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Parts of Speech - Nouns
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'What type of noun is woman?' You probably know that a noun is a type of 'thing'. For example 'table' and 'car' are both types of nouns. Here we take a look at all the different types of nouns there are and how to spot them:
As above, 'car' and 'table' are concrete nouns. These are the nouns which we can touch, see, feel, smell and hear. Basically, these are nouns which we are connected to our senses. 'What a delicious apple.' 'Please open the window.' 'I put it in my pocket.'
Proper nouns are the names of people and places. We use capital letters with proper nouns. 'Jack will go shopping tomorrow.' 'She comes from Russia.' 'The Nile is the longest river.'
Common nouns are nouns which describe a group of objects. For example, Oxford University is a proper noun because it is the name of a place. University is a common noun because it refers to a group. Common nouns are used to describe groups of people. Coffee shops are popular.' 'He took his children to the zoo.' 'I'd rather live in the city.'
These nouns refer to things which we can't experience with our senses. Abstract nouns refer to emotions (love, hate), states (peace, beauty), concepts (faith, truth) and movements (education, progress). The following suffixes are used with abstract nouns:
• • • • • • • • • • -tion -ism -ity -ment -ness -age -ence -ship -ability -acy
'He takes a lot of pride in his work.' 'India has an interesting culture.' 'Do you ever give to charity?'
Collective nouns refer to a group of people, animals or things. 'A flock of birds.' 'A herd of cattle.' 'My family is important to me.'
Pronouns are used instead of nouns to describe people and things. 'That bag is his.' 'I am here.' 'It is good.'
Countable nouns can be used to describe singular nouns (car) and plural nouns (cars) 'Where is my hat?' 'Where are my hats?' 'The girl is pretty.' 'The girls are pretty.'
Also known as mass nouns, uncountable nouns only use the singular. They are nouns which can't be counted. We can use 'the' with uncountable nouns, but not 'a' or 'an'. 'Can you lend me some money?' 'The grass is very green.' 'I hate rain.'
Parts of Speech: Pronouns
Pronoun: a word that replaces a noun without specifying a name. —He was tired. In this sentence, he is the pronoun, replacing the name of the person who was tired (“Jack was tired”) or some other identifier (“The boy was tired”). Antecedent: the word to which a pronoun refers. —Because Jack left in a hurry, he forgot his lunch. In this sentence, Jack is the antecedent and he is the pronoun.
Types of Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns: the words this, these, that, and those, which replace a noun. —This is unacceptable. Indefinite pronoun: a pronoun that indicates unspecified quantities or degrees. —Most were appalled by the prime minister’s lies. Intensive pronoun: a pronoun that emphasizes the word to which it refers. —The stars themselves use this skin cream. Interrogative pronoun: a pronoun that initiates a question. —Who called this afternoon? Objective personal pronouns: the words me, you, her, him, it, us, and them, used to indicate that the pronoun is functioning as an object. —She was glad that he gave her his trust. Personal pronoun: personal pronouns all fall into one of three persons, which indicate to whom the pronoun refers. • • • First person: expresses the identity of the speaker. —I was driving my car. Second person: addresses the speaker’s listener. —You were driving your car. Third person: refers to someone who is neither the speaker nor the listener. —They were riding in her car. Possessive personal pronoun: a pronoun that indicates possession or ownership. —She was glad that he gave her its key. Reflexive pronoun: a pronoun that refers to the subject of the sentence. —The cat keeps itself clean. Relative pronoun: a pronoun that links one phrase or clause to another. —He would speak to whoever had answers. Subjective personal pronoun: a pronoun that acts as a subject rather than as an object. —She was glad that he gave her its key.
Parts of Speech: Adjectives
Adjective: a word that describes or modifies nouns and pronouns. 1. Types of adjectives ○ Demonstrative adjectives: the words this, that, these, and those, which specify nouns. Demonstrative adjectives are similar to demonstrative pronouns, but indicate particular nouns rather than replace them. —This chair is more comfortable than that chair. ○ Indefinite adjectives: adjectives that refer to unspecified quantities. Similar to indefinite pronouns, but used in relation to particular nouns. —Most people would rather have a few close friends than many shallow acquaintances. ○ Interrogative adjectives: adjectives that initiate questions by requesting specification. —Which car do you want to take? —What movie did you see? ○ Possessive adjectives: adjectives that indicate ownership or possession. —His t-shirt was stained with blood. —Julianne was frustrated; no one was sympathetic to her idea. 2. Degrees of adjectives: in comparing nouns, adjectives change by degree depending on the number of objects being compared. ○ Positive degree: an adjective modifying a single object. —happy ○ Comparative degree: an adjective implying a comparison between two objects. —happier ○ Superlative degree: an adjective implying a comparison among three or more objects. —happiest 3. Participle: an adjective formed from a verb. ○ Present participle: describes action in the present; made by adding –ing to a verb and using it as an adjective. —The running man was slower than the galloping horse. ○ Past participle: describes action in the past; takes an irregular form. —Grown men should know better than to throw temper tantrums.
Adjectives are words used to describe nouns.
Adjectives give more information about a noun. Use adjectives to make your writing more interesting.
"Fast, fun, new, old, red, ugly" are all adjectives. They describe a noun.
READ THESE EXAMPLES: It's a fast car. It's a fun car. It's a new car. It's an old car. It's a red car. It's an ugly car.
Adjectives can come BEFORE the NOUN (adjective + noun)
EXAMPLES: It's an expensive bicycle. It's a racing bicycle. It's a red bicycle.
Adjectives can come AFTER a BE verb. (BE + adjective)
EXAMPLES: The butterfly is pretty. The butterfly is blue. Butterflies are interesting.
Nouns can also work as adjectives. A noun can help describe an object.
