.
pressure piping and to the invert of all gravity piping.
14) Pitch up all steam and condensate runouts to risers and equipment 1/2
3) Maintain a minimum of 3.6 of ground cover over all underground inch per foot. Where this pitch cannot be obtained, runouts over 8 feet in
HVAC piping edit depth of ground cover to suit frost line depth and length shall be one size larger than noted.
project requirements).
15) Tap all branch lines from top of steam mains (45 degrees preferred, 90
4) Unless otherwise noted, all chilled water and heating water piping degrees acceptable).
shall be 3.4 inch size (edit system type or pipe size to suit project
16) Provide an end of main drip at each rise in the steam main. Provide
condensate drips at the bottom of all steam risers, downfed runouts to
5) Provide an air vent at the high point of each drop in the heating equipment, radiators, etc., at end of mains and low points, and ahead of
water, chilled water, and other closed water piping systems (edit all pressure regulators, control valves, isolation valves, and expansion
system types to suit project requirements). All piping shall grade to joints.
low points. Provide hose end drain valves at the bottom of all risers
17) On straight steam piping runs with no natural drainage points, install drip
and low points.
legs at intervals not exceeding 200 feet where pipe is pitched downward
6) Unless otherwise noted, all piping is overhead, tight to underside of in the direction of steam flow and a maximum of 100 feet where the pipe
structure or slab, with space for insulation if required. is pitched up so that condensate flow is opposite of steam flow.
7) Install piping so that all valves, strainers, unions, traps, flanges, 18) Steam traps shall be minimum 3.4” size.
and other appurtenances requiring access are accessible.
19) Install all piping without forcing or springing. T. All piping shall clear
doors and windows.

146 147

20) All valves shall be adjusted for smooth and easy operation.
21) All piping work shall be coordinated with all trades involved. Offsets
in piping around obstructions shall be provided at no additional
cost to the owner.
22) Provide flexible connections in all piping systems connected to
pumps, chillers, cooling towers, and other equipment which require
vibration isolation except water coils.
23) Flexible connections shall be provided as close to the equipment as
possible or as indicated on the drawings.
24) Slope refrigerant piping one percent in the direction of oil return.
Liquid lines may be installed level.
25) Install horizontal refrigerant hot gas discharge piping With 1.2” per
10 feet downward slope away from the compressor.
26) Install horizontal refrigerant suction lines with 1.2” per 10 feet
downward slope to the compressor, with no long traps or dead 1) Provide all materials and equipment and perform all labor required
ends which may cause oil to separate from the suction gas and to install complete and operable plumbing systems as indicated on
return to the compressor in damaging slugs. the drawings, as specified and as required by code.

Provide line size liquid indicators in main liquid line leaving 2) Run all soil waste and vent piping with 2% minimum grade unless
condenser or receiver. Install moisture-liquid indicators in liquid otherwise noted (edit slope to suit project requirements). Horizontal
lines between filter dryers and thermostatic expansion valves and vent piping shall be graded to drip back to the soil or waste pipe by
in liquid line to receiver. gravity.

28) Provide line size strainer upstream of each automatic valve. Provide 3) Elevations as shown on the drawings are to the centerline of all
shutoff valve on each side of strainer. pressure piping and to the invert of all gravity piping.

29) Provide permanent filter dryers in low temperature systems and 4) Adjust sewer inverts to keep tops of pipe in line where pipe size
systems using hermetic compressors. changes.

30) Provide replaceable cartridge filter dryers with three valve bypass 5) Maintain a minimum of 3.6” of ground cover over all underground
assembly for solenoid valves, adjacent to receivers. water mains and a minimum of 3.6” of ground cover over all
underground sewers and drains (edit depth of ground cover to suit
31) Provide refrigerant charging valve connections in liquid line frost line depth and project requirements).
between receiver shutoff valve and expansion valve.
6) Provide shutoff valves in all domestic water piping system branches
in which branch piping serves two or more fixtures.
7) Unless otherwise noted, all domestic cold and hot water piping
shall be 1.2 inch size (edit system type or pipe size to suit project

148 149

8) Unless otherwise noted, all piping is overhead, tight to underside of 24) All piping work shall be coordinated with all trades involved. Offsets
slab, with space for insulation if required. in piping around obstructions shall be provided at no additional
9) Install piping so that all valves, strainers, unions, traps, flanges, cost to the owner.
and other appurtenances requiring access are accessible. 25) Provide flexible connections in all piping systems connected to
10) Where domestic cold and hot water piping drops into a pipe chase, pumps and other equipment which require vibration isolation.
the size shown for the pipe drops shall be used to the last fixture. Flexible connections shall be provided as close to the equipment as
possible or as indicated on the drawings.
11) Install all piping without forcing or springing.
12) All piping shall clear doors and windows. 2.4.4 P.HVAC/SHEET METAL
13) All piping shall grade to low points. Provide hose end drain valves 1) Provide all materials and equipment and perform all labor required
at the bottom of all risers and low points. to install complete and operable HVAC systems as indicated on the
drawings, as specified and as required by code.
14) Unions and/or flanges shall be installed at each piece of equipment,
in bypasses, and in long piping runs (100 feet or more) to permit 2) Certain items such as rises and drops in ductwork, access doors,
disassembly for alteration and repairs. volume dampers, etc., are indicated on the contract document
drawings for clarity for a specific location requirement and shall not
15) All valves shall be adjusted for smooth and easy operation.
be interpreted as the extent of the requirements for these items.
16) All valves (except control valves) and strainers shall be full size of
3) In corridors where ceiling speakers and air diffusers are indicated
pipe before reducing size to make connections to equipment and
between the same light fixtures, install both devices at the quarter
points between the same fixture.
17) Provide chainwheel operators for all valves in equipment rooms
4) Unless otherwise shown, locate all room thermostats and
mounted greater than 7’-0” above floor level; Chain shall extend to
humidistat’s 4’-0” (centerline) above finished floor. Notify the
7’-0”above floor level.
engineer of any rooms where the above location cannot be
18) Provide all plumbing fixtures and equipment with accessible stops. maintained or where there is a question on location.
19) Unless otherwise noted, drains shall be installed at the low point of 5) All ductwork shall clear doors and windows.
roofs, areaways, floors, etc.
6) All ductwork dimensions, as shown on the drawings, are internal
20) Provide cleanouts in sanitary and storm drainage systems at ends clear dimensions and duct size shall be increased to compensate
of runs, at changes in direction, near the base of stacks, every 50 for duct lining thickness.
feet in horizontal runs and elsewhere as indicated (edit horizontal
7) Provide all 90 degree square elbows with double radius turning
cleanout spacing to suit code and project requirements).
vanes unless otherwise indicated. Elbows in dishwasher, kitchen,
21) All cleanouts shall be full size of pipe for pipe sizes 6 inches and and laundry exhaust shall be unvaned smooth radius construction
smaller and shall be 6 inches for pipe sizes larger than 6 inches. with a radius equal to 11⁄2 times the width of the duct. Provide
22) All balancing valves and butterfly valves shall be provided with access doors upstream of all elbows with turning vanes.
position indicators and maximum adjustable stops (memory stops). 8) Coordinate diffuser, register, and grille locations with architectural
23) All valves shall be installed so that valve remains in service when reflected ceiling plans, lighting, and other ceiling items and make
equipment or piping on equipment side of valve is removed. minor duct modifications to suit.

