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Medicinal Plant Diversity and Vegetation Analysis of Logged over Hill Forest of Tekai Tembeling Forest Reserve, Jerantut, Pahang
Norhajar Eswani, Kamziah Abd Kudus (Corresponding author), M. Nazre & A.G. Awang Noor Faculty of Forestry, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Tel: 60-3-8946-7169 E-mail: kamziah@putra.upm.edu.my M. Ali Perak State Forestry Department, Persiaran Meru Utama 30020 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia

The research is financed by Research University Grant Scheme, Universiti Putra Malaysia (03/01/07/0039RU)
Abstract The study was carried out to analyze the species diversity and study of quantitative analysis of medicinal plants in logged over forest in Tekai Tembeling Forest Reserve (TTFR). Four plots of 1-hectare size each were established within the forest area. A total of 6788 individual medicinal trees and non trees representing 231 species, 179 genera and 87 families were recorded. The species area curve did not approach an asymptote condition. The regression equation to estimate species richness was with r2=0.95%. The most diverse species for trees was Cinnamomum porrectum and Lygodium circinnatum for non trees. The most diverse plot was plot 2 with 7335 individuals and 188 species. Since the forest area was diverse in medicinal species, it is necessary to begin conservation assessment that will improve medicinal plants biodiversity. Keywords: Species diversity, Importance value index (IVI), Medicinal plant 1. Introduction Malaysia has been classified as one of the 12 megadiversity countries of the world. Altogether, these twelve megadiversity countries comprise at least 60% of the world’s known species (Latiff, 2005). Plant has been used for ages for food, shelter, treat human disorders and disease. Malaysia has about 15,000 species of flowering plants of which about 10% are said to be medicinal (Faridah Hanum et. al. 2001a, Faridah Hanum et. al. 2001b). Medicinal plant could be defined as plants which may have medicinal properties and many of them were collected from forest. Medicinal plants is one of the valuable non-timber in the forest. Traditional medicine is an important part in Malaysian culture and were practiced by ancestors long before the inroduction of modern medicine. The complete reports on the Malay traditional medicinal plants was reported by Burkill (1935) in a book entitled “A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula”. Burkill (1935) provided the first comprehensive knowledge about the medicinal plants of Peninsular Malaysia, and that became the starting point for the phytochemists and ethnobotanist to do some studies and research relating to the medicinal plants. All of these works add a comprehensive knowledge to the account of the Malaysian medicinal plants. ‘In conjunction with phytochemical screenings and chemical studies by the chemists, the above compilation attempted to introduce the diversity of medicinal plants to the Malaysian public was made. This is the key for future bioprospecting in Malaysia. It covers 135 families and more than 1000 species of medicinal plants. Those that are commonly used in traditional practices only cover about 103 families and 768 dicotyledonous species documented, and hence would definitely impeded the country’s efforts to better and judiciously utilize them for the benefits of the populations’ (A. Latiff, 2007). According to Tuan Marina et. al. (2007), there was high species richness, abundance and economic value of medicinal plants at Tranum Forest Reserved, Raub, Pahang. This forest categorized as hill forest. The most popular and high demanding of medicinal plants within this area are Phyllagathis rotundifolia, Labisia pumila, Mapania cuspidata, Homalomena sagittifolia, Peliosanthes teta and Tacca integrifolia. It proved that, hill forest also have abundance of medicinal plants to look at. This paper provides species diversity and quantitative analysis of medicinal plants in four hectare plots of hill forest of Tekai Tembeling Forest Reserve (TTFR), Jerantut, Pahang. The findings of this study indicate that TTFR is most

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diverse for medicinal plant such as Cinnamomum porrectum, Lygodium circinnatum, Globba sp., Labisia pumila and many else. 2. Methodology

2.1 Study site
This study were conducted at Tekai Tembeling Forest Reserve, Jerantut, Pahang. This is logged over hill dipterocarp forest and majority of the stocks are dipterocarp species. The fieldwork was carried out during May-December 2008. This forest area were logged over 2-5 years ago.

2.2 Data collection
Four plots each size 1 hectare were established at different elevation within the hill forest. Each of the 1 hectare plot were divided into 100 of 10x10m quadrates. The elevation range from 340a.s.l - 520a.s.l. Data were gathered from each quadrates. Data collected were divided into two groups, tree and non-tree. Plants with diameter at breast height (dbh) more or equal to 5.0 cm were classified as tree while plants with dbh less than 5.0 cm were classified as non-tree. Parameters recorded for tree were species name, dbh and height. For non-tree species name and number of individuals were recorded. Dbh for trees were measured at 1.37m above the ground level by using diameter tape. The height of trees were measured using laser hypsometer. All the specimens collected were brought to UPM herbarium for drying process and proceed to Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) for identification and verification by expert. Then, all the specimens were identified again according to Burkill (1935) to separate plant which possess medicinal value. Data on medicinal plants were recorded in database for statistical analysis.

2.3 Data analysis
Data collected were used to calculate frequency, density and basal area. Density, frequency and basal area of each species in each plot were calculated to seek importance value index (IVI). Vegetation analysis is the best way to study species composition and vegetation structure in one ecosystem and IVI were calculated in vegetation analysis (Bambang & Ati, 2006). Importance Value Index (IVI) is the sum of relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency for a species and is calculated as follows (Curtis and Mclntosh, 1950). This formula were used to calculate IVI for trees only. IVI of sp. i = relative density of sp. i + relative frequency of sp. i + relative dominance of sp. i where:

 

 

 
However, data on relative dominance which is derived from basal area is not possible for non-trees. According to Bambang and Ati (2006), IVI for undergrowth (non trees) calculated using formula modified as below: IVI of sp. i = relative density of sp. i + relative frequency of sp. i The Family Value Index (FVI) is the sum of relative density, relative frequency and relative dominance (tree only) for a family and was calculated using same formula as IVI, where species is replaced by family. The data for computing species richness, evenness and diversity indices were analyzed using Ecological Methodology Software (Krebbs, 1998) formula. 2.3.1 Species richness

Jackknife estimate
where;

ˆ s = s + ( n − 1/ n) k ˆ s = jack knife estimate of species richness s = observed total number of species present in quadrates
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n = total quadrates k = unique species
2.3.2 Species diversity

Simpson’s Index
where;

ˆ D = 1 − ∑ Pi 2 ˆ D = Simpson’s index Pi = proportion of species i in the community

Shannon-Weiner measure s
where;

H ' = ∑ ( Pi )(log Pi ) i =1 H ' = information content of sample (bits/individual) and index of diversity s = number of species Pi = proportion of total sample belonging to i species

2.3.3 Species evenness

Simpson’s measure of evenness
where;

ˆ E1/ D = (1/ D) / s E1/ D = Simpson measure of evenness s = number of species in the sample ˆ D = Simpson index

Smith and Wilson’s index of evenness

where

Evar = Smith and Wilson’s index of evenness ni = Number of individuals in species i in sample (i = 1, 2, ..., s) nj = Number of individuals in species j in sample (j = 1, 2, ..., s) s = Number of species in entire sample

