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Experiment Aim

This experiment offers the determination of heat transfer coefficient through of the tubes

bank.

Experiment Objectives:

i. To determine of heat transfer coefficient for forced convection for tubes bank.

ii. To determine of coefficient of the forced convection system.

Experiment Apparatus

Experimental Procedure

1. The ON/OFF key is pressed once to turn unit on and again to turn it off.

2. The VELOCITY/TEMP key is pressed to switch between velocity and temperature

measurement.

3. The UNITS key is pressed to change units.

4. The RANGE key is pressed to change the ranges until the required one is shown.

5. The air inlet and air outlet temperature and heated bank temperature is recorded.

Average temperature

77.7 + 75.6 + 77.6 76.3 + 73.8 + 75.2

= =

3 3

= 76.97 = 75.1

1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s

71.5 + 69.0 + 70.0 64.4 + 62.3 + 64.0

= =

3 3

= 70.17 = 63.57

2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s

56.7 + 55.0 + 56.7 52.6 + 50.5 + 53.0

= =

3 3

= 56.13 = 52.03

Tb

33.3 + 34 29.6 + 30

= =

2 2

= 33.65 = 29.8

1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s

28.4 + 30.5 28.5 + 31

= =

2 2

= 29.45 = 29.75

2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s

26.6 + 29.5 27.2 + 29.3

= =

2 2

= 28.05 = 28.25

Interpolation calculation:

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟

−5 0.7177

70 1.028 1007 0.02881 1.995 𝑥 10

76.97 𝜌1 𝐶𝑝,1 𝑘1 𝜈1 𝑃𝑟,1

−5 0.7154

80 0.9994 1008 0.02953 2.097 𝑥 10

76.97 − 70.0

𝜌1 = ( )(0.9994 − 1.028) + 1.028 = 1.0081

80.0 − 70.0

76.97 − 70.0

𝐶𝑝,1 = ( ) (1008 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007.697

80.0 − 70.0

76.97 − 70.0

𝑘1 = ( ) (0.02953 − 0.02881) + 0.02881 = 0.02931

80.0 − 70.0

76.97 − 70.0

𝜈1 = ( ) (2.097 𝑥 10−5 − 1.995 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.995 𝑥 10−5 = 2.066 𝑥 10−5

80.0 − 70.0

76.97 − 70.0

𝑃𝑟,1 = ( ) (0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7161

80.0 − 70.0

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟

−5 0.7177

70 1.028 1007 0.02881 1.995 𝑥 10

75.1 𝜌2 𝐶𝑝,2 𝑘2 𝜈2 𝑃𝑟,2

−5 0.7154

80 0.9994 100 0.02953 2.097 𝑥 10

75.1 − 70.0

𝜌2 = ( )(0.9994 − 1.028) + 1.028 = 1.0134

80.0 − 70.0

75.1 − 70.0

𝐶𝑝,2 = ( ) (1008 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007.51

80.0 − 70.0

75.1 − 70.0

𝑘2 = ( ) (0.02953 − 0.02881) + 0.02881 = 0.02918

80.0 − 70.0

75.1 − 70.0

𝜈2 = ( ) (2.097 𝑥 10−5 − 1.995 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.995 𝑥 10−5 = 2.047 𝑥 10−5

80.0 − 70.0

75.1 − 70.0

𝑃𝑟,2 = ( ) (0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7165

80.0 − 70.0

1.5 m/s (using 𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 70.17)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟

−5 0.7177

70 1.028 1007 0.02881 1.995 𝑥 10

70.17 𝜌3 𝐶𝑝,3 𝑘3 𝜈3 𝑃𝑟,3

−5 0.7154

80 0.9994 1008 0.02953 2.097 𝑥 10

70.17 − 70.0

𝜌3 = ( ) (0.9994 − 1.028) + 1.028 = 1.0275

80.0 − 70.0

70.17 − 70.0

𝐶𝑝,3 = ( ) (1008 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007.017

80.0 − 70.0

70.17 − 70.0

𝑘3 = ( ) (0.02953 − 0.02881) + 0.02881 = 0.02882

80.0 − 70.0

70.17 − 70.0

𝜈3 = ( ) (2.097 𝑥 10−5 − 1.995 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.995 𝑥 10−5 = 1.997 𝑥 10−5