150 151

9) Field erected and factory assembled air handling unit coils shall be 19) Smoke detectors shall be furnished and wired by the electrical
arranged for removal from the upstream side without dismantling contractor. The mechanical contractor shall be responsible
supports. Provide galvanized structural steel supports for all for mounting the smoke detector in duct- work as shown on
coils (except lowest coil) in banks over two coils high to permit the drawings and in accordance with manufacturer’s printed
independent removal of any coil. instructions.
10) All air handling units shall operate without moisture carryover. 20) Terminate gas vents for unit heaters, water heaters, high pressure
11) Locate all mechanical equipment (single duct, dual duct, variable parts washer, high pressure cleaner, and other gas appliances a
volume, constant volume and fan powered boxes, fan coil units, minimum of 3.0” above roof with rain cap (edit appliances and
cabinet heaters, unit heaters, unit ventilators, coils, steam height above roof to meet code and to suit project requirements).
humidifiers, etc.) for unobstructed access to unit access panels, 21) See specifications for ductwork gauges, bracing, hangers, and other
controls and valving. requirements. W. Exterior louvers are indicated for information
12) Finned tube radiation enclosures shall be wall to wall unless only. Detailed descriptions are provided in the architectural
otherwise indicated. M. Provide flexible connections in all ductwork specifications.
systems (supply, return, and exhaust) connected to air handling 22) Exterior louvers are indicated for information only. Louver sizes,
units, fans, and other equipment which require vibration isolation. locations, and details shall be coordinated with general contractor.
Flexible connections shall be provided at the point of connection to 23) Exterior louvers are indicated for information only. Louver sizes,
the equipment unless otherwise indicated. locations, mounting, and details shall be coordinated with other
13) Unless otherwise noted, all ductwork is overhead, tight to the trades involved.
underside of the structure, with space for insulation if required.
14) Runs of flexible duct shall not exceed 5 feet (edit maximum length
of flexible duct to suit project; 5 feet maximum recommended 1) Provide all materials and equipment and perform all labor required
length, 8 feet maximum length). to install complete and operable fire protection systems as indicated
on the drawings, as specified and complying with the standards of
15) All ductwork shall be coordinated with all trades involved. Offsets in
the National Fire Protection Association, Industrial Risk Insurers,
ducts, including divided ducts and transitions around obstructions,
Factory Mutual, and all state and local regulations.
shall be provided at no additional cost to the owner.
2) The entire building sprinkler system shall be hydraulically designed
16) Provide access doors in ductwork to provide access for all smoke
unless otherwise noted on the drawings. Head spacing in general
detectors, fire dampers, smoke dampers, volume dampers,
and water quantity shall be based on Light Hazard Occupancy (edit
humidifiers, coils, and other items located in the ductwork which
occupancy classification to suit project requirements; see NFPA
require service and/or inspection.
13—Light Hazard Occupancy, Ordinary Hazard Group I Occupancy,
17) Provide access doors in ductwork for operation, adjustment, and Ordinary Hazard Group II Occupancy, Extra Hazard Group I
maintenance of all fans, valves, and mechanical equipment. Occupancy, Extra Hazard Group II Occupancy).
18) All ducts shall be grounded across flexible connections with flexible
copper grounding straps. Grounding straps shall be bolted or
soldered to both the equipment and the duct.

152 153

3) The entire building sprinkler system shall be pipe schedule designed

unless otherwise noted on the drawings. Head spacing in general
and water quantity shall be based on Light Hazard Occupancy (edit
occupancy classification to suit project requirements. See NFPA
13—Light Hazard Occupancy, Ordinary Hazard Group I Occupancy,
Ordinary Hazard Group II Occupancy, Extra Hazard Group I
Occupancy, Extra Hazard Group II Occupancy).
4) Provide an automatic wet pipe sprinkler system throughout the
entire building, complete in all respects and ready for operation
including all test and drain lines, pressure gauges, hangers and
supports, signs, and other standard appurtenances. Wiring shall be
provided under the electrical division.
5) Provide an automatic dry pipe sprinkler system throughout the
entire building,
6) complete in all respects and ready for operation including all test
and drain lines, pressure gauges, dry pipe valves, air compressors,
hangers and supports, signs, and other standard appurtenances.
Wiring shall be provided under the electrical division.
7) See architectural drawings for exact location of fire extinguisher
cabinets, fire hose cabinets, and Siamese connections.
8) All shutoff valves in sprinkler, standpipe, and combined systems
shall be approved indicating type.
9) Coordinate sprinkler head locations with the architectural reflected
ceiling plans, lighting, and other ceiling items and make minor
modifications to suit.
10) Sprinklers installed in ceilings of finished areas shall be symmetrical
in relation to ceiling system components and centered in the ceiling

154 155


156 157

c) Public Building: This building typology includes:

Building Typologies
Banks Museums
a) Villa: There are three types of villas:
Cinema/ Theatres Petrol Stations
1. Investment villas
2. Private Villa Educational Facilities Post Offices

3. Arabic House Government buildings Retail Outlets

For the purposes of the Green Building Regulations, Private, Health Care Facilities Shopping Malls
Investment Villas and Arabic house are grouped together as “villas.” Historical/Heritage Buildings Masjid and Worship Houses
b) Residential/Commercial: This building typology includes:
Table 11: Typology of Public Buildings

Building Typologies d) Industrial Building: This building typology includes:

Residential Commercial Building Typologies
Hotels, Motels and furnished
Apartments Apartments Industrial
Labour Accommodation Laboratories
Warehouses Factories Workshops
Student Accommodation Offices
Table 12: Typology of Industrial Buildings
Restaurants / Food Outlets
a) The regulations apply to:
Table 10: Typology of Residential / Commercial Buildings 1. All new buildings;
2. Additions, extensions, and refurbishment of existing buildings
which require a building permit from Trakhees; and
3. Existing buildings, when specified.
b) Mixed Use Buildings - When a building combines more than one
use, each portion of the building must comply with the relevant
regulations for that particular typology.
c) Refer to the regulations on the applicability of specific regulations to
specific building typologies.

158 159

d) Change of Use – When there is a change of use for a building (for b) Existing portions of the building which are not part of the new work
example, the change in use from a residential villa to a school); will not be required to be upgraded to meet the regulations. Existing
these regulations apply for the new use. parts of a building will require upgrading if after the addition,
extension or refurbishment, the existing building performs in a less
1.3 TEMPORARY BUILDINGS energy efficient manner than previously because of the addition or
These regulations do not apply to temporary buildings which will be extension. Any upgrading required must bring the building back to
removed within two years of construction. at least its minimum level of previous energy performance before
the addition or extension.
Large scale projects or of a specialized nature that some articles of
the Green Buildings Regulations cannot be easily applied to them are These Regulations shall be implemented and complied with from the
considered special projects and exempted from these articles. Examples date of first March 2014. As pear Dubai municipality circular #198 dated
of such projects are: extremely tall buildings, large shopping malls, February 13 2014.
hospitals and laboratories. In order to preserve the character of these
buildings, it may not be possible to meet some of the requirements of 1.8 REFERENCED CODES AND STANDARDS
the Green Buildings Regulations. For such projects, it will be possible The codes and standards referenced in these regulations shall be
to apply to Trakhees for dispensation from specific articles of these considered part of the requirements of these regulations to the
regulations, if it can be demonstrated that compliance cannot be prescribed extent of each such reference.
achieved. Trakhees reserves the right to request any other reasonable
measures to be taken in pursuit of the goals of the regulations. 1.9 SPECIFIC PROVISION
Where a specific provision differs from a general provision, the specific
1.5 EXEMPTIONS: HERITAGE BUILDINGS provision shall apply.
Heritage Buildings identified by the Authority that may not be possible
to meet some of the requirements of the Green Buildings Regulations 1.10 CONFLICTS
are exempted from these articles in order to preserve the character a) When the requirements of the regulations conflict with any other
of these buildings. For such projects, it will be possible to apply to requirement of the Authority in Dubai, the most restrictive
Trakhees for dispensation from specific articles of these regulations, if requirement shall prevail.
it can be demonstrated that compliance cannot be achieved. Trakhees
b) When the requirements of the regulations differ from the
reserves the right to request any other reasonable measures to be
requirements of standard reference documents, the requirements
taken in pursuit of the goals of the regulations.
of the regulations shall prevail.
1.6 ADDITIONS, EXTENSIONS, OR REFURBISHMENT DETAILS c) When the requirements of the regulations differ from the
requirements of Trakhees Fire Department, the requirements of
a) Relative to 1.6, new additions, extensions or refurbishments which Trakhees Fire Department will prevail.
require a building permit must meet the requirements of the

160 161


The provisions of these regulations actively encourage innovation and 2.1 COMPETENT AUTHORITY
are not intended to prevent the use of any suitable alternate material,
appliance, installation, device, arrangement, design, or method of a) The Competent Authority for the Green Building Regulations is
construction that is not specifically prescribed by the regulations. Trakhees.
However, approval of the alternatives will be required by Trakhees.
There are two compliance routes for energy performance in buildings. The
standard method is referred to as the Elemental Method; the alternative method
is referred to as the Performance Method.
a) Elemental Method: All buildings must comply with each of these regulations.
b) Performance Method: Alternatively, a calculation method may be employed
for a building which may not comply with all the elemental requirements of
those Articles listed in Table 13.
The Performance Method, using a calculation tool such as dynamic thermal
modelling, must compare the annual energy consumption of the proposed
building with that of a reference building which meets all the elemental
requirements listed in Table 13.The reference building must be equal in
shape, size and operational patterns to the proposed building.
Compliance with the Green Building regulations will be demonstrated if the
annual energy consumption of the proposed building is equal to or lower
1.12 VOLUNTARY GREEN BUILDING RATING SYSTEMS than the annual energy consumption of the reference building.
a) The Dubai Green Building Regulations are not designed as a rating
system. The regulations may have similar topics and/or focus as
some of the worldwide voluntary rating systems, as they all address Green Buildings Regulations for Elemental Method of Energy
the need for more sustainable buildings.
b) Compliance with the regulations is not intended as a substitute for
any measure or credit with any of the rating systems. 304.04 Orientation of Glazed Facades
501.01 Minimum Envelope Performance Requirements
502.01 Energy Efficiency– HVAC Equipment and Systems
502.04 Lighting Power Density – Interior
Table 13:

