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# Lab 1: Free & Forced Convection

Experiment Aim

This experiment offers the determination of heat transfer coefficient through of the tubes
bank.

Experiment Objectives:

i. To determine of heat transfer coefficient for forced convection for tubes bank.
ii. To determine of coefficient of the forced convection system.

Experiment Apparatus

## Figure 1: Free & Forced Convection Unit

Experimental Procedure

1. The ON/OFF key is pressed once to turn unit on and again to turn it off.
2. The VELOCITY/TEMP key is pressed to switch between velocity and temperature
measurement.
3. The UNITS key is pressed to change units.
4. The RANGE key is pressed to change the ranges until the required one is shown.
5. The air inlet and air outlet temperature and heated bank temperature is recorded.
Average temperature

## 0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s

77.7 + 75.6 + 77.6 76.3 + 73.8 + 75.2
= =
3 3
= 76.97 = 75.1
1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s
71.5 + 69.0 + 70.0 64.4 + 62.3 + 64.0
= =
3 3
= 70.17 = 63.57
2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s
56.7 + 55.0 + 56.7 52.6 + 50.5 + 53.0
= =
3 3
= 56.13 = 52.03

Tb

## 0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s

33.3 + 34 29.6 + 30
= =
2 2
= 33.65 = 29.8
1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s
28.4 + 30.5 28.5 + 31
= =
2 2
= 29.45 = 29.75
2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s
26.6 + 29.5 27.2 + 29.3
= =
2 2
= 28.05 = 28.25
Interpolation calculation:

## 0.5 m/s (using 𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 76.97)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟
−5 0.7177
70 1.028 1007 0.02881 1.995 𝑥 10
76.97 𝜌1 𝐶𝑝,1 𝑘1 𝜈1 𝑃𝑟,1
−5 0.7154
80 0.9994 1008 0.02953 2.097 𝑥 10

76.97 − 70.0
𝜌1 = ( )(0.9994 − 1.028) + 1.028 = 1.0081
80.0 − 70.0
76.97 − 70.0
𝐶𝑝,1 = ( ) (1008 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007.697
80.0 − 70.0
76.97 − 70.0
𝑘1 = ( ) (0.02953 − 0.02881) + 0.02881 = 0.02931
80.0 − 70.0
76.97 − 70.0
𝜈1 = ( ) (2.097 𝑥 10−5 − 1.995 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.995 𝑥 10−5 = 2.066 𝑥 10−5
80.0 − 70.0
76.97 − 70.0
𝑃𝑟,1 = ( ) (0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7161
80.0 − 70.0

## 1.0 m/s (using 𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 75.1)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟
−5 0.7177
70 1.028 1007 0.02881 1.995 𝑥 10
75.1 𝜌2 𝐶𝑝,2 𝑘2 𝜈2 𝑃𝑟,2
−5 0.7154
80 0.9994 100 0.02953 2.097 𝑥 10

75.1 − 70.0
𝜌2 = ( )(0.9994 − 1.028) + 1.028 = 1.0134
80.0 − 70.0
75.1 − 70.0
𝐶𝑝,2 = ( ) (1008 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007.51
80.0 − 70.0
75.1 − 70.0
𝑘2 = ( ) (0.02953 − 0.02881) + 0.02881 = 0.02918
80.0 − 70.0
75.1 − 70.0
𝜈2 = ( ) (2.097 𝑥 10−5 − 1.995 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.995 𝑥 10−5 = 2.047 𝑥 10−5
80.0 − 70.0
75.1 − 70.0
𝑃𝑟,2 = ( ) (0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7165
80.0 − 70.0
1.5 m/s (using 𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 70.17)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟
−5 0.7177
70 1.028 1007 0.02881 1.995 𝑥 10
70.17 𝜌3 𝐶𝑝,3 𝑘3 𝜈3 𝑃𝑟,3
−5 0.7154
80 0.9994 1008 0.02953 2.097 𝑥 10

70.17 − 70.0
𝜌3 = ( ) (0.9994 − 1.028) + 1.028 = 1.0275
80.0 − 70.0
70.17 − 70.0
𝐶𝑝,3 = ( ) (1008 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007.017
80.0 − 70.0
70.17 − 70.0
𝑘3 = ( ) (0.02953 − 0.02881) + 0.02881 = 0.02882
80.0 − 70.0
70.17 − 70.0
𝜈3 = ( ) (2.097 𝑥 10−5 − 1.995 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.995 𝑥 10−5 = 1.997 𝑥 10−5
80.0 − 70.0
70.17 − 70.0
𝑃𝑟,3 = ( ) (0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7177
80.0 − 70.0