3. Results and discussion (Note 1) Figure 1 showed the species accumulation curve constructed from the four 1-hectare plots. The number of medicinal plant species increase as the sample area increase but did not approach an asymptote condition. The actual number of species almost reach an asymptote condition. But the estimated number of species showed the number of species increase rapidly as the sample area increase and shows no signs to approach asymptotic condition. The estimated species richness plotted in Figure 1 followed the estimate regression equation with r2=0.95%. (Note 2) Table 1 showed most of the medicinal plant are from the group of tree, woody, climber and shrubs. 27 species from herbaceous, 14 from fern, 4 from palm and 3 from epiphyte. The largest group of tree, woody, climber and shrub represent 79.2% from all species occured. (Note 3) A total of 6,788 stems of medicinal plants comprising 231 species included in 179 genera and 87 families were identified from all four 1-ha plots. Most of the stems conquered by non-trees because the plots were logged over within 2-5 years ago, so it has lack number of large trees. The three most diverse families collected across all categories were Euphorbiaceae, Annonaceae and Rubiaceae. Most of these species families were represented by one genus and many species. These three families represent about 19.2% of the total species recorded in the study area. In terms of individuals composition, the study area was dominated by three most abundance medicinal tree species, namely Cinnamomum porrectum (Lauraceae), Garcinia scortechinii (Guttiferae) and Croton argyratus (Euphorbiaceae). For non trees the three most abundance medicinal species were Lygodium circinnatum

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(Schizaeaceae), Globba sp. (Zingiberaceae) and Croton argyratus (Euphorbiaceae). Appendix 1 showed the uses of each medicinal plants found in TTFR. The plants may be used internally or externally. The parts of plants used for medical purpose were leaves, roots, bark, stems and shoot. The use of medicinal plants for treatments such as skin disease, fever, coughs, post-natal mother, tonic and so many else. It were practised by our ancestors for many centuries ago and has been passed for every generations. These herbal medicine is an alternative remedy besides modern drugs. Nowadays, there were increasing of interest on value of medicinal plants. Possibly, the demand of these plants will increase as well for future health care needs (Shaharuddin, 2005). (Note 4) The distribution of dbh classes shown in Figure 2 conformed to a reverse ‘J’ shape curve with 359 individuals having dbh between 5.0-9.9 cm, 154 individuals of 10-14.9 cm dbh and 84 individuals of 15.0-19.9 cm dbh. The number of individuals with a diameter greater than 50cm was 7. In dbh range 5-9.9cm showed plot 4 has the highest number of species compared to others. The number of medicinal plants which have dbh less than 5cm was 6108 individuals. The reverse ‘J’ shape size class distribution curve was obtained which is typical of all types of forests particularly in the logged-over forest where small trees emerges due to canopy openings in the forest area (Kunwar & Sharma, 2004). Low pioneer vegetation dominated the area after logging. For trees the total number of medicinal plants is 674 while 6059 for non trees. The large proportion of medicinal plants with dbh less than 5cm indicates that majority of the medicinal plants are undergrowth. (Note 5) Appendix 2 showed the quantitative analysis for medicinal trees with dbh ≥5cm. A total of 99 medicinal tree species were observed from this study and the total of individual of trees is 674. Three most diverse species were Cinnamomum porrectum, Garcinia scortechinii and Croton argyratus. However, when the study site were evaluated in terms of importance value index (IVI), the three most important species are Cinnamomum porrectum, Shorea leprosula and Ochanostachys amentaceae. The dominant and co-dominant species were Cinnamomum porrectum and Shorea leprosula, showing their values of IVI of 20.84 and 18.43 respectively and the highest (35 plants / 4ha) value of density was also recorded for Cinnamomum porrectum with their contributions to the study site were 5.17% of the total density, 4.87% of frequency, 10.81% of basal area and 6.95% of IVI. Co-dominant species contribute 3.10% 0f total density, 3.02% of frequency, 12.31% of basal area and 6.14% of IVI. (Note 6) The non trees composition from Appendix 3, shows a total of 228 medicinal species were recorded. The study area were dominated by five most abundance species namely, Lygodium circinnatum (183), Globba sp. (147), Labisia pumila (147), Tectaria singaporeana (142) and Croton argyratus (126). These five medicinal species represent about 12.3% of the total medicinal plants species from non trees which found in the four hectare plots. The IVI also indicates that the area was dominated by these five species. (Note 7) Referring to Appendix 4, the most five dominant family for tree were Lauraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Guttiferae, Dipterocarpaceae and Annonaceae. While, the less dominant family were Styracacea with FVI 0.39 and Menispermaceae with FVI 0.34. Appendix 5 indicates the highest value for FVI from non trees were dominated by five family such Euphorbiaceae, Annonaceae, Rubiaceae, Melastomataceae and Zingiberaceae. Family from Violaceae and Orchidaceae possess the same lowest value of FVI 0.03. (Note 8) Figure 3 showed the dominance-diversity curve plotted between importance value index and species sequence for trees and non trees which indicates a relationship between different species showing importance value in study site. Species dominance related to the availability of suitable niche and resource apportionment in a community has often been interpreted from the dominance diversity curve (Kunwar & Sharma, 2004). For trees, at the beginning, the curve quite steep because there were several species possess high IVI value than others, but then the curve moving consistent with gentle slope. The gentle slope of dominance diversity curve indicates steady growth of trees, while sharp depression of the curve representing the small size classes of trees is the results of human disturbance (logging). For non trees the curve is not very clear. The different between the IVI value also not obvious. Thus, indicates all the medicinal non trees contribute the same significant to the composition of medicinal plants within this study site.

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3.1 Species Diversity
(Note 9) Referring to Table 2, the species diversity in four hectare plots of TTFR was calculated using Ecological Methodology Software (Krebbs, 1998). Comparison of the four plots in the study area showed the highest species diversity index H’=6.189, plot 2 and plot 1 showed the lowest species diversity index H’ of 4.632. Shannon-Weiner index (H’) was one of the most common indices used to evaluate forest diversity and the higher value of Shannon-Weiner’s index indicates high species richness (Tuan Marina, et. al., 2007). Shannon-Weiner measure assumes that a random sample is taken from an infinitely large population and that all the species in the community population are represented in the sample (Robert, 1974). The average of diversity index for Shannon-Weiner measure was 5.708 (above 5.0) indicates high diversity. The Brillouin’s index of diversity range from 4.56 to 6.108 and the Simpsons index (S) range from 0.869 to 0.976. Smith and Wilson’s measure maximum evenness value were recorded in plot 3 (0.38) while the minimum was registered at plot 2 (0.243). 4. Conclusion This study showed that TTFR has a diverse population of medicinal plants. A total of 6788 medicinal trees and non trees represented by 231 species, 179 genera and 87 family found within the study site. The most dominant medicinal tree was Cinnamomum porrectum (Lauraceae) while Lygodium circinnatum (Schizaeaceae) for non tree species. The most dense and diverse plot represent by plot 2 which comprise the greatest number of individuals and species. This paper concludes that a proper management from human disturbance and scientific management of medicinal plants of the forest area may lead a rich biodiversity site in Malaysia. Acknowledgements This study was conducted in collaboration with the Pahang State Forestry Department, Malaysia and was supported by Research University Grant Scheme (03/01/07/0039RU). References Bambang Hero Saharjo & Ati Dwi Nurhayati. (2006). Domination and composition structure change at hemic peat natural regeneration following burning; A case study in Pelalawan, Riau Province. BIODIVERSITAS, 7(2), 154-158. Burkill, I.H. (1935). Economic Products of Malay Peninsula. 2 vols. Crown Agent for the Colonies, London. Curtis, J.T. & McIntosh, R.P. (1950). An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology, 32, 476-496. Faridah Hanum, I., Ahmed Zainudin Ibrahim, Shamsul Khamis, M. Nazre, P. Lepun, G. Rusea, J.J. Lajuni & A. Latiff. (2001a). An annotated checklist of higher plants in Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve, Puchong, Selangor. Pertanika Journal Tropical Agricultural Science, 24(1), 62-75. Faridah Hanum, I., A. Rahim, P. Lepun, I. Edham & M. Nazre (2001b). Tree taxa inventory at Ayer Hitam Forest Base-Camp. Pertanika Journal Tropical Agricultural Science, 24(1), 29-34. Kamarudin, M.S. & A. Latiff. (2002). Tumbuhan Ubatan Malaysia. Pusat Pengurusan Penyelidikan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. ISBN: 983-2446-39-2. Krebbs, C.J. (1998). Ecological Methodology. 2nd edition. Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc. pp. 410-454. Kunwar, R.M. & Sharma, S.P. (2004). Quantitative analysis of tree species in two community forests of Dolpa district, mid-west Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Sciences, 2(3), 23-28. Latiff, A. (2007). Forestry, forest resources and forest biodiversity conservation in Peninsular Malaysia. Proceedings of the National Conference on the Management and Conservation of Forest Biodiversity in Malaysia. pp. 167-184. Latiff, A. (2005). Valuing the biodiversity of medicinal plant species in Malaysia. Sustainable Managemnet and Utilization of Medicinal Plant Resources in Proceedings of the International Conference on Medicinal Plants. pp. 3-16. Robert, W. P. (1974). An introduction to quantitative ecology. International student edition. McGraw-Hill series in population biology. ISBN: 0-07-050415-6. Shaharuddin bin Mohamad Ismail. (2005). Medicinal plant resources from the forests of peninsular Malaysia: Issues and challenges. Sustainable Managemnet and Utilization of Medicinal Plant Resources in Proceedings of the International Conference on Medicinal Plants. pp. 51-66.
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Tuan Marina, T.I., Awang Noor, A.G. & Faridah Hanum, I. (2007). Species diversity and economic value of medicinal plants in five-hectare plots of hill dipterocarp forest, Pahang. Proceedings of the National Conference on the Management and Conservation of Forest Biodiversity in Malaysia. pp. 414-426. Notes Note 1. Figure 1 is placed here Note 2. Table 1 is placed here Note 3. Appendix 1 is placed here Note 4. Figure 2 is placed here Note 5. Appendix 2 is placed here Note 6. Appendix 3 is placed here Note 7. Appendix 4 and Appendix 5 is placed here Note 8. Figure 3 is placed here Note 9. Table 2 is placed here

