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Traditionally, ship design may be considered decomposed into four

main phases, namely: a. Concept design—Feasibility study b.

Preliminary design c. Contract design d. Detailed design Light-ship weight estimation is done.

Preliminary ship design is the early stage of design in which based Alternative designs are analyzed during this phase to determine the
on the shipowner’s or mission requirements and specifications, the most economical design solution.
main technical and economic ship characteristics are determined by
optimization, particularly those ship characteristics that decisively
affect the cost of shipbuilding (and indirectly the cost of acquisition)
and the economy of operation. Preliminary design - 300 man days

Objectives of Preliminary Design The preliminary ship design This stage essentially improves and elaborates the major ship
encompasses the following more detailed objectives: • Selection of characteristics affecting cost and performance. The factors such as
main ship dimensions • Development of the ship’s hull form (wetted length ,beam, horsepower deadweight, would not be expected to
and above-water parts) • Specification of main machinery and change after the completion of this stage. It also provides basis for
propulsion system type and size (powering) • Estimation of auxiliary the development of contract plans and specifications.
machinery type and powering • Design of general arrangement of
main and auxiliary spaces (cargo spaces, machinery spaces and
accommodation) • Specification of cargo-handling equipment •
Design of main structural elements for longitudinal and transverse Contract design - 5000 man days
strength • Control of floatability, stability, trim and freeboard (stability
and load line regulations) • Tonnage measurement (gross register This stage describes more precisely features such as hull form
tons) based on a faired set of lines, powering based on model testing,
seakeeping and maneuvering characteristics, the effect of number
The Design Spiral of propellers on hull form, structural details, use of different types of
steel, spacing and type of frames . Paramount, among the contract
The design spiral is one of the most important pieces of the design features, is a weight and center of gravityestimate taking into
technical know-how of a Naval Architect and/or Ocean Engineer. So account the location and weight of each major item in the ship. The
what exactly is the Design Spiral and why is it so important for a final general arrangement is also developed during this stage. This
typical ship designer in the marine industry or any personnel fixes the overall volumes and areas of cargo, machinery, stores, fuel
concerned with the design development of a marine structure? oil, fresh water, living and utility spaces and their interrelationship,as
well as their relationship to other features such as cargo handling
equipment, and machinery components.

Check on Quality standards of hull and outfit and the anticipated

performance for each item of machinery and equipment is done.
Also describe the tests and trials required.

Detailed design - 60000 man days

Comprises of detailed working plans .These plans are the

installation and construction instructions to the ship fitters, welders,
outfitters, metal workers, machinery vendors, pipe-fitters, etc. At this
stage the interchange is from engineer to artisan, that is, the
engineer's product at this point is no longer to be interpreted,
adjusted, or corrected by any other engineer.

SHIP DESIGN SPIRAL Governing Equation

Designing a ship is perhaps the most rigorous of all engineering

problems. It takes a lot of technical expertise, often across many 1. To determine the percentage of difference between the total
disciplines to design such structures.A ship not only floats on the weight with the displacement, this equation for the displacement
surface of the ocean but also makes its way around the world, along were use
different routes through rough weather - "in one piece". The Design
Spiral is a systematic approach to achieving near perfect designs for ∆= 𝐿 ∙ 𝐵 ∙ 𝑇 ∙ 𝐶𝐵 ∙ 𝜌 ∙ (1 + 𝑠)
a given ship design problem. A naval architect traces his way along
the design spiral through the different stages of design given below: Where the displacement is equal to the total weight of the ship:




4.DETAILED DESIGN In order to find the Length Overall for the ship or LOA, a regression
from the book of Ship Design: Preliminary Methodologies Design
As we move along the spiral into its core, we move from a zone of (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 483) with equation of
less information to extremely specific instruction for the construction
of ship or in other words- "Realization of the design into a product". 𝐷𝑊𝑇 = 369.82𝑒 0.0258(𝐿𝑂𝐴)
Given below are the definitions of each stage of design spiral along
were use with the DWT of 40000 tones. Then, value for B also come
with the typical effort/man days required for a large merchant ship.
from the same book (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 483)

𝐷𝑊𝑇 = 1.3908 ∙ 𝐵3.0094

Concept design - 20 man days
For the value of Draught, T also taken from same book
This stage witnesses the translation of the mission requirements into (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 484)
naval architectural and engineering characteristics.The fundamental
elements of the ship such as length, beam, depth, draft, fullness, 𝐷𝑊𝑇 = 15.804 ∙ 𝑇 3.1525
power, or alternative sets of characteristics, all of which meet the
required speed, range,cargo cubic, and deadweight are used In calculating the value of 𝐶𝐵 , with the value of Froude number is
to perform feasibility studies. within 0.14 and 0.32 and for the chemical tanker with DWT of 40000
the value for Froude number is 0.1806 (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 485)
the equation are (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 151):

0.14 𝐵 + 20
𝐶𝐵 = ∙
𝐹𝑛 26

W lightship 1=Wst+Wot+Wmm+Wmrest

After calculating all the value used to determine the displacement of

the ship, the calculation process proceed with next process, which is
calculating the value of the lightship weight to compare to the
displacement of the ship. The equation used to calculate the weight
of steel are (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 211):

0.004𝐿 𝐿
𝑊𝑆𝑇 = ∆(𝛼𝐿 + 𝛼𝑇 (1.009 − ) ∙ 0.06 ∙ (28.7 − ))

𝛼𝑇 = 0.0290 + 0.00235 ∙ ∆ ∙ 10−5

For the weight of outfitting machine (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 220):

𝑊𝑂𝑇 = 0.28 ∙ 𝐿 ∙ 𝐵

Weight of machinery (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 234):

𝑊𝑀𝑀 = 12( )

While for the value of rest machinery (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 234):

𝑊𝑀𝑅𝐸𝑆𝑇 = 𝐶𝑚 (𝑀𝐶𝑅)0.70

Finally yet importantly, the value for the margin for weight also
calculated using (Papanikolaou, 2014, p. 176):

𝑅 = 2% ∙ 𝑊𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝

W lightship=R+Wlightship 1

The difference between displacement of these dimension with total

weight calculated:

Total weight, 𝑊 = 𝑊𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 + 𝑊𝐷𝑊𝑇

𝐷𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 = 𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡

Percentage difference=(Displacement-Total weight/Displacement)*100%