80.0 − 70.0

70.17 − 70.0

𝑃𝑟,3 = ( ) (0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7177

80.0 − 70.0

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟

−5 0.7202

60 1.059 1007 0.02808 1.896 𝑥 10

63.57 𝜌4 𝐶𝑝,4 𝑘4 𝜈4 𝑃𝑟,4

−5 0.7177

70 1.028 1007 0.02881 1.995 𝑥 10

63.57 − 70.0

𝜌4 = ( )(1.028 − 1.059) + 1.059 = 1.048

70.0 − 60.0

63.57 − 70.0

𝐶𝑝,4 = ( ) (1007 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007

70.0 − 60.0

63.57 − 70.0

𝑘4 = ( ) (0.02881 − 0.02808) + 0.02808 = 0.02834

70.0 − 60.0

63.57 − 70.0

𝜈4 = ( ) (1.995 𝑥 10−5 − 1.896 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.896 𝑥 10−5 = 1.931 𝑥 10−5

70.0 − 60.0

63.57 − 70.0

𝑃𝑟,4 = ( ) (0.7177 − 0.7202) + 0.7177 = 0.7193

70.0 − 60.0

2.5 m/s (using 𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 56.13)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟

−5 0.7228

50 1.092 1007 0.02735 1.798 𝑥 10

56.13 𝜌5 𝐶𝑝,5 𝑘5 𝜈5 𝑃𝑟,5

−5 0.7202

60 1.059 1007 0.02808 1.896 𝑥 10

56.13 − 50

𝜌5 = ( )(1.059 − 1.092) + 1.092 = 1.072

60.0 − 50.0

56.13 − 50

𝐶𝑝,5 = ( )(1007 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007

60.0 − 50.0

56.13 − 50

𝑘5 = ( )(0.02808 − 0.02735) + 0.02735 = 0.02780

60.0 − 50.0

56.13 − 50

𝜈5 = ( )(1.896 𝑥 10−5 − 1.798 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.798 𝑥 10−5 = 1.858 𝑥 10−5

60.0 − 50.0

56.13 − 50

𝑃𝑟,5 = ( )(0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7212

60.0 − 50.0

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟

−5 0.7228

50 1.092 1007 0.02735 1.798 𝑥 10

52.03 𝜌6 𝐶𝑝,6 𝑘6 𝜈6 𝑃𝑟,6

−5 0.7202

60 1.059 1007 0.02808 1.896 𝑥 10

52.03 − 50.0

𝜌6 = ( )(1.059 − 1.092) + 1.092 = 1.085

60.0 − 50.0

52.03 − 50.0

𝐶𝑝,6 = ( )(1007 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007

60.0 − 50.0

52.03 − 50.0

𝑘6 = ( )(0.02808 − 0.02735) + 0.02735 = 0.02750

60.0 − 50.0

52.03 − 50.0

𝜈6 = ( )(1.896 𝑥 10−5 − 1.798 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.798 𝑥 10−5 = 1.818 𝑥 10−5

60.0 − 50.0

52.03 − 50.0

𝑃𝑟,6 = ( )(0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7223

60.0 − 50.0

𝑃𝑟𝑠

Using interpolation,

Maximum Velocity

𝑆𝑇 𝑚

=( ) (𝑉) ( )

2(𝑆𝐷 − 𝐷) 𝑠

𝑆𝑇 = 0.0273𝑚

𝑆𝐿 = 0.0148𝑚

𝐷 = 0.0131𝑚

𝑆𝑇 2

𝑆𝐷 = √𝑆𝐿2 + ( ) = 0.0201

2

0.0273𝑚 0.5𝑚 0.0273𝑚 1.0𝑚

=( )( ) =( )( )

2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠 2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠

= 0.975 𝑚/𝑠 = 1.95 𝑚/𝑠

1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s

0.0273𝑚 1.5𝑚 0.0273𝑚 2.0𝑚

=( )( ) =( )( )