Table 1. Number of species by class Category of plant tree/ woody/ climber/ shrub herbaceous fern palm epiphyte TOTAL Table 2. Diversity indices of Tekai Tembeling Forest Reserve Diversity indices N Sobs R H H’ S E 4850 116 129.9 4.560 4.632 0.869 0.267 7335 188 223.6 6.108 6.189 0.976 0.243 2513 121 136.8 5.876 6.019 0.976 0.380 3119 133 151.8 5.866 5.993 0.975 0.322 Plot 1 Plot 2 Plot 3 Plot 4 no. of species 183 27 14 4 3 231

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Figure 1: Species area curve

Figure 1. Species area curve

Figure 2. Distribution of medicinal plants in different size classes

Figure 3. Dominance diversity curve for the medicinal plants (trees and non trees)

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Appendix 1. Uses of medicinal plants in TTFR based on Burkil (1935) and Kamarudin & Latiff (2002)
NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 SPECIES NAME Acrotrema costatum Agelaea macrophylla Agrostistachys longifolia Albizzia splendens Alpinia malaccensis Alstonia augustiloba Amischotolype griffithii Amischotolype molissima Ancistrocladus tectorius Antidesma montanum Aralidium pinnatifitidum Ardisia crenata Ardisia villosa Arenga pinnata Artabotrys grandifolius Artocarpus elasticus Asplenium nidus Baccaurea brevipes Baccaurea parviflora Barringtonia scortechinii Bauhinia bidentata Blechnum orientale Bouea macrophylla Breynia discigera Bridelia tomentosa Callicarpa candicans Calophyllum rubiginosum Calophyllum wallichianum Campylospermum serratum Carallia brachiata Carallia suffruticosa Cayratia molissima Chassalia chartacea Chrysophyllum roxburgii Cinnamomum porrectum Cinnamomum javanicum Cinnamomum sintoc Clerodendron deflexum Clerodendron laevifolium Clidemia hirta Cnestis palala Colocasia esculenta Combretum sundaicum Connarus ferrugineus Coptosapelta griffithii Coptosapelta parviflora Coscinium fenestratum Costus speciocus Cratoxylum cochinchinensis Cratoxylum formosum USES protective medicine for women after childbirth. rheumatism and in an aphrodisiac with smilax for tooth-ache diarrhoea sores for remittent fever fever to treat malarial fever dysentery and malaria for headache in children, for measles, chicken-pox and malaria fever, rheumatism applied to the skin for scurf, ear-ache and orchitis for dropsyand jungle fevers. for stone in the bladder, phthisis, dysentery and lactagogue. treatment after childbirth dysentery, for poulticing ulcers and prevents conception. for washing hair and to facilitate giving birth to regulate menstruation to ease urinating the fruit are edible and the seed used as a spice to flavour food. given internally to women for nervous complaints and treatment of toothache urinary complaints and for dropsy. poultice for headache and for thrush poulticing over the kidneys. for colic, stomacache and for fever for abdominal troubles, for bringing on the menses and for poulticing wounds for itch and other skin complaints for itch and other skin complaints for dysentery and for fever the leaves for treatment in sapraemia. The bark is employed in the treatment of for worms, coughs, after childbirth as protective medicine and for bathing in pouticing swellings malaria, coughs, childbirth, cuts, wounds and ulcers. the fruit can be eaten tonic after childbirth diarrhoea and other intestinal complaints. As vermifuge. Also used for for fever and bowel complaints contains saponin which beneficial to human body. used as antidote for stomacache,after childbirth,malaria and gonorrhoea. for wounds, including snake bites. for head ache as antiseptic for skin complaints for colic and fevers for colic and fevers poultice cuts and sores with it. colds, rheumatism, pneumonia, tonic, depurative, small pox, coughs, for colic, itch, skin complaints and stomach-ache. used for antioxidants.

var

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51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

Croton argyratus Croton laevifolium Ctenolophon parvifolius Cyathea mollucana Cyrtandra capulata Cyrtandromoea grandis Dalbergia pinnata Desmos chinensis Didisandra wrayii Diospyros argenteum Diospyros buxifolia Diospyros lanceifolia Diospyros latisepala Diospyros sumatrana Dipteris conjugata Dissochaeta celebica Dissochaeta intermedia Donax grandis Donax parviflorus Dryobalanops aromatica Dysoxylum cauliflorum Elaeocarpus floribundus Elaeocarpus nitidus Embelia ribes Entada rheedei Epipremnum giganteum Epiprinus malayanus Erycibe albida Eurycoma longifolia Euthemis leucocarpa Fagerlindia fasciculata Fagraea acuminatissima Fagraea fragrans Fagraea racemosa Fibraurea tinctoria Ficus hispida Fissistigma lanuginosum Flacourtia rukam Forrestia griffithii Friesodielsia affinis Galearia fulva Garcinia atroviridis Garcinia griffithii Garcinia nigrolineata Garcinia scortechinii Gironniera hirta Globba patens Globba sp. Gnetum gnemon Gnetum tenuifolium Goniothalamus macrophylla Goniothalamus malayanus

