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GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU

POLITICAL SCIENCE

HIGHER SECONDARY FIRST YEAR


Volume - II

A publication under Free Textbook Programme of Government of Tamil Nadu

DEPARTMENT OF SCHOOL EDUCATION


Untouchability is Inhuman and a Crime

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Government Of Tamil Nadu


First Edition - 2018
(Published under new Education scheme)

NOT FOR SALE

Content Creation

The wise
possess all

State Council of Educational


Research and Training
© SCERT 2018

Printing & Publishing

Tamil NaduTextbook and Educational


Services Corporation
www.textbooksonline.tn.nic.in

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HOW TO USE THE BOOK?

Introduction QR Code
To motivate the students to
A brief abstract of the unit. further explore and enrich the
concept

Learning objective Diagrams

 Describes about what students Schematic representation that


illustrates the political happenings
are expected to learn by the end which will link the theory with
of every unit. practice.

Do you know? Glossary


A piece of information which Helps the students to become
provides a surprise element for familiar with newly introduced,
the students. uncommon and specialised terms.

Knowledge Boxes Evaluation


Additional inputs to the To check the understanding of
content are provided. the students and helps in arriving
at most suitable conclusions.

Activity Reference
To explore further about the List of books that can be referred
subject in order to get better when there needs a better
understanding of the subject. understanding.

Debate Further readings


A formal discussion need to be
conducted by the students on a Books that will enlarge the
particular issue in order to arrive at knowledge of subject in study.
a synthesis about that issue.

Case study Web links


A research strategy and an
empirical inquiry that investigates List of digital resources
a phenomenon within to a real life
context.

Conversation ICT
Exchange of ideas which will Lead to improved students
give better clarity to the subject. learning and better teaching
methods.

Quotable quote
Q uotable
uote Quotes of eminent political
thinkers that helps to bring
Key Terms
Helps the students to know
enlightenment among students. the Tamil translation of
key terms.

III

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Career Opportunities in Political Science
There are plenty of career opportunities available to the students of political science. The options
and opportunities can be detailed in two categories of higher education and employment

POLITICAL SCIENCE

11th Std Political Science Eng Medium Vol-2_Chapter 0_Introduction.indd 4


A.2) State Universities
A. Higher Education Opportunities in Political Science
There are manu universities in our state offering political science degrees.
1. University of Madras, Chennai
The students can study the following programmes in colleges and universities after
2. Annamalai University, Chidamparam
the completion of school educations. There are a number of government universities, 3. Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai
colleges and aided colleges that provide these programs in Political Science in our 4. Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore (Only Correspondence Course)

IV
state as well as in our country 5. Alagappa University, Karaikudi (Correspondence course in Public Administration)
Bachelor of Arts (BA) 6. Tamil Nadu Open University, Chennai
Master of Arts (MA) 7. Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli (Correspondence Course)
Master of Philosophy (MPhil)
A.3) Central Universities
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).
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There are number of central universities across India where students can learn
A.1) Tamil Nadu Government and Aided Colleges political science.
1. The University of Delhi
1. Presidency College, Chennai.
2. Pondicherry University
2. Government Arts College, Coimbatore.
3. University of Hyderabad
3. Thiruvalluvar Government Arts College, Rasipuram, Namakkal District.
4. Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Dindugal and
4. Loganatha Narayanasamy Government Arts College, Ponneri, Thiruvallur District.
5. Indira Gandhi Open University, New Delhi
5. Periyar Government Arts College, Cuddalore.
6. Jawaharlal Nehru University(JNU), New Delhi
6. Government Arts College, Thiruvarambur, Trichy.
7. Government Arts College, Salem-0
A.4) Integrated program
8. Rajeswari Vedachalam Government Government Arts College, Chengalpattu.
9. Madras Christain College, Tambaram, Chennai The Department of Social Sciences and Humanities in Indian Institute of Technology,
10. Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar College, Usilampatti, Madhurai –25 Madras offers the five year integrated MA Program in two streams of Development
11. Pasumpon Thiru Muthuramalinga Thevar Memorial College, Studies and English Studies
Kamuthi, Ramanathapuram
12. SIET College for Women, Teynampet, Chennai.
13. Anna Adarsh College for Women, Chennai

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A.5) Jawaharlal Nehru University(JNU), New Delhi B. Employment Opportunities
 National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) of the Human Resources
Development Ministry has ranked JNU as the second best university in the country. The students of Political Science have bright career prospects. They can choose their
 It offers Post Graduation, Master of Philosophy (MPhil), Doctor of Philosophy career in
degrees in Political Science.  Administration
 While the School of Social Sciences (SSS) provides these programs in Political  Politics
Science the School of International Studies (SIS) conducts these programs in  Mass media

11th Std Political Science Eng Medium Vol-2_Chapter 0_Introduction.indd 5


International Politics.  Academics (teaching in schools, teaching and researching in colleges, universities
 The candidates should write the national entrance examination to get admission in and research institutes)
post graduation and Master of Philosophy programs. The scholars can get through  Social work
NET exam with top ranks and avail the Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) for two  Police administration
years and Senior Research Fellowship (SRF) for three more years.  Judicial service
It is overwhelmingly a residential university as the twenty odd hostels provide  Other careers through general competitive exams
accommodation to most of the students. The union government provides funds to the  NGO management etc.
university and therefore the cost of education and hostel accommodation is affordable.

VV
Merit cum Means scholarship is available for students. B.1) Civil Service Exam of Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
The university has a well equipped library consisting of nine floors situated in a lush The Union Public Service Commission conducts numerous competitive exams to
green environment of the Aravali Hills. It is a central university, with a truly national recruit officers for union government. The civil services exam is meant to recruit
character as students hail from almost all the states of our country. officers for Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS), Indian
Foreign Service (IFS), and Indian Revenue Service (IRS) etc.
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A.6) Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS)


The IAS officers administer the country by working as Sub Collectors, Collectors,
 The institute was founded by Dr.Malcom S Adiseshiah and Mrs. Elizebeth Joint Secretaries, Secretaries, Chief Secretary and Cabinet Secretary.
Adiseshiah in Adayar, Chennai.
The IPS officers protect law and order by working as Assistant Superintendant of
 It offers in social research programs sciences including Political Science.
Police, Superintendent of Police, Inspector General of Police, and Director General of
 The thrust areas of Political Science for doctorate programs include Political Police.
Institutions, Governance and Decentralisation, Poverty, Inequality and
The Indian Foreign Service officers shape and serve the foreign policy interests of
Discrimination, Caste, Gender and Sexuality Studies
India as Third secretary, Second Secretary, First Secretary, High Commissioner and
A.7) Tata Institute of Social Science (TISS) Ambassador etc
The civil services exam popularly known as IAS/IPS exam is conducted in three
 TISS is a multi-campus public funded research university creating human service stages of
professionals for the nation.
 Preliminary Test
 It offers several Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral programs in inter disciplinary
areas from its Mumbai, Hyderabad, Tuljapur and Guwahati campuses.  Main exam and
 The Political Science students can pursue higher studies in different areas like  Personal Interview.
Development Studies, Law, Rights and Constitutional Governance, Social Work, Political Science – a scoring topic
Public Policy and Governance, Human Resources Management, Gender Studies. In Preliminary test:
 A IIT-campus Public Funded Research University creating Human Service The General Studies paper of the preliminary test contains approximately twenty
Professionals for the Nation. questions on Indian Politics and International Relations.

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In Mains Test:
B.4) Teaching Career in Colleges and Universities
There are seven countable papers in the second stage, Main Exam. The syllabus of the
General studies second paper exclusively contains Indian polity and international There are three kinds of faculty positions in universities available for the aspirants of an
relations and carries 250 marks. The essay paper normally contains questions from academic career in Tamil nadu and India. They are Professor, Associate Professor and
Indian politics and international relations and has 250 marks. The students can choose Assistant Professor. There are two levels of faculty positions (Assistant Professor and
political science and international relations as their Optional Subject and the two Associate Professor) in the colleges in our state.
optional subject papers have 250 marks each. Therefore the students with political The candidates should get through the State Eligibility Test (SET) conducted by the

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science optional subject can cover nearly 1000 marks out of the total 1750 marks Tamil Nadu government to qualify for these posts in our state. The candidates can
available in the main test of civil service exam. Even the candidates not choosing become eligible to join as Assistant Professor in any college or university in the country
political science as optional subject will have to answer around 500 marks (General by getting through the National Eligibility Test of the University Grants Commission.
Studies Second and Essay Paper) in the main exam from political science related The students can write NET and SET exams after completion or in the final semester of
topics the Post Graduation course (M.A in Political Science).
In Personality Test:
B.5) Teaching Career in Schools
The final stage of the exam is known as Personality Test or Personal Interview
containing 275 marks. As civil servants work in Indian democratic system the interview There are two exams for recruiting teachers in the schools of our state. The candidates
aspiring to become teachers in primary (class l-V) and upper primary (class Vl-Vlll)

VIVI
devotes a greater amount of attention to the topics and issues of political science and
international relations. schools should write Tamil Nadu Teachers Eligibility Test (TNTET). The candidates
who want to join as the Postgraduate Assistants in Government Higher Secondary
schools in Tamil Nadu Higher Secondary Educational Service should write the second
B.3) TNPSC Exams exam. The Teacher Recruitment Board (TRB) conducts the above mentioned
recruitment tests.
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The Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission recruits officers and personnel to Tamil
Nadu government. It conducts around seventy different exams. The important exams B.6) Opportunities in Media
include Group 1 Services Examination, Group 1-A Services Examination, Combined
There are plenty of opportunities in mass media for students of Political Science. They
Subordinate Services Examination-1(CSSE-1) and Combined Subordinate Services
can branch into print journalism, television news channels and digital media. The news
Examination-2 (CSSE-2) etc. All these exams have a general knowledge paper.
media preponderantly deals with politics, society, environment, culture and
Around twenty percent of questions in the question papers will originate from Indian
international issues and a good grounding in Political Science and international
polity and international relations.
relations can intellectually empower and enrich a career in media. After graduation in
The Group One exam is conducted for recruiting officers to the top services in the political science the interested students can do a course in media in institutions like
state like Deputy Collector, Deputy Superintendent of Police, District Employment
1. Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi
Officer, District Fire Officer and Assistant Commissioner in Commercial Services. The
2. Asian College of Journalism in Chennai and become successful in media.
Deputy Collectors after eight to ten years of service will be promoted as IAS officers.
Similarly the Deputy Superintendent of Police will be promoted as IPS officers after
B.7) Police Service
eight to ten years of service.
They can enter police department as Sub Inspectors after getting through the Tamil
There are three stages in the Group 1 exam. They are preliminary test, main test and
Nadu Uniformed Services Recruitment Board (TNSURB) exam for the recruitment of
personal interview. Indian constitution, politics, international politics and Indian foreign
Sub Inspectors or as Constables after cracking police constable recruitment exam of
policy are very important in all three stages of the exam and students of political science
TNUSRB.
can attend these questions confidently. The other recruitment tests of TNPSC also
contain a certain percent of questions from Political Science

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B.7) Career in Law In United kingdom
Political Science and Law are closely related disciplines. The students of Political 1. the University of Oxford
Science after 12th standard can study the five year integrated law course Bachelor of 2. London School of Economics and Political Science
Arts and Bachelor of Legislative Law (B.A.LL.B) or after graduation can pursue the 3. University of Cambridge
three year Bachelor of Legislative Laws (LL.B) degree. The important entrance exams
include Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) and All India Law Entrance Test

11th Std Political Science Eng Medium Vol-2_Chapter 0_Introduction.indd 7


In Australia
(AILET). There are a large number of colleges and universities offering law courses in
our state. The Government Law Colleges located in places like Coimbatore, Madurai, 1. Australian National University
Tiruchirapalli, Chengalpattu, Tirunelveli, Vellore and Dr.Ambedkar Government Law are among the globally reputed educational institutions in Political Science. The
College, Chennai are affiliated to Dr.Ambedkar Law University, Chennai. students can pursue international careers in media, academics, research bodies,
corporate etc. They can seek a career in the administration of international
1. The National Law School of India University, Bangalore
organizations like United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organisation,
2. National Law School,, Jodhpur
International Court of Justice, and United Nations Framework Conference on Climate
3. NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad
Change.
4. National Law University, Bhopal

VII
Political Science is like the skill set of a swimmer. The person with swimming skills

VII
5. Government Law College, Mumbai
6. Faculty of Law in Delhi University, are among the top institutions in the country. can swim in any water body whether it is a pond or a lake or an ocean. A political
science student with apt knowledge, attitude and skills can join any career of general
After completing the law degree the candidates can practice as lawyers or become
nature.
judges in courts. They can aspire to become the judges in the District Courts, High
Courts and Supreme Court. There are constitutionally prescribed qualifications for
Websites of Political Science institutions:
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judges of High Courts and Supreme Courts.


National International
B.8) Educational and Employment opportunities in International Domain.
1. http://www.jnu.ac.in 1. http://www.columbia.edu
2. http://www.mids.ac.in 2. http://www.yale.edu
There are a great number of reputed universities all over the world that provide 3. http://www.tiss.edu 3. http://anu.edu.au
courses in Political Science and International Relations 4. http://www.unom.ac.in 4. http://www.cam.ac.uk
In United States
1. The Harvard University
2. Princeton University
3. University of California,
4. University of Berkeley
5. Yale University

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CONTENT

TOPIC CONTENT Page No.

8.1 Liberalism
8.2 Communism
Unit 8:
8.3 Socialism
Political 1
8.4 Nationalism
Ideologies - Part I
8.5 Fascism
8.6 Nazism
9.1 Anarchism
Unit 9 : 9.2 Feminism
Political 9.3 Communitarianism 41
Ideologies - Part II 9.4 Postmodernism
9.5 Environmentalism

10.1 Defining Public Opinion:


10.2 Hindrances to formation of a genuine public opinion
Unit 10 : 10.3 Definition of Political Parties
Public Opinion and 10.4 Functions of Political Parties 66
Party System 10.5 Role of Political Parties in a Democracy
10.6 Modern Party system
10.7 Role of Political Parties in a Democracy

11.1 Meaning and nature of Franchise and Representation


11.2 Types of Representation/Reservation of Constituencies
Unit 11 : 11.3 Free and Fair Elections
Election and 11.4 Election Commission of India 86
Representation 11.5 Electoral Reforms, Anti-Defection Law
11.6 State Funding of Elections
11.7 Role of Youth in Politics

E Book Assessment Digi Link

VIII

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12.1 Meaning, Nature and importance of Local Government


12.2 Classification of local Government institutions
12.3 Local Government around the world
12.4 Origin and development of local government in India
Unit 12 : 12.5 73rd Constitutional Amendment-Implementation and
112
Local Governments Implications
12.6 74th Constitutional Amendment-Implementation and
Implications
12.7 The Case of Tamil Nadu
12.8 Contemporary Issues

13.1 What do you mean by Social Justice?


13.2 Equality is Essential for Social Justice
13.3 Just Distribution
13.4 Distributive Justice and Retributive Justice
Unit 13 :
13.5 John Rawls’ Theory of Justice 139
Social Justice
13.6 Socio-Cultural Equality
13.7 Discrimination - Social Basis Theory
13.8 Affirmative Action
13.9 Status in Madras Presidency

14.1 Political History of Tamil Nadu


14.2 Emergence of Dravidian Movement
14.3 Justice Party
14.4 Contributions of Justice Party
Unit 14 : 14.5 Peiyar E.V. Ramasamy
Political Developments 14.6 Self Respect Movement 165
in Tamil Nadu 14.7 Anti Hindi Agitation
14.8 Dravidian Movement during World War II and after
14.9 Rajaji Regime (1952-54)
14.10 Kamaraj Era (1954-1963)
14.11 Dravidian Rule in Post-Independence Tamilnadu
15.1 Historical Background
Unit 15: 15.2 Ancient Political Ideas
Tamil Nadu Political 15.3.Nationalism 182
Thought 15.4. Communism
15.5. Dravidian Ideology

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UNIT

8 Political Ideologies – Part-I

Introduction
Ideology refers to a set of inter-related ideas dealing with
politics, society and economy. Political ideologies are very
important in Political Science and are considered as heart and
soul of Political Science. They deal with the nature and origin
of the state, relationship between state and society,
forms of government, basis of state authority
and sphere of state action. Numerous ideologies
operate in our subject and we will examine them
in the forth coming two chapters.

Learning Objectives

 To understand the meaning  To find out the meaning, emergence,


and characteristics of Negative theories, intra national and extra
Liberalism, Positive Liberalism and national challenges of Nationalism.
Libertarianism.
 To identify the leaders and thinkers  To analyse the causative factors of
who are central to the ideology of Indian Nationalism.
Liberalism.
 To grasp the etymological origin, core
 To know the thinkers, concepts, and ideas ideological features of Fascism.
of communist stream chronologically in
the post Karl Marx period.  To have knowledge about the
emergence, meaning and core
 To comprehend the essence of characteristics of Nazism.
different kinds of Socialisms and to
compare and contrast Socialism with
Communism.

8.1 Liberalism Idealogy in the contemporary world.


Liberalism is the most important The etymology of the word liberalism
ideology of modern political theory. is from ‘Liber’ that means liberty. The
It emerged in the 17th century and supporters of the Spanish Constitution in
continues to be the most widely followed the 19th century made the word popular
1

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by calling themselves as liberals. Now Negative Liberalism in his book ‘An


western countries like United States of Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of
America, the United Kingdom, Canada, Wealth of Nations’
and Germany adhere to the tenets of
liberalism in politics and economy. Essence of Negative Liberalism
Negative Liberalism considers man
Liberalism chronologically had as a rational, capable and master less
experienced three major phases. In individual. All human beings are equal
the first phase till 1930 it was called as and free. Everyone knows their interests
Negative Liberalism. The second phase and is endowed with the capacity to satisfy
termed as Positive Liberalism emerged their interests. Society is a mere aggregate
after the Great Economic Depression and of freely existing individuals. There is no
lasted up to the 1970s. The third phase, necessity for State and society to interfere
known as Libertarianism, is followed by or regulate the life of individuals.
major countries of the world for the last
four decades. The State is a necessary evil. It is
necessary for the protection of law and
A. Negative liberalism order without which individuals cannot
Negative Liberalism is also known realise their interests. Nevertheless, the
by many names like Laissez Faire State is an evil as even its mere existence
Liberalism and Classical Liberalism. John itself endangers the rights and liberties of
Locke in his book ‘Two Treaties of Civil the individuals.
Government’ propounded the basic
political principles of Negative Liberalism The State is a negative State as it is
that came to be implemented vigorously prohibited from carrying out
in the USA. developmental activities. The State is
called as Laissez Faire State. Laissez Faire
has its origin in the French language
meaning Leave Alone. The State must
leave the individuals alone to pursue their
activities. Maintenance of law and order
and enforcement of legally made contracts
are the only functions assigned to the State
by Negative Liberalism.
John Locke, Father of Classical
liberalism. The Equal Right to Life, ACTIVITY
Liberty, and Property.
Where does India stand in
Thomas Paine, Montesquieu, the concept of liberalism after 1991
Jeremy Bentham are the other important economic reforms?
proponents of Negative Liberalism.
Economically, Adam Smith advocated
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these natural rights. The Rights to Life,


Functions of State Liberty and Property are indispensable
Negative Liberalism for human existence and development.
Therefore, the State should never abolish
or erode them. The Right to Property is
Enforcement
Law & Order special to the proponents of Negative
of contracts
Liberalism. It is an unlimited right as all
individuals can acquire, enjoy and dispose
of property without interference from the
Police Army State.

B. Positive Liberalism
Negative liberalism metamorphosed
into Positive liberalism in the 20th
century. Even though Negative Liberalism
contributed to the generation of
unprecedented wealth in the western
countries it had also inflicted enormous
Economically, Negative Liberalism pain on common people. Glaring
supports free market economy based on inequalities among people, appearance
demand and supply. It prohibits the State of slums in the cities and exploitation of
from interfering with the economic the workers exposed the deficiencies of
activities. The State is akin to a cricket Negative Liberalism. Humanist thinkers
umpire in its powers and functions. The like Ruskin protested against the misery
umpire does not play the game but watches of the people.
whether the players are playing the game
in accordance with the laws of the game. In this backdrop, Negative Liberalism
Similarly the State should not interfere in changed into Positive Liberalism because of
the economy as market alone determines two important factors i.e. Democracy and
its activities. Marxism. Nineteenth century witnessed
the gradual spread of democracy whereby
the common people came to be provided
The Wealth with voting rights. They demanded
of Nations fundamental changes in politics. The
- Adam Smith second factor is the advent and rise of
Marxism that appealed to the workers
to overthrow the exploitative inequality-
Negative Liberalism believes in the laden Negative Liberalism. Subsequently,
concept of natural rights. When Mother under pressure from democracy and
Nature created man, it endowed him with Marxism, Negative Liberalism changed
basic rights that are called Natural Rights. into Positive Liberalism.
The State should not erode or undermine
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The liberal world experienced a the content of Positive Liberalism of which


devastating Great Economic Depression T.H.Green, Harold Laski, L.T.Hobhouse
from 1928 affecting economies of are important.
numerous countries including United
States of America. The newly elected
American President Franklin Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt was the
implemented the New Deal Programme
longest serving President of the United
for uplifting American economy from the
States. He played a splendid role in the
quagmire of depression.
development of the country by lifting it
I pledge you, I pledge out of the Great Economic Depression
myself to a new deal for through his New Deal Program. He
the American people. inspires millions of people even now.
- Franklin He was a heavily paralyzed polio
D. Roosevelt victim. The inspiring slogan in the
1932 elections was that here comes a
J.M.Keyne, economic advisor to the man on wheels to set America again on
American President, played a crucial role the wheels of progress. He presents the
in the formulation of the programme winning spirit of positive personality
signifying the advent of Positive in the ocean of adversities in life.
Liberalism. A number of thinkers enriched

Positive Liberalism brought out the new concept of Social Welfare State. This concept
projects the State as a positive instrument for the promotion of social welfare. The role of
the State is to provide social service to the people. It should construct and maintain
hospitals, educational institutions, factories and industries, infrastructural facilities like
roads, railway tracks and ports. The State also came to be known as Social Democratic
State, a nomenclature that explains the significance of democracy in the constitution of a
positive State.