EXAMPLES: It's a business meeting. They're having a job interview. It's a school conference.
he's never had an accident. In his 20-year career. EXAMPLES: The man is tired. EXAMPLES: The computer-generated error message made the program freeze. Past participles (verb 3) can also work as adjectives. It's an interesting game. He was worn out by work today.Present participles (-ing verbs) can also work as adjectives. The man is a thirty-seven-year-old trucker. Numbers can be used as adjectives. My friend isn't very good at do-it-yourself projects. . The exhausted man fell asleep. Adjectives can be hyphenated. EXAMPLES: That's a three-ton truck. Baseball is interesting. EXAMPLES: Baseball is an exciting game.
. My cat is the cutest cat I know.Adjectives can be used to compare things. EXAMPLES: Cats are softer than dogs.
Accountability and Transparency (CAT)." Contrary to the state government's core governance based on the principles of Competency.com.30pm incident. . said the incident would not affect the sitting starting on Monday until Thursday. were prevented from entering the main compound of the assembly building for more than an hour.The entire ceiling of the public gallery at the Penang assembly building collapsed yesterday.my GEORGE TOWN: With just three days before the state assembly convenes on Monday. alerted of the incident. No one was injured in the 3. The damaged ceiling was directly above the gallery where members of the press and public are usually seated. when contacted. scores of reporters. the entire ceiling above the public gallery of the building collapsed yesterday. NST picture by Ramdzan Masiam Penang assembly ceiling collapses 2010/05/01 By Lee Keng Fatt news@nst. "We are waiting for a full report on the actual cause of the incident from the state Public Works Department. State Legislative Speaker Datuk Abdul Halim Hussain.
.Two policemen on duty said they had instructions not to allow reporters from entering the premises. parts of the ceiling at the lobby of the building collapsed forcing reporters covering the sitting to scramble to safety. The main gates leading to the building were then closed. The cost of the damage has yet to be estimated. This is the second incident where the building's ceilings had collapsed. On July 23 in 2008.
on behalf of Yayasan Harapan Kanak-Kanak Malaysia (YHKM). Later. Rosmah. "I would like to suggest that all companies allocate a part of their CSR budgets to the fund. received a cheque of RM70. for the camp.000 from DRB-Hicom automotive division group director. .my SERDANG: Prime Minister's wife Datin Seri Rosmah Mansor has proposed the setting up of a special trust fund for children's development. The 1Malaysia Children Trust fund would be used to improve public facilities for children such as the building of a children's hospital. She suggested that corporate bodies channel their contributions to the fund which should be named the 1Malaysia Children Trust.1Malaysia fund for kids 2010/05/01 By Aidi Amin and Evangeline Majawat firstname.lastname@example.org. Datuk Nik Hamdam Nik Hassan. She also distributed 13 computers to 12 schools and an orphanage under YHKM's community project. "I urge all corporate bodies to take a new approach towards corporate social responsibility in developing the children's potential in this country." she said after launching DRB-Hicom Hope Camp 2010 at Universiti Putra Malaysia yesterday.
If it isn’t already obvious from the superb bodies that capoeristas have. This is no surprise as it is considered one of the most comprehensive forms of physical conditioning and is an integrated balance of mind. They also perform jumping kicks and movements which improve leg strength. Officially recognised as Brazil’s national sport. fight. If you’d like to give capoeira a shot. techniques and focus on fight. the exercise offers impressive health benefits that include strength. musicality of the instruments and energy of each person — is great!” . better known as Professor Pimbal. writes MEENA SREENIVASAN THERE are hundreds of workouts and exercise regimes. “I was charmed by the methods of training. Kuala Lumpur . stamina and overall fitness. why opt for capoeira? This is a mix of body and soul. African and European roots dating from early colonial times. this form of martial arts makes for a great form of exercise and also helps develop an individual holistically. it has become a popular form of exercise all over the world and is catching on here as well. rolls and poses that build upper body strength. dance and fight. With constant repetition of movements and techniques. It was part of the physical education. They are always moving around on their hands doing handstands. Capoeira is a game of movement. The magic that surrounds capoeira — in the dance. and I started to train with my brothers and friends. strength. rhythm. agility and harmony.my It is more than a form of martial arts. you will surely be a picture of health.com. flexibility. cardio. or if you are curious about it.my) in Bangsar. shows us how to get started on this “game” of movement as he calls it.purpleyogis. It may take a while to become fit but once you start taking capoeira seriously. Having attained a brown belt in capoeira.Keeping fit with capoeira 2010/04/26 MEENA SREENIVASAN meena@nstp.” he says. read on for some basic moves. who teaches at Purple Yogis (www. Its history and culture owe much to Brazil’s fascinating hybrid of Latin. “I started training in capoeira at nine years old in school. In 1995. Capoerista trainer Rubens Carlos de Oliveira. Colegio Depois. and instruments and voices.com. he affirms it as excellent for overall body toning. a friend invited him to train in capoeira EBC. Some capoeiristas are even on par with yoga practitioners in terms flexibility.
one of the eight parts of speech. tweaking them to suit your own writerly purposes. the verb is connected to one or more nouns. . It’s a good thing for a writer to know. think.” Verbs are also flexible. “She struts” says a lot more than “She walks. sleep. In language.” This is basic grammar and the most elementary sentence structure possible. The number of nouns that a verb affects in a sentence is referred to as the verb’s valence or valency. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs In a sentence.ISL M3 Parts of speech – verbs/adverbs Parts of Speech: Verbs By Melissa Donovan Verbs are action words. you can have a lot of fun with verbs. Some people might say there is no action in “I am.” However. verbs are the most active of all the parts of speech. Basically. write. Sentence Diagramming and Parts of Speech If you’ve ever attempted sentence diagramming. But first you have to understand what they are and what role they fulfill. occurrence. there is a noun performing the action of the verb (I eat) or receiving the action (The cookies were eaten). and state of being. breakdown State of Being: sit. In sentence diagramming. Verbs Defined As previously stated. I write. the noun is the subject. For example. These are just examples so you can better identify verbs. Add the -ing suffix to a verb to make a noun (He revised his own writing). am (a form of the verb “to be”) is most definitely an action — it’s the action of being (from the verb to be). it must contain one of each of these two parts of speech. a verb is one of the parts of speech and it’s an action word. The types of action that are represented by verbs are as follows: Action: walk. dance.” The verb/predicate is “write. At the very least. Verbs can also function as adjectives (We have a running dialog).” the noun/subject is “I. you probably started out by learning to identify nouns and verbs. For a sentence to be complete. and the verb is the predicate. In the sentence “I write. talk Occurrence: shimmer. run. They are also one of the two essential components in forming a complete sentence. be It’s not necessary to classify verbs based on action. A well chosen verb can communicate action through imagery. Two nouns can be impacted by the same verb (I eat cookies).