162 163


There are two compliance routes for water performance in buildings. The a) Each building permit application must have a completed the Green
standard method is referred to as the Elemental Method; the alternative Building Declaration appended to it. This must be submitted at
method is referred to as the Performance Method. document submission stage.
a) Elemental Method: All buildings must comply with each of these b) The Green Building Declaration is an unconditional commitment
regulations. from the development team to meet the requirements of the Green
b) Performance Method: Alternatively, a calculation method may be Building Regulations.
employed for a building which may not comply with the elemental c) Each applicable regulation must be acknowledged with a tick in the
requirements for water efficient fixtures. appropriate column in the Declaration, stamped and signed by the
The Performance Method, using a calculation tool, must compare the consultant.
annual water consumption of the proposed building with that of a
reference building which meets all the elemental requirements detailed 2.6 VERIFICATION OF IMPLEMENTING GREEN BUILDING REGULATION
in Article 601.01. The reference building must be equal in shape, size and a) Evidence of compliance for all applicable Green Building measures
operational patterns to the proposed building. shall be provided to the Competent Authority. Specific requirements
Compliance with the Green Building regulations will be demonstrated for information that demonstrates compliance are included within
if the annual water consumption of the proposed building is equal to or the practice guide and the associated implementation flow chart.
lower than the annual water consumption of reference building. 102.04 b) Alternative methods of documentation shall be acceptable (with
appropriate discretion) when the Competent Authority finds that the
2.4 DRAWINGS, PLANS AND CALCULATION DOCUMENTS proposed alternate documentation is satisfactory to demonstrate
a) Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the substantial conformance with the intent of the proposed Green
location, nature and scope of the proposed Green Building feature Building measure.
and show that it will conform to the provisions of these regulations
and other relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as
determined by the Competent Authority.
b) The legibility and clarity of information is the responsibility of the
c) Submissions will be made as per the Authority approved template,
available online in the website of the competent authority.
d) Submissions should include a signed and stamped Green Building

164 165


For new buildings, other than villas and industrial buildings, one of the
following must be achieved:
1. At least fifty percent (50%) of the total glazed surface area of the
building, (excluding glazed areas with back insulated panels), must
have a north orientation which includes 150 degree angle started

from east toward North West.




2. South and west glazed areas, excluding glazed areas with back


insulated panels, must be treated environmentally.


For all new buildings, fifty percent (50%) of the hardscape of the
development must:
1. Demonstrate a Solar Reflective Index (SRI) of at least twenty nine
(29), or
Figure 9: Microclimate and Outdoor Comfort
2. Use an open grid pavement system, or
1.1 URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT 3. Be shaded by vegetation or
4. Be shaded by materials with an SRI equal to or greater than those
For all new buildings:
specified in Table 304.01 (1), or
1. All opaque external roofing surfaces must comply with a minimum
5. A combination of the above.
Roof Solar Reflective Index (SRI) value according to Table 304.01(1)
for a minimum of seventy five percent (75%) of the roof area: 1.6 SHADING OF PUBLIC ACCESS AREAS
2. Individual heat rejection equipment, with a power rating greater than For all new buildings, other than villas, all pedestrian linkages within
4.0 kilowatt (kW), and which exhausts externally, must be installed the plot area must be shaded using materials with a Solar Reflectance
not less than 3.0 meters above the ground level of the building. Index (SRI) equal to or greater than those specified in Table: Roof SRI
For all new buildings, the requirements of Part 1 of Regulation 304.1 are
waived, if the roof of the building provided with vegetated roof (green
roof) for at least thirty percent (30%) of the total roof area.


For all new buildings, at least seventy five percent (75%) of the area of
externally painted walls must have a minimum Light Reflective Value of
forty-five percent (45%).

166 167

and return heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system openings
must be closed and protected from contamination. All duct and other related
1 1
air distribution component openings must be covered with tape, plastic, sheet
metal or other methods to prevent dust or debris from collecting in the system.
If the HVAC system is used during construction or renovation, temporary
return air filters must be installed with a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value
(MERV) in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 52.2 or an equivalent standard.
Immediately prior to occupancy, the temporary return air filters must be
removed and replaced with permanent filters having Minimum Efficiency
Reporting Value (MERV) in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 52.2 or an
equivalent standard.


For all new and existing buildings:
All ventilation system outdoor air intakes, including doors and operable
windows, that are part of a mixed mode ventilation system, must be located
at suitable distance from potential sources of contamination to reduce the
Figure 10: Ventilation and Air Quality possibility of odor, smoke or other air contaminants entering the ventilation
system as required by the Authority, if any, or refer to ASHRAE Standard 62
Table (5.1)
1.1 MINIMUM VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ADEQUATE INDOOR Exhausted air must be discharged in a manner to avoid it being drawn back
AIR QUALITY into the building or the building ventilation system and to ensure that it does
All new and existing air conditioned buildings must be mechanically not become a nuisance to the building occupants or other buildings occupants
or mixed mode ventilated and must comply with the minimum or pedestrians.
requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.
Occupancy density for each space is determined based on its activity in
accordance with the requirements of the Authority if available or using For all new and existing buildings, where activities produce hazardous fumes
the default occupancy density values in ASHRAE 62 or chemicals, spaces must be provided with separate air extraction systems to
create negative pressure and exhaust the fumes or chemicals to ensure they
For all buildings under construction or renovation, building occupant Dangerous Goods must be stored in accordance with the Authority
and systems must be protected from airborne contaminants which are Requirements.
generated or spread during construction or renovation inside the buildings.
Including toxic substances or substances harmful to the human body, such 1.5 OPENABLE WINDOWS
as asbestos, lead, pesticides, heavy metals, mold, dust, fumes, paint ...etc For all new buildings, opening windows must be provided in accordance
Unless it is required to provide ventilation during construction, the supply with the Authority Building Regulations unless there is safety requirements
restricting opening these windows.

168 169

For all new buildings, suitable ventilation for the building occupants and For all existing hotels, shopping mall, educational, health and
ensure the air quality in accordance with the technical guidelines issued government buildings, buildings which are used to provide health care,
by the Authority. The buildings which optionally apply the following mosques and worship buildings, theatres, cinemas or any other existing
procedures will be awarded indoor air quality certificate by the Authority. buildings to be determined by the Authority later, suitable ventilation
A. Indoor air quality testing must be carried out prior to occupancy. for the building occupants and ensure the air quality in accordance with
The maximum limit for indoor air contaminants included in Table 15 the technical guidelines issued by the Authority. The buildings which
must not be exceeded. A report which shows compliance with these optionally apply the following procedures will be awarded indoor air
requirements must be submitted to the Authority. quality certificate by the Authority.
A. Indoor air testing for the contaminants listed in Table 16 must
B. Air Quality testing must be carried out by an air testing company or be carried out to ensure the air quality in a building is suitable
laboratory accredited by the Authority, and the Compliant test results for occupation, the maximum limit for indoor air contaminants
must be submitted to Trakhees. included in Table 16 must not be exceeded.
C. Air quality testing equipment must have initial and periodical B. Air Quality testing must be carried out by an air testing company
calibration certificate as per manufacturer requirement from an or laboratory accredited by the Authority and the Compliant result
external calibration facility accredited by the Authority or at least must be submitted to Trakhees.
annual calibration certificate. The initial and periodical calibration

Sampling Maximum Sampling Sampling

Type of Samples Sampling Duration Type of Samples Maximum Acceptable
Schedule Acceptable Schedule Duration

Pre-Occupancy < 0.08 parts 8- hour Initial test 8- hour

Formaldehyde < 0.08 ppm
Formaldehyde per million continuous completed continuous
(ppm) monitoring by 31 Total Volatile monitoring
(8 hour time- December Organic < 300 (8 hour
Total Volatile weighted
Organic < 300 2011. Compound micrograms/m3 time-
average (TVOC) weighted
Compound micrograms/m3 [TWA])
(TVOC) average
Further testing Respirable Dust < 150 (TWA)
Suspended within 5 (<10 microns) micrograms/m3
< 150 years of last
micrograms/m3 compliant
(<10 microns) 0.06 ppm (120
test. Ozone
micrograms/ m3)
Table 15: Indoor Air Quality Compliance - New Buildings 800 ppm (1440
Carbon Dioxide
microgram/ m3)
certificates must be saved in a special register to be checked by the Carbon 9 ppm (10
Authority in order to ensure the accuracy of the readings as condition Monoxide micrograms/ m3)
of renewal the indoor air quality certificate.
500 CFU/ m³ (Algar
500 CFU/ m³ (Algar