ACTIVITY

Discuss about the contributions of John Stuart Mill to the concept of Liberalism

Functions of State
Positive Liberalism

Fair Price
Education Health Industries Transport Shop

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The rights of the people can be Positive Liberalism was followed in


modified so that the welfare of society can the western democracies for many decades
be promoted. Positive liberalism supports from 1930s. But gradually philosophers
a close relationship between rights and and political leaders began to question the
duties and argues for Social Welfare theory utility of a Social Welfare State propagated
of Rights. Similarly, freedom is positive by Positive Liberalism. They argued that
in content. While Negative Liberalism State interference in society and economy
expounded freedom from the State, had precipitated a plethora of problems like
Positive Liberalism recommends freedom industrial sickness, economic inefficiency,
through the State. Freedom does not mean lessened productivity, corruption, erosion
being free from the interference of the of liberties of people and economic
State but adhering to the social welfare stagnation, therefore should be curtailed.
activities of the State. Freedom through
the State and not from the State is their C. Libertarianism
theme. The third phase in the history of
liberalism is called as contemporary
The economy must be regulated by Liberalism or Libertarianism. It emerged
the State so that alternate, painful in the western world after the end of
appearance of economic boom and positive liberalism and gradually spread
depression can be averted. Progressive to most parts of the political universe.
taxation can be adopted by the State to The President of the United States Ronald
generate resources required for its social Reagan implemented libertarian ideology
welfare activities. Similarly, the State has in his country from 1981 to 1989.
power and authority to adhere to economic
strategies like bank nationalisation, The first woman Prime Minister of
minimum wages and reservation of the United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher
industries as public sector to bring in the was the political architect of libertarianism.
uplift of all sections of society. The last president of Soviet Union Michel
Gorbachev introduced the two path-
breaking reforms of Perestroika
ACTIVITY
(Restructuring) and Glasnost (openness)
that pushed the Soviet Union into the
Self-Introspection
direction of libertarianism.
Identify the major functions of the There is no such thing as
state that contribute to your life directly. society: there are individual
The government had provided you many men and women, and there are
services. From your own experience families.
prepare a list of services of the Social
- Margaret Thatcher
Welfare State that you have benefited
from.
A number of political scientists have
advocated libertarianism. F.A.Hayek,
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M.Oakeshott, Karl Popper, Milton second half of the 20th century and in the first
Friedman, Nozick and Nock are important half of the 21st century. It believes in the worth
among the supporters of libertarianism. and importance of individuals. It advocates
individual freedom as indispensable for the
There is all the difference in the world life of man. It staunchly supports the concept
between treating people equally and of ‘Personal Autonomy’ whereby every
attempting to make them equal. human being is provided with complete
- Friedrich Hayek freedom of choice to make decisions in their
life as they want. It restricts the domain of
the State to maintenance of law and order.
A Society that puts equality before Nozick famously coined the slogan ‘Minimal
freedom will get neither. A society State is Inspiring as Well as Right’. He
that puts freedom before equality
criticised any more functions of the State
will get a high degree of both.
as unjustified and unwarranted. Another
- Milton Friedman proponent of Libertarianism, Oakeshort
commented that the government merely
Libertarianism is a re-invention and pursues peace.
re-application of Classical Liberalism in the

Functions of state
Positive Liberalism

Philosophers Leaders

P.V.
Friedrich Albert Jay Milton Ronald Margaret Mikhail
M. Oakeshott Narasimha
Hayek Nock Friedman Reagan Thatcher Rao Gorbachev

Albert Jay
Nock, a Libertarian
Karl Popper described Plato as even went to the
a enemy of open society in his work extent of titling his
“Open society and its' enemies”. book “Our Enemy
the State”
The libertarians argue that the increase
ACTIVITY in the functions of the State in the name
of development and social welfare leads
Relate Karl Popper comment with inevitably to emergence of collectivism and
Plato’s philosopher king concept that resultant concentration of power in the
you have studied in 1st volume. hands of the State leading to the destruction
of personal liberties of man.
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End of Ideology end of materialism that is implied in the


A few political thinkers and political end of ideology concept.
sociologists in the 1950s had brought out
End of History
the new concept of ‘End of Ideology’.
Daniel Bell who authored book ‘End of The American political thinker
Ideology’ is the strongest proponent of Francis Fukuyoma wrote the book ‘The
this concept along with the noted political End of History and the Last Man’ in 1992.
sociologist Martin Lipset. He argued that history has ended with the
end of the Cold War and the victory of
The end of Ideology on the liberalism over communism. The history
exhaustion of political ideas of mankind essentially composed of its
in the fifties ceaseless search for the ideal political,
- Daniel bellend social and economic system. The victory
of Liberalism signifies the end of that
human search for right ideology and the
They argue that the political and advent of post-ideological world. The
economic search of humankind had Liberal State and the Libertarian economy
reached its final destination with the represent the culmination of the social
emergence of Liberal Democratic State or economic and political evolution of
Social Welfare State. The ideal system of humanity, therefore human history has
human life should be planted and rooted ended was the argument of Fukuyoma.
in the soil of welfare State, decentralised
The end of History
power, mixed economy and competitive
and the last man
party system. The western nations
- Francis Fukuyama
have attained these ideal socio-political
characteristics. They called for an end to
the Liberalism versus Marxism debate and But many political scientists and
accepted that democracy is not merely a ideologies disagree with this. The post-
system of government but the good society modernist thinker Derrida argued that
in operation. They praised democracy as liberal democracy is not the ideal political
the ideal means of conflict resolution and system that solves the problems of man.
governance. He said, “Never have violence, inequality,
exclusion, famine, and thus economic
But a set of thinkers collectively oppression affected as many human beings
described as “New Left” rejected the in the history of the earth and of humanity
validity of the End of Ideology concept. as it happened in the times of liberal
Though, the thinkers do not advocate any democracy."
class conflict like Marxism they sought
to improvise the tenets of Marxist State. DEBATE
The western societies also witnessed
rise of the voice of many thinkers that Can history end as people say today’s
demanded not the end of ideology but the politics is tomorrow’s history?
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The American political scientist encouraging private initiative through


Samuel Huntington propounded ‘The measures like disinvestment. Under the
Clash of Civilization’ theory as a counter impact of libertarianism the planning
to Fukuyoma’s End of History thesis. process was initially changed to the strategy
Huntington argued that end of the Cold of Indicative Planning and recently the
War has not resulted in the universal and planning Commission itself was replaced
permanent success of liberal democracy. by a body called National Commission for
On the contrary, a new ideological rivalry Transforming India (NITI Ayog).
has emerged between the two major
civilizations of the world, Western 8.2 Communism (Vladimir Lenin)
Civilization and Islam that will dominate Vladimir Lenin was a
the politics of humankind in the 20th. He revolutionary Marxist
contended that other civilizations of the thinker who organized
world will be sucked into the civilization the October Revolution
clash between Western Civilization and of 1917 in Russia to
Islam, and therefore history has not ended implement the ideas of
in the post-Cold War period, rather it has Marxism. He was the
entered a new phase of confrontation. architect of the communist country called
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
DEBATE (USSR) that consisted of 15 Republics.
Lenin contributed to the theoretical
Dear Pupils, now you know that content of Marxism.
Liberalism has three varieties
of Negative Liberalism, Positive Vladimir
Liberalism and Libertarianism. Divide Lenin died
the class into three groups and name in 1924 and
them after these varieties. Conduct the mortal
a thorough debate as to which one of remains are
them is the best. preserved in Lenin’s Tomb in Red
Square in Moscow. The embalmed
India and libertarianism
body is regularly bathed in special
New Economic Reforms were chemicals and has been on public
introduced in India in 1991 heralding the display. Earlier the government funded
era of Liberalization, privatization and the finances needed for preserving the
globalization. They reflect the ideology of body and after the disintegration of
Libertarianism. The State has withdrawn Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
itself from many economic and social preservation of the body is maintained
activities. ‘Minimum Government and through public donations. There are
Maximum Governance’ is the guiding intermittent calls for burying the
principle of the State. The State has coffin next to the resting place of
consciously shrunk its sphere of activities Lenin’s mother.

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Communist party central unit and district units must obey


Lenin wrote in his work ‘What is the decisions of the State unit and the
to be done?’ his ideas of the Communist village unit ought to follow the decisions
Party. Marx had called for a communist of the district unit.
revolution to end capitalism and
exploitation and Lenin as his successor Democratic Centralism
developed the instrument of the party
General Secretary
to carry out the proletariat revolution.
He said the party should be formed Politburo

De c
t i on
in every industry and factory by a

i s i on
Central Unit

E lec
small group of workers who possess

s
knowledge of Revolutionary Marxism. State Units
They must possess qualities and abilities
District Units
like dedication, commitment and hard
work. The members of the Communist Village & Town Units
Party should mobilize the workers
ideologically to conduct the revolution.
Imperialism
Lenin asserted that the party must be in
the vanguard of the proletariat that is the Imperialism refers to the system
forefront of the Proletariat Revolution. where European countries subjugated
and exploited the Asian and African
It was expounded that the countries through military conquest and
Communist Party should be organised force. Lenin expounded a new insight
on the basis of an innovative concept linking imperialism and capitalism in his
called Democratic Centralism. As the book ‘Imperialism: The Highest Stage
name indicates there are two features of Capitalism’. He argued that capitalism
in the organisational structure of had not faced self- destruction as Marx
the Communist Party, democracy and predicted. The capitalist countries exploit
centralism. Democratically, the lower the subjugated Asian and African countries
organs of the party organisation must and through this looted wealth capitalism
elect the members of the higher organs of sustains itself in their home countries. There
the party. The party units in villages must should be two revolutionary struggles,
elect the party units of the district and one the struggle of Asian-African countries
State units are to be elected by the district against the imperialist Europe and another
units of the party and the central unit will revolutionary struggle of working class
be elected by the State units. in the western countries. Once these two
struggles become successful, the two inter
The element of centralism in the -linked exploitative forces of capitalism
Communist Party means that the decisions and imperialism will be destroyed
of the higher unit must be accepted and and communist society of equality and
implemented by the lower units. The State fraternity will be born internationally.
units should accept the decisions of the
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Joseph Stalin The central theme of this concept is that


socialism can be successfully established
Nationalist in form; in Russia alone. Russian socialism is
Socialist in Context. threatened by a capitalist encirclement as
- Joseph Stalin the western enemy capitalist countries
avowedly endanger the existence of
communist USSR. Stalin advocated
the consolidation and strengthening
Joseph Stalin was the general of USSR so that it can withstand the
secretary of The Communist Party and capitalist threat postponing the task of
Premier of Union of Soviet Socialist organising an international communist
Republics in the post-Lenin phase up to revolution to a more appropriate period
1953. He introduced a major ideological in the future. This thesis was accepted as
component in Marxism called Socialism the State policy of USSR and also by the
in One Country. The seed of the idea was Communist International organization.
first brought out by another communist
Leon Trotsky criticized Stalinist
theoretician Nikolai Bukharin.
socialism and reiterated the concept
Marxism rejected nationalism and of permanent revolution advocated by
supported universalism. It attacked Karl Marx. He called for the export of
nationalism as a bourgeois concept and communist revolution to other countries
appealed to the workers of the world to of the world to achieve international
unite and fight to establish communism communism and cautioned that otherwise
as seen in the last lines of Marx book communism within USSR itself will
‘The Communist Manifesto’. The ultimate collapse.
goal of Karl Marx was the formation of
Mao Zedong
international socialist society through the
instrument of world proletariat revolution. Mao Zedong was one of the greatest
Karl Marx said, ‘The working men have Marxist theoreticians and practitioners in
no country’. Lenin also continued in the the history of the world. He founded the
same vein and considered the October Communist Party of China and conducted
Revolution of 1917 in Russia as a the Communist Revolution in 1949,
springboard to global revolution. leading to the establishment of the People’s
Republic of China.
Stalin makes a fundamental change
in Marxism through the Socialism in All political power comes
One Country concept. He claimed to have from the barrel of a gun.
developed his idea from Lenin’s statement
that socialist revolution can emerge in even -Mao Zedong
one country as detailed in the work ‘On
the Slogan for a United States of Europe’.

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Signification of Marxism against the exploiting classes and their


Mao introduced certain changes State structure’. He propagated the idea of
in Communism to make it suitable for People’s War. He suggested the intensive
China. The modification of communism mobilization of the millions of peasants
to reflect Chinese realities is described as as part of the People’s War as they are
Signification of Communism. the worst victims of feudalism and
imperialism. The ideal strategy of war
Peasantry-led Revolution was to surround the cities by capturing
the rural landscape with the help of
Karl Marx predicted that
mobilized peasants.
Communist Revolution will be seen only
in west European countries that are fully Mao believed in the unconventional
industrialised and where workers are guerilla warfare. As a strategy it had three
numerous and organised. But China in stages. In the first stage, the Communist
the decade of 1940s was an agricultural cadre will win the people through
and industrially backward country. Karl propaganda. In the second stage, the
Marx never considered that the peasants cadre will ambush and attack the military
as a class have revolutionary potential as and vital State installations. In the third
they are conservative and reactionary. stage, the cadre will act as a conventional
Mao organized the peasants of China and army fighting the army of the State and
succeeded in overthrowing the feudal capturing cities after inflicting defeat.
exploitative State heralding the arrival Mao also taught that any of three stages
of communism. Mao’s success in China can be used any time depending on the
provided a revolutionary model for the circumstances.
other agricultural countries of Asia and
Africa. Let Hundred Flowers Bloom

Mass line The Communist Party of China


Leninist concept of the Communist conducted the Hundred Flower Campaign
party as the vanguard of the revolutionary in the second half of 1950s and the
struggle was modified by Mao to suit chairman Mao said “Let the hundred
Chinese conditions. Mao contended that flowers bloom. Let the hundred schools of
the masses should not be separated from thought contend”. He considered each
the revolutionary party in the domains thought as a flower and argued that all
of both policy and struggle. They should schools of thought must be allowed to
be integral to the Communist Party and bloom. The clash of thoughts will lead to
the guiding principle is ‘from the masses the defeat and destruction of the rotten
to the masses’. and obsolete ideas and better ones will
endure competition and become
People’s War and Guerilla War successful. The ancient philosophy of
Mao believed in the ‘revolutionary Confucianism underwent this conflict of
struggle of the vast majority of people ideas test many centuries ago and came

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out successful. Though the State welcomed Cultural Revolution


constructive criticism in the beginning, Mao launched the Grand Proletarian
the campaign got derailed later as Cultural Revolution in 1965-66 to
contention among ideas threatened the exterminate’ representatives of the
Communist Party of China itself. bourgeoisie who have sneaked into the
'The Hundred Flowers Campaign' party, the government, the army and
various spheres of culture’ and destroy
Where does the term originate?
the ‘Four Olds’ — old ideas, old customs,
Let a hundred flowers old culture and old habits. The stated
blossom, let a hundred
school of thought contend'
aim of the revolution was to save the
Chinese communism from becoming
What does it actually mean??? a victim of bureaucratization induced
It means 'to allow free
by industrialization like the western
expression and criticism'. countries and USSR. The actual backdrop
An Ancient Chinese Mao used this expression was provided by the Great Leap Forward
Philosopher - the when, in 1956, he invited
Campaign.
expression comes Chinese people to assess
from a traditional the performance of the
poem. communist party, and to
offer it advice.

Cultural Revolution - 1960


Mao wished to regain power he lost in the Great
Leap Forward and create another revolutionary
movement. Created the Red Guard from the Chinese
youth - Students, peasants, soldiers.

Mao implemented forcefully Guards were organized. The members


industrialization and collectivization of the Red Guards adopted repressive
as part of this campaign from 1958 to measures against the class enemies even
1962 to rapidly change China from jailing the Chinese President. The role of
agricultural economy to socialist system. the State and party was taken over by the
But, unfortunately, it resulted in the paramilitary organization.
advent of the Great Chinese Famine
New Democracy
killing millions of people. To reclaim the
authority and legitimacy of the leader Marxism believed that the State is an
and the party cultural revolution was instrument of exploitation of the workers
launched. It was argued that even after the by the capitalists and workers and capitalist
establishment of communism the class are always antagonistic towards each
struggle continues and intensifies and to other. Mao modified this fundamental
weed out the communist enemies, Red feature of Marxism. He propounded the
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concept of New Democracy. He created a Antonio Gramsci


new alliance in which the peasantry, the Antonio Gramsci,
proletariat, the petty bourgeoisie and the the famous Italian
national bourgeoisie became members. Marxist, introduced
Subsequently, Mao declared the formation the concept of
of a new kind of State called People’s hegemony to explain
Democratic Dictatorship. the operation of the
capitalist State.
The working class and peasantry
Hegemony means
were provided with key positions in the
intellectual and moral leadership. The
State. The petty bourgeoisie and national
State manufactures the consent of the
bourgeoisie were accorded with junior
people through intellectual and moral
partner status. The People’s Democratic
leadership. It tries to create a false
Dictatorship guaranteed democracy for
consciousness among people through
the general people while simultaneously
propaganda.
acting as dictatorship over the enemies
of the people especially those who were
Gramsci was one of the most
described as ‘running dogs of imperialism’.
creative modern political thinkers. But
In ideal Marxism, the workers and
he was imprisoned by Fascism in the
bourgeoisie are adversaries but New
prime of his life. The judge convicted
Democracy treated them as partners.
him on wrong grounds because of
the pressure of Fascist government.
While in the prison Gramsci wrote
It Doesn’t matter if a cat his thoughts on any available piece of
is black or white, so long paper and that was smuggled out of the
as it catches mice prison and therefore his writings are
Deng Xiaoping titled "Prison Notebooks".

Maoism continues to be the ruling Its ideas are repeatedly driven into
ideology of the People’s Republic of China the minds of the people. Only when it fails
in the twenty first century in a changed to create the consent of the people, it starts
milieu. The paramount leader Deng using brutal force to carry out its activities.
Xiaoping introduced massive changes in Gramsci also argues that, to destroy
Chinese economy after 1978. Its economy the capitalist State, the revolutionaries
has been infused with liberalization and should use organic intellectuals and
globalization modifying fundamentally the Communist Party. The organic
the communist economy of Mao period. intellectuals will analyze the strength
But politically, the Communist Party of of the State and elucidate the means of
China continues to exercise monopoly destroying the State. The Communist
of power. Party will carry out the revolution and
establish the ideal state of communism.

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Conversation

Teacher : Dear Students, have you


heard about U.S.S.R?

Student 1 : Yes sir. I have read in the


newspapers many times.

Teacher : What does the acronym


stand for?

Student 2 : Sir, it means Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Teacher : You are correct. It was a mammoth political entity in the world. It
symbolized the ideology of Marxism.

Student 3 : Sir, what happened to it? Why don’t we hear anything about it nowadays?

Teacher : Dear students, it does not exist anymore. It faced internal disintegration
in 1991 and disappeared from the face of the world.

Student 1 : Sir, how and why did it collapse?

Teacher : The communist country collapsed due to many reasons. There was
an unsolvable economic crisis. Politically rights were not available to
the people. It had to maintain a very expensive military. The cold war
between the United States and U.S.S.R was destroying the economic
capacity of the country.

Student 2 : Sir, if a great country suddenly imploded it must have surely left
repercussions on the world. What was the impact of its collapse?

Teacher : Yes, my dear student. It left a number of short term and long term
repercussions. Positively it made the advent of democracy in Russia. It
ended the cold war and eliminated the threat of nuclear war. It also led
to the birth of fifteen new, independent nations.

Student 3 : Sir, did it leave any negative impact?

Teacher : Of course, it left many negative effects too. For example, communism as
an ideological alternative of hope for humankind was weakened heavily.
It created rivalry between the successor nations. The world came to be
dominated by one powerful nation. Russia lost its stature among the
nations of the world. India lost a traditional friend.

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All men are intellectuals: but Instrumental Marxism


not all men have in society Ralph Miliband is the main
the function of intellectuals. proponent of Instrumental Marxism. This
- Antonio Gramsci school of thought takes an instrumental
perspective of the state. The officials of
the government and state come from the
ACTIVITY same background as the property or ruling
class. They have personal contact with the
Antonio Gramsci has given a broad members of the ruling class. Therefore
view about intellectuals in a society. the state is used as an instrument by
Discuss about it in your classroom. officials and the members of the ruling
class to perpetuate exploitation and to
Neo Marxism manufacture the ideological consent of
A group of philosophers who were the people for their hegemony.
associated with the Frankfurt Institute for
Social Research in Germany developed Structural Marxism
new insights into Marxism that are Structural Marxism propounded by
described as Neo Marxism or Critical the French philosopher Louis Althusser
Theory. The important philosophers of and Nicos Poulantza is a new school of
this school are Herbert Marcuse, Jurgen Marxism that emerged in the 1970s. It
Habermas and Theodor Adorno. Though repudiated the arguments of Instrumental
there are great differences in their writings Marxism. Althusser debated with Ralph
all of them uniformly protested against Miliband and asserted that the class origin
the systems of domination and and position of the administrators is
exploitation. They focused on purely incidental and has no significance.
understanding the hidden roots and layers Regardless of class origin of officials the
of domination. They concentrated on state is bound to aid exploitation because
preparing the masses for revolutionary of its objective or structural position in
transformation by augmenting their true the economic system.
consciousness. They propounded the
attitude to question the socio-cultural Louis Althusser
practices in all societies that perpetuate
Louis Althusser introduced further
domination over the masses. Their
innovations in the Marxist concept of
writings can be characterised as counter-
state. He argued that the capitalist State
culture aiming for the emancipation of
has two kinds of coercive instruments to
the masses.
safeguard itself.
ACTIVITY
They are;
After studying the different leaders 1. Repressive State Apparatuses
of communism do you think Karl Marx’s 2. Ideological State Apparatuses.
stateless society is possible?

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The Repressive State Apparatuses of liberalism. They strove to protect the


include police, military, law courts etc. interests of the working class. Robert Owen
They are repressive as they punish the was an industrialist and a philanthropist.
people when their orders are not obeyed. He started the cooperative movement
The Ideological State Apparatuses include and experimental socialist communities
family, schools, colleges, the media and in England to realise betterment in the
trade unions. The State creates consent conditions of the workers. He associated
and support from people by ideological the workers in the management of his
indoctrination, without violence. industries and showed that profits can be
increased by the joint endeavour between
Ideology... is indispensable in any
society if men are to be formed, workers and employers. He appealed to
transformed and equipped to the reason of the fellow capitalists to take
respond to the demands of their
into account the welfare of the working
conditions of existence.
- Louis Althusser classes.Saint Simon, a French industrialist
and thinker, argued that the welfare of
the working class must also be taken into
DEBATE consideration for realising an efficient
economy and effective society.
Communism has experienced a
steep decline in popularity. Organize
a group discussion in the class on the
theme “Future of Communism”.