Running is like jogging. Verbal Nouns Gerunds If you add -ing to a verb and use it as a noun. eat is an intransitive verb. There are several types of verb agreement. There is no such thing as a verb with zero valency. it is implied (You run!). so we’ll keep it simple here and just demonstrate the absolute basics. To err is human. What does verb agreement mean to a writer? Well. If something happens in the past. The classic example of an infinitive is “to be. The verb is tied to two words in the sentence – the subject and the object (I eat cookies). Stories – entire novels – are often written in past tense and it’s not at all uncommon for past and present tense to both appear in a single work. When it comes to agreement. to dance. that action has be performed or received by somebody or something. I is the subject and eat is the predicate. I is the subject. Transitive verbs have valency 2. infinitive in the second) are functioning as nouns or more specifically. Tense Tense can be a challenge for people who are new to speaking or writing English (and for English natives learning any other language). In this sentence. All verbs must have valency.Intransitive verbs have valency 1. infinitives can function as nouns. eat is the predicate. English writers and speakers are lucky because we don’t have nearly as many agreements to consider as some other languages have. In the sentence above. which is why we won’t get into a lengthy discussion about it here. and the word cookies is the direct object. you’re using a gerund: Reading books is fun.” It’s important to learn tense and understand how to put verbs into past tense because much writing is done in past tense. the underlined verbs (gerunds in the first sentence. Even if the noun isn’t directly stated (Run!). Other languages (such as Spanish and French) also mandate gender agreement. In other words. Most native English speakers naturally grasp tense. In order for there to be an action. verbs need nouns in order to exist. Mismatched verb tenses can be a giveaway of folks for whom .” Other infinitives include to see. reading (normally a verb) is used as a noun. to run. as verbal nouns. In other words. eat is a transitive verb. In the example sentences above. Agreement In sentences. The verb in the sentence is “is. Like gerunds. Verb tense agreement warrants its own. You cannot say “She was writes” or “He is danced” (although these phrases might fit nicely in a poem). verbs must be in agreement with the words they impact. including tense and number agreement. In this sentence.” You can say “He is dancing” or “He dances. your verbs have to match up to your nouns. lengthy article. the verb is only tied to the sentence’s subject (I eat). What you can say is “She was writing” or “She wrote.” Infinitives The infinitive form of a verb is its raw form. etc. the verb has to be in past tense.
the only exception is when it’s attached to “he” or “she. “run” doesn’t get conjugated all that much. as can be seen in the poetic examples above. Prepositional Adverbs (or Particles) 9. Adverbs 1. Singular.Adverbs Main Page: Parts of Speech Page Contents 1. That’s a mouthful. Adding in Positive and Negative Sentences 8. It’s just one of those mistakes natives rarely make. Adverbs of Time 4.English is a second language. However. We run.” in which case it takes an -s. mixing up tense can produce some endearing phrases. Present The only other strict agreement in English is the third person. Third Person. Adverbs of Place 3. As you can see. Adverbs of Degree 5. However. which may be used in some types of writing. Stance 7. Also for the record.” Verb conjugation is not much fun in English. They run. which takes an -s. present tense of a verb. so here’s an example: I run. singular. Phrasal Verbs . You run. Are there any grammar issues that you’re struggling with? Parts of speech you don’t quite understand? Got questions about verbs? Participles? Types of verbs? Share your thoughts by leaving a comment. He/she runs. erroneous tense agreement in a formal paper or business communication is never a good idea. Adverbs of Manner 2. For the record. 1. what we’ve just done here is we conjugated the verb “to run. such as poetry. Linking Adverbs (or conjuntival adverbs) 6. conjugating verbs in French or Spanish is far more exciting. Parts of Speech .
slowly. They answer the question. which do not easily fit into the other categories. yesterday. Of course. expertly For example: He ran fast. below For example: She went upstairs. yesterday. some will argue that these words are adjectives. an adjective or another adverb. above. Nearly all of them came. the words in this class are not a uniform group. They answer the question. Yet they are quite unlike adjectives in other uses. upstairs. "How". quickly. How did he run? The word fast tells us how he ran and is an adverb. Where did she go? And the answer is the adverb. elegantly. Therefore. Adverbs of Manner These adverbs tell us how something is done. generally For example: He received the letter yesterday. . clumsily. everywhere. "When?" now. They answer the question. How did he read the book? thoughtfully tells us how he read the book and is an adverb. These tell us when something happened. "When". Naturally. "Where?" here. they function as adjectives in these sentences. rationally. later. Sometimes adverbs modify pronouns: Almost everyone gave something. Adverbs of Time Adverbs of time often answer the question. Adverbs of Place These tell us where the action of the verb happened. thoughtfully. there.Adverbs An adverb is a word that describes or modifies a verb. immediately. The class adverb is also a home for unwanted words. And He thoughtfully read the book. When did he receive the letter? And the answer is the adverb.