Table 16: Indoor Air Quality Compliance - Existing Buildings

170 171

C. Air quality testing equipment must have initial and periodical E. CO monitoring equipment must be installed with a minimum of one
calibration certificates as per manufacturer requirement from an CO sensor per four hundred square meters (400 m2) floor area of
external calibration facility accredited by the Authority or at least parking. Sound alarm triggers when the CO concentration reaches
annual calibration certificate. The initial and periodical calibration or exceeds seventy five (75) ppm in, at least, five percent (5%) of
certificates must be saved in a special register to be checked the monitored locations.
by Trakhees in order to ensure the accuracy of the readings as F. Where a Building Management System (BMS) or Central Control
condition of renewal the indoor air quality certificate. and Monitoring System (CCMS) is installed, the CO concentration
must be monitored to allow real-time profiling and management of
G. CO monitoring equipment must be checked and recalibrated every
For all new and existing buildings, the cleanness of HVAC equipment
six (6) months or according to manufacturer specification by a
and systems must be maintained and all its parts must be inspected
specialized calibration company certified by the Authority. Test
and cleaned in accordance with the standard specifications approved results and calibration certificates must be kept onsite and be
by the Authority and in accordance with the technical guidelines issued readily available for inspection by Trakhees staff.
by the Authority. While specialized maintenance companies approved
by the Authority must carry out Inspection and cleaning or provide a 1.10 ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE
proof that maintenance shall be done by building operator if he has a A. Smoking is strictly prohibited in all public in accordance with Local
qualified personnel and equipment to do the job. Order No 11 – 2003 including but not limited to shopping centers,
hotels, restaurants, government buildings, hospitals, healthcare
1.9 PARKING VENTILATION facilities, commercial buildings, common accommodation, coffee
For all buildings with enclosed parking: shops and amusement and entertainment or any other places
determined by the Authority except for places in which smoking is
A. Mechanical ventilation must be provided to ensure that the Carbon permitted
Monoxide (CO) concentration in the enclosed parking area is B. Places in which smoking is permitted are determined in accordance
maintained below fifty (50) parts per million (ppm) by: with the conditions listed in the Manual of Regulating Smoking in
- Providing a minimum of six (6) outside air changes per hour, or Public Places issued by the Authority by administrative resolution
- Installing a variable volume ventilation system controlled in no 92 for the year 2009 in which public places where smoking is
response to input from a minimum of one CO sensor per four strictly prohibited and places where smoking is permitted are
determined according to specific conditions.
hundred square meters (400 m2) floor area of parking.
C. Smoking designated areas must be at least twenty five (25) feet
B. A supply of outdoor air must be provided to each parking level.
away from the building entrances of the building, doors and
C. Occupied areas such as offices, shopping centers, hotels, waiting operable windows and ventilation system outdoor air intakes
rooms, and ticket booths connected to enclosed parking, must be D. An annual permit is issued from the Authority for all places in which
supplied with conditioned air under positive pressure compared smoking is permitted after providing all required documents and
with adjoining parking area drawings mentioned in the guide.

D. Ventilation systems must be capable of providing ten (10) air

changes per hour for smoke clearance purposes in case of a fire

172 173



For all new buildings, the acoustic performance relating to Internal
Noise Criteria from External Noise Sources, Internal Noise Criteria
from Mechanical Services Noise, Internal Airborne Sound Insulation
Guidance Values, and Internal Impact Sound Pressure Levels meet the
control requirements set out in Table: 17.

Building Type Document Reference

Building Regulations Approved

Villas / Residential* Buildings Document E (revised 2003) (UK)
Health Technical Memorandum 08-01
Healthcare Facilities (UK)

Building Bulletin 93: Acoustic Design

Educational Facilities** of Schools – A design Guide (UK)
Figure 11: Thermal Comfort
BS8233:1999 “Sound insulation and
Commercial Buildings noise reduction for buildings –
code of practice”. (UK)
BS8233:1999 “Sound insulation and
For all new and existing buildings, the heating, ventilation and air Industrial noise reduction for buildings –
conditioning (HVAC) system must be capable of providing the following code of practice”. (UK)
range of conditions for ninety five percent (95%) of the year:
BS8233:1999 “Sound insulation and
Public noise reduction for buildings –
Lower Limit Upper Limit code of practice”. (UK)

Dry bulb temperature DB: 22.5 °C DB: 25.5 °C

Table 17: Acoustical Control Requirements
Relative humidity RH: 30% (min) RH: 60% (max)

* Residential buildings include Villas, Apartments, Labour

For occupant comfort, normal occupied spaces should have an average Accommodations and Student Accommodations.
air velocity between (0.2 – 0.3) m/s. ** Educational Facilities include Nursery Schools, Primary Schools,
Secondary Schools, Colleges and Universities.

174 175


6 5.
For all buildings, including new applications in existing buildings, all
paints and coatings used in the building should not exceed allowed
limits of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC), these paints and coatings
must be accredited/certified from Dubai Central Lab or any source
approved by Trakhees.


For all buildings, including new applications in existing buildings, all
adhesives, adhesive bonding primers, adhesive primers, sealants and
sealant primers used in the building should not exceed allowed limits of
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC); these materials must be accredited/
certified from Dubai Central Lab or any source approved by Trakhees.


Figure 12: Day Lighting and Visual Comfort
For all new and existing public and commercial buildings, each new
carpet system used must be certified / accredited from Dubai Central
Lab or any other source approved by Trakhees.
Carpets are not allowed to be used in labor accommodation, educational 6.1 PROVISION OF NATURAL DAYLIGHT
facilities or any other places determined by the Authority. For all new buildings, other than industrial buildings, provision for
adequate natural daylight must be made in order to reduce their
reliance on electrical lighting and to improve conditions for the building
occupants and provide lighting openings in accordance with the
Authority building regulation and specification.
All new office, residential and public buildings must provide direct line
of sight (views) to the outdoor environment in accordance with the
Authority building regulation and specification.

176 177

C. Sampling and testing must be carried out for the presence of bacteria/
germs and Legionella bacteria
D. All equipments and devices of swimming pools, spa pools, whirlpool
7 6. baths, hydrotherapy pools and Jacuzzi must be maintained,
cleaned, disinfected and checked periodically.
E. All equipment’s and devices of irrigation system must be
maintained, cleaned, disinfected and checked periodically
Specialized companies approved by the Authority must do water tests
and sampling.
All test results must be recorded and kept along with the records of
maintenance and remedial works at site to be checked by Trakhees.

Figure 13: Water Quality


Figure 14: Conservation and Efficiency: Building Fabric

For all new and existing buildings must apply the technical guidelines
issued by the Authority which includes:
A. All water systems and networks which creates a water spray or aerosol 7.2 WATER QUALITY OF WATER FEATURES
including but not limited to cooling towers, evaporative condensers, For all new and existing buildings, all Water Features with a water
hot and cold water systems, showers, evaporative air coolers, spas, storage volume of over 1,000 liters and which creates a water spray or
fountains, misters, ..etc must be periodically maintained, cleaned, aerosol including but not limited to waterfalls, ponds, streams, ...etc
disinfected and checked periodically to minimize the risk of Legionella must be maintained, cleaned, disinfected and checked periodically to
bacteria or germs contamination in accordance with the technical minimize the risk of Legionella bacteria or germs contamination and
guidelines issued by the Authority regarding the control of Legionella not exceed the maximum limits outlined in the technical guidelines
bacteria in water systems. issued by the Authority.
B. All water systems equipments and accessories including but not limited
to potable water network, hot and cold water systems, water tanks,
pumps, pipes and fittings, must be maintained, cleaned and disinfected.

178 179

2. If the total area of external walls that let in light is between forty
percent (40%) and sixty percent (60%) of the external wall area,
then the glazing elements must meet the following performance


Thermal Transmittance
U= 1.9 W/m2K (max)
For all new air conditioned buildings, exterior building elements must (Summer U value)
have average thermal transmittance (also known as U Value) and
Shading Coefficient (SC) 0.32 (max)
Shading Coefficients (SC) that does not exceed the values specified
and Light Transmittance greater than or equal to the values specified. Light Transmittance 0.1 (min)

A. External Walls, Roofs, and Floors:

Building elements forming the external walls, roofs, and floors
(where one side of the floor is exposed to ambient conditions) must 3. If the total area of external walls that let in light is sixty percent
have an average thermal transmittance (U Value) which does not (60%) or greater of the external wall area, then the glazing
exceed the following values: elements must meet the following performance criteria:

Building elements U Value

Thermal Transmittance
U= 1.9 W/m2K (max)
Roof U= 0.3 W/m2K (Summer U value)
External Wall U= 0.57 W/m2K Shading Coefficient (SC) 0.25 (max)

Light Transmittance 0.1 (min)

If the floor is in contact with the ground, the insulation should only be
applied to one meter (1m) in from the perimeter of the building.
Glazed elements with back insulated panels must be treated as walls
4. For shop fronts and showrooms, other than those at ground floor
(and therefore must meet the performance requirement for walls).
level, glazing elements must meet the following performance
B. Glazed Elements - Fenestration: criteria:
1. If the total area of external walls that let in light is forty per
cent (40%) or less of the external wall area, then the glazing Thermal Transmittance
elements must meet the following performance criteria: U= 1.9 W/m2K (max)
(Summer U value)
Shading Coefficient (SC) 0.76 (max)

Thermal Transmittance
U= 2.1 W/m2K (max)
(Summer (Summer U value))
5. If the glazing portion of a roof is ten percent (10%) or less of the
Shading Coefficient (SC) 0.4 (max) roof area, then the glazing elements must meet the following
Light Transmittance 0.25 (min) performance criteria:

180 181

B) Indoor Condition of the Building

Thermal Transmittance
U= 1.9 W/m2K (max)
(Summer U value)
Shading Coefficient (SC) 0.32 (max) Dry bulb temperature 24° C (75° F)

Light Transmittance 0.4 (min) Relative humidity 50% +/- 5%

6. If the glazing portion of a roof is greater than ten percent (10%) • The heat transfer coefficients to be used in the calculations
of the roof area, then the glazing elements must meet the for roofs, walls, and glazed areas must be the actual design
following performance criteria: coefficients, or as set out in Regulation 501.01 Minimum
Envelope Performance Requirements.
Thermal Transmittance • When diversity factors to be used in the calculation of heat load
U= 1.9 W/m2K (max)
(Summer (Summer U value)) are not known, the coefficients set out in the 2005 ASHRAE
Handbook – Fundamentals must be used.
Shading Coefficient (SC) 0.25 (max)
C) The safety factor applied must be no greater than:
Light Transmittance 0.3 (min)

Sensible Heat 10%

For all new air conditioned buildings, Thermal Bridges, such as Latent Heat 5%
connection points between concrete or steel beams, external walls
and columns and around doors and windows, which enable the flow of
heat from outside into the building, must be eliminated or insulated to • Heat loads for buildings must be calculated for each air-
reduce the amount of heat transfer. conditioned space at the hour of peak load incidence in that
space, using software registered with the Authority.
For all new air conditioned buildings, the heat load must be calculated
in accordance with the following design parameters.
For all new air conditioned buildings other than villas, all regularly used
A) Outdoor Condition of the Building
air conditioned entrance lobbies must be protected by a door design
which acts as a barrier to the loss of conditioned air.

Dry bulb temperature 46° C (115° F) 1.5 1.5 AIR LEAKAGE

Wet bulb temperature 29° C (85° F) All new air conditioned buildings with a cooling load of 1 megawatt
(MW) or greater must be tested to demonstrate that air leakage does
(North Latitude)
Dubai City location latitude not exceed ten (10) cubic meters of air per hour for each square meter
25° N of building envelope (10m3/hr/m²) into or out of the building, at an ap
Extent of variation in the temperature
on the day of design (Outdoor Daily 13.8° C (25° F)

182 183



For all new air conditioned buildings, heating, ventilating and air
conditioning equipment and systems must comply with the minimum
energy efficiency requirements and test procedures listed in Reference
Tables 18 and 19 or any test procedure approved by the Authority.
Minimum Efficiency Requirements for Unitary Air Conditioners and Condensing

Heating Subcatagory Minimum Minimum

Equipment Size Test
Section or Rating Efficiency Efficiency
Figure 15: Straight-tube Heat Exchanger Type Category
Type Condition (T1) (T3)

Air <65,000 All Spilt 9.5 EER 6.6 EER T1-ARI

Conditioners, Btu/h System 210/240
plied pressure difference of fifty (50) Pascal (Pa). Testing must be air cooled
carried out in accordance with a method approved by the Authority. Single 9.5 EER 6.6 EER T3-ISO
Package 5151
Work must be carried out by a company approved by the Authority.
Through-the- <=30,000 All Single 8.0 EER 5.7 EER
wall, Bth/h Package
air cooled

Small-duct <65,000 All Split 9.2 EER 6.4 EER

high- Bth/h System
velocity air

Table 18: Minimum Efficiency Requirements

184 185


Heating Subcatagory Minimum Minimum

Equipment Size Test
Category Section or Rating Efficiency Efficiency Heating Subcatagory Minimum Minimum
Type Procedure Equipment Size Test
Type Condition (T1) (T3) Section or Rating Efficiency Efficiency
Type Category Procedure
Type Condition (T1) (T3)
Air >=65,000 Electric Split 9.5 EER 6.6 EER T1- ARI
Conditioners, Btu/h and resistance System and 340/360 Air ≥65,000 Electric Split 14.0 EER ARI
air cooled <135,000 (or none) Single Conditioners, Btu/h resistance System and 340/260
Btu/h Package T3-ISO air cooled and (or none) Single
5151 Package
All other Split System 9.5 EER 6.6 EER <135,000
and Btu/h All other Split 14.0 EER
Single System and
Package Single
>=135,000 Electric Split System 9.5 EER 6.6 EER Package
Btu/h resistance and ≥135,000 Electric Split S 14.0 EER
and (or none) Single Btu/h resistance ystem and
<240,000 Package and (or none) Single
Btu/h All other Split System 9.5 EER 6.6 EER <240,000 Package
and Btu/h All other Split 14.0 EER
Single System and
Package Single
>=240,000 Electric Split System 9.5 EER 6.6 EER Package
Btu/h resistance and ≥240,000 Electric Split 14.0 EER
and (or none) Single Btu/h resistance System and 12.4 PLV
<760,000 Package (or none) Single
Btu/h Package
All other Split System 9.5 EER 6.6 EER
and All other Split 14.0 EER
Single System and
Package Single
>=760,000 Electric Split System 9.0 EER 6.3 EER
Btu/h resistance and Condensing ≥135,000 11.5 EER 7.8 EER T1- ARI
(or none) Single units, Btu/h 365
Package air cooled T3- ISO
All other Split System 9.0 EER 6.3 EER 5151
a) Integrated Part Load Values (IPLVs) and part rating conditions are
Air <65,000 All other Split System 14.0 EER ARI
conditioners, Btu/h and 210/240 only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.
water and Single b) Test Procedure (T3) in accordance with ISO5151
evaporatively Package

186 187


Water Chilling Packages - Minimum Efficiency Requirements Water Chilling Packages - Minimum Efficiency Requirements

Size Category Minimum Minimum Size Category Minimum Minimum

Equipment Type Equipment Type
Efficiency Efficiency Test procedure Efficiency Efficiency Test procedure
(T1) (T3) (T1) (T3)
Air cooled, with All capacities 2.8 COP 1.9 COPT 1- ARI 210/240 Water cooled, <150 tons 6.0 COP ARI 550/590
condenser, 3.05 IPLV electrically
electrically operated, >=150 tons 6.5 COP
operated centrifugal and <300 tons 7.1 IPLV
Air cooled, All capacities 3.1 COP 2.1 COP
without 3.45 IPLV >=300 tons 6.5 COP
condenser, 7.68 IPLV
electrically Air-cooled All capacities 0.7 COP ARI 560
operated absorption
Water cooled, All capacities 4.2 COP 2.75 COP T1 - ARI 550/590 single effect
electrically 5.05 IPLV T3-ISO 5151 Water-cooled All capacities 0.7 COP
operated, absorption
positive single effect
(reciprocating) Absorption double All capacities 1.1 COP
effect, 1.1 IPLV
Water cooled, <150 tons 4.45 COP 2.9 COP T1 - ARI 550/590
electrically T3-ISO 5151 Absorption double All capacities 1.2 COP
operated, effect, 1.2 IPLV
>=150 tons 4.9 COP 3.2 COP
positive direct-fired
and <300 tons
(rotary screw * The chiller equipment requirements applies to all chillers, including
and scroll) >= 300 tons 5.6 COP 3.6 COP where the design leaving fluid temperature is <4.5°C.

188 189

2.2 DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION B. Elevators (lifts) - Elevators (lifts) must be provided with controls to
For all new air conditioned buildings with mechanical ventilation and reduce the energy demand. To meet this requirement, the following
existing building types determined by the Authority, Demand Controlled features must be incorporated in traction drive elevators:
Ventilation (DCV) using a concentration of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), or 1. Use of AC Variable-Voltage and Variable-Frequency (VVVF)
other means to measure occupancy, must be used in spaces larger drives on non-hydraulic elevators.
than one hundred (100) square metres (m2) and having a maximum 2. Energy efficient lighting inside the elevator including controls to
design occupancy density greater than or equal to twenty five (25) turn lights off when the elevator has been inactive for a period
people per hundred meter squares (100m2). The default occupancy of a maximum of five (5) minutes.
density values in ASHRAE 62.2-2007 Table 6.1 should be used when
the actual occupancy is not known.
The CO2 concentration should be kept below eight hundred (800) parts
per million (ppm). 2.4 LIGHTING POWER DENSITY - INTERIOR
An alarm must be triggered if CO2 concentration rises above hundred For new buildings, the average Lighting Power Density for the interior
(1000) ppm. This alarm is to be either automatically monitored by a connected lighting load for specific building types must be no more
central control system, if available, or give a local audible or visual than the watts per square metre of gross floor area given in Table 20.
indication when activated.
For all buildings, including existing with DCV, the CO2 sensors and
systems must be checked and recalibrated as per manufacturer
Table 20 – Interior Lighting Power Density
recommendations but not to exceed twelve (12) months by a contractor
approved by the Authority.
Maximum average Watts per
Building Type square metre (W/m2) across
total building area
For all new buildings:
Commercial/Public: Offices, 10
A. Escalators - Escalators must be fitted with controls to reduce speed Hotels,Resorts, Restaurants
or to stop when no traffic is detected. Escalators shall be designed
Educational Facilities 12
with energy savings features as described below:
1. Reduced speed control: The escalator shall change to a slower Manufacturing Facility 13
speed when no activity has been detected for a period of a
maximum of three (3) minutes. Detection shall be by photocell Retail Outlets, Shopping Malls , 14
activation at the top and bottom landing areas.
2. Use on demand: The escalator shall shut down when no activity Warehouses 8
has been detected for a period of a maximum of fifteen (15)
minutes. Use on demand escalators must be designed with
energy efficient soft start technology. The escalator shall Lighting Power Densities for building types not listed in
start automatically when required; the activation shall be by Table 20 should be no greater than those values given in
photocells installed in the top and bottom landing areas. ASHRAE 90.1 Table 9.5.1. or equivalent as approved by DEW