8.3 Socialism
Socialism is an ideology that
supports public ownership of property ST. SIMON ROBERT OWEN CHARLES FOURIER

and natural resources. It is fundamentally Charles Fourier, another French


opposed to Liberalism that believes in the thinker, suggested the socialist
private ownership of property. There are reconstruction of the society by forming
many kinds of socialism like democratic association of producers termed as
socialism, evolutionary socialism, Fabian phalanges. Both Saint Simon and Charles
socialism, guild socialism etc. The terms Fourier appealed to the conscience of the
‘Socialism’ and ‘Communism’ are at times capitalists to improve the miserable state of
interchangeably used. But Karl Marx the workers. These three notable theorists
introduced a distinction by describing advocated ideas in favour of the workers
his socialism and ideology as scientific in 19th century. Karl Marx described their
socialism and other prevailing kinds as thoughts as Utopian Socialism as they
Utopian socialism. provided only a superficial understanding
of capitalism and their alternative schemes
A. Utopian Socialism are wishful and utopian in nature. He
Many thinkers in the 19th century claimed that, in contrast his communism
had questioned the negative consequences is based on scientific understanding of

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capitalism meriting the name of Scientific C. Fabian Socialism


Socialism.
Fabian Socialism was the British
B. Democratic Socialism version of socialism propagated by the
Fabian Society from 1884. They chose
Democratic Socialism as the the nomenclature Fabianism inspired
nomenclature indicates combines the two by the great Roman General Fabius who
systems of socialism and democracy to was historically famous for adopting the
provide a unique political and economic military strategy of ‘wait and hit hard
system to promote equality and freedom. at the right moment’. Sidney Webb and
It differs from Marxism in its conception Sidney Oliver H G Wells brought out the
of the State. It believes that the State is not ideology of Fabianism. English playwright
an instrument of exploitation of workers George Bernard Shaw was one of the
by the capitalists. Rather, the State is an greatest proponents of Fabianism.
instrument of social welfare. The State
must be made democratic. All classes
in society own the State. Socialism can
be established only through the State. It
will not and should not wither away as
Marxism predicted.

Democratic Socialism argues that


socialism can be established through
evolutionary and peaceful means. It’s “When I strike, I strike hard”.
methodology of change characterized as
gradualism or ballot box socialism. It The motto of the Fabian Society is
dismisses revolutionary, violent struggle “When I strike, I strike hard”.
as unnecessary. Democratic Socialism
argues for harmonious relationship As an ideology Fabianism attacked
among classes and class differences must capitalism as an exploitative system and
be solved through peaceful methods. The advocated a thorough reorganization of
right to property need not be abolished. economy and politics of their
Rather for the sake of social welfare the contemporary period. It expressed its
right to property must be limited. resolute support for democratic State.
There are two important attributes of the
There are crucial differences between Fabian State. Firstly, it should be based on
Marxism and Democratic Socialism. decentralization of power. Secondly, it
Many basic concepts of Marxism are should be led by experts. Fabianism
either modified or rejected by Democratic rejected Marxist call for the abolition of
Socialism. Nevertheless, both have certain the State. It wanted the State to exist on
similar goals like ending the exploitation the foundations of decentralized power
of workers and promoting equality among
people.
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and expert leadership to promote social in Italy, Bauer in Austria. It argues for an
welfare. evolutionary change in capitalism. It
"Revolutions have never believes that along with economic factors
lightened the burden of non-economic factors are also important
tyranny. They have only to explain human life. Democratic
shifted it to another soul" Socialism and Evolutionary Socialism are
- George Bernard Shaw inter-related. Marxism attacked
Evolutionary Socialism as ‘revisionism’
and ‘broker’s view of socialism’.
In India Jawaharlal Nehru is an
ardent champion of Fabian Socialism
Evolutionary Socialism
Fabianism believed that socialism
and democracy are complementary and - Eduard Bernstein
supplementary to each other. They are to
be appreciated as noble ideals of equality
and justice are dearer to them. The Fabians E. Guild Socialism
did not advocate the abolition of private
property. On the contrary, they supported It is a kind of evolutionary socialism
existence of limited right to property that emerged in Great Briton in the first
governed by the principle of social welfare. two decades of the 20th century. The
English political thinker and the founder
Fabianism as an evolutionary of National Guilds League in England, D
socialism rejected Communist H Cole was the leading advocate of this
revolutionary methods of change. It brand of socialism. He wrote the book
supported peaceful methods of change in ‘Guild Socialism: A Plan for Economic
society. The Fabian ideologues depended Recovery’ to propagate the tenets of Guild
on persuasion tactics to realize socialism. Socialism. Guild Socialism criticized the
exploitation of workers by the capitalists
D. Evolutionary Socialism in the western world and arose as a protest
ideology against capitalism
Evolutionary Socialism was initially
advocated by Lassalle, one of the earliest
Guild Socialism
leaders of the German Social Democracy
A Plan for Economic
tradition. The ideals of Evolutionary
Democracy
Socialism were formally expounded in the
Gothe Programme in 1875, an important - G.D.H. Cole
document in the evolution of socialism in
Germany and Europe. Later on, Eduard The word guild refers to the
Bernstein wrote the book ‘Evolutionary association of craftsmen and artisans of
Socialism’ that attracted the many a particular profession in the medieval
supporters like Jaures in France, Anseele
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period in Europe. It acted as a source It abhorred the revolutionary methods


of mutual support, as a medium to pass of struggle associated with Marxism. All
on the professional knowledge to new changes in society should be brought
entrants. Guild Socialism combines the through peaceful and democratic means.
medieval guild with modern socialism and This was a cardinal principle of Guild
envisages a political organization in which Socialism.
organized workers-based associations will
discharge most of the political functions.
ACTIVITY
This ideology believes that in any society
there are numerous professions, trades Project Report
and occupations and a member of one Prepare a project work on the
profession cannot represent the interests thinkers and leaders of Marxism and
and welfare of members of another Socialism
profession and therefore every profession
must have its own organization. All such Though Guild Socialism was laudable
organizations must come together to form in its commitment to the welfare of
a governing council at the district, State workers it was criticized as an impractical
and national-levels to administer the alternative. Its attempt to reduce the State
system. A national-level confederation of to the position of an ordinary guild was not
guilds will govern the country. accepted by many political theorists who
asserted that the weakened state of Guild
Guild Socialism does not call for the Socialism cannot maintain law and order
destruction of the State. It endows the and protect its people from invasions and
State with certain common functions like insurrections.
providing education and health services
to the people. Guild Socialism supported
the principle of gradualism to bring about
changes in the existing capitalist system.
G.D.H. Cole's model of guild socialism
Guilds Consumer
Representation
Commune
Consumer Cooperatives
(City)

Workplaces Collective Utilities


Regional Council
Commune

National Culture Councils


National
Guilds
Commune

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Differences between Communism and Socialism

Communism Socialism
1. Revolution is the mid-wife of change 1. Evolutionary changes are more enduring
and beneficial
2. The state is an instrument of exploitation of 2. The state should not be abolished. It should
the property-less class by the rich class and be made more democratic and social
therefore should be abolished welfare oriented.
3. Class struggle is the fundamental force of 3. Violent class struggle is unnecessary.
change in human history.
4. The right to private property must be 4. T  he right to private property must be
abolished. modified and limitations must be imposed
for social welfare
5. Historical materialism can explain human 5.  Historical Materialism is not adequate
history. Economy alone drives human to explain human history. Apart from
history. economy, other factors like culture, politics
and religion are also important to explain
human history

F. Socialism in India
The 42nd Constitutional
The Indian kind of socialism is Amendment Law introduced socialism as
known as Socialistic Pattern of Society that an official feature of the Preamble of our
was adopted by the Indian State in the mid Constitution. The 44th Constitutional
1950s. Provision of all basic necessities Amendment Act removed the Right to
to all people irrespective of caste, creed, Property from the list of Fundamental
religion, race and gender and elimination Rights and made it an ordinary right
of poverty, inequality and illiteracy are the in Part XII of the Constitution. The
objectives of Indian Socialism. Parliament Directive Principles of State Policy in
passed a resolution for the establishment Part IV of the Constitution contains
of Planning Commission In 1950. The many provisions that are designed to
strategy of Five Year Plan was implemented promote socialistic objectives like Right
to promote development with socialist to Work and avoidance of concentration
content from 1951. We adopted a Mixed of wealth in the hands of a few people.
Economy where both private and public India had adhered to socialism from the
sectors were allowed to operate. We year of independence to 1991 when we
provided the commanding heights of the launched our New Economic Reforms
economy to the public sector to achieve that favored liberalization, privatization
development and equality. and globalization.

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8.4 Nationalism Theories of Nationalism


Meaning, Emergence and Spread There are many theories of
nationalism that can be listed as
Nationalism refers to an ideology
that promotes loyalty, affection and P
 rimordial Theory of Nationalism
devotion to a particular nation. It creates
attachments among people to a common  S ocio-biological Theory of Nationalism
homeland, a common language, ideals,  S ocial communication Theories
values and traditions. It is based on a M
 arxian Theory of Nationalism
consciousness that exalts the nation above
other categories and factors of social life.  Post-ideological Theory of nationalism
It strongly believes that the individual’s
These theories can be divided into
loyalty and commitment to the nation
perennial theories and modernization
should override their attachments with
theories. The first two theories can be
any group interest. Ernest Gellner, an
categorized as perennial theories and the
important theorist wrote the book ‘Nations
last three are designated as modernization
and Nationalism’. He defined nationalism
theories.
as “primarily a political principle that
holds that the political and the national Primordial Theory of Nationalism
unit should be congruent”.
The word primordial means existing
Nationalism is a modern concept. at or since the beginning of the world.
It emerged in Europe at the beginning of The theory of primordialism considers
modern period. It arose first in England that the people of a particular language,
and later on diffused to other countries region, religion, race etc have developed
of Western Europe like France, Germany a great intra-group affinity as they
aided by French Revolution. inhabit together since ancient period.
They develop a strong ethnic identity and
The North American colonies loyalty. They demonstrate the qualities of
revolted and formed their own nationalism affection, sentiments and attachments.
in opposition to Europe. The African and They may not exhibit ostensibly sufficient
Asian nations witnessed the emergence social interactions as part of their affinity.
of a new kind of nationalism called post- Nevertheless the primordial identities are
colonial nationalism as a result of anti powerful having even coercive impact
colonial struggle. Many factors contributed on their lives. The primordial theory of
to the emergence and diffusion of nationalism is grounded on the concept of
nationalism throughout the world and the ethnic nationalism.
notable ones include capitalism, French
Revolution, industrialization, World Wars Socio-biological Theory of Nationalism
and colonialism. This theory considers nationalism as
emotional attachments of a group of people

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who identify with and agree on a common most paramount factor in the evolution
descent. The people consider themselves and operation of nationalism. They
as belonging to an extended family. For argue that though nations and nationalist
them, the nation is the family writ large. sentiments existed in the medieval period,
Nationalism is a blend of both rationalism nationalism blossomed fully only in the
and irrationalism. It is a ‘primitive mind modern period with the emergence of the
with modern techniques’. As for as the modern State. Anthony Giddens argued
roots are concerned nationalism relies on that the advent of French Revolution
the past. But on its relations with other engineered the birth and growth of
groups it is contemporary. Nationalism nationalism all over Europe.
shows the face of ethno centrism towards
the members of the group and xenophobia Michael Mann articulated that there
to the members of the other groups and are four sources of social power. They are
nations. 1) Ideological power 2) Economic power
3) Military power and 4) Political power.
Post-Ideological Theory of Nationalism These four sources, often in combination
A number of theorists propounded acted historically to produce nationalism
the post-ideological theories of in different periods. The ideological factor
nationalism. Anthony Giddens, Paul Brass in the form of religion promoted the birth
and Michael Mann are the main authors of infant nations as in the case of England
of this theory. in the 16th century. The second phase
saw the economic, especially commercial
power contributing to the birth of
Ec nationalism in Western Europe. The
er on
ow
c al P om military power influenced the origin of
ol ogi ic
Po nationalism in the third phase and finally
Ide w political power shaped the evolution of
er
nationalism.

The central argument of these


theorists belonging to post-ideological
M theory of nationalism is that the modern
er

i li
ow

ta State along with commercial capitalism


ry
lP

Po
ca

w initially created and influenced the growth


iti

er of nationalism.
l
Po

Communication Theory of Nationalism


Nationalism

They differ greatly in their


Nationalism and Social
expositions about the origin and nature of
Communication
nationalism but a fundamental similarity
exists as all of them identify State as the - by Karl W. Deutsch
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Karl Deutsch and Benedict Anderson Cricket Match Spectators


are among the important theorists of
communication theory of nationalism.
Deutsch defined nation as ‘as a group of
people who communicate more effectively
and intensely with one another than with
people outside the group’. He examined
“The fellow members of even the smallest
the data from different streams of
nation will never know most of their
knowledge like economics, history and fellow members, meet them, or even hear
demography and arrived at the conclusion of them, yet in the minds of each lives the
that communication played the role of images of the communion……
a parent in the birth of nationalism and Communities are to be
nationality. The development of effective distinguished, not by their
internal communication linked all people falsity or genuineness, but
in the style in which they are
in the country and created the feelings of
imagined.”
moral and political identity contributing
to the emergence of nationalism. - Benedict Anderson

Anderson described the nation as an


imagined community and nationalism as
its life force. He wrote the book ‘Imagined
Communities’ and argued that the nation
is an imagined community exiting only in
the mind, imagination of the people. The
members of a nation do not see, talk and
know all the other members of the nation.
Yet, they consider all other members as
their own people.

When a cricket match is played, lakhs


of spectators in the ground and people Anderson contends that the
before the TV sets perceive each other as capitalism and the discovery of the
members of the same community sharing printing press played a crucial role in
joy and sorrow at the victory and defeat the emergence of nationalism. After the
of the team. Similarly the Tomb of the discovery of the printing press, books
Unknown Soldier is another example for were printed and sold in large volumes in
the concept of imagined community. The the vernacular languages of the period like
people do not know personally the soldier English, French and German. Millions of
whose body is buried in the tomb but all the people for the first time in history had
compatriots have emotional attachment the opportunity of reading books in their
with the tomb. own languages. As they read the same text
and matter they developed in their minds

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the same thoughts and ideas leading to the Michael Hechter, Miroslov Hroch
creation of the idea of community in their and Tom Narim are the important Marxist
minds. Capitalism helped in the process theorists to analyze nationalism.
of creation of imaginary community. The
capitalists wanted to earn profits and Indian Nationalism
printed books in large quantities and sold Indian nationalism emerged in the
them. The print capitalism (the combined second half of the 19th century. All Indians
forces of capitalism and printing press) began to think of nationalist feeling
contributed to the advent of nationalism transcending their religious, regional,
in the minds of the people. linguistic, ethnic differences and barriers.
There are two kinds of factors responsible
Marxist Theory of Nationalism
for the emergence of Indian nationalism.
Marxism considers nationalism as They are internal and external factors.
an offspring of capitalism. Nationalism
was created by capitalism to protect the Internally speaking, the concept
exploitative capitalist order. Karl Marx of Indian unity is always ingrained in
contended that the ruling ideas are the minds of the people. Though the
essentially the ideas of the ruling class that Indian subcontinent for many centuries
owns the means of production. The was politically fragmented it continued
capitalist class possesses private property to be culturally unified. The concept
and indulges in the exploitation of the of unity in diversity exists in Indian
property-less class. Nationalism was tradition since ancient period. The seeds
conceived and created by the bourgeois of modern nationalism germinated and
class for its own benefit to numb the grew luxuriantly in the fertile soil of this
feelings of the workers. “Nationalist centuries-old cultural unity.
consciousness is quintessentially a false
consciousness deliberately created Externally, the impact of British
perpetuate and legitimize class colonial rule facilitated the growth of
exploitation”. Marx commented, ‘The Indian nationalism. The major forces are;
Proletariat has no fatherland’. He issued a
A. Colonialism carried out the
clarion call in the ‘The Communist
political, administrative, economic and
Manifest’ to the workers of the world to
communication unification of India. India
conduct revolution for ending capitalism
was a politically divided subcontinent in
and establishing socialism all over the
eighteenth century with over 700 different
world. He favoured internationalism and
territories and rulers. The British unified
opposed nationalism.
them into one country. India followed
Karl Marx village-based economy. Colonialism
introduced modern economy and market
“The Proletariat has no
system unifying the country economically.
fatherland”
The British rule introduced modern
means of communication like railways,
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telegraphs, uniform postal system-making period. They reacted against the concept
transport and movement of people, goods of the White Man’s Burden flaunted by
and ideas easier and faster throughout the the colonial rulers. It refers to idea that
subcontinent. The newly unified India in the white people are the most advanced
the 19th century was conducive for the and civilized race in the world and their
emergence of the modern political force mission in India is to civilize the Indian
called nationalism. people. Indian leaders repudiated this
racial myth and mobilized Indian people
B. Western education was introduced through the medium of nationalism.
in India by colonialism. Indians learned
modern political ideas like liberty, F. The patently exploitative and
equality, sovereignty in the classrooms and flagrantly arrogant rule of the Governor
demanded that our motherland should be General Lord Lytten spurred the faster
empowered with those modern political emergence of Indian nationalism. He
values. imposed discrimination on Indian
vernacular press. Measures were taken
C. English became the lingua franca to promote the import of goods from
of India during colonialism. India is a England and to restrict the export of
polyglot nation as it speaks more than Indian goods to England. No active relief
a thousand languages and political was provided by the colonial government
unity was derailed. In this backdrop the when millions of people suffered and
English language became the language even died under severe drought. There
of communication among nationalists was an unnecessary war with Afghanistan
facilitating the growth of nationalism. in which thousands of Indian soldiers
died. Indian nationalism grew as a result
D. The 19th century witnessed of anger against the maladministration of
the emergence of many socio-religious Lord Lytten.
reform movements like Brahmo Samaj
of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Prarthana G. Lord Ripon was a notable
Samaj, etc. They strove to sow the seeds Governor General of India. Along with
of renaissance and reform in Indian the Law Member Ilbert, the Governor
society. They also revived the memories of General introduced a Bill granting powers
centuries-old great Indian civilization even to Indian judges to sit in the trial of cases
while articulating the need for reforming involving Europeans. There was a huge
Indian society and eliminating evils like protest organized by racist people and the
sati, caste system and untouchability. government was forced to backtrack on
its proposal. Indians were disappointed at
E. Racialism of British rulers and the behaviour of Europeans in India. The
authorities created bitterness among Ilbert Bill controversy taught Indians the
Indian people. Indian nationalism grew art and science of political agitation against
as a protest movement against the racial the negative actions of the government.
humiliation of Indian people in the colonial

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These factors created the conditions


ACTIVITY
for the conclusive emergence of Indian
nationalism in the 19th century that
Discuss why India is often called
powered the Indian struggle for
a nation in the making. List out the
independence.
nationalistic attributes of Indian Nation.

Emergence of Indian Nationalism

Indigenous Factors
Art
Culture Philosophy Civilization
and
Factors of Colonialism
Architecture

Political, Economic Socio - Religious


Western English Lord Ilbert
and Communication Reform Racialism
Education Language Lytten Rule Bill Issue
Unification Movements

Challenges before Nationalism nationalism in Spain are the living


examples of nationalism being questioned
Nationalism faces a host of challenges and endangered by intra- national forces.
in the contemporary period. Some of
them are intra-national and many of them Extra National Factors
are extra-national in origin and theatre of Many extra-national and global
operation. The paramount challenges can factors imperil nationalism. Globalization
be listed as secessionism and globalization. refers to the increasing integration of
the world in terms of economy, trade,
Nationalism is the last technology, culture and institutions. The
refuge of scoundrels contemporary world is dominated by the
- Winston Churchill ascendency of globalization process. The
barriers between and among nations are
being undermined by the onward march
Secessionism
of globalization. Economically, multi-
Nationalism grapples with a strong national corporations have established
adversarial force, called by many names their production and sale units across
like separatism, sub-nationalism, splitism many countries and continents. They
and secessionism. The Quebec separatism employ people belonging to different
in Canada, Balochistan movement in countries and exercise great influence in
Pakistan, Uighur issue in China, Catalan political domain also.
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The establishment and functioning of 27 nations is the most advanced


of World Trade Organization has hastened international regional organization that
the process of globalization. ’Barrier- seeks to achieve economic, political and
free trade’ is the fundamental slogan of cultural integration. It has created
the organization. It has created several European Parliament, European Council
agreements in the last two decades from and European Commission. Euro is its
1995 the year of its inception and till currency and a large portion of the dream
now and has brought down the trade and to create structures for the free movement
tariff bottlenecks in international domain of people, capital, service and goods has
that partly contributed to the two world been realized. It has brought out the
wars in the 20th century. Trade tariffs concept of ‘Pooled Sovereignty’ where the
are closely related to nationalism and States share their decision-making powers
their elimination erodes the rationale of with member-States of the regional
nationalism. organization foregoing their sovereignty,
definitely a blow to the concept of
There is a large-scale migration of nationalism and its cardinal feature of
the skilled people propelled by the forces State sovereignty. Succinctly to state, the
of globalization. The highly educated and continent of Europe from being the cradle
technologically qualified people migrate of nationalism has become the beacon of
from Asian and African countries to the globalism.
developed countries like the United States,
Australia and countries of Western
Mapping Activity
Europe. The educated and technologically
advanced Indian and Chinese youth have Separatist Movements in the world
migrated in large numbers to the United
Now you understand that
States in the age of globalization.
there are many separatist and sub-
national movements rejecting the
Globalization official nationalism in their respective
countries and striving to establish new
nations in their region. Prepare a list of
such movements in different parts of
the world. Take a global map and mark
in conspicuous colours the areas of
sub-national movements

The gradual emergence of the role


The international regional and relevance of the United Nations
organizations have eroded the stature of indicates the march, though slow of the
the States and their nationalism by humanity towards a World Government
promoting regional economic co- that is a negation of nationalism and its
operation. The European Union consisting political body the state.

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Radical ideologies adhering to a


different kind of internationalism pose a
Case Study threat to the concept of nationalism. For
Uyghur Separatism: Case Study example the Islamic State with its ideology
of salafism (Pure Islam) rejected the
Xinjiang is a turbulent province concept of nationalism and nation States
of People’s Republic of China located as anti-Islam. It established a caliphate in
in the north western region of the the captured territories in Syria and Iraq
country. Xinjiang means ‘New Border’ in 2014 and appealed to the global Islamic
or ‘New Frontier’ in Mandarin language. community to be associated with the
It is a thinly populated and expansive international jihad to establish a global
semi-arid or desert territory and the Islamic State or universal Caliphate.
indigenous inhabitants are called as
Uyghur Muslims. The restive province The environmental problems like
deeply harbours grievances about the climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion
putative economic discrimination have been caused by factors within the
against them from the mainstream of nation but the consequences and remedies
Chinese government and economy. are transnational and beyond the capacity of
They argue that their province had nationalism and national States to solve. The
witnessed a huge leap in Hans Chinese environmental conservation responsibility
population from a mere 6 percent at the is a global challenge and numerous multi-
time of revolution to around 40 percent lateral environmental conferences have
in the beginning of new millennium been conducted by global community to
endangering their identity. The discuss and provide solutions.
ethnic community also contends that
The growth of information
the atheist communist government
technology especially internet, mobile
discriminates against them in the
phones and social media have left
sphere of religion. They protest against
a profound impact on the concept
the national government for enforcing
of nationalism. It has sided with
regulations and restrictions on many
internationalism. The national State
aspects of religious life like telling
cannot effectively protect its nationalism
people not to grow beard and enforcing
and national interests as cross border
penalty on taxi drivers who transport
transmission of ideas and networks
burqa-clad passengers. The Chinese
become stronger.
government has adopted a stringent
attitude towards terrorism in Xinjiang The communication revolution
and its response is characterized by has shrunk the world and the idea of the
strike-hard policy and zero tolerance global village gains momentum that in the
for terrorism and splitism (a favourite long run may jeopardize nationalism.
slogan of administration to describe
secessionism). Nevertheless, it cannot be denied
that nationalism continues to be a strong

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ACTIVITY

Understanding globalisation
What is globalisation?