2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠 2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠

= 2.925 𝑚/𝑠 = 3.9 𝑚/𝑠

2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s

0.0273𝑚 2.5𝑚 0.0273𝑚 3.0𝑚

=( )( ) =( )( )

2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠 2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠

= 4.875 𝑚/𝑠 = 5.85 𝑚/𝑠

Reynolds Number

𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐷

𝑅𝑒𝐷 =

𝜈

0.5m/s 1.0m/s

0.975𝑚 1.95𝑚

( 𝑠 )(0.0131𝑚) (

= = 𝑠 )(0.0131𝑚)

2.066 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2 2.047 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2

= 618.22 = 1247.92

1.5m/s 2.0m/s

2.925𝑚 3.9𝑚

( 𝑠 )(0.0131𝑚) ( )(0.0131𝑚)

= = 𝑠

1.997 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2 1.931 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2

= 1918.75 = 2645.78

2.5m/s 3.0m/s

4.875𝑚 5.85𝑚

( )(0.0131𝑚) ( )(0.0131𝑚)

= 𝑠 = 𝑠

1.858 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2 1.818 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2

= 3437.16 = 4215.35

Nusselt’s Number

0.5m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.71𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25 = 0.71(618.22)0.5 (0.7161)0.36 ( )

0.7272

= 15.59

𝑆 0.6 0.36

1.0m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25

𝐿

0.7165 0.25

= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (1247.92)0.6 (0.7165)0.36 ( )

0.7283

= 25.18

𝑆 0.6 0.36

1.5m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25

𝐿

0.7177 0.25

= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (1918.75)0.6 (0.7177)0.36 ( )

0.7284

= 32.63

𝑆 0.6 0.36

1.0m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25

𝐿

0.7193 0.25

= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (2645.78)0.6 (0.7193)0.36 ( )

0.7283

= 39.62

𝑆 0.6 0.36

1.0m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25

𝐿

0.7212 0.25

= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (3437.16)0.6 (0.7212)0.36 ( )

0.7287

= 46.42

𝑆 0.6 0.36

1.0m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25

𝐿

0.7223 0.25

= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (4215.35)0.6 (0.7223)0.36 ( )

0.7287

= 52.52

𝑁𝑈𝐷,𝑁𝐿 = 𝐹𝑁𝑈𝐷

= 0.93(15.59) = 14.5 = 0.93(25.18) = 23.42

1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s

= 0.93(32.63) = 30.35 = 0.93(39.62) = 36.85

2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s

= 0.93(46.42) = 43.17 = 0.93(52.55) = 48.87

𝑁𝑈𝐷,𝑁𝐿 𝑘 𝑊

ℎ𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 = ( 2 )

𝐷 𝑚 . °𝐶

0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s

(14.5)(0.02931) (23.42)(0.02918)

= =

0.0131 0.0131

= 32.44 = 52.17

1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s

(30.35)(0.02882) (36.85)(0.02834)

= =

0.0131 0.0131

= 66.77 = 79.72

2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s

(43.17)(0.02780) (48.87)(0.02750)

= =

0.0131 0.0131

= 91.61 = 102.59

Mass Flow Rate

𝑘𝑔

𝑚̇ = 𝜌𝐴𝑉 ( )

𝑠

𝐴 = (𝑊𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ 𝑥 𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡) − 4(0.5 𝑥 𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑥 𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡)

= (1.0081)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(0.5) = (1.0134)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(1.0)

= 2.240𝑥10−3 = 4.504𝑥10−3

1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s

= (1.0275)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(1.5) = (1.048)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(2.0)

= 6.849𝑥10−3 = 9.315𝑥10−3

2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s

= (1.072)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(2.5) = (1.085)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(3.0)

= 11.91𝑥10−3 = 14.465𝑥10−3

𝐽

𝑄̇ = 𝑚̇𝐶𝑝 ∆ 𝑇 ( )

𝑠

0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s

= (2.240 𝑥 10−3 )(1007.697)(34 − 33.3) = (4.504 𝑥 10−3 )(1007.51)(30 − 29.6)