to cure purging, diarrhoea and after childbirth. after childbirth cooling lotion for elephants for sores on the legs. after childbirth and cure fever fever for varicose veins, nervous disorders, itch and an embrocation for coughs dysentery or after childbirth and for vertigo a genus of herbs. applying in herpes treat venereal disease, diabetes and whiteness cure ill waist. venereal disease used as a protective medicine after childbirth in lower Siam its roots are eagerly collected as being of medicinal value affords an 'ubat meroyan'. after childbirth as protective medicine. snake bites, to sore eyes and for blood poisoning snake bites, to sore eyes and for blood poisoning treat wound, tooth-ache, stomach-ache, head-ache, eye complaints and urinary for rheumatism and for abdominal pains used as a mouth-wash for inflamed gums the fruit eaten by local in Sabah as an anthelmintic, alterative, tonic, coughs and diarrhoea for itch, abdominal complaints, colic and severe internal complaints. treat ulcerated nose. for healthy and ageless. used chiefly in childbirth used as a febrifuge, for internittent fever, for childbirth, head-ache,wounds, the roots used medicinally for poulticing sores as a poultice in fever and head-ache for passing blood in stools and for malaria a tonic after fever, for pains in the loins, for curing fever in children. Boiled after childbirth, dysentery, diabetes and for treating ulcerated noses. for fever, after childbirth, stomach-ache in children, fever, diarrhoea and after childbirth and for stomach-ache for diarrhoea, dysentery, dysmenorrhoea, to inflamed eye-lids and for small for fever for ringwormh for gonorrhoea after confinement and for ear-ache for abortion. used in making a lotion for running eyes curing cuts after childbirth as a protective medicine used as a protective medicine (meroyan) after childbirth. Cure a fever and ability to give invulnerability the fruit use to prevent constipation after childbirth for colds, fever, administering after childbirth, applied to swelling and used to treat small-pox and arthritic illness

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103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154

Gynotroches axillaris Hanguana malayana Henckelia platypus Homalomena sp. Hoya sp. Hulettia dumosa Hydnocarpus castanea Intsia palembanica Ixonanthes icosandra Ixonanthes reticulata Labisia Pumila Lansium domesticum Lasianthus oblongus Leea indica Lepidagathis sp. Lepisanthes tetraphylla Leptonychia caudata Litsea elliptica Litsea grandis Litsea lancifolia var lancifolia Luvunga scandens Lycopodiella cernua Lygodium circinnatum Macaranga conifera Macaranga gigantea Macaranga hypoleuca Macaranga triloba Maclurodendron porteri Maesa ramentacea Mallotus macrostachys Mapania palustris Medusanthera gracilis Melastoma malabathricum Memecylon dichotomum Memecylon minutiflorum Merremia peltata Mesua ferrae Mezettia leptopoda Microcos fibrocarpa Microcos latifolia Mitrella kentii Molineria capitulata Molineria latifolia Murraya paniculata Mussaenda sp. Nephrolepis auriculata Ochanostachys amentacea Oncosperma horridum Paramignya lobata Parkia speciosa Payena lucida Peliosanthes teta

var

for poulticing the head in fever pain in the bones. coughs after childbirth and another is for the poulticing of yaws-sores tonic for all disease of the abdomen and to the gums for tooth-ache for internal disorders and skin disease given to men who have become demented by reason of elephant spirits head-ache, cough used as potion (ubat pengasih) after childbirth as a protective medicine, to expedite labour, for flatulence, to cuts, ulcers, swellings,for rheumatism after childbirth skin complaints, including caterpillar itch, poulticing for body pains and for coughs, to procure abortion during the first three month of pregnancy. coughs and for bathing for fever during childbirth, for fever, ulcerated noses and cooling lotion in fever. it supplies the 'perawas' bark of native medicines and very aromatic applied to wounds. the leaves are used for poulticing boils. to reduce malaria fever. lotion in beri-beri, coughs and uneasiness of the chest protective medicines after childbirth and for wounds. for malaria and dopsy. for diarrhoea and dysentery used as a febrifuge, expectorant and anti-spasmodic for stomach-ache and poultice boils on the head. to treat high blood pressure. for itch, other skin disease and for pain at the heart. for cleansing wounds, fever has cooling properties. Good for kidney. for rheumatism and used to blacken teeth for diarrhoea, dysentery, women after childbirth, used for leucorrhoea, lotion for rheumatism, for vertigo and is given internally after childbirth one of the 'rempah ratus' or hundred ingredients given after childbirth for stomach-ache, for coughs, diarrhoea, worms, sore eyes, for washing hair poulticing wounds, draught taken after childbirth used for strengthen energy and maintain health the pulped use in cooking. the fruit use in cooking. for fever one of the several drugs to be sprinkled over the body of an elephant to cure for menorrhagia or used as lotion in ophthalmia, fever, used as a stomachic for blistered in stomach, tooth-ache, tonic and for tapeworm problem. asthma, recurrent fevers and dropsy. itch and used for treat hypertension. for fever, after childbirth and rheumatic fever fever to facilitate labour. prevent diabetes, kidney relating problem, hypertension, stomach-ache and to after childbirth treating diarrhoea

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155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206

Pentaspadon motleyi Peperomia sp. Phyllanthus emblica Pimelodendron griffithianum Pinanga disticha Piper sarmentosum Pittosporum ferrugineum Pleocnemia irregularis Plocoglottis javanica Podocarpus polystachyus Poikilospermum sp. Polyalthia glauca Polyalthia hypoleuca Polyalthia sumatrana Pometia pinnata Popowia tomentosa Porterandia anisophyllea Prunus arborea var arborea Psydrax nitidum Pteris ensiformis Pternandra coerulescens Pternandra echinata Pyramidanthe prismatica Pyrenaria acuminata Rhodamnia cinerea Rinorea anguifera Rourea acutipetala var acutipetala Rourea mimosoides Rourea rugosa Salacca glabrescens Salacia grandiflora Sandoricum koetjape Santiria griffithii Sapium baccatum Saraca cauliflora Sauropus androgynus Scaphium linearicarpum Scaphium macropodum Schima wallichii Selaginella intermedia Selaginella plana Selaginella wallichii selaginella wildenowii Shorea leprosula Sindora coriacea Sindora wallichii Smilax megacarpa Smilex sp. Spatholobus ferrugineus Sticherus truncatus Styrax benzoin Symplocos crassipes var penangiana

for itch and similar skin disease. kill the parasites but set up great irritation in anti-rheumatic and head-ache. fever, dysentery, head-ache, vertigo, dyspepsia, as a diuretic, conjunctivitis, fruit edible. an antidote to poison ingested to cure weakness and pains in the bones, head-ache, for 'panau' or malaria cure diarrhoea and skin complaints. for ear-ache. as a alternative in rheumatism and for painful joints. prescribes leaves for application to an abscess or carbuncle before and roots give to women after chilbirth to shrink the uterus. after childbirth as a protective medicine (ubat meroyan) the plants used for head-ache fever and to festering sores ingredient for poison. for itch and abortion. the bitter bark tasting like laurel is medicinal. There is glucoside in it like f diarrhoea. Hydrocyanic acid occurs in the leaves. for cleansing unhealthy tongues of children and for glandular swelling of the for poulticing in orchitis or hydrocele, for vomiting and administered after for coughs and asthma. for diarrhoea and snake-bite for sores on the legs. after chilbirth, protective medicine, for stomach-ache and used as a poultice as a protective draught after childbirth. for lumbago. colic, leprosy, as an 'ubat meroyan' after childbirth and to children for colds. for constipation and apparently it is resorted to freely. fruit edible. after childbirth. one of the rempah ratusas a protective medicine after childbirth, for remittent prescribed for rheumatism. to treat 'bisul'. the fruit is used medicinally. for fever and for stricture of the bladder. as a febrifuge. for fever and dysentery. one of the 'rempah ratus' infused to make a draught for a mother after for stomach-ache, rheumatism and asthma. to stop bleeding. as a protective medicine after childbirth for high fever, for pains in the back, tonic medicine and poultices for skin a tonic for adolescent. wood-oil is used for medicinal purposes. Use after childbirth. the juice is given to a child at birth. after childbirth. for colic and after childbirth, for irregular menstruation, uterine haemorrhage, useful in healing high fever. used for asthma in children. for stomach-ache.