for. They include: hence. Conjunctions cannot be used to begin a sentence. long Examples: She will never do it. therefore. We always have to wait. sometimes called adverbs of frequency. They answer the question. because they link two words or two clauses. such as and. then. linking adverbs can often be omitted without making the sentence ungrammatical. Unlike a conjunction. nonetheless. when acting as linking adverbs. They are sometimes called transition words. But words which look like conjunctions. Will you be long? I have just done it. sometimes. "To what extent?" very. phrases or clauses. can be so used. "How often?" often. nor. slightly. rather For example: The horse is too tired. too. always. just. never For example: He mows the lawn weekly. How often does he mow the lawn? The answer weekly. quite. but. not two sentences. afterwards. gives us the adverb.Others refer to a period of time: never. Adverbs of Degree These often modify an adjective. beforehand Words which are normally considered conjunctions. so. answer the question. excessively. yet. Linking Adverbs (or conjuntival adverbs) Linking adverbs link the current sentence to a previous one. which link nouns. seldom. and or are considered linking adverbs when they begin a sentence. They differ from conjunctions. For instance: . Still others.
And she hated soccer even more. I didn't either. did not go. hence. I went fishing. surely.) Teresa did not go. unlike a conjunction. actually. linking adverbs are always preceded by a full stop or a semicolon. but links two sentences. oddly. The adverbs so. In these sentences: Teresa did not go. He isn't coming to the game. he isn't coming to the game. we can omit the linking adverb. also and too add some of the meaning of the first sentence in the pairs above to the second one. not clauses. hence. Also. and the sentences remain grammatical and still make sense. In the above sentences. can be omitted without drastically affecting the sentences. Bob does not like sport. Because they link sentences. clearly. officially. wisely. Teresa did not go. Nor did I. She hated soccer even more. Harry went too. obviously. Hence. Or Bob does not like sport. I went fishing.She hated cricket. Bob does not like sport. morally. (I. She hated cricket. unlike a conjunction. So did Harry. Harry went also. disgustingly Adding in Positive and Negative Sentences Some adverbs have the effect of adding or subtracting. perhaps. and need to capitalise the first word of the sentence). (Of course. he isn't coming to the game. too. he isn't coming to the game. It. we also need to omit the comma. it does not link two words or clauses. For instance: Bob does not like sport. . Stance These often show the speakers attitude or emotion and include: probably. I went fishing. And is a linking adverb not a conjunction. They have the idea of in addition. Neither did I.
and are used in negative expressions. That is. She brought up an interesting point in the meeting. She lives opposite. For example: • • • • • • Some shady characters were hanging around. She brought an interesting point up in the meeting. For instance: Phrasal Verbs Example I looked the word up. Oh! Have they fallen out [had a quarrel] again? They have decided to give smoking up. Words used like this include: neither. they change the meaning of the verb. either. Put that down! It was living inside. neither and either also have the idea of in addition (too). else. A verb plus prepositional adverb is a phrasal verb only when the verb's meaning changes. but function as an adverb. Also it is often possible to place the object of the verb (if there is one) between the verb and the prepositional adverb. We stayed in. Phrasal verbs differ from prepositional verbs in the previous mentioned two ways. that is they modify verbs. See comparison of phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs. often saying where the action takes place. When they do this. act as an adverb by modifying a verb.The words nor. nor. Alternative I looked up the word. . too. We examined it through and through. (No object) They have decided to give up smoking. also Prepositional Adverbs (or Particles) Prepositional adverbs have the word form of a preposition. so. They differ from prepositions in that they modify a verb (adverbial) and they do not stand before a noun. All the words in bold above are prepositional adverbs. Prepositional adverbs are used to form phrasal verbs.
I looked up it. They ran the dog over. She brought up an interesting point in the meeting. She brought up it in the meeting. I looked the word up. Oh! Have they fallen out [had a quarrel] again? (No object) They have decided to give They have decided to give smoking up. up smoking. She put off it. They ran over the dog. She put off the meeting.Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs are composed of a verb and a prepositional adverb. or follow it. modifies the verb and changes its literal meaning. In addition. His children are grown up. The prepositional adverb. She brought it up in the meeting. Phrasal Verbs Example The lift has broken down. She put the meeting off. Alternative (No object) She brought an interesting point up in the meeting. They have decided to give it They have decided to give up. She put it off. If the object is a pronoun. the prepositional adverb can be precede the object as a Noun Phrase. up it. which has the word form of a preposition. as in the examples in the table below. it must come before the particle (prepositional adverb). I looked it up. (No object) I looked up the word. .
We turned the tv off. They differ from prepositional verbs. differ in meaning from the literal form of the verb. The phrasal verbs.We turned off the tv. . shown in bold.
they He. we do not normally use the auxiliary. you. we. coffee . they like . For the 3rd person singular (he. we. she. you.ISL M4 Identify and compare simple. perfect tenses used in the text provided. we. 2. coffee . progressive. For the verb to be. she. it like likes I. Simple Present Tense I sing How do we make the Simple Present Tense? subje auxiliary + ct verb do main + verb base There are three important exceptions: 1. you. she. coffee . even for questions and negatives. they + He. 3. it). For positive sentences. Look at these examples with the main verb like: subject auxiliary verb main verb coffee . coffee ? I. we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary. it do no t no t like does like ? Do I. we do not use an auxiliary.
they are He. she. we. they he. - You. in the past. Am I you. . she. it is old. Frenc h. she. Notice that there is no auxiliary: subject main verb Frenc h. He. we. we. they are old. or habitually. it late? ? Are late? Is late? How do we use the Simple Present Tense? We use the simple present tense when: • • • • the action is general the action happens all the time.Does he. no t no t no t I am + You. it like coffee ? Look at these examples with the main verb be. she. present and future the action is not only happening now the statement is always true John drives a taxi. Frenc h. it is I am old.
we can also use the simple present tense for situations that are not general. The Moon goes round the Earth. Past. He does it every day. Look at these examples of the verb "to be" in the simple present tense . You are happy.some of them are general. Why are you so beautiful? Ram is tall. I am not fat. Look at these examples: • • • • • • I live in New York. Do you play football? Note that with the verb to be. present and future. . John drives a taxi. Past. We can use the simple present tense to talk about now. prese nt futur e past The situation is now. past present future The situation is general. We do not work at night. present and future. He does not drive a bus. some of them are now: Am I right? Tara is not at home.past present future It is John's job to drive a taxi.