190 191


Maximum Watts per square
Building Area metre or linear metre For all new buildings other than villas and industrial buildings:
A. Occupant Lighting Controls must be provided so as to allow lighting
Uncovered parking lots and drives 1.6 W/m² to be switched off when daylight levels are adequate or when
spaces are unoccupied and to allow occupants control over lighting
Walkways less than 3 metres wide 3.3 W/linear metre levels.
B. Common areas which are not regularly occupied, such as corridors
Walkways 3 metres wide or greater 2.2 W/m² and lobbies, should reduce lighting levels to no more than twenty
five percent (25%) of normal when unoccupied.
Outdoor Stairways 10.8 W/m²
C. In offices and education facilities all lighting zones must be fitted
with occupant sensor controls capable of switching the electrical
Main entries 98 W/linear metre of door width
lights on and off, according to occupancy unless lighting is required
for safety purposes.
Other doors 66 W/linear meter of door width
D. In offices, if the average design lighting power density is less than
Open sales areas (including vehicle 5.4 W/m² six (6) Watts per square meter of gross floor area (GFA), the control
sales lots)
requirements of parts C and D of this regulation need not apply.
2.2 W/m² for each illuminated wall E. It is recommended (optional) that, in offices, the artificial lighting in
or surface or 16.4 W/linear metre
Building Facades spaces within six (6) meters in depth from exterior windows must
for each illuminated wall or surface
length be fitted with lighting controls incorporating photocell sensors
Entrances and gatehouse inspection capable of adjusting the level of electric lighting to supplement
stations 13.5 W/m² natural daylight only when required. The combined artificial and
at guarded facilities
daylight must provide an illumination level at the working plane
Drive-up windows at fast food between four hundred (400)and five hundred (500) lux. When there
400 W per drive-through
is a hundred percent (100%) daylight, the lux levels may exceed five
hundred (500) lux.


2.5 LIGHTING POWER DENSITY - EXTERIOR For all new buildings, high frequency electronic ballasts must be used
For all new buildings, the average Lighting Power Density for the with fluorescent lights and metal halide of 150 W and less.
exterior connectedlighting load must be no more than the values given High frequency electronic ballasts must be labelled as conforming to an
in Table 502.05 (1). international standard approved by the DEWA / the Authority.

Lighting Power Densities for exterior areas not listed in Table 502.05 2.8 CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR
(1) should be no greater than those values given in ASHRAE 90.1 Table CONDI TIONING (HVAC) SYSTEMS
9.4.5 or equivalent as approved by DEWA. For all new buildings other than villas, all Heating, Ventilation, and
Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems must be provided with controls to

192 193

guarantee the achievement of energy efficiency in use in accordance 2. Pipes passing through outside or unconditioned spaces must be
with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- insulated with the minimum insulation thickness specified in Table
Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1, Section 6.4.3.or equivalent as 21.
approved by the Authority /DEWA. Table 21: Minimum insulation thickness for pipes passing through
As a minimum, the following control features must be incorporated: unconditioned spaces
1. Sub-division of systems into separate control zones to correspond
with each area of the building that has a significantly different solar
Temperature of contents (°C)
exposure, or cooling load, or type of use.
2. All separate control zones must be capable of: Steel 10°C 5° C 0° C
• Independent temperature control; nominal Minimum Insulation thickness (mm)
• Inactivation when the building, or part of building served by the pipe size
(mm) λ= λ= λ= λ= λ= λ=
system, is not occupied.
0.018 0.038 0.018 0.038 0.018 0.038
3. The operation of central plant only when the zone systems require W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK
15 50 30 45 30 45 30
2.9 CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR HOTEL ROOMS 20 60 30 55 30 45 30
For all new hotels, guest rooms must incorporate, in each room, 25 60 40 55 35 55 30
controls systems which are able to turn off the lighting, air conditioning
and power when the room is not occupied. 32 65 40 55 35 55 30
In addition, it is recommended (optional) that each guest room should 40 65 40 60 35 55 30
incorporate control system to enable to turn off the air conditioning
50 70 45 60 40 60 30
when the balcony door / window is kept open.
65 70 45 60 40 60 40
80 75 45 65 40 60 40
For all new buildings with a requirement of treated outdoor air of over
100 75 45 65 40 70 40
one thousand (1,000) litres per second (l/s), energy recovery systems
must be provided to handle at least fifty percent (50%) of the total 150 90 50 80 45 75 40
exhausted air. The energy recovery systems must have at least seventy 200 90 55 80 45 75 45
percent (70%) sensible load recovery efficiency.
250 100 55 80 55 75 45
2.11 PIPE AND DUCT INSULATION 300+ 100 80 100 75 80 70
For all new buildings, all pipes carrying refrigerant, hot water or chilled
water and ducts, including prefabricated ducts, supplying conditioned
air must be insulated to minimize heat loss and prevent condensation. • λ = thermal conductivity of insulating materials at a mean
1. Pipes and ducts passing through conditioned spaces must be temperature of 10°C.
insulated in accordance with BSI British Standard BS 5422:2009 or
other insulation standards approved by the Authority.

194 195

3. Ducts passing through outside or unconditioned spaces must be Ductwork leakage testing must be carried out by a company approved
insulated with the minimum insulation thickness specified in by the Authority to conduct commissioning of buildings.
Table 22.
Table 22 Minimum insulation thickness for pipes passing through
unconditioned spaces For all new and existing air conditioned buildings, the mechanical-
Table 22: Minimum air temperature inside duct (°C) electrical and plumbing systems in buildings must be serviced and
maintained regularly.
Minimum air temperature inside duct (°C) 1. To allow the mechanical services to be maintained, they must be
installed so that adequate access is available to allow regular
15°C 10°C 5° C 0° C
inspection, maintenance and cleaning of the equipment without
Minimum thickness of insulating material (mm) the need to remove or dismantle any building components.
2. The building owner must ensure that a maintenance manual and
λ= λ= λ= λ= λ= λ= λ= λ=
0.018 0.038 0.018 0.038 0.018 0.038 0.018 0.038 schedule is developed for the building based on the instructions
W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK for preventative maintenance or service from the manufacturers
or suppliers of equipment or according to the American Society of
• λ = thermal conductivity of insulating materials at a mean Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
temperature of 10° C. 62.1 – 2007 or equivalent as approved by the Authority.
Insulation materials used must meet the requirements of regulation 3. The building owner must enter into a service contract with a
701.01, Thermal and Acoustical Insulation Materials or BS maintenance company approved by the Authority or provide
5422:2009, whichever is the more stringent. evidence that equipment will be properly maintained by competent
All insulation installations must have a suitable vapour barrier and members of their own staff.
protection from Ultra Violet (UV) light. 4. Service records in the form of a service log book including details of
both preventative and corrective maintenance must be kept onsite
2.12 THERMAL STORAGE FOR DISTRICT COOLING and be readily available for inspection by Trakhees.
All new district cooling plants must incorporate a Thermal Energy
Storage (TES) facility with a capacity of, at least, twenty percent (20%)
of the design capacity of the plant. For all new air conditioned buildings, with a cooling load of one (1)
megawatt (MW) or greater, other than villas the commissioning of
2.13 DUCTWORK AIR LEAKAGE air distribution systems, water distribution systems, lighting, central
For all buildings, air ductwork must be designed, built and installed to control and building management systems, refrigeration systems and
ensure that air leakage is minimised. boilers must be carried out before a completion certificate will be
Ductwork, with equipment attached to it, with an external static pressure
exceeding two hundred and fifty (250) Pascal (Pa) and all ductwork 1. Commissioning must be carried out in accordance with the CIBSE
exposed to external ambient conditions or within unconditioned spaces Codes listed below or any other commissioning Standard or Code
must be pressure tested prior to occupancy in accordance with a method approved by the Authority.
approved by the Authority and a compliant amount of air leakage achieved.