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Symplocos rubiginosa Syngramma alismifolia Syzygium polyanthum Tacca integrifolia Taenitis blechnoides Tectaria singaporeana Tetracera indica Tetracera scandens Thottea corymbosa Thottea tomentosa Tinomiscium petiolare Toona sp. Trema orientalis Uncaria cordata Urophyllum glabrum Uvaria grandiflora Ventilago sp. Xanthophyllum amoenum Ximenia americana Xylopia ferruginea Xylopia malayana var obscura Zingiber griffithii Zingiber officinale Zingiber spectabile Ziziphus kunstleri

for swollen spleen. Used as a substitute for Helminthostachys (as a tonic, for fever, medicine for for diarrhoea and for itch. as a poultice for a rash due to irritant hairy caterpillars. use as protective medicine (ubat meroyan) after childbirth. cure for fever and a post-natal tonic. for itch. after childbirth also given in dysentery, diarrhoea, for burns and for coughs. for tooth-ache and as a diuretic during confinement. for poulticing skin complanits, Snake bites and for coughs. for rheumatism. for dysentery, poultices to wounds. for sore tongue, for diarrhoea and the passing of blood in the urine. used for sores and callus. for fever. to warm children body, after childbirth, stomach-ache, tooth-ache, scabies and tonic the fruit used for head skin itch and remove danddruff. for colic. to stop vomiting. one of the hundred ingredients (rempah ratus) given to a women after used for poulticing, for giddiness, fever and cure asthma. ginger taken into stomach is a warm, stimulating carminative and when for poulticing swelling and for bathing eyes with inflamed lids. administered after childbirth.

Appendix 2. Quantitative analysis of vegetation of medicinal plants (trees) in TTFR
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Species name Cinnamomum porrectum Shorea leprosula Ochanostachys amentacea Garcinia scortechinii Elaeocarpus floribundus Xanthophyllum amoenum Croton argyratus Cinnamomum javanicum Mallotus macrostachys Memecylon minutiflorum Scaphium linearicarpum Mesua ferrae Rhodamnia cinerea Artocarpus elasticus Flacourtia rukam Baccaurea parviflora Hydnocarpus castanea Xylopia ferruginea Polyalthia hypoleuca Polyalthia sumatrana Family Lauraceae Dipterocarpaceae Olacaceae Guttiferae Elaeocarpaceae Polygalaceae Euphorbiaceae Lauraceae Euphorbiaceae Melastomataceae Sterculiaceae Guttiferae Myrtaceae Moraceae Flacourtiaceae Euphorbiaceae Flacourtiaceae Annonaceae Annonaceae Annonaceae D 35 21 15 30 23 21 29 20 22 21 14 13 18 5 16 17 8 12 15 15 F 29 18 14 27 22 20 20 16 15 18 13 13 13 5 16 16 7 12 15 13 BA 1.542 1.756 1.356 0.538 0.367 0.398 0.182 0.396 0.314 0.231 0.423 0.340 0.233 0.642 0.131 0.097 0.499 0.226 0.087 0.118 RD (%) 5.19 3.12 2.23 4.45 3.41 3.12 4.30 2.97 3.26 3.12 2.08 1.93 2.67 0.74 2.37 2.52 1.19 1.78 2.23 2.23 RF (%) 4.89 3.04 2.36 4.55 3.71 3.37 3.37 2.70 2.53 3.04 2.19 2.19 2.19 0.84 2.70 2.70 1.18 2.02 2.53 2.19 RBA (%) 10.85 12.36 9.54 3.79 2.58 2.80 1.28 2.79 2.21 1.63 2.98 2.39 1.64 4.52 0.92 0.68 3.51 1.59 0.61 0.83 IVI 20.93 18.51 14.13 12.79 9.70 9.29 8.96 8.45 8.01 7.78 7.25 6.51 6.50 6.11 5.99 5.90 5.88 5.39 5.37 5.25

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Psydrax nitidum Medusanthera gracilis Memecylon dichotomum var Maclurodendron porteri Diospyros lanceifolia Cinnamomum sintoc Trema orientalis Sindora coriacea Scaphium macropodum Urophyllum glabrum Ptenandra echinata Diospyros buxifolia Agrostistachys longifolia var Macaranga gigantea Baccaurea brevipes Pittosporum ferrugineum Ardisia crenata Litsea elliptica Sandoricum koetjape Eurycoma longifolia Fagraea fragrans Pentaspadon motleyi Ixonanthes icosandra Agelaea macrophylla Carallia brachiata Barringtonia scortechinii Bouea macrophylla Macaranga triloba Syzygium polyanthum Lepisanthes tetraphylla Parkia speciosa Breynia discigera Ctenolophon parvifolius Intsia palembanica Pternandra coerulescens Calophyllum wallichianum Rourea rugosa Macaranga hypoleuca Garcinia nigrolineata Elaeocarpus nitidus Prunus arborea var arborea Dryobalanops aromatica Diospyros sumatrana Litsea grandis Dissochaeta celebica Rourea mimosoides Payena lucida

Rubiaceae Icacinaceae Melastomataceae Rutaceae Ebenaceae Lauraceae Ulmaceae Leguminosae Sterculiaceae Rubiaceae Melastomataceae Ebenaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Pittosporaceae Myrsinaceae Lauraceae Meliaceae Simaroubaceae Loganiaceae Anacardiaceae Ixonanthaceae Connaraceae Rhizophoraceae Lcythidaceae Anacardiaceae Euphorbiaceae Myrtaceae Sapindaceae Leguminosae Euphorbiaceae Ctenolophonaceae Leguminosae Melastomataceae Guttiferae Connaraceae Euphorbiaceae Guttiferae Elaeocarpaceae Rosaceae Dipterocarpaceae Ebenaceae Lauraceae Melastomataceae Connaraceae Sapotaceae

14 11 15 8 13 9 15 5 9 10 6 7 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 7 5 5 4 3 5 6 3 4 4 5 1 4 1 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 3 3 2

13 8 7 8 10 8 9 5 9 8 6 6 8 6 6 5 7 5 5 6 4 5 4 3 5 5 3 4 4 5 1 4 4 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 3 2 2

0.136 0.233 0.155 0.235 0.073 0.202 0.040 0.257 0.076 0.043 0.138 0.112 0.040 0.105 0.097 0.095 0.046 0.122 0.096 0.026 0.099 0.074 0.110 0.149 0.046 0.022 0.126 0.072 0.065 0.016 0.186 0.025 0.088 0.113 0.060 0.060 0.012 0.036 0.027 0.022 0.020 0.106 0.015 0.057 0.010 0.023 0.033

2.08 1.63 2.23 1.19 1.93 1.34 2.23 0.74 1.34 1.48 0.89 1.04 1.19 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04 0.74 0.74 1.04 0.74 0.74 0.59 0.45 0.74 0.89 0.45 0.59 0.59 0.74 0.15 0.59 0.15 0.30 0.45 0.45 0.59 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.15 0.45 0.30 0.45 0.45 0.30

2.19 1.35 1.18 1.35 1.69 1.35 1.52 0.84 1.52 1.35 1.01 1.01 1.35 1.01 1.01 0.84 1.18 0.84 0.84 1.01 0.67 0.84 0.67 0.51 0.84 0.84 0.51 0.67 0.67 0.84 0.17 0.67 0.67 0.34 0.51 0.51 0.67 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.17 0.51 0.34 0.51 0.34 0.34

0.96 1.64 1.09 1.65 0.51 1.42 0.28 1.81 0.53 0.30 0.97 0.79 0.28 0.74 0.69 0.67 0.32 0.86 0.68 0.18 0.70 0.52 0.77 1.05 0.32 0.15 0.89 0.51 0.46 0.11 1.31 0.18 0.62 0.79 0.43 0.42 0.08 0.26 0.19 0.16 0.14 0.74 0.11 0.40 0.07 0.16 0.23

