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DRAWING INSTRUMENTS

Drawing Instruments are used to prepare neat and accurate Drawings. To a greater extent, the
accuracy of the Drawings depend on the quality of instruments used to prepare them

Drawing tables and desks


It come in many different sizes and shapes. It can be used standing or sitting. Combination drafting
table, desk and regular office chair is the most comfortable and efficient.

Drawing Board
Drawing board is made from strips of well-seasoned soft wood generally 25 mm thick. It
is cleated at the back by two battens to prevent warping. One of the shorter edges of the
rectangular board is provided with perfectly straight ebony edge which is used as working edge
on which the T-square is moved while making Drawings.

T-square
T-squares are made from hard wood. A T-square consists of two parts namely the stock
and the blade joined together at right angles to each other by means of screws and Pins. The stock
is made to slide along the working edge and the Blade moves on the Drawing board. The working
edge of T-square is used to draw parallel lines, vertical lines or inclined lines at 30°, 60o to the
horizontal using set squares.

Set Squares
Set squares are generally made from Plastic or celluloid material. They are triangular in
shape with one corner, a right angle triangle. A pair of set squares (30° – 60° ) and 45° (45° set
square are generally provided with Protractor) facilitate marking of angles. They are used to draw
lines at 30°, 60° and 45° to the vertical and horizontal.

Metric Scale
A type of scale used in general drawing. The scale has various divisions. Its main purpose is to
reproduce the dimension full of size on a drawing or to reduce or enlarge them.
Ruler
A ruler is possibly one of the most important pieces of drawing equipment. Rulers should
only to use to measure distances with lines being drawn with T-Squares and Set Squares. However,
most people use rulers to draw straight lines. But it must be remembered that the edge of a ruler is
not guaranteed to have a perfectly straight edge unlike a good T-Square or Set Square.

Protractor
Protractors are used to mark or measure angles between 0 and 180°. They are semicircular
in shape (of diameter 100mm) and are made of Plastic or celluloid which has more life. Protractors
with circular shape capable of marking and measuring 0 to 360° are also available in the market

Flexi-curve
A Flexi-curve is used to draw curves. It can be formed into almost any curve as it is flexible.
Flex-curves are useful as they are simply shaped to form the desired curve. However, a flex-curve
is delicate and if forced into a tight curve it will break.

French Curves
French Curves are purchased in sets of three or four. They are used to draw curves by
finding the section of curve that matches the desired shape on the profile of the curve. Some French
Curves also have either circles or ellipses of various sizes cut out. These can be used in the same
way as circle or ellipse templates.

Compass
Compass is used for drawing circles and arcs of circles. The compass has two legs hinged
at one end. One of the legs has a pointed needle fitted at the lower end whereas the other end has
provision for inserting pencil lead. Circles up to 120mm diameters are drawn by keeping the legs
of compass straight. For drawing circles more than 150 mm radius, a lengthening bar is used. It is
advisable to keep the needle end about 1mm long compared to that of pencil end so that while
drawing circles, when the needle end is pressed it goes inside the drawing sheet by a small distance
(approximately 1mm).

Circle templates
Circle templates are very useful. They are plastic with several accurate circles cut out. They
are used to draw circles of set diameters/ sizes and are particularly useful if the circle is small.
Small circles are difficult to draw using a traditional compass because the compass can easily slip
on the paper. With a template the circle diameter is selected, and a sharp pencil is used to draw
round the cutout circle.

Ellipse templates
Ellipse templates are similar to circle templates and these are useful for drawing ellipse /
oval shapes accurately.

Dividers
Dividers, as the name implies, are used for dividing distances into a number of equal parts.
They are also used for transferring distances or for setting off a series of equal distances. Dividers
are similar to compasses in construction and are made in square, flat, and round forms. Many
dividers are made with a spring and thumbscrew in one leg so that minute adjustments in the setting
can be made by turning the small thumbscrew.

Drawing sheet
They are available in many varieties and good quality paper with smooth surface should
be selected for Drawings which are to be preserved for longer time.

Drawing Pencils
The accuracy and appearance of a Drawing depends on the quality of Pencil used to make
Drawing. The grade of a Pencil lead is marked on the Pencil. HB denotes medium grade. Increase
in hardness is shown by value put in front of H such as 2H, 3H etc., Softer pencils are marked as
2B, 3B, 4B etc. A Pencil marked 3B is softer than 2B and Pencil marked 4B is softer than 3B and
so on. Beginning of a Drawing may be made with H or 2H. For lettering and dimensioning, H and
HB Pencils are used.

Technical Fountain Pens


Technical fountain pens with tube and needle point are available in several line widths.
Many people prefer this type of pen because the line widths are fixed, and it is suitable for freehand
or mechanical lettering and line work. The pen requires an occasional filling and a minimum of
skill to use. For uniform line work, the pen should be used perpendicular to the paper.

Pencil sharpeners
Pencil sharpeners are essential for sharpening pencils. Accurate drawings cannot be
produced unless they are sharp. However, when shading a blunt pencil is sometimes useful.

Eraser
Is an instrument used to erase unwanted marks on the drawing paper. It is usually made up
of rubber. There are various kinds of erasers used in drafting. A hard rubber eraser is used to
remove dark heavy lines. A soft rubber eraser is used to remove light lines and to clean smudges.
Special ink eraser is also available for removing ink lines on tracing paper.

Erasing Shield
Use eraser shields to prevent accidentally erasing nearby lines. Erasing shields are made of metal,
or plastic and have openings of different sizes and shapes. Position the shield so only the part you
wish to erase appears in one of the openings on the shield.

Tapes
These are used to fasten paper on the drawing board or table. Masking tape, scotch tape
and other tapes are used. Thumb tacks are sometimes used in place of tapes.

Craft knife
A craft knife can also be used to sharpen pencils. Normal pencil sharpeners tend to shorten
the lead as the sharpener is turned. This means that the pencil needs sharpening often. On the other
hand, when using a craft knife, the lead can be left quite long. Also, a small piece of glass paper
can be used to give a precise edge to the lead. A ‘chisel’ shaped point is ideal for drawing accurate
lines

Drawing Pins and clips


These are used to fix the Drawing sheet on the Drawing board