## 2.0 m/s (using 𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 63.57)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟
−5 0.7202
60 1.059 1007 0.02808 1.896 𝑥 10
63.57 𝜌4 𝐶𝑝,4 𝑘4 𝜈4 𝑃𝑟,4
−5 0.7177
70 1.028 1007 0.02881 1.995 𝑥 10

63.57 − 70.0
𝜌4 = ( )(1.028 − 1.059) + 1.059 = 1.048
70.0 − 60.0
63.57 − 70.0
𝐶𝑝,4 = ( ) (1007 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007
70.0 − 60.0
63.57 − 70.0
𝑘4 = ( ) (0.02881 − 0.02808) + 0.02808 = 0.02834
70.0 − 60.0
63.57 − 70.0
𝜈4 = ( ) (1.995 𝑥 10−5 − 1.896 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.896 𝑥 10−5 = 1.931 𝑥 10−5
70.0 − 60.0
63.57 − 70.0
𝑃𝑟,4 = ( ) (0.7177 − 0.7202) + 0.7177 = 0.7193
70.0 − 60.0
2.5 m/s (using 𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 56.13)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟
−5 0.7228
50 1.092 1007 0.02735 1.798 𝑥 10
56.13 𝜌5 𝐶𝑝,5 𝑘5 𝜈5 𝑃𝑟,5
−5 0.7202
60 1.059 1007 0.02808 1.896 𝑥 10

56.13 − 50
𝜌5 = ( )(1.059 − 1.092) + 1.092 = 1.072
60.0 − 50.0
56.13 − 50
𝐶𝑝,5 = ( )(1007 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007
60.0 − 50.0
56.13 − 50
𝑘5 = ( )(0.02808 − 0.02735) + 0.02735 = 0.02780
60.0 − 50.0
56.13 − 50
𝜈5 = ( )(1.896 𝑥 10−5 − 1.798 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.798 𝑥 10−5 = 1.858 𝑥 10−5
60.0 − 50.0
56.13 − 50
𝑃𝑟,5 = ( )(0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7212
60.0 − 50.0

## 3.0 m/s (using 𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 52.03)

𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 ρ 𝐶𝑝 k ν 𝑃𝑟
−5 0.7228
50 1.092 1007 0.02735 1.798 𝑥 10
52.03 𝜌6 𝐶𝑝,6 𝑘6 𝜈6 𝑃𝑟,6
−5 0.7202
60 1.059 1007 0.02808 1.896 𝑥 10

52.03 − 50.0
𝜌6 = ( )(1.059 − 1.092) + 1.092 = 1.085
60.0 − 50.0
52.03 − 50.0
𝐶𝑝,6 = ( )(1007 − 1007) + 1007 = 1007
60.0 − 50.0
52.03 − 50.0
𝑘6 = ( )(0.02808 − 0.02735) + 0.02735 = 0.02750
60.0 − 50.0
52.03 − 50.0
𝜈6 = ( )(1.896 𝑥 10−5 − 1.798 𝑥 10−5 ) + 1.798 𝑥 10−5 = 1.818 𝑥 10−5
60.0 − 50.0
52.03 − 50.0
𝑃𝑟,6 = ( )(0.7154 − 0.7177) + 0.7177 = 0.7223
60.0 − 50.0
𝑃𝑟𝑠

Using interpolation,

## At 𝑇𝑏 = 28.25, 𝑃𝑟𝑠 = 0.7287

Maximum Velocity

𝑆𝑇 𝑚
=( ) (𝑉) ( )
2(𝑆𝐷 − 𝐷) 𝑠

𝑆𝑇 = 0.0273𝑚

𝑆𝐿 = 0.0148𝑚

𝐷 = 0.0131𝑚

𝑆𝑇 2
𝑆𝐷 = √𝑆𝐿2 + ( ) = 0.0201
2

## 0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s

0.0273𝑚 0.5𝑚 0.0273𝑚 1.0𝑚
=( )( ) =( )( )
2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠 2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠
= 0.975 𝑚/𝑠 = 1.95 𝑚/𝑠
1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s
0.0273𝑚 1.5𝑚 0.0273𝑚 2.0𝑚
=( )( ) =( )( )
2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠 2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠
= 2.925 𝑚/𝑠 = 3.9 𝑚/𝑠
2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s
0.0273𝑚 2.5𝑚 0.0273𝑚 3.0𝑚
=( )( ) =( )( )
2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠 2(0.0201 − 0.0131)𝑚 𝑠
= 4.875 𝑚/𝑠 = 5.85 𝑚/𝑠
Reynolds Number

𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝐷
𝑅𝑒𝐷 =
𝜈
0.5m/s 1.0m/s
0.975𝑚 1.95𝑚
( 𝑠 )(0.0131𝑚) (
= = 𝑠 )(0.0131𝑚)
2.066 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2 2.047 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2
= 618.22 = 1247.92
1.5m/s 2.0m/s
2.925𝑚 3.9𝑚
( 𝑠 )(0.0131𝑚) ( )(0.0131𝑚)
= = 𝑠
1.997 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2 1.931 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2
= 1918.75 = 2645.78
2.5m/s 3.0m/s
4.875𝑚 5.85𝑚
( )(0.0131𝑚) ( )(0.0131𝑚)
= 𝑠 = 𝑠
1.858 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2 1.818 𝑥 10−5 𝑚/𝑠 2
= 3437.16 = 4215.35

Nusselt’s Number

## 0.5 0.36 0.7161 0.25

0.5m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.71𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25 = 0.71(618.22)0.5 (0.7161)0.36 ( )
0.7272

= 15.59
𝑆 0.6 0.36
1.0m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25
𝐿

0.7165 0.25
= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (1247.92)0.6 (0.7165)0.36 ( )
0.7283
= 25.18
𝑆 0.6 0.36
1.5m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25
𝐿

0.7177 0.25
= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (1918.75)0.6 (0.7177)0.36 ( )
0.7284
= 32.63
𝑆 0.6 0.36
1.0m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25
𝐿

0.7193 0.25
= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (2645.78)0.6 (0.7193)0.36 ( )
0.7283
= 39.62
𝑆 0.6 0.36
1.0m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25
𝐿

0.7212 0.25
= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (3437.16)0.6 (0.7212)0.36 ( )
0.7287
= 46.42
𝑆 0.6 0.36
1.0m/s: 𝑁𝑈𝐷 = 0.35(𝑆𝑇 )0.2 𝑅𝑒𝐷 𝑃𝑟 (𝑃𝑟 /𝑃𝑟𝑠 )0.25
𝐿

0.7223 0.25
= 0.35(0.0273/0.0148)0.2 (4215.35)0.6 (0.7223)0.36 ( )
0.7287
= 52.52

𝑁𝑈𝐷,𝑁𝐿 = 𝐹𝑁𝑈𝐷

## 0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s

= 0.93(15.59) = 14.5 = 0.93(25.18) = 23.42
1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s
= 0.93(32.63) = 30.35 = 0.93(39.62) = 36.85
2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s
= 0.93(46.42) = 43.17 = 0.93(52.55) = 48.87

## Heat Transfer Coefficient of Theory

𝑁𝑈𝐷,𝑁𝐿 𝑘 𝑊
ℎ𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 = ( 2 )
𝐷 𝑚 . °𝐶
0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s
(14.5)(0.02931) (23.42)(0.02918)
= =
0.0131 0.0131
= 32.44 = 52.17
1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s
(30.35)(0.02882) (36.85)(0.02834)
= =
0.0131 0.0131
= 66.77 = 79.72
2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s
(43.17)(0.02780) (48.87)(0.02750)
= =
0.0131 0.0131
= 91.61 = 102.59
Mass Flow Rate

𝑘𝑔
𝑚̇ = 𝜌𝐴𝑉 ( )
𝑠
𝐴 = (𝑊𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ 𝑥 𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡) − 4(0.5 𝑥 𝐵𝑎𝑠𝑒 𝑥 𝐻𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡)

## 0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s

= (1.0081)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(0.5) = (1.0134)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(1.0)
= 2.240𝑥10−3 = 4.504𝑥10−3
1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s
= (1.0275)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(1.5) = (1.048)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(2.0)
= 6.849𝑥10−3 = 9.315𝑥10−3
2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s
= (1.072)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(2.5) = (1.085)(4.444𝑥10−3 )(3.0)
= 11.91𝑥10−3 = 14.465𝑥10−3