Apart from being used in military applications. fine high-tensile-strength silk for flying line. a Korean General of Silla. evening past time actually has a fascinating history that is as colourful as the variety of kites that can be found. and are flown on string or twine. or "layang layang" as many of us have come to know it. What many of us see as a leisurely. wireless communications and photography. where materials ideal for kite building were readily available — silk fabric for sail material. power generation. such as foil kites. and the Greeks saw them and feared". have no spars at all. History An invention of the famous 5th Century BC Chinese philosophers Mozi and Lu Ban. engineer. In 637.Time to fly your kite! 2010/04/30 EDWIN WONG EDWIN WONG poses how to be a pilot. although some. aeronautics. radio communications. Materials Kites typically consist of one or more spars to which a paper or fabric sail is attached. paper or light fabrics such as silk for the sails. kites have also been successfully used for scientific purposes. where they were used for scientific purposes. Russian chronicles mention Prince Oleg of Novgorod using kites during the siege of Constantinople in 906 AD.800 years ago in China. armed and gilded. as well as transportation and sports. runs far deeper than meets the eye meets. The period between 1860 and 1910 became the "golden age of kiting". and lifted them into the air over the city. the humble kite was first used more than 2. weatherman all in one and in very easy steps at that THE humble kite. lightweight framework. Kim Yu-sin. where "he crafted horses and men of paper. or some other strong but flexible wood for the spars. especially in meteorology. rallied his troops to defeat rebels by lofting a kite with a straw man that looked like a burning ball flying through the sky. Classic kites use bamboo. Modern kites use . and resilient bamboo for a strong. rattan.
a kite must be properly made if it is to fly. entertainment and education all year long. However simple it may seem. and hand painted. air lifts kites. Designs often emulate flying insects. On larger kites. where aerodynamic skills are required for a successful flight. Not only that. Then of course. both real and mythical. and yet the air supports it just as water supports a boat. Kites come in many different shapes. downward pull and propulsion. Fail to confirm and you will experience failure. is no different from how a pilot steers his/her aircraft through stormy weather. boxes and other three-dimensional forms to modern sparless inflatable designs. covered with silk. upward thrust. fine-tuning and seeing your kite soar away! Besides having a healthy openair appeal. testing. there is the creative element. there are many educational aspects of kites. and encourages experimentations in design. forms. They are eager to climb and attain an overhead position. and dacron or dyneema for the kite lines. The finest Chinese kites are made from split bamboo (usually golden bamboo). Making a kite itself is an activity that develops skills. It also introduces you to the concept of conformity with basic principles. Cheaper mass-produced kites are often made from printed polyester rather than silk. Far from being a toy. such as ripstop nylon or more exotic fabrics for the sails. the same way it lifts the wings of an aeroplane. How do kites fly? Kites are heavier than air. Pleasure that is best described by this line from Wordsworth: "My heart leaps up when I behold a rainbow in the sky. There is freedom of choice. Kite making appeals to the imagination.synthetic materials." In the words of the great poet. How's that for educational value? Lessons from the . Successful kite flying also introduces you to meteorology since the weather and flying are always closely related. fibreglass or carbon fibre for the spars. and sizes — from flat geometric designs. clever hinges and latches allow the kite to be disassembled and compactly folded for storage or transport. The study of the weather. a kite in flight is subject to the influence of four forces — resistance. Kites need a strong wind to soar. Why fly kites? Here is a hobby that provides pleasure. enabling the kite to climb upwards. especially how it affects flight patterns. kites are akin to an aircraft. that very same feeling will come to us as we see our kites — the ones that we made with our hands — flying so proudly high in the sky above! Entertainment in the many hours you keep yourself engaged designing. building. and the greater wind pressure and stronger pull on the line will cause the kite to assume an angle that will respond readily to the upward thrust. birds and other beasts. In summary.
46cm in length and is notched at the bottom end. and a bridle and tail is added. Remember. firm joint. say above 91cm. The depth of the curve at the centre is 9cm. Attach the cover to the framework. "Cirro-cumulus" heralds the approach of rain. Apply glue to the backbone. At this point. 7. Place the framework on the paper and with a pencil.weatherman One of the most crucial factors that will determine how well your kite will soar is the weather. 9. 5. it is a sign that rain is on the way. The backbone is formed from 0. The strength of the framework depends on this. The cane is curved to a bow shape. Apply glue to the . When this is covered.6cm in diameter and 41cm in length. be careful not to crease or tear the paper. Use thin. For the cover. use tissue or unbleached greaseproof paper! (For a larger size kite.6cm by 1cm stripwood. cut narrow V-shaped slits at intervals around the margin. Suitable cane may be obtained from handicraft or horticulture shops. so is the wind.) 8. let's look at one of the easiest to make. sheperd's delight. as shown. it is ready to fly! 1. sheperd's warning. Apply glue to the binding to prevent it from slipping. the cover may be decorated. change and colour. and appear to be at a standstill or only moving slowly. Red sky in the morning. it is a warning that rain will fall later. When cumulus clouds expand early in the day. such as a gas jet or electric fire. The next stage is to complete the bracing of the framework. Allow a margin of 3. Sky colours also reveal if rain is coming. it would be better to use a lightweight cloth cover. When clouds do not thicken. 3. strong string because it has to withstand considerable strain. Pegtop Kite The Pegtop is an easy-to-make kite with the framework comprising a simple. a bright yellow sunset is a token of approaching high wind. three factors are key to managing the weather — movement. thunder. and on occasion. This prevents cracking or splitting. Finally. tied at each end. The bow is held in position bya bowstring. then it means fine weather is expected. From there take it to the bottom of the backbone and up to the other end of the top. where the colour of clouds are associated with changes in the weather true to the old saying: "Red sky at night. wind is both friend and foe to kite flyers! Although there are hundreds of different types of kites you can make. A golden ring around the moon is a warning that a storm is on the way. 6. 2. 10. The shaping is more easily done if the cane is subjected to dry heat. and notch it at the ends. Secure the cane at its centre to the top of the backbone. It must be straight and smooth. 4. In particular. The higher the clouds. Just as clouds are an index of weather changes." A watery yellow sunset is a sign of coming rain. two-piece unit. This string should not be too taut as most of the strain is taken up by the bowstring. mark out the shape of the cover. Some lessons from the weatherman When small cirrus clouds thicken and become lower. For the curved top.8cm all round and cut out. use a flexible piece of split cane about 0. the better the weather is likely to be. and stick the cover to it and set aside for a little while for the glue to dry. strong string. Use thin. The framework is now complete. Make a neat. Tie this to one end of the curved top. Use glue and bind with strong thread. and is ready for covering.