Globalisation is an economic process at its heart, although it is politically driven.


It also has far-reaching cultural and social ramifications, and is supported by rapid
technological innovation, especially in information and communications. Broadly
speaking, economic globalization is characterized by two trends.
 Structural adjustment  Trade liberalization
Structural adjustment – In pursuit of neo-liberal economic policies of deregulation
and privatization, governments withdraw from interventions that might affect the
functioning of free markets, for instance removing subsidies and price controls of
food. Government provided services such as health, education and water sectors are
privatized or subsidies are reduced or removed. The introduction of primary school
fees in developing countries in the 1980s, which has depressed girls’ enrollment, is
an example of this trend. Structural adjustment has been the dominant policy agenda
in the United Kingdom and the United States of America since the 1980s. The World
Bank and the International Monetary Fund are at best encouraging, and worst coercing,
developing countries along the same path, making development aid conditional on
their adoption of neo-liberal economic politics.

Trade Liberalisation -
This involves removal of
barriers to international trade, such
as tariffs and import quotas, and the
prioritization of export production.
Some experts argues that the Rich
Nations

subsequent loss of tariffs and import


quotas, and the prioritization of
Cartoon Courtesy : The Hindu, 4.7.2006
export production. Some experts
argues that the subsequent loss of tariff revenue to developing country governments has
been partly responsible for their public spending cuts. Trade liberalization started to
speed up in 1995, with the creation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Countries
in the global South are being encouraged to follow this route, by a combination of the
World Trade Organisation, backed by the European Union and the United States of
America and again, the influence of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.

Courtesy : Women’s Rights, Geraldine Terry, Pluto Press, Oxfax, Palgrave Macmillan,
Fernwood Publishing.

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ideology in the 21st century too. The end exit of Britain from the European Union
of nationalism is not observable even in and the exit of United States from 2015
the distant horizon. The State still retains Paris Accord of the United Nations
with itself the priceless feature of Framework Convention on Climate
sovereignty. The ultimate deciding factor Change on grounds of national interests
of internationalism is still nationalism reveal the relevance and resilience of the
and national interests. The BREXIT or ideology of nationalism.

Challenges before Nationalism

Sub-Nationalism or
Extra National
Ethno-Nationalism
Challenges
or Secessionism

International
International United Radical Environmental Information
WTO Regional
Migration Nationals Ideologies problems Technology
Organizations

The most important factor for the


DEBATE emergence of Fascism can be attributed to
the socio-economic problems of Italy in
Have a debate about the positives and
the post-war period. Though it was on the
negatives of BREXIT for India – EU
side of the allied powers in the First World
relations.
War, there was a huge popular
8.5 Fascism disappointment that it did not receive
Benito Mussolini founded a benefits from the post-war settlement.
totalitarian party, movement and ideology The country suffered from numerous
in the inter-war period and ruled Italy for socio-economic problems like
more than two decades. Fascism in Italian unemployment, inflation, stagnation and
language has its origin in the word Fasci instability in industrial sector.
meaning the bundle of rods bound with
a red cord round an axe helve. In Italian R.M. Mac Iver regards fascism as
tradition, this symbol is powerful as it was a movement of lower middle class.
borne by the magisterial attendants before
the Roman Consuls as symbol of political
power. The bundle of rods signifies unity All sections of Italy like workers,
and strength and Benito Mussolini chose farmers, middle class and even rich
the nomenclature to arouse the emotions classes faced war-related miseries. Benito
of the cadre. Mussolini, being a dangerous demagogue,
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capitalized on this widespread discontent or indirectly guides other nations, without


and conducted a ‘March on Rome’ in the need to conquer a single square
1922. The political authorities in the face kilometer of territory. Mussolini believed
of fascist intimidation capitulated and that the Fascist State is the ‘Third
Mussolini and National Fascist Party Rome’, a worthy successor to the First
captured power without any violence. Ancient Roman Empire and second the
Renaissance Rome that disseminated the
National Fascist Party seeds of renaissance throughout Europe.
(Partito Nazionale Fascista)
Fascism extolled the virtues of war.
Mussolini infamously stated ‘war is to
man what maternity is to woman’. It
deprecated peace as a slogan of the weak
and cowardly. Fascism sought to honour
women as ‘reproducers of the nation’.

Fascism rejected the idea of a limited


State. It enthusiastically followed the
concept of totalitarianism. Mussolini
exclaimed, ‘Everything within the State,
nothing outside the State, nothing against
the State”. The State was empowered to
create a radically new society. It exercised
Basic Characteristics
a complete control over the minds and
Fascism preached and practiced actions of its citizens. Fascists provided
aggressive nationalism. Fascism a positive outlook to the concept of
proclaimed that Italy is the greatest totalitarian State contending that the
nation in the world and created hatred powerful authoritarian State is vital for
against other nations and people. Fascism the metamorphosis of Italy into a mighty
pursued imperialism both in theory nation and moulding of its citizens into
and practice. Its expansionist drive politically-active brave people.
re-ignited colonial rivalries in Africa
precipitating the Second World War. A Fascism considered communism as
Fascist writer Giovanni Gentile wrote the its mortal enemy and endeavored hard to
book ‘Doctrine of Fascism’. He said that suppress it. The great Marxist thinker of
the Fascist State is a will to power and Italy, Antonio Gramsci was jailed for 20
empire. The Roman tradition is here a years. The official prosecutor in that case
powerful force. According to the doctrine ended his peroration infamously
of Fascism, empire is not only territorial demanding the judge ‘we should stop
or military or mercantile concept, but a this brain working for 20 years’”. Fascism
spiritual and moral one. One can think of banned political parties, movements and
an empire, that is, a nation, which directly writings supporting communism.

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Ideologically, it repudiated the Marxist Criticism


concepts of State, society, class and
Fascism was the most powerful
revolution. As against the class-ridden
totalitarian State that mankind had ever
society of communism, Fascism supported
faced. It was undemocratic. Fascism was
the organic unity of the State.
attacked as an opportunistic, intellectually
dishonest ideology as it changed
The doctrine of fascism arose frequently its core ideological principles
as a theory of reaction to democracy, and postures. Though Fascism and
socialism and communism. While Nazism had been cruel collaborators in
democracy and communism inflicting massive death and destruction
represented progressive focus of the on humankind in the Second World War,
modern age fascism sought to promote Fascism as an ideology was more coherent
a tendency in reverse direction. and therefore continues to be used as a
term even in the 21st century to assail
dictators and totalitarian States.
Fascism should more appropriately
be called Corporatism because it is a 8.6 Nazism
merger of state and corporate power.
Adolf Hitler was the architect of the
- Benito Mussolini
totalitarian ideology of Nazism that ruled
Germany in the inter-war period. Hitler
formed the Nazi Party (officially National
Notable fact of the Fascist State is Socialist German Workers’ Party) on the
its nature as a Corporate State. Every basis of a radical 25-point programme in
profession, trade or occupation possessed 1920 that included nationalization of all
its own corporate organisation. The major industries, forfeiture of war profits
national objectives of the State were given and freedom from the thralldom of money-
primacy over everything. The corporate lenders. Hitler was a wily demagogue and
State was promoted to remove any conflict attracted all sections of German society
between employers and employees. by promising everything to everybody.
Mussolini firmly believed that the disputes He promised ‘food to every belly, cloth
between the business classes and labour to everybody, work to every hand and
should and could be removed through the house to every family’. He arrived at the
system of corporate bodies. citadels of power without shedding blood
The workers were sternly told that by manipulating the parliamentary and
strikes were illegal. They came to be constitutional processes in 1933.
affected greatly as wages were fixed low by
the Fascist State and party. The corporate
organizations suffered from corruption
and inefficiency. The corporate State
was the bedrock of Fascist economy but
trampled upon the rights of the workers.
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Cause of Emergence relations between Aryans and other


impure races like Jews, gypsies were
The major cause of emergence
banned.
of Hitler and Nazism can be located
in the controversial Versailles Treaty Concentration Camps
of 1919 that was signed in Paris in
the post-war settlement process. Hitler
resorted to heighten the emotions of the
ordinary German people by condemning
the economic, military, and political
humiliation of the German nation by the
victorious allied powers. He authored
the book ‘Mein Kempf ’ meaning ‘My
The Holocaust
Struggle’ containing his views and ideas
about German nation.

Core Features
Nazism believed in totalitarianism.
It adhered to the historical slogan of the
German philosopher Friedrich Hegel that
‘the State is the march of God on earth’.
Complete obedience was demanded from Nazisim implemented a brutal
the citizens. campaign of persecution against the Jews
that resulted in the killing of millions
Nazism resorted to systematic of people which is now observed as
glorification of war. Hitler said, ‘War the Holocaust. Nazism suppressed Jews
is eternal, war is universal. War is life. holding them responsible for the misery
War is the origin of all things’. This war- of German people. The disproportionately
mongering precipitated the Second World higher representation of Jews in the
War and inflicted misery on mankind. wealthy classes and their lower percentage
presence in lower sections of society
Perhaps the one of the most invited the wrath of the Nazi State. They
controversial principles of Nazism is its were subjected to inhuman conditions in
racial superiority and purity myth. Hitler places of detention known as concentration
considered the Aryan race as the most camps.
intelligent and superlative one calling it
the master race of mankind. He detested Nazism was expansionist. Germany
other races living among or in the vicinity wanted to capture colonies so that the
of German nation especially Jews and Slav surplus population can be exported and
races. A set of laws known as Nuremberg it could overtake England as the colonial
Laws were enacted in 1934 to preserve the giant of the world.
racial purity of the Aryan race. Marital

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Nazism rejected the prevailing party resorted to mobilization of the


political ideologies and systems like people. Organizationally, it was based
communism of Soviet Union, liberal on strict hierarchy principles with Hitler
democracy of the United States of America concentrating all power at the top.
and internationalism of League of Nations.
Succinctly to state, Nazism is
Nazism believed in hero worship. The criticized for being totalitarian, irrational,
idea that ‘Germany is Hitler and Hitler is racist and inhuman ideology. The defeat
Germany’ was instilled in the minds of the of Germany in the Second World War and
people. The concept of equality of human the suicide of Adolf Hitler extinguished the
beings was rejected and Adolf Hitler was Nazi party and ideology. The emergence
addressed as the "Fuehrer" (leader). In fact, of the liberal democratic political system
Germany itself was called as "Fuehrer- in Germany based on competitive party
State" meaning the ‘Leader-State’. system has denied scope for the revival of
Nazism.
ACTIVITY Summary

Film Screening Historically, Liberalism has


three varieties - Negative Liberalism,
Dear students, now you understand
Positive Liberalism and Libertarianism.
that Nazism inflicted genocide on
Negative Liberalism considers the
innocent people. There are numerous
State as a necessary evil and advocates
films dealing with the atrocities of
a limited State that performs the two
Nazism. For example, the film Schindler’s
functions of maintenance of law and
List dealt with
order and enforcement of legally made
Nazi crimes
contract. Positive Liberalism supports
and won many
a social welfare State that promotes
Oscar Awards.
the general welfare and development
You can arrange
of the people. Libertarianism re-
the screening of
applies the negative state of the 19th
the film in the
century in the contemporary period
classroom.
and propagates the idea of the minimal
Nazism followed irrationalism and State.
was vehemently against reason. Adhering The different types of socialism
to the philosophy of irrationalism it like Democratic Socialism, Fabian
appealed to the emotions, sentiments and Socialism and Evolutionary Socialism
passions of the German people. differ from Marxism by endowing the
state with democratic character and
Nazism recognized only single
social welfare functions. All of them
party rule. All other political parties
advocate staunchly the evolutionary
were banned and suppressed. The
and incremental means of change
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Glossary

Lenin contributed to Marxism


through the concept of the Laissez Faire : In French language it means
communist political party as the Leave Alone. The state should leave the
vanguard of communist revolution, individual alone to pursue his life
based on the organizational principle
Market Economy : Economy driven by
of democratic centralism. Stalin
demand and supply
propounded Socialism in One Nation
defending the Soviet Socialism. Mao, Social Welfare State : The state that
the architect of Chinese Revolution implements various social welfare
modified the western Marxism to suit programs
the conditions of an Asian society
through the Peasant led revolution Perestroika : In Russian language it means
and People’s Democratic Dictatorship. Restructuring. The former President of
USSR Mikhail Gorbachev introduced
Nationalism as devotion and reforms to restructure the economy
commitment to one’s own nation
dominates the politics of the Glasnost : In Russian language it means
nations and the world in the last few Openness. It refers to the political rights
centuries. The differing theories of made available to the people of USSR by
nationalism focus on primordialism, its President
common descent, communication, New Deal : The economic reforms
capitalism, class exploitation and rise introduced in the United States by
and prominence of the modern state President Franklin D. Roosevelt to reform
in explaining the phenomenon of American economy
nationalism. Though intra national
and extra national factors pose an Democratic Centralism : The
existential challenge, nationalism organizational principle of the communist
survives and even thrives to be a party visualized by Lenin
strong political ideology.
Signification of Communism : The
Fascism and Nazism are closely adoption of Communism to suit the
related ideologies and they preached conditions of China by Mao
and practiced totalitarianism,
Hegemony : Moral and intellectual
aggressive nationalism, hero worship,
leadership as provided by Gramsci
colonialism and war mongering.
These two ideologies are despised Utopian Socialism : Socialism in the
by the overwhelming majority of pre Marxian era where sympathy and
humanity. compassion not science drove socialist
ideas

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Fabian Socialism : Socialism named Proletariat : Karl Marx extensively used


after the Roman General Fabius who the word to denote the working class or
was historically famous for adopting industrial wage earning class
themilitary strategy of 'wait and hit hard
at the right moment'. U.S.S.R : Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics. It was the official name of the
Guild Socialism : Socialism named after communist country consisting of fifteen
Guild that refers to the association of republics including Russia
craftsmen and artisans of a particular
profession in the medieval period in BREXIT : Exit of Britain from European
Europe. Union

Primordialism : The belief that the people Globalization : The integration of the
of a particular language, region, religion, world in economic and commercial
race etc. have developed a great intra- domains
group affinity as they inhabit together Fascism : In Italian language Fasci means
since ancient period. the bundle of rods signifying unity and
Imagined Communities : Benedict strength.
Anderson introduced the terms to argue Concentration Camps : The places where
that the nation is an imagined community the hapless Jews were imprisoned without
exiting only in the mind, imagination of trial, exploited and killed mercilessly by
the people. the Nazi army

Evaluation
I Choose the Correct Answer:
1. Which ideology considered the state as a necessary evil?
a) Negative Liberalism b) Positive Liberalism
c) Marxism d) Anarchism
2. Positive Liberalism viewed the state as an instrument of
a) Law and Order b) Exploitation
c) Social Welfare d) Revolution
3. Libertarianism was supported by
a) Nock b) Nozick
c) F.A. Hayek d) All the Above Thinkers
4. The concept of Hegemony was advocated by
a) Karl Marx b) Lenin
c) Antonia Gramsci d) Mao
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5. T
 he perspective that the communist party must be the vanguard of the communist
revolution was propagated by
a) Karl Marx b) Lenin
c) Mao d) Stalin
6. The major contribution of Mao to the communist ideology is found in the form of
a) Sinification of Communism b) Historical Materialism
c) Surplus Value d) None of the Above

7. Match the following


1. Bernard Shaw A. Utopian Socialism
2. Robert Owen B. Evolutionary Socialism
3. Eduard Bernstein C. Guild Socialism
4. D.H. Cole D. Fabian Socialism

a) 1-A 2-B 3-C 4-D


b) 1-D 2-A 3- B 4-C
c) 1-A 2-D 3-C 4-B
d) 1-C 2-B 3-D 4-A

8. Fabian Socialism was named after


a) Roman General b) Russian General
c) English General d) Indian General
9. Guild Socialism advocated
a) Modernized Medieval Guild System
b) State Performing Functions Like Education
c) Peaceful Methods of Change
d) All the Above
10. Who among the following is not a communist thinker?
a) Karl Popper b) Karl Marx
c) Louis Althusser c) Antonio Gramsci
11. The Indian variety of Socialism is
a) Syndicalism b) Fabian Socialism
c) Socialistic Pattern of Society d) Guild Socialism
12 .Who described Nationalism in terms of Imagined Communities?
a) Karl Deutsch b) Benedict Anderson
c) Michael Mann d) Anthony Giddens
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13 .Who said “The Proletariat has no fatherland”.


a) Benedict Anderson b) Karl Deutsch
c) Aristotle d) Karl Marx

14. Who authored the book Mein Kempf?


a) Karl Marx b) Plato
c) Adolf Hitler d) Adam Smith

15. Nazism believed in


a) Aryan Racial Supremacy b) National Equality
c) Jewish Supremacy d) European Supremacy

16. A
 ssertion: Gramsci advocated hegemony.
Reason: The developed nations can exercise control and domination over the
developing counties.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

II. Answer the following questions very shortly


17. What is meant by End of History?
18. Explain the term “Democratic Centralism”
19. Give a brief explanation about Neo Marxism
20. Name the leaders who implemented Libertarianism in their countries.
21. What is Instrumental Marxism?
22. Is nationalism based on Primordial Identities?
23. Explain the Ideological State Apparatuses.

III Answer the following questions shortly


24. Identify the functions of the State in Positive Liberalism
25. W
 hat do you understand about the concept of Hegemony propounded by
Gramsci?
26. Provide a detailed account of the contributions of Lenin to Communism
27. Compare and contrast Communism with Socialism
28. Explore the argument that nationalism springs from Imagined Communities.

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29. C
 omment on the statement that Nazism and Fascism are the enemies of a
democratic, peaceful and egalitarian world.
30. Enumerate the causative factors of Indian nationalism
IV Answer the following questions in detail
31. Analyze the ideology of Libertarianism
32. Examine the main characteristics of the ideology of Mao
33. Describe the salient features of Fabian Socialism
34. Provide a detailed account on the theories of Nationalism
35. Discuss the chief components of Fascist Ideology

Reference Books

1. A
 nderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and
Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso
2. G
 auba, O.P. (2009) An Introduction to Political Theory, New Delhi: Macmillan
Publishers India Ltd.
3. H
 eywood, Andrew(2003) Political Ideologies: An Introduction, London:
Macmillan
4. IGNOU Political Science Study Materials, B.A and M.A
5. R
 ajeev Bhargava & Ashok Acharya (Ed) (2016) Political theory: An Introduction,
New Delhi: Thomson press.
6. R
 amasamy, Sushila (2009) “Political Theory – Ideas and Concepts, Chennai:
Macmillan India Ltd.

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ICT CORNER

Unit-8 Political Ideologies Part - I

Through this activity you


will learn about different
philosophies and the
philosophers.

Steps Political Ideologies


1. Use the URL or QR code to open the “histropedia” page.
2. An activity window histropedia home page will open, click on search and type
communism on the top right corner of the activity window.
3. It will show the timeline of the philosophy from the early beginning till is date on
communism.
4. Explore the different philosophies and the philosophers by clicking the year on the
timeline, you will understand philosophy developed during that period and the links
related to that particular philosophy will be shown.

Steps 3
Step 1

Steps 4
Step 2

Download Link
*Pictures are indicative only.
*If browser requires, allow Flash Player or Java Script to load the page.
URL: http://www.histropedia.com/

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UNIT

9 Political Ideologies – Part-II

Introduction
We have learnt a few political ideologies in the previous
chapter. Now we will study the remaining ideologies. The
domain of political ideologies is very fertile and new ones
germinate and blossom regularly. Our subject has witnessed
the emergence of many new ideologies in the last four decades.

9.1 Anarchism
Learning Objectives
Anarchism is a political ideology
 To understand the etymology,
that advocates the model of self-governed
characteristics, kinds and thinkers
societies based on innate cooperative
of Anarchism
instincts of man. Etymologically,
 To comprehend the meaning,
anarchism is derived from the Greek word
emergence and diverse schools of
'anarchos' meaning 'without authority'.
Feminism
One of the earliest political philosophers
 To know a few measures of the
of anarchism was Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Indian State to promote women
who famously described profit as theft.
empowerment
 To have knowledge about
the emergence, thinkers Where there is authority,
and main characteristics of there is no freedom
communitarianism especially its - Peter Kropotkin
stand on Man, Society, Rights and
Justice
Russian thinker Peter Kropotkin and
 To grasp the meaning and thinkers
Russian author Leo Tolstoy are among
of Post Modernism and also to
the other important advocates of this
examine its views on multiplicity
philosophy.
of truth, particularism and identity
politics Anarchism as an ideology seeks to
 To know the basic concepts like abolish all authority and emancipate man
Deep Ecology, Shallow Ecology from the State, property and religion. It
and Ecological Political Theory alternatively visualizes a society based on
 To identify a few important voluntary association of human beings.
Ecological Movements of India
Anarchism considers the State as an
unnecessary evil. State is an evil because
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it suppresses rights and liberties of man Anarchism does not champion the
hindering his moral development. Unlike cause of disorder and disunity. On the
the negative liberalists who called the contrary, it claims to embody order and
State necessary even though it is an evil, unity. Human beings are naturally provided
anarchism rejects the State as an with cooperative instincts. They can lead
unnecessary institution. They argue that a life of happiness and fulfilment guided
the state does not perform any useful by the instinct of voluntary cooperation.
function in society and, therefore, it must But the artificial institution of the State
be exterminated immediately. Bakunin, suppresses the cooperative instincts of
another famous anarchist thinker asserted man. It endangers freedom and rights
that if there is a State, there must be of man. Anarchism aspires to destroy
domination and subjugation of one class the State and implant in its place a new
by another class and therefore all States system of voluntary associations. Every
must vanish. man will voluntarily and enthusiastically
participate in public life. Anarchy does
Anarchy not mean a society without rules, rather
(Noun) a theory holding all forms without rulers.
of governmental authority to be
unnecessary and undesirable and Anarchism believes in the principles
advocation a society based on voluntary of self-determination and self-ownership.
cooperation and free association of Every human being has the right to self-
individuals and groups determination and can decide his or her
Anarchy is not chaos life based on his wishes and freedom.
Anarchy is not lawlessness. Similarly, every person has complete
ownership of himself or herself and this is
Aanrchy is based upon the principle of the most basic form of property. The State
self-ownership. threatens these two important principles
The idea that you are the and therefore should be discarded.
exclusive controller
of your own body ACTIVITY
and life.
Co-operative Life Demonstration
Anarchists are peaceful
people who reject initiated Anarchism believes in co-operative
aggression against anyone instinct of human beings. So, the students
without exception. can form a co-operative organization in
the class and look after the day to day
functioning like keeping the board clean,
ACTIVITY
class room neat and keeping drinking
Recall your understanding of the water. Demonstrate that co-operation,
concept “State as necessary evil” that not coercion makes people work and live
you have studied earlier. Compare and better.
contrast liberalism with Anarchism.
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Anarchism opposes not only State Philosophers, critical of anarchism,


but also other social institutions like opined that anarchism is too optimistic of
family and religion criticizing them to be the human nature. Their assumptions are
responsible for the abominable exploitation plainly naive. They are oblivious to the
of man. Some anarchists equate property ground realities especially the selfish side
with tyranny and condemn it as source of of human beings. Not all human beings
crime. are instinctively cooperative. Moreover, as
man is not only rational but also emotional
Anarchism is similar to Marxism in at times strongly influenced by emotions a
demanding the abolition of the State. But cooperative individual may become
while Marxism believes that the State will selfish. A world or society without the
wither away after the establishment of State will prove to be a source of immense
socialism, anarchism demands the misery as issues like terrorism, cybercrime,
immediate destruction of the State. and environmental pollution will spiral
out of control. The safety of the world
becomes fragile in the absence of the State
as extremist groups will gain access and
control over nuclear weapons and herald
death and destruction.