5.23 4.62 4.50 4.19 4.13 4.11 4.02 3.39 3.39 3.14 2.87 2.84 2.82 2.79 2.74 2.55 2.54 2.44 2.26 2.23 2.11 2.11 2.04 2.00 1.91 1.89 1.84 1.77 1.73 1.70 1.63 1.45 1.44 1.43 1.38 1.37 1.35 1.21 1.14 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.06 1.03 1.02 0.95 0.87

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68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99

Pyrenaria acuminata Cratoxylum formosum Microcos latifolia Santiria griffithii Pimelodendron griffithianum Diospyros latisepala Peliosanthes teta Dysoxylum cauliflorum Clerodendrum laevifolium Friesodielsia affinis Pometia pinnata Symplocos rubiginosa Garcinia atroviridis Murraya paniculata Schima wallichii Uvaria grandiflora Campylospermum serratum Styrax benzoin Albizzia splendens Entada rheedei Leptonychia caudata Porterandia scortechchinii Maesa ramentacea Microcos fibrocarpa Paramignya lobata Calophyllum rubiginosum Fibraurea tinctoria Lansium domesticum Mezettia parvilora Xylopia malayana var Polyalthia glauca Antidesma montanum TOTAL

Theaceae Guttiferae Tiliaceae Burseraceae Euphorbiaceae Ebenaceae Convallariaceae Meliaceae Verbenaceae Annonaceae Sapindaceae Symplocaceae Guttiferae Rutaceae Theaceae Annonaceae Ochnaceae Styracaceae Leguminosae Leguminosae Sterculiaceae Rubiaceae Myrsinaceae Tiliaceae Rutaceae Guttiferae Menispermaceae Meliaceae Annonaceae Annonaceae Annonaceae Euphorbiaceae

2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 674

2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 593

0.016 0.012 0.010 0.009 0.008 0.006 0.045 0.033 0.010 0.009 0.008 0.028 0.019 0.015 0.014 0.012 0.012 0.010 0.008 0.007 0.007 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 14.211

0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.15 0.15 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 100

0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 100

0.12 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.32 0.23 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.20 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 100

0.75 0.72 0.70 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.63 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.45 0.42 0.41 0.40 0.40 0.39 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.35 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.33 0.33 0.33 300

D = density, F = frequency, BA = basal area, RD = relative density, RF = relative frequency, RBA = relative basal area, IVI = importance value index Appendix 3. Quantitative analysis of vegetation of medicinal plants (non trees) in TTFR
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Globba sp. Labisia Pumila Tectaria singaporeana Croton argyratus Fibraurea tinctoria Melastoma malabathricum Species Lygodium circinnatum Family Schizaeaceae Zingiberaceae Myrsinaceae Dryopteridaceae Euphorbiaceae Menispermaceae Melastomataceae D 183 147 147 142 126 116 122 F 159 140 136 126 105 106 100 RD (%) 3.02 2.43 2.43 2.34 2.08 1.91 2.01 RF (%) 2.92 2.57 2.50 2.31 1.93 1.94 1.83 IVI 5.94 4.99 4.92 4.66 4.01 3.86 3.85

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Pinanga disticha Rourea rugosa Ziziphus kunstleri Shorea leprosula Garcinia scortechinii Trema orientalis Henckelia platypus Tetracera scandens Scaphium macropodum Uncaria cordata Macaranga triloba Baccaurea parviflora Breynia discigera Lasianthus oblongus Mapania palustris Homalomena sp. Urophyllum glabrum Dissochaeta celebica Rhodamnia cineria Smilax megacarpa Macaranga gigantea Mesua ferrae Spatholobus ferrugineus Macaranga hypoleuca Peperomia sp. Polyalthia hypoleuca Combretum sundaicum Cinnamomum porrectum Eurycoma longifolia Scaphium linearicarpum Diospyros buxifolia Embelia ribes Goniothalamus macrophyllus Taenitis blechnoides Dalbergia pinnata Arenga pinnata Lepisanthes tetraphylla Gnetum tenuifolium Ventilago sp. Cyrtandromoea grandis Pternandra echinata Piper sarmentosum Ochanostachys amentacea Alpinia malaccensis Agrostistachys longifolia var leptostachys Memecylon minutiflorum Flacourtia rukam

Palmae Connaraceae Rhamnaceae Dipterocarpaceae Guttiferae Ulmaceae Gesneriaceae Dilleniaceae Sterculiaceae Rubiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Rubiaceae Cyperaceae Araceae Rubiaceae Melastomataceae Myrtaceae Smilacaceae Euphorbiaceae Guttiferae Leguminosae Euphorbiaceae Piperaceae Annonaceae Combretaceae Lauraceae Simaroubaceae Sterculiaceae Ebenaceae Myrsinaceae Annonaceae Adiantaceae Leguminosae Palmae Sapindaceae Gnetaceae Rhamnaceae Scrophulariaceae Melastomataceae Piperaceae Olacaceae Zingiberaceae Euphorbiaceae Melastomataceae Flacourtiaceae

117 115 115 110 106 95 96 97 87 88 83 80 83 79 74 75 72 77 72 75 65 64 61 67 64 55 56 56 52 49 49 46 43 42 42 42 45 40 41 40 41 38 37 40 37 34 32

100 100 94 92 93 84 77 75 81 74 77 74 68 65 68 66 67 62 65 59 62 60 55 49 50 54 53 50 50 47 41 38 40 40 40 40 37 39 38 38 36 36 36 33 32 31 31

1.93 1.90 1.90 1.82 1.75 1.57 1.58 1.60 1.44 1.45 1.37 1.32 1.37 1.30 1.22 1.24 1.19 1.27 1.19 1.24 1.07 1.06 1.01 1.11 1.06 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.86 0.81 0.81 0.76 0.71 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.74 0.66 0.68 0.66 0.68 0.63 0.61 0.66 0.61 0.56 0.53

1.83 1.83 1.72 1.69 1.71 1.54 1.41 1.38 1.49 1.36 1.41 1.36 1.25 1.19 1.25 1.21 1.23 1.14 1.19 1.08 1.14 1.10 1.01 0.90 0.92 0.99 0.97 0.92 0.92 0.86 0.75 0.70 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.68 0.72 0.70 0.70 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.57

3.77 3.73 3.62 3.50 3.46 3.11 3.00 2.98 2.92 2.81 2.78 2.68 2.62 2.50 2.47 2.45 2.42 2.41 2.38 2.32 2.21 2.16 2.02 2.00 1.97 1.90 1.90 1.84 1.78 1.67 1.56 1.46 1.44 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.42 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.34 1.29 1.27 1.27 1.20 1.13 1.10

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55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101

Uvaria grandiflora Sapium baccatum Porterandia anisophyllea Mussaenda sp. Blechnum orientale Hydnocarpus castanea Zingiber officinale Cyathea mollucana Goniothalamus malayanus Donax grandis Leptonychia caudata Zingiber griffithii Macaranga conifera Rourea acutipetala ssp. acutipetala Xanthophyllum amoenum Barringtonia scortechinii Antidesma montanum Lycopodiella cernua Dissochaeta intermedia Baccaurea brevipes Molineria latifolia Clerodendron laevifolium Rourea mimosoides Ardisia crenata Donax parviflorus Xylopia ferruginea Nephrolepis auriculata Selaginella wildenowii Cinnamomum sintoc Maclurodendron porteri Campylospermum serratum Amischotolype griffithii Friesodielsia affinis Prunus arborea var arborea Smilex sp. Fissistigma lanuginosum Elaeocarpus floribundus Polyalthia sumatrana Spatholobus bornensis Zingiber spectabile Tetracera indica Polyalthia glauca Costus speciocus Garcinia nigrolineata Epipremnum giganteum Sindora coriacea Mitrella kentii

