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EMOTION

The Definition of
Emotion

§ Emotion
§ a response of the whole
organism
§ physiological arousal
§ expressive behaviors
§ conscious experience
Theories of Emotion

§ Does your heart pound


because you are afraid...
or are you afraid because you
feel your heart pounding?
James-Lange
Theory of Emotion
§  Experience of emotion is awareness of
physiological responses to emotion-
arousing stimuli
Sight of Pounding Fear
oncoming heart (emotion)
car (arousal)
(perception of
stimulus)
Cannon-Bard
Theory of Emotion
Pounding
heart §  Emotion-arousing
(arousal)
Sight of stimuli simultaneously
oncoming
car trigger:
(perception of
stimulus) §  physiological
responses
Fear §  subjective experience
(emotion)
of emotion
Schachter’s Two-Factor
Theory of Emotion
Pounding
heart §  To experience
(arousal)
Sight of Fear emotion one
oncoming
car
(emotion)
must:
(perception of
stimulus) §  be physically
aroused
Cognitive §  cognitively
label label the
“I’m afraid” arousal
Cognition and Emotion
§  The brain’s shortcut for emotions
Two Routes to
Emotion
Two Dimensions of
Emotion
Positive
valence

pleasant
relaxation joy
Low High
arousal arousal
fear
sadness anger

Negative
valence
Emotion and
Physiology
Autonomic nervous system controls
physiological arousal
Sympathetic Parasympathetic
division (arousing) division (calming)
Pupils dilate EYES Pupils contract
Decreases SALIVATION Increases
Perspires SKIN Dries
Increases RESPIRATION Decreases
Accelerates HEART Slows
Inhibits DIGESTION Activates
Secrete stress ADRENAL Decreases
hormones GLANDS secretion of
stress
hormones
Expressed Emotion
§  People more speedily detect an angry face
than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)
Expressed Emotion
§  Gender and expressiveness
16
Number 14
of Men Women
expressions 12

10

0
Sad Happy Scary
Film Type
Expressed Emotion
§  Culturally universal expressions
Experienced Emotion
§  The
ingredients
of emotion
Experienced Emotion
§  Infants’ naturally occurring emotions
Experienced Emotion

§  The
Amygdala--a
neural key to
fear learning
Experienced Emotion
§  Does money buy happiness?
Average $20,000
per-person $19,000
$18,000
after-tax income 100%
$17,000 Percentage
in 1995 dollars
$16,000 90% describing
$15,000 80% themselves as
$14,000 very happy
$13,000 70%
Personal income
$12,000 60%
$11,000
50%
$10,000
Percentage very happy 40%
$9,000
$8,000 30%
$7,000 20%
$6,000
10%
$5,000
$4,000 0%
1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Year
Happiness is...
Researchers Have Found That However, Happiness Seems Not Much
Happy People Tend to Related to Other Factors, Such as

Have high self-esteem Age


(in individualistic countries)

Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable Gender (women are more often


depressed, but also more often joyful)

Have close friendships or a satisfying Education levels


marriage

Have work and leisure that engage Parenthood (having children or not)
their skills

Have a meaningful religious faith Physical attractiveness

Sleep well and exercise


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