ACTIVITY

Is Gandhiji’s stateless society a form of


Gerard Casey supported anarchism Anarchism? What exactly does Gandhiji
in the 21st century by stating that not say about stateless society?
only the totalitarian and repressive ones
all States are criminal organizations. 9.2 Feminism

A new system of Stateless societies is


the cherished goal of anarchism.
 Feminism is the
There are different kinds of radical notion that
anarchism. They can be categorised women are people.
as philosophical anarchism, socialist  A feminist is anyone who recognizes
anarchism, revolutionary anarchism and the equality and full humanity of
libertarian anarchism. However, not all of women and men.
them demand the abolition of the State. - Cheris Kramarae
The libertarian anarchism wants to restrict
the State to the minimum possible extent. Feminism refers to the movements
Still, a majority of anarchist philosophers and ideologies that strive to promote
advocate the abolition of the State. empowerment of women so that they
achieve equality with men. Feminist
schools of thought emerged on the
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horizon of Modern Political Theory from B. Marxist Feminism


the last decades of the 19th century. It
It placed gender inequality and
was propelled by scientific realisation
exploitation in the origin of private
about the innate capability and equality of
property from the second stage of human
women with men
history called Ancient Slave Society.
There are different feminist schools of Friedrich Engels, a close associate of Karl
thought that can be broadly categorized as; Marx, wrote the book “The Origins of The
Family, Private Property and the State”.
A. Liberal Feminism He argued that subordination of women
B. Marxist Feminism emerged with the rise of private property
as men controlled the property and used it
C. Radical Feminism
to establish their domination over women.
D. Eco Feminism The struggle for women liberation should
E. Post-Colonial Feminism take place simultaneously with the
struggle for liberation of the working
class. Marxist revolution will lead to
the destruction of capitalism and the
establishment of communism where there
will be no private property. There will be
equality among not only men but also
between men and women

C. Radical Feminism
There are no innate differences
A. Liberal Feminism between men and women and women
came to be subjugated deliberately for the
The feminist movement, in its purpose of exploitation, is the ideological
infant stage in the late 19th century, crux of Radical Feminism.
advocated equal political rights for
women. It believed that the subordination
of women in society could be rectified " A Woman is not born
with electoral enfranchisement of women but made"
and endowment of other political and - Simone de Beauvoir
economic rights. The State was considered
to be a gender neutral institution.
Therefore granting of voting rights to Simone de Beauvoir, the famous
women will culminate in the fruition of radical feminist and author of the work
women development. The greatest feat of “The Second Sex”, asserted that “A woman
liberal feminism lies in winning voting is not born but made”. Both woman and
rights to women in the democratic western man are endowed with same capacities
countries. when they are born. Male-dominated

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society and culture known as patriarchy between man and women in personal
creates through indoctrination the domain is not always characterised by the
inequality between them. The differences considerations of love and affection. Even
in gender are created artificially and here struggle, competition and domination
unjustly. We can understand this assertion operate. For example the relations between
when we note the enormous differences in husband and wife and a brother and sister
the status and position accorded to women are not always friendly and affectionate.
among the cultures of the world.
ACTIVITY

Creative Skill
Personal is Political
Women form one half of
- Carole Hanisch
humankind. Their safety and welfare
are very important.
Carole Hanisch, a famous Radical
Dear Students, each student in the
Feminist, brought out the most important
class must think creatively and come
slogan of Radical Feminism - Personal is
up with suggestions to make the world
Political - to reveal patriarchal domination
safe for women as Mothers, Sisters,
over women. The liberal politics divides
Classmates, Friends, Neighbours and
the activities of humankind into personal
Strangers.
and public domains. The personal domain
is considered to be a sphere of personal Struggle and competition can also
life where family operates. It is believed be found in them. Therefore, we should
that there is no scope for conflict and speak about politics, women rights, gender
domination in this sphere and only equality in personal domain too. Radical
love, affection and empathy are relevant. Feminism argues for a revolutionary re-
Women live in the personal sphere and ordering of society and politics to implant
therefore there is no need for political gender equality in personal and public
rights, power and authority for women. domains.

But the public domain is a sphere D. Eco Feminism


of struggle, competition and therefore Eco Feminism provides a feminist
politics. This domain is dominated interpretation of nature. The two ideologies
exclusively by men. Therefore, men alone of Feminism and Environmentalism
participate in politics and possess political are fused in Eco Feminism. It argues
power. that patriarchy is the root cause of
environmental degradation and women
Radical Feminism repudiates the
exploitation. The important architects of
above liberal exposition and asserts that
Eco Feminism are Francoise D’Eaubonne,
private and personal domain is also
Rosemary Ruether, Ynestra King and
subject to politics. The relationship
Vandana Shiva.
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"We are either going and Ethel Crowley are important Post-
to have a future where Colonial Feminists.
women lead the way to
Audre Lorde said, “To imply, however,
make peace with the earth
that all women suffer the same oppression
or we are not going to have
simply because we are women is to lose
a human future at all."
sight of the many varied tools of patriarchy.
- Vandana Shiva
It is to ignore how those tools are used by
There are two schools of thought women without awareness against each
in Eco Feminism. They are Radical other… As an African-American woman in
Feminism and Cultural Feminism. White patriarchy, I am used to having my
Radical Feminism asserts that patriarchy archetypal experience distorted and
or male-dominated system subjugates and trivialised.”
degrades both environment and women.
Male domination of society must be
eliminated to realise the twin objectives of
environmental preservation and women
empowerment.

The other school, Cultural


Feminism argues that women are closer
to nature as both are food providers and
play indispensable role in biological
reproduction. The environmental
degeneration affects women more than
men. The division of work between the two
genders leaves women more disadvantaged It revolts against the western feminist
in the age of environmental crisis. They movements’ attempts at universalizing
suffer more as in male dominant societies their experience. Women do not constitute
they are given the responsibilities directly a single and homogenous category as they
linked with nature. are differentiated by a host of factors like
class, race, religion and country. The
E. Post-Colonial Feminism mainstream feminism suffers from several
Post-Colonial Feminism arose as an deficiencies when applied to non-western
ideology and movement in the 1980s in societies The Post-Colonial Feminism
the countries of Asia and Africa that were criticises the negative impact of western
formerly enslaved in colonialism. Audre colonialism on the social economic and
Lorde contributed to the emergence political universe of women in Asia and
of Post-Colonial Feminism in one Africa, a realty that was ignored and never
masterpiece essay “The Master’s Tools experienced by the mainstream feminist
Will Never Dismantle the Master’s House”. thought. They had experienced racism,
Gyatri Spivak, Chandra Talpade Mohanty slavery, forced migration and numerous

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other evils that make them different from


the Western women.
DEBATE
It also condemns the projection of
the western women as educated, There is a long standing demand
politically-conscious, modern and for women reservation in Parliament
empowered and non-western women as and State Legislatures. The struggle
passive, powerless victims. Post-Colonial is for reserving one third of the seats
Feminism argues that women in these for women. Arrange a comprehensive
societies are victims of double colonisation debate in the class on the pros and cons
represented by the exploitative forces of of women reservation proposal.
colonialism and patriarchy. Post-Colonial
Feminism castigates the visible
indifference of the mainstream post
colonial political thought to the peculiar
sufferings of the women in their societies
and countries.

REAL MAN
DON'T HIT
End Domestic violence.

The 73rd and 74th Constitutional


Amendment Acts reserve one-third of
the seats in panchayat and urban local
Marxist bodies for women. The implementation
Feminism
of reservation in elected local bodies in
the last two decades has led to political
empowerment of women. The Supreme
Court of India had provided ‘Vishakha
Guidelines’ to protect women from
Indian State and Women Empowerment sexual harassment in working places.
Accordingly, the Union government
Not only feminism but all recent enacted The Sexual Harassment of Women
theories in political science emphasise the at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and
need to promote gender equality and Redressal) Act, 2013. The Act establishes
women empowerment. Indian State had Internal Complaints Committee and
implemented certain crucial measures for Local Complaints Committee to provide
protecting women. redressal to women seeking justice from

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sexual harassment in their workplace. Communitarianism rose as a revolt


Parliament had earlier passed The against the prevailing two ideologies of
Protection of Women from Domestic libertarianism and Marxism. It criticised
Violence Act, 2005 to provide justice and the thinkers of libertarianism for their
protection from violence within their over emphasis on individuals. It rejected
homes. Marxism for being committed to class-
based action and analysis. However,
In conclusion, one can say gender the opposition was directed against
equality paves way for empowerment of Libertarianism that had become the ruling
the half of humankind. philosophy of mankind especially in the
western world.
9.3 Communitarianism
Communitarianism emerged as a Importance of Community
political doctrine during the 1980s when Communitarianism argues that man
Michael Sandel authored the book is not born in a vacuum. He is a social and
‘Liberalism and the Limits of Justice’. He cultural animal. Individuals are born in a
criticised the libertarianism and its community or culture and therefore
thinker John Rawls in that work. The inherit it. Their beliefs, behavior, skills,
other political scientists supporting capacities, attitudes etc are predominantly
communitarianism include Alisdair influenced by the community. Every
MacIntyre, Michael Walzer, Charles individual builds on these commonly
Taylor, Amitai Etzioni nd Will Kymlicka. available and acquired capacities to make
Though the British Socialist Goodwyn a mark in his or her life time. Man is not
Barmy coined the word “communitarian” an atomistic entity existing alone but is
in the 1840s, the doctrine of embedded in the community. The
communitarianism emerged only towards individual is not ‘unencumbered self ’
the end of the 20th century (completely free) from society but ‘situated
self ’ (rooted and planted) in society
What is Communitarian Society?
ACTIVITY
Communitarianism And Society
/Communitarian Self-Introspection:

Every person is greatly influenced


by the community in which he is born
(Root World) and resides. As a person born and
COMMUNITY residing in Tamil Nadu you must have
Community Means
acquired many skills, traits, habits and
 A Community is commonly considered a social talents. Each one of you must prepare
unit(a group people) who share something in
common. the list of skills and habits that you
 A Group of people who live in the same area. have acquired by living in Tamil Nadu
 A Group of nations. and present it in the class.

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Robert D. Putnam played a crucial role


in the emergence of communitarianism. He
analysed the game of Bowling in America. In
his analysis he found that in the earlier days, a
large number of Americans played the game.
They built social networks, knowledge and
skills (Social Capital) by constantly interacting
with other people in the community while
playing the game. But gradually people lost
interest in the game with the arrival of new
forces and facilities like television, internet, etc.
As people spent more time in their technology-
driven gadgets, their social interaction with
other members came down leading to erosion
of social capital. Ultimately, the quality of
democracy also suffered as people have limited
social interactions and public engagement. The
political apathy of people eroded the strength
of democracy.

Communitarianism Meaning

Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual


and the community.
Although the community might be a family UNIT, Communitarianism usually is understood,
in the wider, philosophical sense, As a collection of interactions, Among a Communitarian
philosophy is based upon the belief that a person's social identity and personality are largely
molded by community relationships, with a smaller degree of development being placed on
individualism.
Communitarianism

Rights Responsibilities

In short Balancing the Rights and Responsibilities of Individual with Rights and Responsibilities
of Community.

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For example a child born in Tamil on a new concept of rights where common
Nadu speaks Tamil language fluently good is given importance. They strongly
and not Japanese where as a child born contend that the common good of the
in Japan speaks Japanese fluently and community has supremacy and priority
not Tamil. A man living in a community over the rights of the individuals as it is
where computer technology is already prior to them. Every person may have his
available in developed form may become own conception of good but such
a skilled person in software domain. On individual good must be subordinated to
the contrary, a man living in a remote the idea of common good. A new concept
community that has not witnessed the of positive rights is propagated where in a
growth of information technology will not wide variety of rights like State-subsidised
have adequate software skills. education, State-subsidized housing, safe
environment, universal healthcare are
Concept of State demanded for the community members.
A synthesis between rights and
Communitarianism considers the
responsibilities is advocated by certain
State as a positive instrument that promotes
thinkers who belong to Responsive
the idea of the common good. The concept
Communitarianism.
of common good is present in every
community. The community develops a
set of goals, practices and measures that ACTIVITY
collectively promote the fundamental
Become a Member:
welfare of all. The State should promote
the realisation of the common good and There are many community
act against the activities that promote organizations in your neighbourhood
individual good in contradiction with like Youth Service Centres. Go to their
common good. It should protect and meeting and even enroll yourself in
promote those cultural traditions of the some of these organizations. Observe
community that symbolise and sustain and participate in their activities.
the common good. Communitarianism Analyze and prepare a report on the
supports a State that is democratically functioning of these community level
elected and constituted. They strongly organizations devoid of caste and
aspire for a State that is responsible and religious affiliations and discuss with
responsive to demands of the community. your friends.

Concept of Rights
Positive Rights of Communitarianism
Communitarianism believes that
rights and responsibilities are intimately
related. It rejects the excessive reliance of State State Universal
Clean
libertarianism on the concept of individual Subsidized
Education
Subsidized
Housing
Environment
Health
Care
autonomy and rights. Instead, it focuses

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Concept of Justice
God is dead.....
Communitarians attack John Rawls and we have
and other libertarian thinkers on the killed him
concept of justice. They reject universalism
of libertarianism, their argument that - Friedrich Nietzsche
the concept of justice is universally
applicable as it is based on reason. On
Fredrick Nietzsche is called Father of
the contrary, communitarians articulate
Post Modernism. He famously said “God
the particularistic view of justice. Every
is dead”. He argued that man should stop
community develops its own notions of
the search for the ultimate truth to explain
justice and therefore it differs from society
human life. It is beyond our capacity.
to society.
Modernity believes in universalism
Therefore, we can conclude that
and reductionism. It explains all the
Communitarianism as a political doctrine
phenomena through a single factor or one
believes in the indispensability of
ultimate truth. For example, Karl Marx
community for the development of the
said human life depends on economy and
‘situated and embedded man’. The positive
all problems can be solved by eliminating
State should concentrate on the provision of
the right to private property. Similarly
positive rights to community and its people
Fredrick Hegel, the German philosopher
so that common good can be preserved
argued that the world is nothing but the
and promoted. But Libertarianism still
embodiment of World Spirit.
criticises Communitarianism as preparing
Postmodernism, in contrast, advocates
the path for the emergence of collectivism
that the world and our life is complex and
and authoritarianism.
cannot be explained by a single factor. A
9.4 Postmodernism host of factors like culture, language,
religion, politics, and economy decide
Postmodernism refers to a variety human life and this world.
of ideas that criticize modernity and
emerge as its successor and rival. The
major proponents of Postmodernism
include Fredrick Nietzsche, Jean-Francois
Lyotard, Michel Foucalt and Jacques
Derrida. Modernity has dominated the
political theory in the last 200 years.
Rationality, universalism, reductionism
are among the dominant principles of
modernity. Postmodernism challenges
these principles and advocates alternatives.
It emerged in the last three decades in Postmodernism believes that truth is
western political theory. not singular but plural. There are multiple

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versions of truth. For example, take any What is Deconstruction?


one leader or historical event. Different
Explained as a strategy
people will talk about the leader or the
"Rules for reading,
event differently. One person may call
interpretation and
that leader a visionary. Another may call
writing."
him a demagogue. Yet another may have a
Jacques Derrida
different perspective. All may be right in
their own perspective and interpretation. Postmodernism opposes the
The world is not constituted only by the universalism of modernity. In contrast it
two colours of black and white. There are supports Particularism. It argues that the
more colours positioned in a continuum parts are more important than the
in between black and white. whole. For example, modernity pays
attention to universal theory of rights or
welfare. Post- modernism focuses on the
There are no facts, only interpretations. rights of particular social groups like
- Friedrich Nietzsche women, tribal and the like, who are less
privileged. Modernity devotes attention to
systemic change but Postmodernism
Postmodernism focuses on emancipating or changing the
condition of specific social groups.
No Absolute truth
Only my truth
No past, no future ACTIVITY
Only Now Collection of Truths
No underlying meaning or purpose Dear students, now you know
only my meaning and purpose that reality is based on interpretations.
Jacque Derrida was a French  Divide the class into four
philosopher who advocated an groups. Take a particular leader
innovative Post- modern concept in history and examine how
called deconstruction. He provides different perspectives, groups and
deconstruction as an approach to ideologies look at his leadership,
understand meanings and texts. There thoughts and contribution.
are multiple meanings in a text and as  Choose any important event in
human language is not so developed it politics or history or international
may not be possible for the author of a politics and collect differing
text to communicate all his thoughts and interpretations about that single
the receiver or reader of the text may event.
understand the meanings differently.
Multiple interpretations of a text exist and
Identity politics is interlinked with
therefore Derrida suggests deconstructing
post - modernism. Identity Politics refers
the meanings of the text.
to the activities of specific social groups,
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usually the weak, vulnerable and under- and therefore protecting the environment
privileged communities who organise assumes paramount significance
themselves under the banner of their own
caste, race, and gender to resist domination
of other groups over them. The members
of these groups call themselves ‘we’ and
oppose the activities of others, ‘they’.
Postmodernism and Identity Politics
promote the empowerment of local,
specific communities.

Black Protests in the


United States of America

Postmodernism has been criticised


by many thinkers and scholars. In fact,
Alan Kirby, a British cultural critic, said
Postmodernism is dead as its cultural
period is over and the world has entered Humanization of Nature
digi-modernism or the Era of Digital and Naturalization of
Modernism. Human Being

9.5 Environmentalism
The advent of modern science and
technology driven development had
devastated the planet’s environment
Gandhiji says that there is enough for
precipitating several ecological crises like
everyone’s need but not for anyone's
ozone depletion, climate change and acid
greed.
rain. Environmentalism arose as a protest
movement and ideology against the
perilous destruction of the earth. We have There exists a profound debate
only one habitable planet in the entire in philosophy about the relationship
universe and there is no alternative home between man and ecology, development
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and environment. The Deep Ecology It looks for technological solutions


versus Shallow Ecology controversy is the for any environmental problem. If
central point of discussion in the debate. pollution imperils environment then
alternative energy sources that are
Shallow Ecology renewable and environment friendly
should be developed. It believes in the
Shallow Ecology refers to an ideology strategy of three R,s - reduce, reuse and
that approaches ecology through an recycle.
anthropocentric and utilitarian outlook.
American philosopher Anthony Weston Deep Ecology
is the greatest supporter of shallow
ecology. It considers the human beings as Norwegian ecological philosopher
fulcrum of life in this world. It accords the Arne Naess coined the term Deep Ecology
position of centrality and supremacy to in 1973. He was influenced by Rachel
man in ecology. It adopts an instrumental Carson and Mahatma Gandhi. Deep
value of nature meaning that the ecology ecology theory argues that the planet
is important only as it useful to human Earth is constituted by three interlinked
welfare. The non-human biological forms parts of the human beings, non-human
and inanimate world are nothing but biological forms and the inanimate objects
natural resources for human life. and forces. The human beings are one
among the millions of living organisms in
Anthropocentrism
this world. They do not possess any
superiority over other organisms.
Anthropocentrism, that is, the belief in
the centrality and supremacy of human
beings in this world must be discarded.
Wrong Perception Right Perception
Anthropocentrism Biocentric Equality

EGO ECO

Reduce
Reuse The non-human biological forms also

Recycle possess intrinsic value, inherent worth and


identity. It believes in biocentric equality.
The human beings need to satisfy the

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vital needs by making careful use of this We should change our technology,
biodiversity. Preservation of biodiversity is philosophy, economy and politics so that
indispensable. The interference of human ecological crises can be rectified and
beings on the domain of the non-human averted in the future. The human beings
sphere of the planet so for, is destructive, are ‘ecological selves’ the materialistic and
excessive and unacceptable. There is an consumerist life style must be changed
urgent need to limit the population of the and a new ecologically-sensitive social
world as the current population explosion and economic order must be created. We
has injected enormous stress on the ecology. should reduce our ‘ecological footprint’ by
adopting a meager resources based life
style. As the nomenclature indicated deep
"Humans are part of the environment ecology asks deeper questions of how and
and not conquerors of it." why examining philosophically the impact
- Aldo Leopold of human life as one part of the ecosphere
on other components.

Tenets of Deep Ecology vs Shallow Ecology

The Eight-Tenets of Deep Ecology Paraphrased The Eight-Tenets of shallow Ecology

1. All creatures on Earth have value only for


1. All creatures on Earth have intrinsic value.
their usefulness to humans.

2. The whole diversity of living beings. simple as


2. Complex creatures (ie humans) are more
well as complex. contributes to life’s
important than simpler ones.
richness.

3. Humans should use other beings only to 3. Humans should always use all resources for
satisfy their basic needs. their material and economic advantage.

4. The health of non-humans depends on 4. The human population can increase without
decreasing the number of humans. restraint.