Annonaceae Euphorbiaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Blechnaceae Flacourtiaceae Zingiberaceae Cyatheaceae Annonaceae Marantaceae Sterculiaceae Zingiberaceae Euphorbiaceae Connaraceae Polygalaceae Lecythidaceae Euphorbiaceae Lycopodiaceae Melastomataceae Euphorbiaceae Hypoxidaceae Verbenaceae Connaraceae Myrsinaceae Marantaceae Annonaceae Oleandraceae Selaginellaceae Lauraceae Rutaceae Ochnaceae Commelinaceae Annonaceae Rosaceae Smilacaceae Annonaceae Elaeocarpaceae Annonaceae Leguminosae Zingiberaceae Dilleniaceae Annonaceae Costaceae Guttiferae Araceae Leguminosae Annonaceae

33 31 31 32 31 31 31 31 29 30 31 31 32 30 30 28 31 28 28 27 28 26 27 26 27 25 26 27 25 25 24 26 25 23 23 22 23 21 21 21 20 20 20 19 20 18 19

30 31 30 29 29 29 29 28 29 28 27 27 26 27 27 28 25 27 27 26 25 26 25 25 24 25 24 23 24 24 24 22 22 23 22 22 20 21 21 21 20 19 18 17 16 17 16

0.54 0.51 0.51 0.53 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.48 0.50 0.51 0.51 0.53 0.50 0.50 0.46 0.51 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.43 0.45 0.43 0.45 0.41 0.43 0.45 0.41 0.41 0.40 0.43 0.41 0.38 0.38 0.36 0.38 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.31 0.33 0.30 0.31

0.55 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.51 0.53 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.50 0.50 0.51 0.46 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.48 0.46 0.46 0.44 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.40 0.40 0.42 0.40 0.40 0.37 0.39 0.39 0.39 0.37 0.35 0.33 0.31 0.29 0.31 0.29

1.10 1.08 1.06 1.06 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.03 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.89 0.87 0.87 0.87 0.85 0.85 0.84 0.83 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.70 0.68 0.66 0.63 0.62 0.61 0.61

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102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148

Calophyllum wallichianum Cratoxylum formosum Galearia fulva Gironniera hirta Cinnamomum javanicum Diospyros sumatrana Agelaea macrophylla Maesa ramentacea Coscinium fenestratum Thottea corymbosa Medusanthera gracilis Epiprinus malayanus Mallotus macrostachys Hanguana malayana Litsea elliptica Ixonanthes icosandra Diospyros argenteum Gnetum gnemon Ximenia americana Selaginella plana Microcos latifolia Crytandra capulata var capulata Bauhinia bidentata Memecylon dichotomum var dichotomum Hullettia dumosa Leea indica Pimelodendron griffithianum Luvunga scandens Artabotrys grandifolius Sticherus truncatus Pentaspadon motleyi Ctenolophon parvifolius Sandoricum koetjape Coptosapelta griffithii Poikilospermum sp. Chrysophyllum roxburghii Diospyros lanceifolia Salacia grandiflora Tacca integrifolia Callicarpa candicans Dysoxylum cauliflorum Santiria griffithii Litsea grandis Psydrax nitidum Cayratia molissima Lepidagathis sp. Acrotrema costatum

Guttiferae Guttiferae Pandaceae Ulmaceae Lauraceae Ebenaceae Connaraceae Myrsinaceae Menispermaceae Aristolochiaceae Icacinaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Hanguanaceae Lauraceae Ixonanthaceae Ebenaceae Gnetaceae Olacaceae Selaginellaceae Tiliaceae Gesneriaceae Leguminosae Melastomataceae Moraceae Leeaceae Euphorbiaceae Rutaceae Annonaceae Gleicheniaceae Anacardiaceae Ctenolophonaceae Meliaceae Rubiaceae Cecropiaceae Sapotaceae Ebenaceae Celastraceae Taccaceae Verbenaceae Meliaceae Burseraceae Lauraceae Rubiaceae Vitaceae Acanthaceae Dilleniaceae

18 18 16 16 15 15 14 14 15 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 12 11 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 10 10 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7

16 16 16 15 15 14 14 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 6

0.30 0.30 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.23 0.23 0.25 0.23 0.23 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12

0.29 0.29 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.11 0.11

0.59 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.47 0.47 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.42 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.37 0.37 0.35 0.35 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.23

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149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195

Molineria capitulata Bouea macrophylla Desmos chinensis Erycibe albida Intsia palembanica Clidemia hirta Lansium domesticum Ardisia villosa Pittosporum ferrugineum Peliosanthes teta Pyrenaria acuminata Syngramma alismifolia Pyramidanthe prismatica Thottea tomentosa Phyllanthus emblica Carallia brachiata Coptosapelta parviflora Selaginella wallichii Parkia speciosa Hoya sp. Asplenium nidus Amischotolype molissima Cyrtandra capulata var capulata Toona sp. Chassalia chartacea Pometia pinnata Clerodendron deflexum Ancistrocladus tectorius Popowia tomentosa Colocasia esculenta Forrestia griffithii Cratoxylum cochinchinense Litsea lancifolia var lancifolia Oncosperma horridum Salacca glabrescens Payena lucida Selaginella intermedia Styrax benzoin Symplocos rubiginosa Diospyros latisepala Garcinia atroviridis Paramignya lobata Mezettia leptopoda Alstonia augustiloba Aralidium pinnatifitidum Connarus ferrugineus Dipteris conjugata

Hypoxidaceae Anacardiaceae Annonaceae Convolvulaceae Leguminosae Melastomataceae Meliaceae Myrsinaceae Pittosporaceae Convallariaceae Theaceae Adiantaceae Annonaceae Aristolochiaceae Euphorbiaceae Rhizophoraceae Rubiaceae Selaginellaceae Leguminosae Asclepiadaceae Aspleniaceae Commelinaceae Gesneriaceae Meliaceae Rubiaceae Sapindaceae Verbenaceae Ancistrocladaceae Annonaceae Araceae Commelinaceae Guttiferae Lauraceae Palmae Palmae Sapotaceae Selaginellaceae Styracaceae Symplocaceae Ebenaceae Guttiferae Rutaceae Annonaceae Apocynaceae Aralidiaceae Connaraceae Dipteridaceae

7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

0.12 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04

0.23 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07

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196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228

Garcinia griffithii Fagraea fragrans Fagraea racemosa Pternandra coerulescens Artocarpus elasticus Pinanga pumila Podocarpus polystachyus Pteris ensiformis Carallia suffruticosa Schima wallichii Globba patens Xylopia malayana var obscura Cnestis palala Merremia peltata Pleocnemia irregularis Bridelia tomentosa Croton laevifolium Sauropus androgynus Didissandra wrayi Ixonanthes reticulata Saraca cauliflora Sindora wallichii Fagraea acuminatissima Tinomiscium petiolare Ficus hispida Syzygium polyanthum Euthemis leucocarpa Plocoglottis javanica Gynotroches axillaris Fagerlindia fasciculata Symplocos crassipes var penangiana Microcos fibrocarpa Rinorea anguifera

Guttiferae Loganiaceae Loganiaceae Melastomataceae Moraceae Palmae Podocarpaceae Pteridaceae Rhizophoraceae Theaceae Zingiberaceae Annonaceae Connaraceae Convolvulaceae Dryopteridaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Gesneriaceae Ixonanthaceae Leguminosae Leguminosae Loganiaceae Menispermaceae Moraceae Myrtaceae Ochnaceae Orchidaceae Rhizophoraceae Rubiaceae Symplocaceae Tiliaceae Violaceae