## Heat Transfer Rate

𝐽
𝑄̇ = 𝑚̇𝐶𝑝 ∆ 𝑇 ( )
𝑠
0.5 m/s 1.0 m/s
= (2.240 𝑥 10−3 )(1007.697)(34 − 33.3) = (4.504 𝑥 10−3 )(1007.51)(30 − 29.6)
= 1.580 = 1.815
1.5 m/s 2.0 m/s
= (6.849 𝑥 10−3 )(1007.017)(30.5 − 28.4) = (9.315 𝑥 10−3 )(1007)(31 − 28.5)
= 14.484 = 23.451
2.5 m/s 3.0 m/s
= (11.91 𝑥 10−3 )(1007)(29.5 − 26.6) = (14.465 𝑥 10−3 )(1007)(29.3 − 27.2)
= 34.781 = 30.589

## Heat Transfer Area, 𝐴𝑠 .

𝐴𝑠 = 𝑁𝜋𝐷𝐿

𝐴𝑠 = (17)(𝜋)(0.0131)(0.067)

= 0.0469𝑚²
Log Mean Temperature Difference

## (𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛 ) − (𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 − 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 )

∆𝑇𝑚 = (℃)
𝑇𝑎𝑣𝑔 − 𝑇𝑖𝑛
ln(𝑇 − 𝑇 )
𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝑜𝑢𝑡

0.5m/s 1.0m/s
(76.97 − 33.3) − (76.97 − 34) (75.1 − 29.6) − (75.1 − 30)
= =
76.97 − 33.3 75.1 − 29.6
ln( 76.97 − 34 ) ln( )
75.1 − 30
= 43.319 = 45.30
1.5m/s 2.0m/s
(70.17 − 28.4) − (70.17 − 30.5) (63.57 − 28.5) − (63.57 − 31)
= =
70.17 − 28.4 63.57 − 28.5
ln( ) ln( )
70.17 − 30.5 63.57 − 31
= 40.711 = 33.805
2.5m/s 3.0m/s
(56.13 − 26.6) − (56.13 − 29.5) (52.03 − 27.2) − (52.03 − 29.3)
= =
56.13 − 26.6 52.03 − 27.2
ln( ) ln( )
56.13 − 29.5 52.03 − 29.3
= 28.055 = 23.765

## Heat Transfer Coefficient of Experiment

𝑄̇ 𝑊
ℎ𝑒𝑥𝑝 = ( )
(𝐴𝑠 )(∆𝑇𝑚 ) 𝑚2 . ℃

0.5m/s 1.0m/s
1.580 1.815
= =
(0.0469)(43.319) (0.0469)(435.30)
= 0.7777 = 0.8543
1.5m/s 2.0m/s
14.484 23.451
= =
(0.0469)(40.711) (0.0469)(433.805)
= 7.5858 = 14.7913
2.5m/s 3.0m/s
34.781 30.589
= =
(0.0469)(28.055) (0.0469)(23.765)
= 26.4338 = 27.4445
Efficiency

𝑄̇
ƞ= (%)
𝑃𝑒

𝑃𝑒 = 80𝑊

0.5m/s 1.0m/s
1.580 1.815
= = 0.0198 ≈ 2.0% = = 0.0227 ≈ 2.3%
80 80
1.5m/s 2.0m/s
14.484 23.451
= = 0.1811 ≈ 18.1% = = 0.2931 ≈ 29.3%
80 80
2.5m/s 3.0m/s
34.781 30.589
= = 0.4348 ≈ 43.5% = = 0.3824 ≈ 38.2%
80 80

Experimental Analysis

## Average velocity, V (m/s) ℎ𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦 ℎ𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙

(W/m².ºC) (W/m².ºC)
0.5 32.44 0.7777
1.0 52.17 0.8543
1.5 66.77 7.5858
2.0 79.72 14.7913
2.5 91.61 26.4338
3.0 102.59 27.4445
2) Plotting Graph heat transfer coefficient vs velocity

## Graph heat transfer coefficient experimental and

theoretical vs velocity
120
Heat transfer coefficient

100

80

60

40

20

0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Velocity

h_theory h_experimental

## Graph Efficiency, ƞ vs Velocity

50
45
Average velocity, V (m/s)

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Efficiency, %

Efficiency, ƞ
Discussion

1. What will be happened if the tube banks are changed to become in line form instead of
staggered form in term of heat transfer coefficient and efficiency

If the tube banks are changed from staggered to inline, there will be changes in term of heat
transfer coefficient and efficiency. As the flow of air move into the staggered, the velocity
occurs at the minimum flow area between the tubes. The level of turbulence and heat transfer
increase with row number because combined effects of upstream which inline arrangement.
The obtained results show that the heat transfer rate increases with a reduction in the step of
the longitudinal tube diameter. The local heat transfer depends strongly on the Reynolds
number thus for in line, the heat transfer coefficient and efficiency increase. Increase the
Reynolds number, increase the turbulence for the flow.