5. Human interference with the world is


5. Technological progress will solve all problems.
excessive and worsening.

6. Human policy (economics. technology and 6. Materialism and consumerism should govern
ideology) must change radically. human society.

7. Quality of life is more important than


7. The standard of living should keep rising.
standard of living.

8. Every human who believes in these points 8. Leave environmental problems for the experts
must work for change. to solve.

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1. Eco-Socialism
The Earth dose not belong to us:
we belong to the Earth. Rudolph Bahro in his book ‘From
- Marlee Martlin Red to Green’ supported eco-socialism.
It considers capitalism as the enemy of
Political Theory and Ecology ecology. By breeding materialism and
consumerism capitalism has inflicted
The words environment and ecology horrific destruction on the environment.
are synonymous. Andrew Heywood, the The unlimited right to private property,
noted political scientist classifies ecology the cardinal principle of capitalism
in political theory into three kinds endangers the precious health and wealth
of the planet’s ecology. The nature is seen
 Social Ecology only as a commodity to be traded in the
market and consumed by the man. Eco-
 Modernist Ecology
socialism propounds a new approach
 Deep Ecology in politics that combines socialism and
ecologism. Socialism alone can nurture
Ecology in political theory environment. The state must be imparted
with a socialist content and direction to
end the evil of capitalism and to protect
environment

Social Modernist Deep 2. Eco-anarchism


Ecology Ecology Ecology
Murray Bookchin advocated eco-
anarchism. It considers authority as the
enemy of ecology. The emergence of
authority in human history in the form
Eco-Socialism Eco-Anarchism Eco-Feminism of State, religion and even family had led
(Socialism is (Authority is the (Patriarchy is the
friend of Ecology) Enemy of Ecology) Enemy of Ecology) to the domination of man over man. The
same forces have produced the subjugation
A) Social Ecology and domination of nature by man. Man is a
voluntary animal and his original instinct
The term ‘Social Ecology’ was is the cooperative instinct.
coined by American philosopher Murray
Bookchin. It advocates radical changes in In the ideal society, man establishes
the existing social and political structures various associations based on voluntary
to make them ecologically correct. There cooperation to achieve development. But
are three distinct trends in Social Ecology artificial forces of State, religion, private
property have subverted the system and
1 Eco-socialism
created structures of domination and
2 Eco-anarchism subjugation. They have also wrought
3 Eco-feminism
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havoc on ecology. Therefore, we should inherit the earth from our previous
create a new society based on voluntary generations but borrowed it from the
instincts to protect man and ecology future generations of humanity and
therefore, there is a moral responsibility
3. Eco-feminism to protect and preserve the earth for their
life in the future. The concept of
Carolyn Merchant in the book ‘sustainable development’ is a basic
‘The Death of Nature’ propounded eco- characteristic of modernist ecology. It
feminism. This perspective considers argues that ‘getting richer faster’ should
patriarchy as the enemy of ecology and not be the goal of human world rather
feminism as its beloved friend. Patriarchy ‘getting richer slower’ should be its guiding
means domination of man over women. approach.
Eco-feminism argues that patriarchy
created the domination of man over
not only women but over nature also.
Patriarchy follows instrumental reason
whereby both women and ecology are
seen merely in terms of use value, as The modernist ecology is not a
objects to be exploited and not as subjects homogenous ideology. On the contrary,
endowed with life and intrinsic worth. it is heterogeneous. There are different
Eco- feminism demands gender and perspectives and prescriptions. Certain
ecology sensitive politics so that a new followers have called for the establishment
world of justice and sustainability can be of a totalitarian ‘Green State’ to protect
established. ecology. Another group of supporters
demanded ‘Green Capitalism’. The majority
B) Modernist Ecology of advocates and supporters of modernist
ecology suggested the green tilted State
Modernist ecology is synonymous
intervention in market to protect ecology
with shallow ecology. It attempts to
and satisfy human interests.
promote a new harmony between
liberalism and ecology. The liberal tenets C) Deep Ecology
and approach should be reformed so that
the menace of ecological destruction can It advocates a new style of politics,
be avoided. It advocates a new ‘enlightened policy and political attitude towards
anthropocentricism’ where man, being nature. It argues for a fundamental shift
the centre of the planet must consider the in the relationship between politics
long-term interests of humanity and and nature. Politics must understand,
ecology in his developmental activities respect and protect the element of inter
and should not be driven solely by short- connectedness found in ecology linking
term interests. Modernist ecology believes the human beings, other biological forms
in the concept of "inter-generational and the inanimate world.
justice" and argues that we did not

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29 and the sect came to be named after the


ACTIVITY
29 cardinal principles the founder
Empathy for Environment expounded. The sect promoted a socio-
religious belief system in perfect harmony
Attentively search your neighborhood, with ecology creating a lush green local
village, town and city. You will come ecosystem in the desert.
to know many Non-Governmental
Organizations, inspiring individuals
who are dedicated to preserving
environment. You can join them.
You can start Green Clubs or Green
Brigade in your school and take up
environment related activities like tree
planting, pond cleaning, taking care of
the injured animals etc.

Ecological Movements in India


The maharaja of Jodhpur desired to
The destruction of ecology through construct a palace in the 18th century and
modern development had resulted in the sent the army to the Khejarli village to cut
emergence of many protest movements all the acacia trees in the locally nurtured
over the world. India also has witnessed forest. The ecologically- conscious local
many ecological protest movements population protested against the cutting
seeking to protect environment and of trees. An elderly woman named
biodiversity. We shall study four such Amrita Devi was in the frontline of the
important ecological movements of India protest and when the army refused to
desist from cutting the trees she hugged
A Bisnoi Movement the trees asking the army to cut her
B Chipko Movement head instead of cutting the trees. The
army remorselessly cut her head off and
C Appiko Movement concerned but determined villagers came
forward in a line to offer their lives. A
D Save Silent Valley Movement total of 363 people sacrificed their lives
for protecting the forest. Ultimately
A. Bisnoi Movement
the maharaja after knowing about the
Bisnoi non-violent struggle was a terrible events in the village recalled the
successful ecological movement in the army and offered his apologies for the
18th century in Rajasthan. Bisnoi is a massacre. He also officially designated the
religious sect in the Thar desert of area as a protected forest. Bisnoi Khejarli
Rajasthan founded by Guru Jambeshwar movement is perhaps, the first greatest
in medieval period. Bisnoi in Hindi means ecological movement of modern India.

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Quotable
uote
- successful fusion of three major ideologies
of feminism, environmentalism and
“A chopped head is cheaper than a Gandhism
felled tree.”

B. Chipko Movement

Chipko movement was a non-violent


popular, ecological movement organised
by villagers in the mountain state of
Uttarkhand in 1973. ‘Chipko’ in Hindi
means to hug. The agitators of Chipko 'Ecology is permanent economy'
movement embraced the trees to protect - Sundarlal Bahuguna
them from being cut thereby earning the
C. Appiko Movement
name Chipko movement. The contractors
of sports goods company began to cut The Appiko movement is an
the trees in the Alknanda valley of the ecological protest movement in Uttar
Uttarkhand state (part of Utter Pradesh Kannada district of Karnataka in the
at that time) after getting government Western Ghats. It was inspired by the
clearance. The enraged local population, Chipko Movement and ‘appiko’ in
especially women protested in a non- Kannada means to embrace. The Uttar
violent manner by embracing the trees Kannada district falls in the Western
and prevented the contractors. The Ghats. The launch of many developmental
organisational leadership was provided projects in the district has precipitated
by an NGO called Dasholi Gram Swarajya deforestation reducing the forest cover
Mandal (DGSM) that was formed a of the district from a massive 81 percent
few years back by a noted social activist in 1950 to an alarming 24 percent in
Chandi Prasad Bhatt. 1980. The ecologically-conscious people
launched the movement with three-
The famous environmentalist
fold objectives of conservation of
Sundarlal Bahuguna joined the agitation
remaining tropical forests, afforestation
and appealed to the union government to
of the denuded forests and dissemination
ban logging in the Himalayan forests. The
of ideas on rational utilisation of forests.
large-scale participation of women was a
significant and laudable feature of the D. Save Silent Valley Movement
Chipko movement. Many women leaders
like Dhoom Singh Negi, Bachni Devi The silent valley is an ecologically
played a prominent role fighting for forest rich terrain in the Western Ghats in the
rights of the people. The movement Palakkad district of Kerala consisting
gradually spread across many parts of the of the tropical moist evergreen forests
Himalayan Mountains forcing the largely undisturbed by human activities.
government to officially ban logging from The valley is named after Sairandhiri
1980. The movement symbolises the (Draupati), the wife of Pandavas in

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the Indian epic Mahabharata. Another


Summary
explanation of the nomenclature says
that when the Englishmen visited there
Anarchism as an ideology seeks
during the colonial period the valley was
to abolish all authority and emancipate
observed to be strangely silent because of
man from state, property and religion.
the supposed absence of the noise-making
It calls for the immediate destruction
insect Cicadas.
of the state describing it as unnecessary
The valley is rich in biodiversity. The evil. It alternatively visualizes a society
lion-tailed macaque is abundantly found based on voluntary association of
in the valley. There is even an argument human beings.
that the valley itself is named after the
binomial name of lion-tailed macaque, Feminism fights for the
Macaca Silenus. The Kerala State emancipation of women from patriarchy.
Electricity Board began to implement Liberal Feminism, Radical Feminism,
Silent Valley Hydro Electricity Project Marxist Feminism, Radical Feminism,
across the river Kunthipuzha in the valley Eco Feminism and Post-Colonial
in the 1970s. Feminism strive for emancipation of
women in their unique ways fighting
The Kerala Sasthra Sahitya Parishad, against patriarchy, private property and
other civil society organisations and authority
ecologically-conscious people conducted
an intense protest against the project. Communitarianism articulates
They criticised the negative impact of the centrality of community in the life
the project on the environment especially of individuals. It rejects the argument
the bio diversity of the valley. The Kerala that individual is an atomistic being
government, in the face of stiff opposition and on the contrary considers them
from diverse sections of society dropped as embedded or situated in the
the project in 1980. The valley was community. It believes in a state that
declared a national park in 1985 and later seeks to promote common good and
on it came to be designated as the core positive rights.
area of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve.
Postmodernism rose as a
The Save Silent Valley movement is one of
reaction against modernity and rejects
the most successful ecological movements
universalism and reductionism. It
of India in late 20th century.
contends that reality is based on
Silent Valley and Lion Tailed Macaque interpretation and therefore is not
singular but plural. Contrary to
modernity that devotes attention to
systemic change; Postmodernism
focuses on emancipating or changing
the condition of specific social groups
and supports identity politics.

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Vishakha Guidelines : The guidelines


Environmentalism seeks to
contained in the judgement of the
preserve and conserve the nature.
Supreme Court to protect women from
Philosophically there are two forms
sexual harassment in working places
namely Shallow Ecology and Deep
Ecology. Shallow Ecology believes Gender Equality : Equality between man
in the principle of Anthropocentrism and woman
and provides the position of centrality
Common Good : The common welfare or
to the human beings in this world.
interest of the community
Deep Ecology in contrast articulates
the principle of Bio Centric Equality Not Unencumbered Self : Human being
where all biological forms including the is not a completely free person as he lives
human beings are equal and calls for along with others in the community
ecological conservation. The political
Situated Self : Human being is rooted in
theory has three major schools of
the community
Modernist Ecology, Social ecology
and Deep Ecology. They attempt to Reductionism : The approach to reduce
promote their own perspectives towards the world to one particular factor while
environment-development debate. interpreting it
Universalism : The belief that one factor
Glossary or idea is universally valid.
Particularism : The approach that every
Anarchism : A system in which no entity has its own particular identity or
authority exists and cooperation among validity. Every region, community, culture
members is the basis of its functioning is special or unique
Feminism : The ideology that seeks women Deconstruction : Understanding the
empowerment and gender equality hidden and inner meanings while reading
or interpreting something without
Patriarchy : The system in which male accepting the apparent meaning
domination over women exists in family,
politics, economy, culture, religion etc. Identity Politics : The political
mobilization of the usually less privileged
Post-Colonialism : The condition of around their language, race, gender, caste
countries in their independence period etc. for achieving justice, equality and
after the end of colonialism (For example, development
India after 1947) Anthropocentrism : The attitude that
places the human as the superior life form
Colonialism : The process in which the
and other biological forms as inferior
countries of Asia and Africa were enslaved
ones existing for the pleasure and life of
and exploited by European countries
Human Beings

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Biocentric Equality : All biological life Deep Ecology : We should understand


forms are equal and human beings are deeply the negative impact of activities
not superior to other animals and plants of the human beings on environment and
in this planet the urgent need to preserve the ecology of
the world
Inter Generational Justice : The present
generation must hand over this planet Chipko Movement : In Hindi it means
to future generations without greedily Hug. The people hugged the trees to
destroying the environment protect them from being cut

Sustainable Development : We should Appiko Movement : In Kannada language


consume natural resources carefully Appiko means Hug. The people hugged
keeping in mind the needs of future the trees in Karnataka to save them from
generations. being cut

Evaluation

I Choose the Correct Answer:


1. Find out the false statement about Anarchism

a) It strives for Anarchy


b) It supports order
c) It argues for co-operation among human beings
d) It is against the state

2. Among the following who believed in Anarchism?


a) Karl Marx b) Joseph Proudhon
c) Adam Smith d) John Locke

3. Which institution was opposed by Anarchism as exploitative in nature?


a) State b) Private Property
c) Religion d) All the Above

4. Feminism seeks to promote the empowerment of


a) Women b) Children
c)Minorities d) Tribes

5. The meaning of the statement “Personal is Political” is


a) We should discuss the personal life of leaders
b) We should expect political honesty

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c) We should speak about the political rights of women in family and politics
d) We should ignore the personal life of politicians

6. Who is called the Father of Postmodernism?


a) Jacques Derrida b) Michel Foucault
c) Fredrick Nietzsche d) Karl Marx

7. Who coined the term “Deep Ecology”?


a) Michel Foucault b) Robert D Putnam
c) Audre Lorde d) Arne Naess

8) Find out the wrong statement of Post Modernism


a) It repudiates modernity
b) It says that the truth is not singular but plural
c) It opposes universalism
d) It rejects particularism

9. Post Modernism is linked with


a) Identity Politics b) National Politics
c) International Politics d) Class Politics

10. Communitarianism believes in


a) Religion c) Community
d) Class e) Language

11. According to Communitarianism man is


a) Atomistic b) Selfish
c) Religious d) Embedded in Community

12. Communitarianism propagates


a) Natural Rights b) Moral Rights
c) Positive Rights d) Economic Rights

13. Match the following


1. Modernist Ecology A. Biocentric Equality
2. Deep Ecology B. Reduce, Recycleand Reuse
3. Shallow Ecology C. Hug the Trees Movement
4. Chipko Movement D. Sustainable Development

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14. Appiko Movement meant a movement


a) Hug the trees to save them b) Serve the poor by feeding them
c) Educate the less privileged people d) Cure the illness of the people

15. The school of Feminism more apt for the women of countries like India, Namibia is
a) Post-Colonial Feminism b) Liberal Feminism
c) Radical Feminism d) Marxian Feminism

16. A
 ssertion : The Deep Ecology concept advocates Biocentric Equality
Reason: Man is not superior to other biological forms in this planet. All forms of life
including man are equal
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

II. Answer the following questions very shortly


1. Explain the term Anthropocentrism.
2. What is Identity Politics?
3. Find out the meaning of the term “Situated Self ”
4. What are Vishakha Guidelines?
5. Provide the meaning of Feminism.
6. Why does Anarchism say that the state is an unnecessary evil?
7. Give the etymological origin of Anarchism.

III Answer the following questions shortly


8. Comment on the famous statement of Radical Feminism “Personal is Political”
9. Provide an account on the concept of Deep Ecology.
10. Justify the argument of Post Modernism that truth is not singular but plural.
11. Elaborate the concept of Positive Rights of Communitarianism.
12. What is the alternative of Anarchism to state and how far do you agree with its
feasibility?
13. What is Eco Feminism and do you agree with its assertion that nature and women
are the twin victims of Patriarchy?
14. Identify the solutions of Shallow Ecology to protect environment.

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IV Answer the following questions in detail


15. Critically evaluate the chief characteristics of Anarchism.
16. Discuss the various schools of Feminism.
17. Enumerate the major Environmental Movements of India.
18. Analyze the major strands of Ecological Political Theory.
19. Examine the stand of Communitarianism on Man, Society, Rights and Justice.

Reference books

1. Gauba, O.P.(2009) An Introduction to Political Theory, New Delhi: Macmillan


Publishers India Ltd.
2. 
Heywood, Andrew (2003) Political Ideologies: An Introduction, London:
Macmillan
3. Naess, A. (1973) ‘The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movement: a
summary’. Inquiry, vol. 16
4. R ajeev Bhargava & Ashok Acharya (Ed), (2016) Political theory: An Introduction,
New Delhi: Thomson press.
5. R amasamy, Sushila (2009) “Political Theory – Ideas and Concepts, Chennai:
Macmillan India Ltd.
6. IGNOU Political Science Study Materials, B.A and M.A

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UNIT

10 Public Opinion and Party System

Introduction
This chapter focuses on the meaning and evolution of the Party
system as adopted in various countries of the world. Tracing the
emergence of party system in modern democracies we seek to explain
the nature, characteristics, types and functions of political parties
especially in a democracy. Deriving from this general background,
the evolution of the party system in India at the national
and regional levels are studied, with a specific focus on
Tamil Nadu. The chapter also presents the meaning and
importance of public opinion and its role in the effective
working of a democracy

making
Learning Objectives

possible version
cool

Lippmann
public opinions function
 To define the meaning of party journalist

opinion
system
control make social
 To identify the role, function and
press

Science
types of party system within a two news
world

assume
democracy picture knowledge
people
 To trace the historical evolution of
the party system in modern times.
 To outline the structure of the party
system in India at the national and others with similar beliefs. In short it is
regional levels the collective views of the people, their
 To evaluate the importance of public attitudes and opinions.
opinion in the effective functioning
of a democracy It is the people’s collective preferences
 To assess the impact and limitations on matters relating to government and
of the party system politics. It is based on the premise that
collective individual opinions matters in
10.1 Defining Public Opinion: a democracy and public opinion should
carry more weight than individual opinion.
Public opinion can be defined as Others opine that public opinion can be
a psychological and social process in influenced and controlled by organized
which the behaviour of each member groups, government leaders, and media
of the public is conditional to that of all elite.

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In fact, democracy derives its a section or many sections of the people


authority from the people. Public opinion on any public issue or concern.
is not the opinion of an individual, though
he or she may be a highly respected Role of Public Opinion:
person. It is not a private opinion. It is Public opinion is an essential element for
also not an expert opinion, irrespective of successful working of a democracy where
the wisdom of the expert. Public opinion the views of all citizens are respected and
is an organized and considered opinion of no government can survive by ignoring it.

ACTIVITY

PUBLIC OPINION
Read the following article by one of the senior political leaders late
Madhu Dandavate carefully and answer the questions.

GANDHI’S DIALOGUE WITH THE NATION


For Mahatma Gandhi, the Dandi March was not just a non-violent weapon of struggle. It
was also a means of dialogue and communication with the people along the route.

At the 44th session of the Indian National Congress held on the banks of river Ravi
at Lahore, a resolution demanding complete independence was passed on December
31, 1929. Jawaharlal Nehru presided over the session and Mahatma Gandhi made a
memorable speech while moving the main resolution. However, Gandhi did not rest
content with merely delivering a speech. He led the famous Dandi March starting from
the Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930, culminating in the Salt Satyagraha at Dandi,
a coastal village in Gujarat, on April 6, 1930.

Gandhi had a definite strategy and perspective about the Dandi March and the
Salt Satyagraha. He did not want the march to be too massive to remain under control.
At the same time, he did not want it to be too small to have any perceptible impact.
These considerations made Gandhi reject Vallabai Patel's suggestion of a massive march
to Delhi. He also did not approve of the romantic idea of Nehru to set up a parallel
government. Gandhi proposed a march of 78 dedicated and disciplined satyagrahis from
Sabarmati to Dandi village to offer Salt Satyagraha. Gandhi chose salt as the symbol of
satyagraha because it was the lowest common denominator of the food consumption
of the nation. The rich needed salt for a change of taste and the poorest of the poor
needed it for mixing with water so that they could dip their dry and stale bread in
the mixture as an alternative to the rich man's spicy curry. During the Dandi March,
some overenthusiastic admirers of Gandhi brought for him and his fellow pilgrims large
quantities of fresh fruit and wholesome milk from dairies.

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Gandhi, however, humbly refused to accept them


on the ground that those who were involved in the noble
cause of fighting for the poor through their march must not
avail themselves of such lavish hospitality. Gandhi looked
at the Dandi March not only as a non-violent weapon of
struggle against injustice but also as a medium of dialogue
and communication with the people along the route of the
march. On their way to Dandi, Gandhi and his satyagrahis
halted for night rest at various villages. He used this
interlude to speak to the satyagrahis, the residents of the villages and accompanying
journalists about the background of the Salt Satyagraha and wider issues of national
importance. He treated the Dandi March as an educative process. He continued this
dialogue with the people during all the 25 days of the march. Thrilled by the march,
several journalists sent elaborate reports every day. These were well displayed by
newspapers and journals. Thus what Gandhi said during the Dandi March became a
dialogue with the nation.

Courtesy : The Hindu, article by MadhuDandavate- 6.4.2005


On the basis of your reading and understanding of the above article answer the
following questions briefly :
A. What is the importance of the Lahore Congress Session of 1929?
B. Why did Gandhi choose ‘Salt’ as the symbol of Satyagraha?
C. What, according to Gandhi, revealed the most oppressive face of the British rule?
D. What was the Civil Disobedience Movement associated with?
E. Describe briefly the ‘Salt March’undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi.

towards important issues related to unity,


10.2 Hindrances to formation of a
commitment, integrity and progress of the
genuine public opinion
nation.
Public opinion needs to be the true
reflection of the peoples` ideas and Illiteracy: It is expected that literate and
opinion, however there are some responsible public make good citizens
hindrances to genuine public opinion; by exercising their franchise without
fear or favour. Illiterate masses are often
Selfish interests (Me above nation): The misled by party workers and guided
interest of the people seeking personal by sentiments, favours and rhetoric. A
advancement over the affairs of their own sound public opinion can be formed only
country. People need to be sensitized in the environment of free thought and
knowledge.
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(a) Poverty: The poor in any country are general public on issues concerning the
easily influenced by the false promise society and state and they also prescribe
of political leaders and cast their votes alternatives. Through propaganda they
subjectively. Sound and objective public educate people on political issues and
opinion is possible only by alleviating garner their support for their policies
poverty. and programme. In legislative bodies
(b) Racist and Caste based they represent organized opinion of the
Discrimination: Sentiments that provoke voters. In parliamentary democracies the
discrimination based on caste, creed party or an alliance of parties can win a
and religion create a divide among the majority of seats in legislature and forms
masses that are often manipulated by the ministry (executive) examples: UK,
political parties for their advantage. Social India. In presidential democracies, the
disharmony in the country is detrimental chief executives (president) are elected on
to the effective working of a democracy. party basis (USA, France). In any system
political parties function as intermediaries
(c) Freedom of speech and the media:
between the government and people.
There is consistent competition
between the various political parties
and this competition ensures the mature
functioning of a democracy.