6cm folded reinforcing strips may be glued around the strings and the top. Your very own kite! So next time someone tells you to “go fly your kite”. you also get to be the engineer. The kite may be embellished with tassels or fringes. If fringes are chosen. After all. only that instead of just being a pilot. Fold this over and fasten it down around the top and the outer strings. then two loops of string are tied to the ends of the bow and the bottom of the backbone. If tassels are chosen. you may want to actually consider it. And there you have it. A 7. they would hang from the ends of the curved top. designer and flight controller! . veteran kite flyers will tell you that it’s very much like flying an airplane. and to the outer half of the margin.curved top.
the children will have ample time to prepare for a musical performance on that day. The workshop will follow themes from films that feature high school life. With this in mind. Think Glee. FusionExcel International will be holding a “Hope For Children” World Day Carnival on May 29 in Kuala Lumpur in conjunction with International Children’s Day on June 1. .com. dance and act in a drama — the freedom of expression allows a child to grow in confidence and to discover within the ability to excel. The musical theatre workshop hopes to expose children to the world of performing arts Performing arts workshop for kids 2010/04/30 FONG LI YIN nstent@nst. drama and singing will be the focus as the facilitators strive to bring out the innate talent in every child. With 30-hour rehearsals spread out before the carnival. Dance. Leading up to the day itself.my TO sing.A scene from Glee. a musical theatre workshop will be held with West End professionals from the United Kingdom. Children aged 8 to 18 will be exposed to the world of performing arts in the workshop.
Only 60 places are available. Auditions will be held today and tomorrow from 10am to 4pm at FusionExcel’s headquarters (Lot 8230. Section 51A. Children will need to sing a few lines from a self-selected song and read some dialogue given by the organisers. 46100 Petaling Jaya).They will receive certificates for completion of the workshop. . Jalan 222A. so act now. Call 012-203 2317 (Maggie Loo) to sign up. FusionExcel International will be approaching local children’s homes to inform them of the event and where to audition.
A. therefore. Each sentence contains . Too many simple sentences. complex Sentences: Simple. Alejandro played football. but. subjects are in yellow. After that. for example. The above three sentences are compound sentences. yet. I tried to speak Spanish. C. B. and it expresses a complete thought. nor. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. for Maria went shopping. and. coordinators are always preceded by a comma. and sentence C contains a compound verb. In the following simple sentences. Compound. or. but they can also contain a compound subjects or verbs. subjects are in yellow. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS. Note that sentence B contains a compound subject. COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. This page contains definitions of simple. The purpose of these examples is to help the ESL/EFL learner to identify sentence basics including identification of sentences in the short quizzes that follow. and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red. Alejandro played football. it will be possible to analyze more complex sentences varieties. Simple sentences. so Maria went shopping.ISL M5 Sentence types. and verbs are in green. Some students like to study in the mornings. verbs are in green. and Complex Experienced writers use a variety of sentences to make their writing interesting and lively. In the following compound sentences. so. B. The coordinators are as follows: for. contains a subject and a verb. The three examples above are all simple sentences. contain a subject and verb and express a complete thought. compound.) Except for very short sentences. also called an independent clause. simple. and complex sentences with many simple examples. and my friend tried to speak English. A. C. will sound choppy and immature while too many long sentences will be difficult to read and hard to understand. compound. SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.
" How can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between the two clauses? What implications would the use of "yet" or "but" have on the meaning of the sentence? COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. Note how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. possibly. "Alejandro played football" first. for or because "Maria went shopping. COMPLEX SENTENCES / ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Finally. "Alejandro played football" because. and E. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the sentence. and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. subjects are in yellow. however. When he handed in his homework. are identical except for the coordinators. and E. or which. although. the independent clauses are also underlined. and sentence E begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. and as a consequence. In sentence B. for example. The comma after the dependent clause in sentence D is required. Juan and Maria went to the movies. verbs. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B. E. Sentences B and C. C. and subordinators are marked the same as in the previous sentences. and in these sentences. and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.two independent clauses. In the following complex sentences. he forgot to give the teacher the last page. C. When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D. who. After they finished studying. Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. C. In sentence C. "Maria went shopping" first. In sentence E. or when or a relative pronoun such as that. after. B. it is wrong. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying. he didn't have anything else to do. sentences containing adjective clauses (or dependent clauses) are also complex because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because. and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight pause there. no comma is required. D. A. The subjects. "Maria went shopping. . which action occurred first? Obviously. verbs are in green. since. In sentence C.