2. Comments on the variation heat transfer coefficient by convection with air velocity and
heater power and efficiency of the system with air velocity

The heat transfer coefficient increase as the velocity of air increase. The heater power
remains constant while the efficiency of the system increase as the velocity of air increase.
3. List all factors that will be affecting the convection process

## 1. Viscosity- dynamic and thermal.

2. Temperature Difference between the two fluids - The greater the temperature
differences, the greater the heat transfer rate.

3. Fluid flow rate - Increasing flow rate will increase heat transfer rate.

4. The nature of the heat conducting materials - Some materials have a high conductivity
thus higher convection rates.

5. Surface area - The larger the surface area of the conducting interfaces, the greater the
heat transfer rate.

## 4. What is condition of this experiment, steady state or unsteady state? Explain.

In this experiment, the flow is steady means no change at a point with time. Steady or
uniform flow implies no change with location over a specified region. This is because each of
the velocity use constant heater power which is 80 watts, so the flow considered as steady
flow.

5. What is differences between laminar and turbulent flows? Which one has happened in this
experiment? Explain.

Laminar Turbulent

1. The fluid flow in which the adjacent layers 1. The fluid flow in which the adjacent layers
of the fluid do not mix with each other and of the fluid cross each other and do not move
moves parallel to each other, is called parallel to each other, is called turbulent
laminar flow. flow.

## 2. In the laminar flow, the fluid layer moves

2. Turbulent flow the fluid layers do not
in straight line.
moves in straight line. They move randomly
in zigzag manner.

3. The laminar flow always occurs when the 3. The turbulent flow occurs when the
fluid flow with low velocity and in velocity of the fluid is high and it flows
small diameter pipes. (Re < 2x105 ) through larger diameter pipes. (Re>2x105 )

In the experiment, the fluid flow is in laminar state since the Renaults number is low.

6. What is the difference in the measured values of heat transfer coefficient if one uses linear

If using linear average temperature, the calculation will be some error and heat transfer
coefficient value will be overestimated. The linear average temperature will give accurate
results in case of linear temperature profile. In this experiment, the temperature profiles are
logarithmic in nature.

7. Explain any unusual difficulties or problems which may have led to poor results.

The problem that the student encounters is during the adjustment of the fan controller to get
the desired volume flow rate. The knob is very sensitive to the slightest adjustment thus the
student have to listen to the sound of the fan while adjusting the speed in order to get the
desired fluid velocity.

8. In which mode of heat transfer is the convection heat transfer coefficient usually higher,
natural convection or forced convection? Why?

Convective heat transfer is a mechanism of heat transfer occurring because of bulk motion.
The convection of heat transfer usually higher in forced convection rather than natural
convention since the fluid motion is higher. The natural convection has very slow fluid
motion since it causes only by buoyant effect. With forced convection, turbulence occur thus
increase the convection heat transfer.
Conclusion

The flow of fluids and the heat transfer in tubes in the regulation of cross-flow are of great
importance in many engineering applications. The results show that the behaviour of flow
and heat transfer of the staggered bank tubes. The form of flow and temperature distribution
is affected by the Reynolds number. The enhancement of heat transfer is due mainly to the
increased thermal capacity of the suspension along with localized boundary layer thinning
over the tube sides, whereas the reduction in heat transfer results from turbulence suppression
and wake-narrowing effects. For most flow conditions and tube positions, the heat transfer
performance of the staggered tube bank is not preferable since the inline position provide
higher efficiency.

In industrial application, this convection used in condenser or boiler. There are two types of
tubes called fire tube and water tube. Fire tube which is fire in tube and water at its
surrounding for example in boiler or heat recovery steam generator but water tube means
water inside the tube and the heat or steam at it surrounding need to be condensate in
condensate tank. Mostly the boiler and condenser used in power plant to change water into
steam and steam back into water. The process will be circulated and added water from feed
water tank if the level of water decrease. This will completing the rankin cycle in power plant
generating electrical energy.

References

1) Yunus A. Cengel, Afshin J.Ghajar, Heat and Mass Transfer, Fifth Edition in SI
Units. 2015 . Singapore . McGraw-Hill Education.