= 1.580 = 1.815

1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s

= (6.849 𝑥 10−3 )(1007.017)(30.5 − 28.4) = (9.315 𝑥 10−3 )(1007)(31 − 28.5)

= 14.484 = 23.451

2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s

= (11.91 𝑥 10−3 )(1007)(29.5 − 26.6) = (14.465 𝑥 10−3 )(1007)(29.3 − 27.2)

= 34.781 = 30.589

𝐴𝑠 = 𝑁𝜋𝐷𝐿

𝐴𝑠 = (17)(𝜋)(0.0131)(0.067)

= 0.0469𝑚²

Log Mean Temperature Difference

∆𝑇𝑚 = (℃)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛

ln(𝑇 − 𝑇 )

𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑜𝑢𝑡

0.5m/s 1.0m/s

(76.97 − 33.3) − (76.97 − 34) (75.1 − 29.6) − (75.1 − 30)

= =

76.97 − 33.3 75.1 − 29.6

ln( 76.97 − 34 ) ln( )

75.1 − 30

= 43.319 = 45.30

1.5m/s 2.0m/s

(70.17 − 28.4) − (70.17 − 30.5) (63.57 − 28.5) − (63.57 − 31)

= =

70.17 − 28.4 63.57 − 28.5

ln( ) ln( )

70.17 − 30.5 63.57 − 31

= 40.711 = 33.805

2.5m/s 3.0m/s

(56.13 − 26.6) − (56.13 − 29.5) (52.03 − 27.2) − (52.03 − 29.3)

= =

56.13 − 26.6 52.03 − 27.2

ln( ) ln( )

56.13 − 29.5 52.03 − 29.3

= 28.055 = 23.765

𝑄̇ 𝑊

ℎ𝑒𝑥𝑝 = ( )

(𝐴𝑠 )(∆𝑇𝑚 ) 𝑚2 . ℃

0.5m/s 1.0m/s

1.580 1.815

= =

(0.0469)(43.319) (0.0469)(435.30)

= 0.7777 = 0.8543

1.5m/s 2.0m/s

14.484 23.451

= =

(0.0469)(40.711) (0.0469)(433.805)

= 7.5858 = 14.7913

2.5m/s 3.0m/s

34.781 30.589

= =

(0.0469)(28.055) (0.0469)(23.765)

= 26.4338 = 27.4445

Efficiency

𝑄̇

ƞ= (%)

𝑃𝑒

𝑃𝑒 = 80𝑊

0.5m/s 1.0m/s

1.580 1.815

= = 0.0198 ≈ 2.0% = = 0.0227 ≈ 2.3%

80 80

1.5m/s 2.0m/s

14.484 23.451

= = 0.1811 ≈ 18.1% = = 0.2931 ≈ 29.3%

80 80

2.5m/s 3.0m/s

34.781 30.589

= = 0.4348 ≈ 43.5% = = 0.3824 ≈ 38.2%

80 80

Experimental Analysis

(W/m².ºC) (W/m².ºC)

0.5 32.44 0.7777

1.0 52.17 0.8543

1.5 66.77 7.5858

2.0 79.72 14.7913

2.5 91.61 26.4338

3.0 102.59 27.4445

2) Plotting Graph heat transfer coefficient vs velocity

theoretical vs velocity

120

Heat transfer coefficient

100

80

60

40

20

0

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Velocity

h_theory h_experimental

50

45

Average velocity, V (m/s)

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Efficiency, %

Efficiency, ƞ

Discussion

1. What will be happened if the tube banks are changed to become in line form instead of

staggered form in term of heat transfer coefficient and efficiency

If the tube banks are changed from staggered to inline, there will be changes in term of heat

transfer coefficient and efficiency. As the flow of air move into the staggered, the velocity

occurs at the minimum flow area between the tubes. The level of turbulence and heat transfer

increase with row number because combined effects of upstream which inline arrangement.

The obtained results show that the heat transfer rate increases with a reduction in the step of

the longitudinal tube diameter. The local heat transfer depends strongly on the Reynolds

number thus for in line, the heat transfer coefficient and efficiency increase. Increase the

Reynolds number, increase the turbulence for the flow.