ACTIVITY

Following are the lists of various


functions of political parties in a
Unbiased, objective and independent
democracy:
media as well as respect for individual
freedom of speech and assembly play a  Parties contest in elections
very significant role in the formation of  Parties put forward different policies
healthy opinion. The vital importance of and programmes
an independent and impartial media that  Parties make laws for the country
respects peoples freedom and exercises  Parties form and run government
responsible news reporting are important  Parities play the role of the opposition
criteria for formation of mature and
 Parties shape public opinion
responsive public opinion.
 Parties provide people the access to
10.3 Definition of Political Parties government welfare schemes

Political parties are indispensable Follow the newspaper for one month and
instruments in a democratic system. They collect news items related to the various
are formed with definite ideologies, and functions of political parties
programme of action. They enlighten the

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Quotable
uote
In a democracy public opinion is
according to specific party objectives and
agenda, it helps sustain good governance.
harnessed through political parties.
A political party is a group
10.4 Functions of Political Parties of people who come together to
In a democracy, political parties contest elections and hold power
serve as an integral link through which in the government. They agree on
government and the public can interact. some policies and programmes
Political Parties act as a foundation that for the society with a view to
orients the people towards political promote the collective good.
initiatives and public experience. Political (Symbols or Flag of different political
Parties work to influence political parties )
thought and opinion with the intention of Three components of a Political
mobilizing votes. They provide a platform Party – Leaders, Active Members and
for political, economic and social activism Followers.
that serves as a training ground for future
regional and national leadership. In the Types of Party Systems
long run they hold leaders accountable
for their actions through rigorous debate Different types of party system have
and queries both within the party as well evolved in various parts of the globe
as through opposition parties. Thus the depending on the particular elements of
people are presented with a diverse choice democracy practiced. By and large the
of candidates, ideologies and approaches quality of a democracy is determined by
to various issues governing the nation. how the government is representative of its
Their confidence in democracy is thus people, how accountable the government
reinforced in the knowledge that they can is to its people, how human rights and
bring about change and transformation equality of status and opportunity is
should a majority of the population desire guaranteed to all citizens and the level
a transformation in the way they are of political participation exercised by
governed. the people. The various types of party
system address these issues in different
The Party System ways, thereby determining the quality of
The party system helps to operate democracy practiced.
and stabilize governments and they are
particularly relevant for the effective
functioning of democracies. The party One Party
System
system provides a system of checks and
balances against the government’s policies.
By soliciting popular support among
the masses and providing a structure for Two Party Multi Party
leadership and dialogue within the party System System

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A. One Party System prove detrimental to national interests.


Examples of the two-party system include
In a one party system, a single
USA –Democrats and Republicans and
political party exercises its right to form
UK Conservatives and Liberals.
the government, which is often derived
from a written or unwritten constitution. However, in either country there is
In most cases under a one party system, no constitutional restriction on number
there is less participation and weaker of parties. The constitutional procedures
accountability. Examples: Communist and peoples’ political maturity led to the
Party of China, (CPC) the Peoples` Action emergence of two party system.
Party (PAP)in Singapore, Korean Workers
Party, (KWP) North Korea, Communist C. Multi-Party system
Party of Vietnam (CPV) Vietnam,
Communist Party of Cuba (CPC) Cuba. In the Multi- party system,
The single party system does not provide multiple political parties are capable of
adequate space for democratic expressions garnering popular support and forming a
and not provide scope for alternative. For government, either as a majority party or in
example in the 1920s fascist movements coalition with many non-majority parties
advocating nationalistic militarism, with similar political objectives. In this
captured power in Germany under Hitler, system, the political leaders are constantly
in Italy under Mussolini and in Spain observed and checked by checks and
under General Franco. They prevented balances by their coalition partners. They
other political parties to emerge. are also subject to rigorous accountability
to the people. The multi-party system
B. Two Party System offers the electorate the multiple avenues
of political participation and the ability
In the two party system, two
to bring about political change for greater
political parties, with distinctly different
national development.
interests have equal opportunity to attain
a majority and form the government. The proportional representation
The majority party is the governing system in France and Italy results in
party and the minority party forms the multi-party systems and coalition cabi-
opposition party in two-party systems. nets.
The Two-Party system has far greater
accountability by the political leaders and Examples of countries with
greater political participation. The threat multi-party systems include Canada,
of being voted out by the opposition hangs France, Germany, India and Sweden.
as a ‘Damocles sword’ on the incumbent
thereby guaranteeing a higher degree of ACTIVITY
responsible conduct and action. However
since the political atmosphere is heavily THINK – PAIR – SHARE
polarized, drastic changes can happen
Topic for Pair 1:Why is one party system
once a party loses power which may
not considered a good option?
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10.5 R
 ole of Political Parties in a
Topic for Pair 2:Why do we need Democracy
at least two parties in a democratic
The existence of political parties is
system?
largely responsible for ensuring the quality
Topic for Pair 3: If all the decision and effectiveness of a democracy. In a
of a political party are made by a federal multicultural and plural societies
single family and all other members such as the United States of America and
are neglected, then what challenge is India, the maintenance of peace, unity
being faced by that party? and communal harmony are vital for
social-economic progress. While single
Topic for Pair 4: Do you think that party system may have greater flexibility
dynasty (family) politics is confined towards quicker decisions making and
to only a few states or parties? cohesive action, these decisions may not
represent mass opinion and thus it would
create greater opposition and dissent for
the government.

The Role of Political Parties in a Democracy


What are political parties? Many political scientists believe that
parties are essential to democracy
 T
 hey recruit and run candidates for
public office under the party level  T
 he political party is seen by some
 T
 hey try to organize and coordinate as the main instrument of popular
the activities of government officials sovereignty and majority rule.
under the party name.  W
 hen political parties are working
properly they can be essential tools
of popular sovereignty

In the dual party system due to the Citizenship training and greater civic
nature of the party structure and participation, youth in democratic nations
leadership, this usually result in public can play a greater role in political parties
policies and decisions blocked in political thereby fostering more mature and wider
polarization rather than collaboration. democratization in countries.
While in Multi party systems, the
performance is on the basis of deliberation
and negotiation between coalition
Quotable
uote
Political parties are the drivers of a
members, and issues are mostly settled by democracy.
reaching a mutually derived consensus
after debate and discussion. Thus, political Politicians exercised oratorical and
parties are the drivers of a democracy that leadership skills to create public
are necessary to safeguard the rights and opinion.
freedoms of the people. Through effective
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10.6 Modern Party system between them. Nevertheless, after


American Independence, the first parties
A. Party system in the United Kingdom
in the newly constituted nation under the
Presidency of George Washington were
the Federalist Party supporting a strong
national government and the Democratic
N
Republican Party supporting state
W E autonomy.
S

Two Party System


 R
 are around the world
 E
 venly balanced national at
National and local level
 E
 lectoral system
 W
 inner take all
Map not to scale
 W
 asted vote
In the United Kingdom, polarization  P
 riority system
of opinions on issues relating to the status  B
 road coalitions form before
and role of monarchy led to the emergence election
of two parties:  O
 pinion of voters
A.  Tories or Conservatives and  D
 ifficult for third parties to get
B.  Whigs or liberals. on ballot

In the 20th century labour party


became a major force eclipsing the liberals. In 1828, the democratic Republican
Party was renamed as the Democratic
B. Party System in the USA Party which championed state rights. In
1854, the Republican Party established
N
W E
S

itself on the anti slavery platform and


gained pre-dominance with Abraham
Lincoln as President of USA.
Since the United States settled for
the Two-Party system, the Republican and
Democratic parties have dominated the
American political scene, though third
Map not to scale party candidates have been floated on and
The founding fathers of the United off.
States wanted to steer clear of political
parties and the ensuing factional conflict

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Winner -Take - All


rules
Existing parties make
rules to perpetuate Only one winner
their power (loser gets nothing)

How the two-party


system perpetuates
itself
Fewer parties flourish Strategic voting and
the "wasted vote"
Voters choose not to sup- theory
port parties that they do
not view as viable
Lack of voters support
discourages formation of
minor parties

Democrats. By the 19th century socialist


C. Party system in Europe: movements gained popularity and social
N democratic or labor parties emerged
W E
which became popular and gained trade
S
union support.

In Soviet Russia, the Bolshevik


Party, was responsible for the Communist
Revolution in 1917 which created
the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics), popularly called the Soviet
Union. The COMINTERN (Communist
International) was established with the
task of encouraging world communist
Map not to scale
revolution by supporting Communist
After the French Revolution (1789), parties in other countries. After the end
democratic forces gained strength in of the Cold War era, the Communist
European Nations, and political parties party lost its popularity in Russia, though
emerged. Political parties in Continental some minor communist parties still
Europe were largely divided into influence governmental policies within
Conservatives, Liberals, and Christian democratic states. Communist Parties

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however continue to control authoritarian


 Regular election
governments in China and North Korea.
 A multi-party system of
Democratic political systems are democrate government to ensure
often reactive and responsive to the accountability, responsiveness and
basic socio –economic values of their openness
citizens. There has always been significant
transformations in values and these are ACTIVITY
reflected in the political opinion of the
people through political parties and their GROUP DISCUSSION
varying objectives. By late 20th century, Following are the challenges faced by
socio-economic factors impacting Europe political parties in our country:
were reflected in the emergent types
 Lack of internal democracy within
of parties some of which were more
parties
nationalistic and less open-minded,
vocalizing their sentiments against  Dynastic succession
immigration and the refugee influx that  Growing role of money and muscle
they see as a threat to European culture, power
security and economy.  Parties do not seem to offer a
meaningful choice to the voters
D. Party System in South Africa

E. Party System in India


The party system in India emerged
along with the rise of nationalism and out
Indian Ocean

N
W E of the freedom struggle against British
S
rule. While Indian politics today represent
a multi-party system, for long periods in
Atlantic Ocean
Indian political history, one party has
dominated the political stage. The Indian
Map not to scale
National Congress (INC) was established
in 1885 by A. O Hume, as the indigenous
In African countries, political parties base for the political
were at first formed to secure participation of
decolonization. In many decolonized Indians in legislative
African countries, political parties are and political wings.
struggling hard against militarism. It demanded political
reforms in gradual
The Constitution of stages. After the
South Africa non-cooperation
 Universal adult suffrage vote at 18 movement (1921-23) Indian National
 A national common voters roll Congress began to demand absolute
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political freedom. In the 20th century, the with the British government. Gradually
parties with communal agenda have also the Indian National Congress evolved to
come up i.e. The All India Muslim League play a pivotal role in the development of
in 1906 and Hindu Maha Sabha in 1916. India’s political party system. After the
In the Madras Presidency the South Indian partition of Bengal in 1905, the Indian
Liberal Federation (Justice Party) was National Congress was divided between
formed to project their interest of the the Moderates (policy of petitions) and the
Non-Brahmins (Dravidian). Extremists (aggressive militant strategy).
The formation of the Muslim league in
ACTIVITY 1906 resulted in the era of conflicting
political bargaining, reflected the true
beginnings of the Indian party system.

The entry of Mahatma Gandhi into


the political scene with his moral-ethical
focus on non-violence as a political
ideology and strategy, transformed the
Indian National Congress to represent
all sections of Indian society- the
poor agriculturalists and lower caste
people. Other parties that also emerged
representing specific goals which included
I want to see how many of you are the Swaraj Party formed by Chittaranjan
against the new policy- please raise Das in 1922, the Congress Socialist Party,
your hands formed in 1934 by Acharya Narendra
Dev and Jayaprakash Narayan and the
Topic for Group Discussion : Why
do we have a multi-party system
in India? What are the advantages
and disadvantages of a Multi-party
system?
Divide the class into three or four
groups and conduct Group Discussion.
Select anyone of the teams and present
their views to others.
(Courtesy: Cartoon, The Hindu)

However, the Indian National


Congress represented the urban, upper
caste elite, mostly western educated and
provided a platform for negotiations
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Communist Party, formed in the new parties have emerged that represent
1920’s by the efforts of M. N. Roy were the and seek to address the trans formative
other major political parties. challenges faced by various diverse
sections of the people. Since the 1990’s
There were a number of political we see a federalization of politics with
parties which carry on political campaigns regional parties gaining greater influence,
and propaganda, but do not contest representative of regional aspirations
elections, they function as pressure against the dominance of the Centre.
groups. Till 1977, the Communist
Party, the socialist parties, and the right N

wing Janasangh were the mentionable W E


S
opposition parties at the national level.

Until 1977, no single party could


become an alternative to Indian National
Congress at national level. Hence, a
number of so called national parties,
under the stewardship of Jayaprakash
Narayan, merged to create a large national
alternative party known as Janata Party.
In 1977, it captured power at the centre.
Yet this party lacked cohesion and unity Map not to scale

and became shattered after 1980. The


Jana Sangh was revived with a new name
Bhartiya Janata Party, Meanwhile Kanshi
Ram’s Bahujan Samaj Party emerged as
national level party with social justice as
its main plank. The Communist Party of
India (Marxist) became very powerful in
a few states like Kerala,West Bengal and
Tripura.

The 1990s was the period of an


increasing quest towards coalition In the present period, regional
governments in Indian politics. The alliances indicate a growing trend towards
Indian Political System became more coalition governments that form an
competitive, more democratized and more effective voice in favour of federal polity.
representative of the multicultural social This fragmentation is largely due to the
nexus and diversity that is observed in regionalization of politics, with parties
contemporary India. It is observed that old having high support base in specific areas.
parties became obsolete and defunct, and

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Regional Parties and All India Anna Dravida Munnetra


Kazhagam (AIADMK) in Tamil Nadu are
Shiromani Akali Dal in the Punjab,
some of the major regional parties.
Samajwadi Party in the Uttar Pradesh,
Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh, While there is growing political
Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) in Bihar, awareness among the electorate, there is
Trinamool Congress in West Bengal, also greater mobilization along lines of
Telangana Rashtra Samithi in Telangana, regional, social and religious identities.
Asom Gana Parishad in Assam, Shiv Sena in There is a widespread difference in the
Maharastra, National Conference, People composition of political groups, and
Democratic Party in Jammu & Kashmir, characteristics of political and social
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam(DMK) groups between one region and another.

Parties that gained seats in Parties that gained seats in


Parliament in 2009 Elections Parliament in 2014 Elections

Indian National Congress (INC) Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Indian National Congress (INC)

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra


Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Kazhagam (AIADMK)

Samajwadi Party (SP) All India Trinamool Congress (AITC)

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) Biju Janata Dal (BJD)

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) Shivsena (SHS)

Shivsena Telugu Desam (TDP)

Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS)

Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party


All India Trinamool Congress(AITC)
(YSRC)
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
Kazhagam (AIADMK)

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Party System in Tamil Nadu independent India. There are very clear
socio-economic, cultural and historical
In Tamil Nadu, like most Indian
reasons for this development. The long
states, the early independence period was
history of rationalist and social justice
dominated by the Congress party.
movements from the colonial era and the
However, issues of caste hierarchy, and the
mobilization of Dravidian consciousness
rising North South divide eroded the
since the beginning of 20th century have
popularity of Congress leadership in the
fundamentally transformed the nature of
state. The Dravidian movement
politics and the future of party system in
regenerated in Tamil Nadu under Periyar
state politics.
E.V Ramasamy and garnered popularity
on assertion of Dravidian Rights and ACTIVITY
Dignity and through an anti-North, anti-
Hindi, anti-Brahmin social agenda. Anbu, Kumaran, Rajumar and
Amuthan were friends. They went
N
to watch a film that showed the hero
W E becoming Chief Minister for a day
S and making big changes in the State.
Anbu said this what the country needs.
Kumaran said this kind of a personal
rule without institution is dangerous
Rajkumar said all this is a fantasy. No
minister can do anything in one day.

Imagine you are the fourth person what


would be your reaction to such a film?

10.7 Role of Political Parties in a


Democracy
For the effective functioning of a
Map not to scale

democracy, the existence of political


parties that represent conflicting interests
is mandatory. While they advocate various
interests and policies, largely political
parties adopt Rightist ideology
(conservative, traditional and capitalistic)
or Leftist (pro-equality, liberal and labour
interests). While it is true that political
parties are essential for attaining the
The Party System in Tamil Nadu is a
democratic ideal, the rise of individual
pioneer model of the pre-eminence of the
parties with non-democratic agenda and
regional parties in state politics of
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authoritarian leadership is a critical Role of Opposition in a Democracy


challenge to Democracy. This is very
relevant in the case of a multicultural, The relationship between party
multilingual, multi religious and system and democracy will be incomplete
economically diverse country like India, without the discussion of the role
only political parties can truly represent of opposition parties in democracy.
the multidimensional interests of people Democracy has no meaning without an
from every corner of the country. It is vital effective opposition party or parties in
in a democracy like India that political the country. The nature of democracy
parties exercise maturity and maintain a is not only determined by the strength
secular position, the precious and of ruling party alliance but also in the
precarious unity and stability of India role and functioning of the opposition
cannot be maintained. It is in the interests party alliance. In fact, the leader of the
of the nation, that responsibly and Opposition party enjoys the status and
principled parties show a level of maturity privileges of the rank of cabinet minister.
and responsibility in exercising their A weak opposition leads to either a
duties and functions for the sustainability government without accountability or the
of democratic institutions. tyranny of the majority.

Pressure or Interest groups also play an


ACTIVITY
important role in special issues and events.
These are organized groups, having
common political and social interests,
which influence decisions from outside.
Pressure groups have voluntary
membership and lobby for specific
interests. Unlike political parties, pressure
groups do not contest elections. The
Pressure Groups are able to influence the
government through various techniques
with various public policy issues and are
therefore called pressure groups.
Professional pressure groups may include
business interests, trade unions, Farmers,
Teachers and Students, Doctors, culture
Cartoon Courtesy : The Hindu, 5.5.2004. groups, and institutional groups. Pressure
Groups play an important role in the
The exit polls will be proved all Indian political system by acting as a link
wrong – an astrologer told me and source of communication between
The above mentioned cartoon is open the masses and the political parties. They
to many views and comments, what are sensitize the public towards vital socio-
yours? Share your views in the classroom. economic issues and through their

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lobbying, influence both the government actual results. Yet they are important in
and the administrative policies. generating opinions among the unsure
and undecided as well as help to sustain a
"Leadership and learning
balance in voting practices for all parties
are indispensable to each
concerned.
other."
John F. Kennedy Glossary

Political Party: An organization that seeks


Psephology to achieve political power by electing its
Psephology deals with the study and members to public office
statistical analysis of elections and polls. One-party system: A system in which a
Public opinion polls play an important single political party has the right to form the
role in psephology. They analyze both government, usually based on the existing
Opinion Polls and Exit Polls as well as constitution, or where only one party has
election results. Opinion Polls and Exit the exclusive control over political power
Polls are both
i m p o r t a n t Two-party system: A system where only two
indicators of parties or alliances, typically placed either
voter’s choice side of the centre, have a realistic chance of
during the forming a majority. Other parties are very
elections. minor or solely regional.
Multi-party system: A system in which
multiple political parties have the capacity
to gain control of government offices,
separately or in coalition.
Ballot: This piece of paper contains
information on the symbols and names of
the candidates contesting in a constituency.
By-election: When a seat in Legislature
The main difference between the becomes vacant between general elections
two is that opinion poll is conducted (often because the incumbent has either
before the voter actually votes and the exit resigned, defected to another party or died),
poll is conducted after a voter comes out a by-election is held.
after casting his or her vote. Results of exit
polls are generally considered to be more Election: The process whereby eligible
trustworthy than that of opinion polls. persons vote to determine who will hold a
political office.
The result of opinion polls may
Elector: A person who is included in the
or may not actually collaborate the
electoral roll for an electorate.

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Election Commission: The Election Electoral System: The general name for
Commission is an independent autonomous all the rules concerning elections, i.e. the
entity responsible for the administration voting system, boundaries, registration of
of Parliamentary and State Legislature electors, candidacy, campaign spending,
Assembly elections and related works. broadcasting, etc.
Ballot box : The box at a polling place Majority Government; A government made
into which a stamped ballot paper is to be up of one or more political parties is formed
dropped. by a political party which has absolute
Coalition:A Government is formed by more majority in legislature.
than one party when no single party sets Democracy: Government by the people,
absolute majority. through free, fair and periodical elections.
Electoral roll: The list of all the registered
electors for a particular electorate kept by
the Registrar of Electors.

Evaluation

I Choose the correct answer:


1. A
 group of people who come close to each other
to attain their common aim of power is known as
a) Political party c) Interest group
b) Factional group d) Political leadership

2. Which of these is the main component of political party?


(a) Leaders (b) Followers
(c) Active members (d) All of these
3. Which of these are a function of political party?
(a) To contest election (b) To form and run government
(c) To form public opinion (d) All of these
4. Political party that runs the government is ….
(a) Ruling party (b) Interest group
(c) Opposition party (d) Factional group
5. The rise of political parties is directly linked to….
(a) Emergence of representative democracies
(b) Large scale societies
(c) Mechanism of restrain and support the government
(d) All of these
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6. System with one party is known as….


(a) Single party system (b) Multi-party system
(c) Bi-party system (d) None of these
7. System of two parties is known as….
(a) Single party system (b) Multi-party system
(c) Bi-party system (d) None of these

8. Which of these countries have Uni-party system?


(a) China (b) North Korea (c) Cuba (d) All of these

9. Which of these countries have Bi-party system?


(a) India (b) England (c) France (d) Pakistan

10. What is the symbol of Congress Party?


(a) Symbol of Lotus (b) Symbol of Hand
(c) Symbol of elephant (d) Symbol of clock

11. Lotus’ is the symbol of which party?


(a) Indian National Congress (b) Bahujan Samaj Party
(c) Bhartiya Janata Party (d) CPI (M)

12. Public Opinion plays a vital role in:


(a) Democratic system
(b) Dictatorial system
(c) Both democratic as well as dictatorial systems
(d) The smooth working of all types of political systems

13. The two major political parties of U.S.A. are


(a) Independent and Democratic (b) Republican and Democratic
(c) Democratic and Socialist (d) Republican and Communist

14. Psephology deals with


(a) statistical analysis of elections and polls
(b) Opinion Polls and Exit Polls
(c) Public opinion
(d) All the above.