196 197

1.1. ‘The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) 5. Heat recovery systems are operating as designed with efficiency
Commissioning Code, Air Distribution Systems, Code A-2006’ not less 70%.
1.2. ‘CIBSE Commissioning Code, Water Distribution Systems, Code 6. Central plant equipment is tested to ensure that it operates through
W-2003’ the full range of its capacity and that all design parameters are
1.3. ‘CIBSE Commissioning Code, Lighting, Code L-2003’ achieved;
1.4. ‘CIBSE Commissioning Code, Automatic Controls, Code C-2001’ 7. All lighting systems and their controls operate as designed and that
for central control and Building Management System (BMS); required levels of illumination are provided;
1.5. ‘CIBSE Commissioning Code R: 2002 Refrigeration Systems; and 8. Controls are checked and re-calibrated for operation as designed
1.6. ‘CIBSE Commissioning Code B: 2002 Boilers’. and to ensure that any remote devices respond as required; and

2. Work must be carried out by a company approved by the Authority 9. Pipe and ducts are inspected to ensure there is no air or liquid
to conduct commissioning of buildings. leakage.
Commissioning results must be recorded and available for inspection
3. Commissioning results must be recorded and available for
by Trakhees.
inspection by Trakhees.
Work must be carried out by a contractor certified by the Authority to
4. A systems manual, documenting the information required to allow
conduct commissioning of building services.
future operations staff to understand and optimally operate the
commissioned services, must be developed and provided to the Where original design requirements are not available, the contractor is
building owner or facilities operator following commissioning. to certify that, following re-commissioning, the systems are installed
and operating correctly based on their experience and understanding
For all existing air conditioned buildings, with a cooling load of two (2)
megawatt (MW) or greater, other than villas the re-commissioning of For all new buildings, meters must be fitted to measure and record
ventilation, water systems central plant, lighting and control systems electricity demand and consumption of the facility as a whole and to
must be carried out at least once every five (5) years. Where possible provide accurate records of consumption,
the re-commissioning should be carried out in accordance with the A. For all buildings with a cooling load of at least one (1) megawatt (MW)
requirements of Regulation 3.1 but at a minimum , systems are required or gross floor area of 5,000 sq.M or greater , additional electrical sub-
to be re-commissioned to ensure that: metering (of tariff class accuracy) must be installed to record demand
1. The amount of fresh air supplied from each ventilation outlet is and consumption data for each major energy-consuming system in
within plus or minus five percent (5%) of the design volume; the building. At a minimum, all major energy consuming systems
2. The volume of the chilled water supplied to any cooling coil is with a load of hundred (100) kilowatts (kW) or greater must be sub-
within plus or minus five percent (5%) of the design volume; metered.

3. All mechanical devices, including but not limited to dampers, B. The building operator shall be responsible for recording details of
valves, fans, pumps, motors and actuators, operate freely and as the energy consumption for the building and ensuring that major
required; electricity uses are sub-metered. Records must be kept for five years.

4. Filters and filter housings are sound and secure and that no
unfiltered air bypasses the filter assembly;

198 199

C. Each individual tenancy in the building must have a sub-meter 3.5 CENTRAL CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM
installed when a building tariff meter is not present. These sub- For all new buildings with a cooling load of one (1) megawatt (MW)
meters should only be for demand management and electricity cost or gross floor area of 5,000 sq.M or greater, the building must have
allocation purposes. a central control and monitoring system capable of ensuring that the
D. Where a Building Management System (BMS) or Central Control building’s technical systems operate as designed and as required
and Monitoring System (CCMS) is installed, metering must be during all operating conditions, and that the system provides full
connected to allow real-time profiling and management of energy control and monitoring of system operations, as well as diagnostic
consumption. reporting.
E. All meters must be capable of remote data access and must have At a minimum, the system must control the chiller plant, heating,
data logging capability and complying with DEWA specifications. All ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, record energy and
meters should be approved by DEWA. water consumption and monitor and record the performance of these
F. Virtual meters using run-hours are not acceptable as sub-meters. items.


For all new buildings other than villas, which are supplied by a central
air conditioning source (such as a chiller plant or district cooling), and
where cooling energy is delivered individually to several consumers,
meters must be fitted to measure and record chilled water supply to
air conditioning units and to provide accurate records of consumption:
A. Energy meters designed to measure the supply of chilled water
must be installed for each dwelling unit, office, or tenant. The
measuring device must measure the water flow and supply and
return temperatures to determine the temperature differential and
calculate the amount of cooling energy consumed.
B. Where a Building Management System (BMS) or Central Control
and Monitoring System (CCMS) is installed, metering must be
connected to allow real-time profiling and management of energy
C. Meters used must be specifically designed for the measurement of
chilled water rather than for hot water.
Figure 16: Domestic Hot Water
D. All meters must be capable of remote data access and must have
data logging capability.
E. Virtual meters using run-hours are not acceptable as sub-meters.
F. The meter readings and actual consumption details should only be
for demand management and cost allocation purposes.

200 201


For all new buildings:
Where a building incorporates on-site generation of electricity from
small or medium scale embedded generators using renewable energy
sources; the equipment, installation and maintenance of the system
must be stand-alone (off-grid) and therefore not connected to the
Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) network and DEWA will
provide electricity supply to the building when needed without parallel


For all new buildings:
Where the light power density of external lighting exceeds that specified
in Regulation 2.5, Lighting Power Density – Exterior, any additional
lighting load must be powered entirely through renewable electricity
sources such as photovoltaic systems.


For all new villas and labour accommodations, a solar water heating
system must be installed to provide seventy five (75%) of domestic hot
water requirements. Solar water heating installations must be fitted
with insulated storage tanks and pipes, sized and fitted in accordance
with the solar panel manufacturer’s requirements for each specific
application. The supplementary heating system shall be controlled so
as to obtain maximum benefit from the solar heater before operating.
Where solar water heaters are being installed, the equipment,
installation, operation and maintenance of the system must be:
A. Designed and installed by an installation company approved by the
B. Equipment must be approved by the Authority; and
C. Regularly cleaned and maintained to ensure continuous efficient

202 203

204 205



1) All Electromechanical designs shall be conducted/prepared by spe- 1 HVAC designer CV and experience
cialized and accredited engineers, specialized and registered MEP
Consultants. 2 U Value calculations and thermal load calculations
2) (a) After obtaining the building permit, contractor shall submit un-
der full supervision of consultant, the conformity certificates for all 3 Insulation material properties and DCL certificate.
used materials as per the approved thermal load calculations and
designs prior to delivery/use at site. 4 glazing thermal properties and certificates
(b) Consultant shall provide a copy of all approved shop drawings, con-
formity certificates for Trakhees records. 5 noise level and sound attenuation calculations

3) It is the consultant’s sole responsibility to ensure that:

7 Ventilation design parameters /calculations
(a) All used materials by contractor/subcontractor are in compliance
with approved designs and calculations. 8 smoke management parameters/ strategic plan
(b) HVAC and electrical works are as per approved drawings and cal-
culations. 9 Heat recovery calculations
(c) Provide all test reports for all materials in relevant to thermal and
electrical systems. 10 fresh air parameters/ calculations
4) Any changes/deviations shall be submitted to Trakhees – CED for
Confirmation letter for insulation, glazing...thermal components/
review and approval. 11

5) Random samples, checks and visits will be conducted during con- 13 conformity to local orders and circulations
struction time by Trakhees to make sure that all works are complied
with approved designs. 14 conformity to international standards (ASHRAE & SMACNA)

15 A/C devices selection (Three Scenarios)

17 Project brief and summery of thermal load calculations

18 schematic layout of building envelope HVAC system

206 207



1. All building permit applications for new buildings and modified 1 HVAC designer CV and experience
buildings shall include; HVAC drawings, calculations and thermal
insulation: 2 Project brief, U Value calculations and thermal load calculations
- Cross sections for all external & internal walls, ceilings & roofs
and floors & connections. 3 glazing thermal properties and certificates
- U-Value calculations as per DM excel sheet.
Confirmation letter for insulation, glazing...thermal components/
2. All design parameters, criteria shall be incompliance with ASHRAF, 4
DCL, DM & Trakhees – CED.
3. All Electromechanical designs shall be conducted/prepared by 5 Heat recovery calculations
specialized and accredited engineers, specialized and registered
MEP Consultants. 6 fresh air parameters/ calculations
4. Consultant shall provide a copy of all approved shop drawings, con-
formity certificates for Trakhees records. 7 supply air , Duct air flow velocity
5. It is the consultant’s sole responsibility to ensure that:
8 UAE- Society of Engineers Membership
(a) All used materials by contractor/subcontractor are in compli-
ance with approved designs and calculations. Solar system and domestic water design parameters and
(b) HVAC and electrical works are as per approved drawings and specifications
(c) Provide all test reports for all materials in relevant to thermal
and electrical systems.
6. Any changes/deviations shall be submitted to Trakhees – CED for
review and approval.
7. Random samples, checks and visits will be conducted during con-
struction time by Trakhees to make sure that all works are complied
with approved designs