but for now it is important to know that sentences containing adjective clauses are complex. This quiz is just six sentences. by Bruno Lessing. this one about Helen Keller contains ten sentences. CONCLUSION Are sure you now know the differences between simple. D. The house which AbrahAM Lincoln was born in is still standing. you will have the flexibility to (1) convey your ideas precisely and (2) entertain with sentence variety at the same time! Good luck with these exercises! . compound. These quiz sentences based on the short story. The town where I grew up is in the United States.A. The woman who(m) my mom talked to sells cosmetics. The Americanization of Shadrach Cohen. Remember that with the skill to write good simple. Quick Quiz: Shadrach After each quiz. and complex sentences. Another quiz. The book that Jonathan read is on the shelf. compound. B. C. Adjective Clauses are studied in this site separately. and complex sentences? Click QUICK QUIZ to find out. The key is to look for the subjects and verbs first. click GRADE QUIZ to see your score immediately.
The Jensens are here. Information/WH Q. thanks. A: Are you married? B: Yes. Jan is eating her dinner." A: Are you from around here? B: Yes. I am. Jen has been living there since 1969. Joan played basketball last night. I do. simply switch the positions of the subject and first verb. Question Is Jan eating dinner? . I am.ISL M6 Classify types of questions (Yes/No Q. June has rented an apartment. A: Can I buy you a drink? B: No. To form a question from a statement. The easiest are questions that can be answered "yes" or "no. John is a doctor. Tag Q) Yes/No Questions There are many types of questions in English. One verb: is (be) One verb: drives One verb: played Two verbs: is eating Two verbs: has rented Three verbs: has been living If there is one verb in the statement and the verb is a form of be. Statement Jan is eating dinner. first count the number of verbs. Question Is John a doctor? Are the Jensens here? If there are two verbs. Jane drives a sports car. Statement John is a doctor. A: Do you come here often? B: Yes. simply switch the positions of the subject and verb.
Do Jane drives a car? (Not finished yet!) Does Jane drive a car? (Good question!) 3. and the verb is not a form of be. making it Did. Question Have you a pet ferret? (British) Do you have a pet ferret? (American) . the main verb have sometimes functions like be in questions. 1. Do Joan played basketball? (Not finished yet!) Did Joan play basketball? (Good question!) In conversation. Joan played basketball last night. A: B: A: B: A: Are you from California? No. I'm from Hollywood. The Johnsons live in that house. Jen has been living here since 1969. the process is more complex. Are you? Yes. Do you know any movie stars? No. Jane drives a car. move the past tense to Do. In British English. move the s to Do. If the main verb "carries" past tense. I'm from Oregon.June has rented an apartment. Do the Johnsons live in that house? 2. I don't go out at night. Has June rented an apartment? Has Jen been living here since 1969? If there is one verb. most questions are asked of the second person (you) and answered in the first (I). Add Do to the beginning of the sentence. If the main verb "carries" a third person singular s. This is not common in American English. Statement You have a pet ferret. making it Does.
Wh. Click for Audio Wh.) What is bothering you? For the predicate pattern.question formation depends on whether there is an "auxiliary" verb in the original sentence. amount (nonHow much? count) How many? Quantity (count) How long? Duration How often? Frequency How far? Distance What kind (of)? Description The "grammar" used with wh. wh.) baseball? (Something is bothering you. Auxiliary or "helping" verbs are verbs that precede main verbs.Questions allow a speaker to find out more information about topics. Who has my (Someone has my baseball.questions depends on whether the topic being asked about is the "subject" or "predicate" of a sentence. Auxiliary verbs are . simply replace the person or thing being asked about with the appropriate wh-word. They are as follows: When? Time Where? Who? Why? How? What? Place Person Reason Manner Object/Idea/Action Other words can also be used to inquire about specific information: Choice of alternatives Which (one)? Possession Whose? Person (objective formal) Whom? Price. For the subject pattern.Questions See also: Free-English-Study: Wh Questions.
Then.) ? was the meeting When was the meeting? If there is no auxiliary and the verb is not "be. I have eaten my lunch.word to the beginning of the sentence.word to the beginning of the sentence." add do to the beginning of the sentence.) ? is he Who is he? (The meeting was some time." invert the subject and verb. To make a question using the predicate pattern. then add the appropriate wh. They are leaving.) ? do you want What do you want? (You went somewhere. (You will leave some time. Be sure to "transfer" the tense and number from the main verb to the word do. (He is someone. Then add the appropriate wh-question word.) ? have they been Where have they been? If there is no auxiliary and the verb is "be. first form a yes/no question by inverting the subject and (first) auxiliary verb.) ? does she like (third person -s) What does she like? .) ? did you go (past tense) Where did you go? (She likes something. I can do it. (You want something.) ? is he doing What is he doing? (They have been somewhere.italicized in the following sentences. add the appropriate wh. I should have finished my homework.) ? will you leave When will you leave? (He is doing something.
to win a Nobel prize! Oh I must. The term "question tag" is generally preferred by British grammarians. did you? It's quite an achievement. while their American counterparts prefer "tag question". isn't it. will you? She doesn't really want those apples.2 Negation 2. does she? You'd better stop now. Some examples showing the wide variety of structure possible in English are: • • • • • • • Open the window. emphasis. search This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.4 Emphasis 2. Contents [hide] • • 1 Forms and uses 2 Tag questions in English ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • 2. tag questions are more common in colloquial spoken usage than in formal written usage.5 Variant forms 4 See also 5 References 2.1 False tag in Welsh English 3 Tag questions in the Celtic languages  Forms and uses In most languages. don't you? .3 Intonation 2.1 Auxiliary 2.5.Tag question From Wikipedia. or irony. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. hadn't you? So you thought it would be a good idea to reprogram the computer. (December 2006) A question tag or tag question is a grammatical structure in which a declarative statement or an imperative is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment (the "tag"). They can be an indicator of politeness. They may suggest confidence or lack of confidence. they may be confrontational or tentative. must I? I just adore Beethoven.