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6059

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5450

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 100

0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 100

0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 200

D = density, F = frequency, RD = relative density, RF = relative frequency, IVI = importance value index

Appendix 4. Quantitative analysis for Family Value Index (tree)
Family 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lauraceae Euphorbiaceae Guttiferae Dipterocarpaceae Annonaceae Melastomataceae Olacaceae Flacourtiaceae D 71 104 53 22 48 48 15 24 F 60 85 50 19 45 37 14 23 BA 2.319 0.979 0.999 1.862 0.459 0.595 1.356 0.630 RD(%) 10.53 15.43 7.86 3.26 7.12 7.12 2.23 3.56 RF(%) 10.12 14.33 8.43 3.20 7.59 6.24 2.36 3.88 RBA(%) 16.32 6.89 7.03 13.10 3.23 4.19 9.54 4.43 FVI 36.97 36.66 23.32 19.57 17.94 17.55 14.13 11.87

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9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Sterculiaceae Elaeocarpaceae Polygalaceae Rubiaceae Ebenaceae Myrtaceae Leguminosae Moraceae Rutaceae Icacinaceae Connaraceae Ulmaceae Anacardiaceae Meliaceae Myrsinaceae Pittosporaceae Simaroubaceae Sapindaceae Loganiaceae Ixonanthaceae Rhizophoraceae Lecythidaceae Ctenolophonaceae Theaceae Rosaceae Tiliaceae Sapotaceae Burseraceae Convallariaceae Verbenaceae Symplocaceae Ochnaceae Styracaceae Menispermaceae TOTAL

24 26 21 25 25 22 10 5 10 11 10 15 8 7 8 7 7 7 5 4 5 6 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 674

23 25 20 22 21 17 10 5 10 8 9 9 8 7 8 5 6 6 4 4 5 5 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 593

0.506 0.389 0.398 0.185 0.206 0.298 0.570 0.642 0.253 0.233 0.184 0.040 0.201 0.131 0.052 0.095 0.026 0.024 0.099 0.110 0.046 0.022 0.088 0.030 0.020 0.015 0.033 0.009 0.045 0.010 0.028 0.012 0.010 0.003 14.211

3.56 3.86 3.12 3.71 3.71 3.26 1.48 0.74 1.48 1.63 1.48 2.23 1.19 1.04 1.19 1.04 1.04 1.04 0.74 0.59 0.74 0.89 0.15 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.30 0.30 0.15 0.30 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 100

3.88 4.22 3.37 3.71 3.54 2.87 1.69 0.84 1.69 1.35 1.52 1.52 1.35 1.18 1.35 0.84 1.01 1.01 0.67 0.67 0.84 0.84 0.67 0.51 0.51 0.51 0.34 0.34 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.17 100

3.56 2.74 2.80 1.30 1.45 2.10 4.01 4.52 1.78 1.64 1.30 0.28 1.41 0.92 0.37 0.67 0.18 0.17 0.70 0.77 0.32 0.15 0.62 0.21 0.14 0.11 0.23 0.06 0.32 0.07 0.20 0.08 0.07 0.02 100

11.00 10.81 9.29 8.72 8.70 8.23 7.18 6.11 4.95 4.62 4.30 4.02 3.95 3.14 2.90 2.55 2.23 2.22 2.11 2.04 1.91 1.89 1.44 1.16 1.09 1.06 0.87 0.69 0.63 0.54 0.51 0.40 0.39 0.34 300

D = density, F = frequency, RD = relative density, RF = relative frequency, FVI = family value index Appendix 5. Quantitative analysis for Family Value Index (non tree)
Family 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Euphorbiaceae Annonaceae Rubiaceae Melastomataceae Zingiberaceae Myrsinaceae Guttiferae Connaraceae D 707 319 328 321 272 239 233 189 F 619 305 291 275 252 219 209 169 RD(%) 11.67 5.26 5.41 5.30 4.49 3.94 3.85 3.12 RF(%) 11.36 5.60 5.34 5.05 4.62 4.02 3.83 3.10 FVI 23.03 10.86 10.75 10.34 9.11 7.96 7.68 6.22

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9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Schizaeaceae Leguminosae Sterculiaceae Palmae Rhamnaceae Dryopteridaceae Menispermaceae Lauraceae Dilleniaceae Ulmaceae Gesneriaceae Dipterocarpaceae Piperaceae Araceae Smilacaceae Ebenaceae Cyperaceae Myrtaceae Flacourtiaceae Combretaceae Marantaceae Gnetaceae Simaroubaceae Olacaceae Adiantaceae Sapindaceae Selaginellaceae Scrophulariaceae Verbenaceae Rutaceae Hypoxidaceae Commelinaceae Blechnaceae Cyatheaceae Polygalaceae Lecythidaceae Lycopodiaceae Meliaceae Ochnaceae Oleandraceae Rosaceae Elaeocarpaceae Costaceae Aristolochiaceae Pandaceae Anacardiaceae Moraceae

183 166 167 167 156 143 132 119 124 111 112 110 102 98 98 88 74 73 63 56 57 52 52 49 47 49 47 40 38 39 35 33 31 31 30 28 28 27 25 26 23 23 20 19 16 15 14

159 156 155 148 132 127 120 112 101 99 93 92 86 85 81 77 68 66 60 53 52 51 50 47 45 41 42 38 38 36 31 29 29 28 27 28 27 26 25 24 23 20 18 18 16 15 14

3.02 2.74 2.76 2.76 2.57 2.36 2.18 1.96 2.05 1.83 1.85 1.82 1.68 1.62 1.62 1.45 1.22 1.20 1.04 0.92 0.94 0.86 0.86 0.81 0.78 0.81 0.78 0.66 0.63 0.64 0.58 0.54 0.51 0.51 0.50 0.46 0.46 0.45 0.41 0.43 0.38 0.38 0.33 0.31 0.26 0.25 0.23

2.92 2.86 2.84 2.72 2.42 2.33 2.20 2.06 1.85 1.82 1.71 1.69 1.58 1.56 1.49 1.41 1.25 1.21 1.10 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.92 0.86 0.83 0.75 0.77 0.70 0.70 0.66 0.57 0.53 0.53 0.51 0.50 0.51 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.37 0.33 0.33 0.29 0.28 0.26

5.94 5.60 5.60 5.47 5.00 4.69 4.38 4.02 3.90 3.65 3.55 3.50 3.26 3.18 3.10 2.87 2.47 2.42 2.14 1.90 1.89 1.79 1.78 1.67 1.60 1.56 1.55 1.36 1.32 1.30 1.15 1.08 1.04 1.03 0.99 0.98 0.96 0.92 0.87 0.87 0.80 0.75 0.66 0.64 0.56 0.52 0.49

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Icacinaceae Ixonanthaceae Hanguanaceae Tiliaceae Sapotaceae Leeaceae Gleicheniaceae Ctenolophonaceae Cecropiaceae Celastraceae Rhizophoraceae Taccaceae Theaceae Burseraceae Convolvulaceae Vitaceae Acanthaceae Pittosporaceae Convallariaceae Loganiaceae Asclepiadaceae Aspleniaceae Symplocaceae Ancistrocladaceae Styracaceae Apocynaceae Aralidiaceae Dipteridaceae Podocarpaceae Pteridaceae Orchidaceae Violaceae TOTAL

14 14 13 13 13 12 10 9 10 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 6059

13 13 13 12 11 10 10 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 5450

0.23 0.23 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.17 0.15 0.17 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 100

0.24 0.24 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 100

0.47 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.38 0.35 0.31 0.31 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.23 0.21 0.19 0.17 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.10 0.10 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.03 200

D = density, F = frequency, RD = relative density, RF = relative frequency, FVI = family value index  

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