208 209

HVAC BUILDING PERMIT, ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS & GENERAL 7) Any changes/deviations shall be submitted to Trakhees – CED for
With reference to Dubai Municipality circular No. 77 dated 21/11/2001 8) Random samples, checks and visits will be conducted during con-
& Circular No. 107 dated 2/5/2001, and all other relevant circulars, struction time by Trakhees to make sure that all works are com-
standards and regulations, the following documents, drawings, cer- plied with approved designs.
tificates & calculations should be provided: 9) Required drawings and documents:
9-1 Initial requirement for thermal load calculations.
1) All building permit applications for new buildings and modified Drawing set shall be in the following sequence:
buildings shall include the thermal load calculations and HVAC de- - General information’s.
sign drawings.
- NOC’s and Licenses.
2) Consultant shall submit:
- Architectural Drawings.
- Thermal load calculations and drawings.
- HVAC drawings, thermal load calculations & insulation.
- Relevant electrical load schedules
- Plumbing drawings & Design.
- Conformity certificate issued from manufacturers and attested
- Fire fighting & Alarm System approved by Trakhees – F.D
by DCC, DM and/or Trakhees Quality Dept.
- Electrical drawings & Loads schedule
3) All new systems shall be attested and accredited by DCL, DM and
- Telephone drawings.
Trakhees-Quality Department, from all aspects, architectural , me-
chanical, structural, thermal, plumbing ,.. etc. before the final use - Structural drawings.
of the new system. 9-(2) HVAC drawings, calculations and thermal insulation:
4) All Electromechanical designs shall be conducted/prepared by - Cross sections for all external & internal walls, ceilings & roofs
specialized and accredited engineers, specialized and registered and floors & connections.
MEP Consultants. - U-Value calculations as per DM excel sheet.
5) (a) After obtaining the building permit, contractor shall submit - All design parameters, criteria shall be incompliance with
under full supervision of consultant, the conformity certificates ASHRAF, DCL, DM & Trakhees – CED.
for all used materials as per the approved thermal load calcula- - It is consultant’s sole responsibility to make sure that all spec-
tions and designs prior to delivery/use at site. ified materials are available and successfully experimented
(b) Consultant shall provide a copy of all approved shop drawings, in Dubai weather for at least 5 years.
conformity certificates for Trakhees records. 9-(3) Windows & Doors:
6) It is the consultant’s sole responsibility to ensure that: Doors and windows detail drawings shall be submitted for review &
(a) All used materials by contractor/subcontractor are in compli- approval included U-Value, coins, glazing types, etc.
ance with approved designs and calculations. 9-4) Drawings shall be categorized into the following general sub-
(b) HVAC and electrical works are as per approved drawings and jects:
calculations. - HVAC System
(c) Provide all test reports for all materials in relevant to thermal - Drainage and Plumbing
and electrical systems. - Fire Fighting

210 211

- Telephone and Central Antenna 16 pipes, ducts thermal insulation properties

- Elevators and Escalators 17 Duct Sizing and suspension system
- Electrical light and power 18 U Value calculations
9-5) Technical Data drawings and thermal load calculations sum- 19 glazing thermal properties and certificates
mary sheet. 20 insulation material properties
Confirmation letter for insulation, glazing...thermal components/
9-6) The following components/devices of chilled water system elements
shall be provided (but not limited to) 22 noise level and sound attenuation calculations
- Pumps 23 conformity to local orders and circulations
- Heating Elements 24 conformity to international standards (ASHRAE & SMACNA)
- Cooling Towers 25 A/C devices selection (Three Scenarios)
- Heat Exchangers 26 thermal load calculations
- Heat Recovery System 27 summery of thermal load calculations
- Outdoor Air Units 28 schematic layout of building envelope HVAC system
- Fan Exhaust System 29 for record and information
- Etc. 30 Yellow code accreditation
31 UAE- Society of Engineers Membership
HVAC check list 32 Solar system calculations and specifications
1 HVAC designer CV and experience
Energy consumption estimation and preservation scenarios/
2 MEP consultant license 33
3 Electrical Engineer CV and experience 34 Electric load schematic (For Record)
4 Fire Fighting Engineer CV and experience Impact study (Comparison sheet) for green building
5 Project design brief 35
requirements Vs HVAC systems.
6 HVAC layout quality 36 Any other relevant issues based on the building design intent.
7 Ventilation design parameters /calculations 37 Third party approval and Recommendations.
8 smoke management parameters/ strategic plan 38 Electric load (NOC) DEWA
9 Heat recovery calculations 39 fire fighting, fire alarm systems NOC ( EHS)
10 fresh air parameters/ calculations
11 supply air , Duct air flow velocity Notes:
12 Basements smoke extract parameters and layout 1. The red marked items are for record and information as per DM cir-
13 heat exchangers (LMTD, Ratio, efficiency) culars.
14 chilled waters pumps (design data and performance) 2. Resubmission shall include compliance statement to previous com-
ments a long with supporting documents/ standards. ( where ap-
15 pipe sizing and suspension system

212 213

214 215
MEP Systems
Design Guidelines


Figure No. Figure Title Page No. Table No. Table Title Page No.

Figure 1: Duct-work Distribution 39 Table 1: Recommended HVAC Systems for Various Buildings 40
and Applications
Figure 2: Fresh Air Ventilation 43
Table 2: Average Entrance and Exit Times for Vehicles 40
Figure 3: Design Guidelines for HVAC - related Background Sound 49
Table 3: Predicted CO Emissions in Parking Garages 40
in Rooms
Table 4: The minimum Noise criteria recommended by 48
Figure 4: Plate Heat Exchanger 51 ASHARE standards

Figure 5: Central Drainage & Sewage System 67 Table 5: Cable Colour Codes 125

Figure 6: District Drainage System 68 Table 6: Specifications Of UTP Cables 125

Figure 7: Domestic Water System 77 Table 7: Optical Fibre Cable Technical Specification 129

Figure 8: External Drainage System 78 Table 8: Channel Performance 140

Figure 9: Microclimate and Outdoor Comfort 166 Table 9: Minimum Test to be Performed by Contractor 141

Figure 10: Ventilation and Air Quality 168 Table 10: Typology of Residential / Commercial Buildings 158

Table 11: Typology of Public Buildings 159

Figure 11: Thermal Comfort 174
Table 12: Typology of Industrial Buildings 159
Figure 12: Day Lighting and Visual Comfort 177
Table 15: Indoor Air Quality Compliance - New Buildings 170
Figure 13: Water Quality 178
Table 16: Indoor Air Quality Compliance - Existing Buildings 171
Figure 14: Conservation and Efficiency: Building Fabric 179
Table 17: Acoustical Control Requirements 175
Figure 15: Straight-tube Heat Exchanger 184
Table 18: Minimum Efficiency Requirements 185
Figure 16: Domestic Hot Water 201
Table 19: Water Chilling Packages - Minimum Efficiency 188

Table 20: Interior Lighting Power Density 191

Table 21: Minimum insulation thickness for pipes passing through 191
unconditioned spaces

Table 22: Minimum air temperature inside duct (°C) 218

216 217
MEP Systems MEP Systems
Design Guidelines Design Guidelines Design Method Results from EPA MOBILE3, version NYC-2.2 (1984); sea level location.
To determine the design airflow rate required to ventilate an enclosed parking garage, Note: Assumed vehicle speed is 8 km/h.
the following procedure can be followed:
(2) Normalize the peak CO generation rate using the reference value G0 = 26.7
Step 1. Collect the following data: g/(h•m2) and Equation (17). This reference value is based on an actual enclosed
• Number of cars N in operation during peak hour use parking facility (Krarti and Ayari 1998):
• Average CO emission rate E for a typical car, g/h
• Average length of operation and travel time θ for a typical car, s f = 100G/G0 (17)
• Acceptable CO concentration COmax in the garage, ppm
• Total floor area of parking facility Af , m2 Step 3.
Determine the minimum required ventilation rate Q per unit floor area using
Step 2. Evaluate CO generation rate: Figure 14, or the correlation presented by Equation (18), depending on COmax:
(1) Determine the peak CO generation rate per unit floor area G, in g/(h•m2), for
the parking garage: Where
C = 1.204 x 10–6 (m3/s)/(m2/s) for COmax = 15 ppm
G = NE/Af (16) = 0.692 x 10–6 (m3/s)/(m2/s) for COmax = 25 ppm
= 0.481 x 10–6 (m3/s)/(m2/s) for COmax = 35 ppm

Level Average Time, s Entrance Time, s Average Exit

1 35 45
3* 40 50
5 70 10

Table 2 Average Entrance and Exit Times for Vehicles

Source: Stankunas et al. (1980). *Average pass-through time = 30 s.

Season Hot Emission Cold Emission

(Stabilized) g/min
1991 1996 1991 1996
Summer, 32°C 2.54 1.89 4.27 3.66
Winter, 0°C 3.61 3.38 20.74 18.96

Table 3 Predicted CO Emissions in Parking Garages

218 219
MEP Systems
Design Guidelines

220 221
ISBN-978 9948-481-02-7