are atypically complex. doesn't he?  Negation English tag questions may contain a negation. like the present simple. not an auxiliary: • This is a book. because they vary according to four factors: the choice of auxiliary. for example. the negation. shouldn't he? He can read this book. are. such as Russian не правда ли? (not true?). eh? You went there. either solution is possible: • • He has a book. "ne?". didn't he? He's reading this book. Care should be taken by the confident speaker to make certain that any tag questions are not mistaken for a leading question. the tag question uses has or have. but need not. haven't you? You didn't buy it. hasn't he? He has a book. when they have the grammatical form of a question. aspect and modality of the verb in the preceding sentence. doesn't he? He'll read this book. the auxiliary is taken from the emphatic do form. won't he? He should read this book. the rule of thumb often applies that a positive sentence has a negative tag and vice versa: . isn't he? He reads a lot of books. all right? You've been there.  Tag questions in English English tag questions.• • • • I'm coming with you. is. "gell?". did you etc. no? Some languages have a fixed phrase for the tag question. Here the tag question repeats the main verb. can't he? A special case occurs when the main verb is to be in a simple tense.  Auxiliary The English tag question is made up of an auxiliary verb and a pronoun. right? Easier said than done. as the normal rules for present simple would suggest. The auxiliary has to agree with the tense. Some languages (notably English and the Celtic languages) construct their question tags to match the preceding clause for every sentence. If the verb is in the perfect tense.) If the main verb is to have. or "oder?" . this is echoed in the tag: • • • • • • • He's read this book. if the verb is in a tense which does not normally use an auxiliary. and if the sentence has a modal auxiliary. and are therefore quite variable: you've been here before. the tag is formed with am. if the verb is in a present progressive form. When there is no special emphasis. hasn't he? He read this book. French n'est-ce pas? ("is it not?") and German (known as "Refrainfrage") such as "nicht wahr?". isn't it? (Not doesn't it?. the intonation pattern and the emphasis.
does he? This is really boring. when some sort of response is required. As a rule. am I? Jack: I refuse to spend Sunday at your mother's house! Jill: Oh you do. is it? (standard English: This pizza's delicious. do you? We'll see about that! Jack: I just won't go back! Jill: Oh you won't.g. will you? Oh. aren't I? Scotland/Northern Ireland: Clever. or perhaps expressing surprised interest) He was the best in the class. these tags make a grammatical statement into a real question: • • • You're coming. is she? These are sometimes called "balanced tag questions". Most English tag questions have this falling pattern. strengthening the pattern. However. "Unbalanced tag questions" (positive to positive or negative to negative) may be used for ironic or confrontational effects: • • • • Do listen. Australia. positive to positive is used when no special effect is desired: • • • • This pizza's fine. amn't I? nonstandard dialects: Clever. This is contrasted with Polish. I'm lazy. isn't it?) England (and America. will you? (rising: expresses irritation) Take care. for example. The statement itself ends with a falling pattern. In North East Scotland. wasn't he? (falling: the speaker holds this opinion) Be careful. shall we? The falling pattern is used to underline a statement. will you? Let's have a beer. as many as 40%-50% of tags break this rule. ain't I? Note the following variations in the negation when the auxiliary is the I form of the copula:  Intonation English tag questions can have a rising or a falling intonation pattern. Are you coming?). and the tag sounds like an echo. it has been estimated that in normal conversation. etc. isn't it? Sometimes the rising tag goes with the positive to positive pattern to create a confrontational effect: • • • • He was the best in the class. aren't you? Do listen.): Clever. Since normal English yes/no questions have rising patterns (e. where all tags rise. . French or German. the English rising pattern is used when soliciting information or motivating an action. for example. was he? (rising: the speaker is challenging this thesis. won't you? Patterns of negation can show regional variations. • • He doesn't know what he's doing. isn't she? She's not French. that is.• • She is French. won't you? (falling: expresses concern) Sometimes the same words may have different patterns depending on the situation or implication.
 Emphasis English tag questions are normally stressed on the verb. In Central Scotland (in and around Stirling and Falkirk). Canada and the North-Eastern United States. In French. do you? I like peas. An occasional exception is surely. person or negativity. . do you? (rising: expresses surprise) You don't remember my name. this is instead a cleft sentence of the form: Lovely day. do you? (falling: expresses amusement or resignation) Your name's Mary. or the intonation pattern may be the typically English fall-rise. the adverbial tag questions (alright? OK? etc. and this type of cleft features in all extant Celtic languages. It is common in a number of dialects across the UK and US.  False tag in Welsh English It is often erroneously assumed that Welsh speakers of English use a tag question to make an emphatic statement. eg: Lovely day. which is also a kind of tag question. which are used in Welsh English in the same manner as the majority of the UK.  Variant forms There are a number of variant forms that exist in particular dialects of English. The lack of verb at the start of this construction coupled with the lack of rising intonation mark this as distinct from tag questions. This has its roots in the Welsh language. innit? He was the best in the class. this would be expressed with et toi?.) are almost always found with rising patterns. but the stress is on the pronoun if there is a change of person. • • I don't like peas. New Zealand. isn't it? (falling: expresses confidence) It is interesting that as an all-purpose tag the London set-phrase innit (for "isn't it") is only used with falling patterns: • • He doesn't know what he's doing. don't you? This is often a rising tag (especially when the tag contains no negation). The tag right? is essentially equivalent to the Spanish ¿verdad?. The tag eh? is of Scottish origin. isn't it? However. is in it. isn't it? (rising: expresses uncertainty) Your name's Mary.• • • • You don't remember my name. innit? On the other hand. These are generally invariant. regardless of verb. and can be heard across much of Scotland. this exists in the form eh no? which is again invariant.
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