2. Comments on the variation heat transfer coefficient by convection with air velocity and

heater power and efficiency of the system with air velocity

The heat transfer coefficient increase as the velocity of air increase. The heater power

remains constant while the efficiency of the system increase as the velocity of air increase.

3. List all factors that will be affecting the convection process

2. Temperature Difference between the two fluids - The greater the temperature

differences, the greater the heat transfer rate.

3. Fluid flow rate - Increasing flow rate will increase heat transfer rate.

4. The nature of the heat conducting materials - Some materials have a high conductivity

thus higher convection rates.

5. Surface area - The larger the surface area of the conducting interfaces, the greater the

heat transfer rate.

In this experiment, the flow is steady means no change at a point with time. Steady or

uniform flow implies no change with location over a specified region. This is because each of

the velocity use constant heater power which is 80 watts, so the flow considered as steady

flow.

5. What is differences between laminar and turbulent flows? Which one has happened in this

experiment? Explain.

Laminar Turbulent

1. The fluid flow in which the adjacent layers 1. The fluid flow in which the adjacent layers

of the fluid do not mix with each other and of the fluid cross each other and do not move

moves parallel to each other, is called parallel to each other, is called turbulent

laminar flow. flow.

2. Turbulent flow the fluid layers do not

in straight line.

moves in straight line. They move randomly

in zigzag manner.

3. The laminar flow always occurs when the 3. The turbulent flow occurs when the

fluid flow with low velocity and in velocity of the fluid is high and it flows

small diameter pipes. (Re < 2x105 ) through larger diameter pipes. (Re>2x105 )

In the experiment, the fluid flow is in laminar state since the Renaults number is low.

6. What is the difference in the measured values of heat transfer coefficient if one uses linear

average temperature instead of LMTD

If using linear average temperature, the calculation will be some error and heat transfer

coefficient value will be overestimated. The linear average temperature will give accurate

results in case of linear temperature profile. In this experiment, the temperature profiles are

logarithmic in nature.

7. Explain any unusual difficulties or problems which may have led to poor results.

The problem that the student encounters is during the adjustment of the fan controller to get

the desired volume flow rate. The knob is very sensitive to the slightest adjustment thus the

student have to listen to the sound of the fan while adjusting the speed in order to get the

desired fluid velocity.

8. In which mode of heat transfer is the convection heat transfer coefficient usually higher,

natural convection or forced convection? Why?

Convective heat transfer is a mechanism of heat transfer occurring because of bulk motion.

The convection of heat transfer usually higher in forced convection rather than natural

convention since the fluid motion is higher. The natural convection has very slow fluid

motion since it causes only by buoyant effect. With forced convection, turbulence occur thus

increase the convection heat transfer.

Conclusion

The flow of fluids and the heat transfer in tubes in the regulation of cross-flow are of great

importance in many engineering applications. The results show that the behaviour of flow

and heat transfer of the staggered bank tubes. The form of flow and temperature distribution

is affected by the Reynolds number. The enhancement of heat transfer is due mainly to the

increased thermal capacity of the suspension along with localized boundary layer thinning

over the tube sides, whereas the reduction in heat transfer results from turbulence suppression

and wake-narrowing effects. For most flow conditions and tube positions, the heat transfer

performance of the staggered tube bank is not preferable since the inline position provide

higher efficiency.

In industrial application, this convection used in condenser or boiler. There are two types of

tubes called fire tube and water tube. Fire tube which is fire in tube and water at its

surrounding for example in boiler or heat recovery steam generator but water tube means

water inside the tube and the heat or steam at it surrounding need to be condensate in

condensate tank. Mostly the boiler and condenser used in power plant to change water into

steam and steam back into water. The process will be circulated and added water from feed

water tank if the level of water decrease. This will completing the rankin cycle in power plant

generating electrical energy.

References

1) Yunus A. Cengel, Afshin J.Ghajar, Heat and Mass Transfer, Fifth Edition in SI

Units. 2015 . Singapore . McGraw-Hill Education.

2) http://academia.edu.com

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