15. A
 ssertion: Political parties mobilize public opinion.
Reason: Public opinion influences election results.
Directions: Given below are two statements labelled as Assertion (A) and Reason (R)
in the context of the two statements which of the following is correct?
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

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(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

II. Answer the following questions very shortly


16. Define political party.
17. Explain about Single Party System.
18. Write a short note on Multi-Party system.
19. Make a brief note on regional political party.
20. List out the major political parties in India.
21. Define public opinion.
22. Explain the role of opposition party in India.

III Answer the following questions shortly


23. Explain the role of political parties in a democracy.
24. List out the functions of political parties.
25. Bring out the types of party system.
26. Discuss the merits and demerits of multi- party system.
27. Describe the party system in the UK.

IV Answer the following questions in detail


28. A
 nalyze the different kinds of political party systems and indicate which type is
best suited in a democracy?
29. Elucidate the merits and demerits of bi-party system.
30. Give an account on political parties in India.
31. Evaluate the party system in South Africa.
32. Write an essay on Public opinion in India.

Reference books

1. B oix, C. Emergence of Parties and Party systems.Oxford handbook of comparative


politics. July 2009.
2. K
 othari,R. Politics in India. New Delhi. Orient Longman.2003
3. M
 ehta, A.K. Political parties and party systems. New Delhi. Sage Publications. 2003
4. 
Palmobara, J.L & Weiner,M. Eds. Origin and development of political parties.
Princeton, 1972
5. Pandian, M.S.S., Brahmin and Non-Brahmin: Genealogies of the Tamil Political
Present. Manohar: New Delhi, 2007.

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ICT CORNER

Unit-10 Public Opinion and Party System

Through this activity you


will learn about the structure
of party system in the state
level.

Structure of Party System in The State Level


Steps

1. Use the URL or QR code to open the How the state government works page.
2. An activity window will open, click the navigation key on the bottom right corner of
the activity window.
3. After a small introduction story, an explanation of state government will start.
4. Explore the different aspects of the state government by clicking the forward navigation
button.

Step 3
Step 1

Step 4
Step 2

Download Link
*Pictures are indicative only.
*If browser requires, allow Flash Player or Java Script to load the page.
URL: mocomi.com/how-does-state-government-work/

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UNIT

11 Election and Representation

11.1 Meaning and nature of Franchise Part XV of the


and Representation Indian Constitution
titled “Elections” is of
What is Franchise and Election?
great importance. The
The right to vote in public elections. constitution –makers had been anxious to
The word “Franchise” is of Anglo-French safeguard this political right as an integral
derivation-from Franc, meaning FREE. part of the constitution itself. It is for this
An election is the process of voting to important reason that the subject of
choose someone to be their political elections has been accorded a
leader or representative in government. constitutional recognition in our country.

Part xv, Articles 324-329 deals with


Elections Article 326 of the Indian
Constitution says that the elections
to the Lok Sabha and to the Vidhan
And what is Representation?
Sabha of every state shall be on the
It is nothing but the action of speaking or
basis of Adult Suffrage.
acting on behalf of someone or the state
of being so represented.
Although elections were used in
Learning Objectives Ancient Athens, Rome and in the selection
 T
 o enable the students to understand of Popes and Holy Roman Emperors, the
the meaning of election and origins of elections in the contemporary
representation. world was in the gradual emergence of
 T
 o explain the term ‘Psephology’. representative government in Europe and
 T
 o enable students to understand North America which began in the 17th
the various methods of election. century. In a representative democracy
 T
 o gain awareness about the Election elections are extremely important. Voting,
Commission of India. in elections is the best way to make your
 T
 o know the importance of Anti- voice heard. One fact that makes elections
Defection Law. more important is when political parties
 T
 o enlighten about the need of free try to suppress voting with the use of
and fair elections. laws to disallow people to vote. Election
 T
 o bring out the role of youth in and representation is the core for the
politics. formation of government.

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Democratic Electoral System and change them if they wish to do so. This
Let us study the most essential features of mechanism is called Election. Therefore,
a democratic electoral system. A elections are considered essential in our
democratic electoral system can be said to times for any representative government.
be one where… Hence in most democracies, people rule
through their representatives.
In an election the voters make many
choices:

 They can choose who will make laws for


them
 They can choose who will form the
government and take major decisions
 They can choose the party whose policies
will guide the government and law
making.
Features of a Democratic Electoral System

Why do we need Elections ?


Psephology is the study of
Let us try to imagine a democracy results and other statistics relating to
without elections. A rule of the people is Elections…
possible without any elections if all the
people can sit together every day and take
all the decisions. This is not possible in
any large community nor it is possible for ACTIVITY
everyone to have the time and knowledge
to take decisions in all matters. Let us
presume that the people can resolve
these difficulties and such a place do not
require elections. In such case can we call
this place a democracy?

How do we find out if the


people like their representatives or
not? How do we ensure that these Courtesy : The Hindu, 27.12.2012.
representatives rule as per the wishes Students can think individually for
of the people? How to make sure that three or four minutes, and then discuss
those whom the people don’t like do not and compare their responses with a
remain their representatives? This requires partner before sharing with the entire
a mechanism by which people can choose class.
their representatives at regular intervals
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What are Plurality / Majority


ACTIVITY
Systems? The principle of plurality/
THINK-PAIR-SHARE majority system is simple. After votes have
been cast and totalled, those candidates or
“When a political party puts up
parties with the most votes are declared
candidates with criminal charges, it
the winners. However, the way this is
results in the alienation of large sections
achieved in practice varies widely. Five
of people from the political class and
types of plurality/majority systems can be
politics itself.” Do you agree?
identified.
What makes an Election Democratic?
ACTIVITY
 Everyone should be able to choose.
This means that everyone should Do you know when the last
have one vote and every vote should Assembly Election was held in your
have equal value. State? Which other elections have taken
 There should be something to place in your locality in the last five
choose from parties and candidate years? Write down the level of elections
should be free to contest elections (National, Assembly, Panchayat etc.)
and should offer some real choice to When were they held? Find out the
the voters. details of the MLA/MP who got elected
from your area.
 The choice should be offered at
regular intervals. Elections should
be held regularly after every few A. First Past The Post (FPTP)
years.
B. Block Vote(BV)
 The candidate preferred by the
C. Party Block Vote(PBV)
people should get elected.
D. Alternative Vote(AV)
 Elections should be conducted in a
free and fair manner where people E. Two-Round Systems(TRS)
can choose as they really wish.
ACTIVITY
An election is a formal decision
making process by which a population India follows first past the post
chooses an individual to hold public office. system in elections. What are the
Elections fill offices in the legislatures, positives and negatives of this system in
sometimes in the executive and judiciary the present political scenario of India
and for regional and local government.
A. First Past The Post (FPTP)
11.2 Types of Representation/
The First Past The Post system is the
Reservation of Constituencies
simplest form of plurality/majority
Election Systems-Plurality/Majority system, using single member districts and
Systems candidate-centered voting. FTPT systems
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are found primarily in the UK and those districts while at the same time, increasing
countries historically influenced by the role of political parties compared with
Britain. Along with the UK, the other FPTP and strengthening those parties
countries are Canada, India and the USA. which demonstrate most coherence and
FPTP is also used by a number of organizational structure.
Caribbean countries, Bangladesh, Burma,
India, Malaysia, Nepal and small island C. Party Block Vote (PBV)
countries of the South Pacific. PBV is simple to use, encourages
strong parties and allows for parties to put
up mixed slates of candidates in order to
FPTP is the simplest form of
facilitate minority representation. It can be
plurality/majority electoral system.
The winning candidate is the one used to help to ensure balanced ethnic
who gains more votes than any other representation. Dijibouti, Singapore,
candidate, even if this is not an Senegal, Tunisia use the PBV method.
absolute majority of valid votes. The
system uses single-member districts
and the voters vote for candidates Party-Block Vote is a plurality/
rather than political parties. majority system using multi- member
districts in which voters cast a single
B. Block Vote (BV) party-centered vote for a party of
The Block –Vote is common in choice, and do not choose between
countries with weak or non-existent candidates
political parties. The Cayman Islands,
The Falkland Islands, Guernsey, Kuwait, D. The Alternative Vote (AV)
Laos, Lebanon, the Maldives, Palestine, This system enables voters to express
the Syrian Arab Republic etc use Block their preferences between candidates
Vote electoral systems. rather than simply their first choice.
Hence it is known as ‘Preferential Voting’.
Block Vote is a plurality/majority AV is used in Australia, Fiji and Papua
system used in multi-member Guinea. By transferring ballots, it enables
districts. Electors have as many votes the votes of several candidates to
as there are candidates to be selected. accumulate, so that diverse but related
The candidates with the highest vote interests can be combined to win
totals win the seats. Usually voters
representation.
vote for candidates rather than parties
and in most systems may use as many,
or as few,of their votes as they wish
The Alternative Vote is a
preferential plurality system that voters
The Block Vote is often applauded
use in single member districts. Voters
for retaining the voter’s ability to vote
use numbers to mark their preference
for individual candidates and allowing
on the Ballot paper.
for reasonably-organized geographical

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E. The Two- Round System (TRS) Is it good to have political competition?


The central feature of the Two- Elections are all about political
Round System is as the name suggests: it competition. This competition takes
is not one election but takes place in two various forms. The most obvious form is
rounds, often a week or a fortnight apart. the competition among political parties.
This system is used to elect national At the constituency level, it takes the form
legislatures and are most common of competition among several candidates.
methods used worldwide for the direct If there is no competition, elections will
election of Presidents. TRS is used by the become pointless. Though an electoral
Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, competition leads to a sense of disunity
Mali, Mauritania, Haiti, Iran, Vietnam, and factionalism in every locality, regular
Tajikistan, Uzbekistan etc. electoral competition provides incentives
to political parties and leaders. They
The Two-Round System is a know that if they raise issues that people
plurality/majority system in which a want to raise, their popularity and chances
second election is held if no candidate of victory will increase in the next
or party achieves a given level of elections. But if they fail to satisfy the
votes, most commonly an absolute voters with their work they will not be
majority (50 percent plus one), in able to win again.
the first election round. A TRS may
take a majority –plurality form where Ah…..
more than two candidates contest the So, elections are like exams where
second round and the one who wins politicians and parties know if they
the highest number of votes in the have passed or failed. But who are the
second round is elected regardless of Examiners?!!!!!!!
whether they have won an absolute
majority or not. What is our system of Elections?
Can we say that Indian elections are
Various Methods Of Minority democratic? To answer this question, let
Representation us take a look at how elections are held
regularly after every five years. After
Proportional five years the term of all the elected
Representation
representatives comes to an end. The Lok
Sabha or Vidhan Sabha stands dissolved.
Limited Vote Cummulative
Elections are held in all the constituencies
System Vote System
at the same time, either on the same day
or within a few days. This is called a
Separate Joint Electorate general election. Sometimes election is
Electorate with Reservation
System of seats held only for one constituency to fill the
vacancy caused by death or resignation of
a member. This is called By–Election.

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Electoral Constituencies elected as a representative. In an open


electoral competition, certain weaker
You would have heard about the
sections may not stand a good chance to
people of Tamilnadu electing 39 lok sabha
get elected to the Lok Sabha and the State
MPs. You may have wondered how they
Legislative Assemblies. They may not
did that. Did every person in Tamilnadu
have the required resources, education
vote for all the 39 MPs? You perhaps
and contacts to contest and win elections
know that this is not the case. In our
against others.If that happens our
country we follow an area based system
Parliament and Assemblies would be
of representation. The country is divided
deprived of a significant section of our
into different areas for the purpose of
population. That would make our
elections. These areas are called Electoral
democracy less representative and less
Constituencies. The voters who live in an
democratic.
area elect one representative.
For Lok sabha elections, the country ACTIVITY
is divided into 543 constituencies.
What is the status of women
The representative elected from each
reservation bill in the Parliament of
constituency is called a member of
India?
Parliament or an MP. One of the features
of a democratic election is that every So, the makers of our Constitution
vote should have equal value. That is thought of special system of reserved
why our constitution requires that each constituencies for the weaker sections.
constituency should have a roughly equal Some constituencies are reserved for
population within it. Similarly each state is the people who belong to the Scheduled
divided into a specific number of assembly Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST).
constituencies. In this case the elected This system of reservation was extended
representative is called the Member of later on to other weaker sections at the
Legislative Assembly or a MLA. Each district and local levels.
Parliamentary constituency has within
itself several assembly constituencies. Delimitation
The same principle applies for Panchayat
and Municipal elections. Each village or The division of each state into as
town is divided into wards that are like many constituencies as in the Loksabha
constituencies. Each ward elects one from that state and State Legislative
member of the village or the urban local Assemblies is done primarily on the basis
body. Sometimes these constituencies are of population census. As far as practicable,
counted as Seats, for each constituency geographical area of constituencies were
represents one seat in the assembly. to be delimited taking into account
physical features, existing boundaries
Reserved Constituencies of administrative units, facilities of
Our Constitution entitles every communication and public convenience.
citizen to elect its representative and to be
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Delimitation Acts This is an important step for, it is


linked to the first condition of democratic
First Delimitation Commission Act, 1952
election that everyone should get an equal
Second Delimitation Commission Act, 1963 opportunity to choose representatives
Third Delimitation Act,1973 irrespective of differences. In our country,
Fourth Delimitation Act, 2002. all the citizens aged 18 years and above can
vote in an election. Every citizen has the
Voters’ List
right to vote, regardless of his or her caste,
Once the constituencies are decided, religion or gender.
the next step is to decide who can and
who cannot vote. This decision cannot be It is the responsibility of the
left to anyone till the last day. In a government to get the names of all eligible
democratic election, the list of those who voters put on the voters’ list. Names of those
are eligible to vote is prepared much who move out of the place or those who are
before the election and given to everyone. dead are deleted. A complete revision of list
This list is officially called the Electoral takes place every five years. In the last few
Roll or the Voters’ List. years, a new system of Electoral Photo
Identity Card (EPIC) has been introduced.
Like in Panchayat should we not The voters are required to carry this card
have at least one-third seats in the when they go out to vote. Not compulsory,
Parliament and assemblies reserved for for voting, the voters can show many other
WOMEN? proofs like the Aadhar Card, Ration card or
Driving License.

ACTIVITY

Time Sequence
Arrange the different election related activities mentioned in the left side of the
table given below in a time sequence, beginning with the first activity and ending with
the last.
Disorder Order
Releasing election manifesto
Preparing the voter’s list
Counting of votes
Election campaign
Declaration of election results
Filing nomination
Ordering of re-poll
Casting of votes
Announcing election schedule

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Electoral Process In India


 Delimitation of Constituencies
 Verification and the acceptance or
 Notification of the Election
rejection of the nomination papers
 Notification by the Election
 Election campaign
Commission regarding Nomination
 Polling process
and withdrawal
 Counting of votes and announcement
 Filing of nomination papers by the
of Election Results
intending candidates
Provisions Regarding Elections in India

anyone to contest an election. This is what


Which Amendment Act reduced
our system provides. Anyone who can be
the Voting age of Indian citizens from
a voter can also become a candidate in
21 to 18?
the elections. The only difference is that
in order to be a candidate, the minimum
ACTIVITY age is 25 years, while it is only 18 years for
being a voter. Political parties nominate
Find out the importance of the their candidates who get the party symbol
following: and support. Party’s nomination is often
 Representation of people’s act 1950 called as party ‘ticket’.
and 1951
Every person who wishes to fill
 Representation of people’s act 1966
a ‘nomination form’ has to give some
 Delimitation commission acts 1962
money as security deposit. According to
and 1972
the direction of the Supreme Court, every
Nomination of Candidates candidate has to make a legal declaration,
giving full details of:
In a democratic election the people
should have a real choice. This happens  Serious criminal cases pending against
only when there are no restrictions on the candidate

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 Details of the assets and liabilities of This information has to be made


the candidate and his or her family public. This provides an opportunity to
 Educational qualifications of the the voters to make their decision on the
candidate basis of the information provided by the
candidates.
ACTIVITY

Our Representatives and Our Responsibility


Where Answers Lie … Keshan
Mumbai based Non-governmental organization has
requested voters to ask the candidates the following
questions on the eve of the upcoming elections:
 What is your qualification?
 What is your occupation?
 What is your source of income?
 Are you paying your income tax honestly?
 How many times in the last five years did you defect?
Why so?
 Can you mention three good qualities of yourself?
 What is your personal achievement in politics?
 Have you been charge sheeted in any criminal case? Any litigation pending
against you? What are the details?
 Do you figure in the rowdies list of the Police?
 What is your opinion on the preposition that those with a criminal record
should not contest elections?
 Would you restrict expenditure to the limits set by the Election Commission?
The questionnaire is open to many views/comments what are yours? Share it in
the class.
Election Campaign In our country such campaigns take
The main purpose of election is place for a two week period between the
to give people a chance to choose the announcement of the final list of
representatives, the government and candidates and the date of polling. During
the policies they prefer. Therefore it this period the candidates approach their
is necessary to have a free and open voters, political leaders address election
discussion about who is a better meetings and political parties mobilise
representative, which party will make their supporters. This is also the period
a better government or what is a good when newspapers, social media,
policy. This is what happens during televisions are full of election related
election campaigns. stories and debates. Election campaign is
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not limited to these two weeks only.  Use government vehicles, aircrafts and
Political parties start preparing for officials for elections
elections months before they actually take
 Once elections are announced,
place.
Ministers shall not lay foundation
stones of any projects, take any big
ACTIVITY policy decisions or make any promises
of providing public facilities.
Prepare a list of what the candidates
and parties said and did in the last
ACTIVITY
election campaign in your constituency.
Draw a cartoon here about the
In election campaigns, political model code of conduct for the guidance
parties try to focus public attention on of political parties and candidates during
some big issues. They want to attract the elections.
public to that issue and get them vote for
their party on that basis. In a democracy 11.3 Free and Fair Elections
it is best to leave political parties and The true test of any election system
candidates free to conduct their election is its ability to ensure a free and fair
campaigns the way they want to. But electoral process. If we want democracy
it is sometimes necessary to regulate to be translated into reality on the ground,
campaigns to ensure that every political it is important that the election system is
party and candidate gets a fair and equal impartial and transparent. The system
chance to compete. of election must allow the aspirations of
According to our election law, no the voter to find legitimate expression
party or candidate can: through the electoral results. Elections
in India are basically free and fair. The
 Bribe or threaten voters party that wins an election and forms
 Appeal to them in the name of caste or government does so because people have
religion chosen it over its rivals. This may not
 Use government resources for election be true for every constituency. A few
campaign candidates may win purely on the basis
of money power and unfair means. But
If they do so, their election can be the overall verdict of a general election
rejected by the court even after they have still reflects popular preference. But still
been declared elected. In addition to the if deeper questions are asked , the picture
laws, all the political parties in our country looks different. Are people’s preferences
have agreed to a model Code of Conduct based on real knowledge? Are the voters
for election campaigns. According to this getting a real choice? Is election really a
no party or candidate can: level playing field for everyone? Can an
ordinary citizen hope to win elections?
 Use any place of worship for election
propaganda

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represent him in Parliament where laws


ACTIVITY
to bind his liberty and property may be
enacted.
What is an Independent body?
Find out what are the other independent The right to get information in
constitutional bodies in India? democracy is recognised all throughout
and it is a natural right flowing from the
Questions of this kind bring the many concept of democracy. Article 19(1)(a) of
limitations and challenges of Indian Indian Constitution provides for freedom
Elections to our attention. These include: of speech and expression. Voters’ speech
or expression incase of election would
 Candidates and parties with a lot of include casting of votes, that is to say,
money may not be sure of their victory voter speaks out or expresses by casting
but they do enjoy a big and unfair vote. For this purpose, information about
advantage over smaller parties and the candidate to be selected is must. The
independents. ordinary man may think over before
 Candidates with criminal connection making his choice of electing law breakers
have been able to push others out of as law makers.
the electoral race and to secure a ticket
from major parties
First General Elections In India:
 Some families tend to dominate
political parties; tickets are distributed All You Need to Know…..
to relatives from these families. The first general election of
 Very often elections offer little choice 1951-1952 elected the first Lok sabha
to ordinary citizens, for both the major since India became independent. The
parties are quite similar to each other Congress had won 364 out of 489 Lok
both in policies and practice. sabha seats. Its vote share was 45 percent.
 Smaller parties and independent The CPI was the second party with just
candidates suffer a huge disadvantage 16 seats.Jawaharlal Nehru became the
compared to bigger parties. Prime Minister , the first of independent
India. The voters’ turnout was 67.6
These challenges exist not just percent. 54 parties had contested this
in India but also in many established election. Elections took around four
democracies. These deeper issues are a months; October 25, 1951 to February
matter of concern for those who believe in 21, 1952. Election was held in 26 Indian
democracy. Hence citizens, social activists states and 401 constituencies.
and organisations have been demanding
reforms in our electoral system. In a 11.4 Election Commission of India
democracy, the electoral process has a For the conduct of free, fair and
strategic role. Every ordinary man of this regular elections, Article 324 of the
country would have basic elementary Indian Constitution provides for a single
right to know about a candidate who is to
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Election Commission which is entrusted state legislatures and to the offices of the
with the superintendence, direction and President and Vice –President of India.
control of all elections to Parliament,

DEBATE

Have a critical debate on social media.


Is social media an effective electoral tool?
• Social media has changed the way people
think, write and react but politicians
believe it has also influenced the way
people vote. Most of the national and
regional parties are aware of the impact of
social media in elections. Digital strategies
become more meaningful when it allows
campaigners to know the voters, target a specific audience, splice demographics,
mobilize support, and urge people to support and participate. Reaching out to the
voters through memes, FM Radio,TV Channels, Mobile phones and Social media
are very crucial to the political campaigns.
• Teacher can conduct a debate on positive and negative aspects of Social Media in
the election campaign.

Election Commission - An independent body.


The Main objective of the More than 553 million voters
constitution of Election Commission in our country exercised their
of India is to have a permanent and franchise in the 16th Lok Sabha in
independent election machinery, which is 2014 in 930,000 polling stations.
free from political pressure of the party in India’s voting pool is larger than
power and the executive of the day, and the total population of the United
which could be entrusted with the task States of America and Western
of holding free and fair elections to the Europe combined. It is for the first
parliament and the state legislatures and time after three decades that a
to the offices of the President and Vice- single party receives a majority.
President of India.
Election Commission of India-Structure
DEBATE
ACTIVITY
Debate about the feasibilities and
Which Article deals with the appointment, consequences of giving more punitive
powers and functions of the Chief Election power to the Election Commission of
Commissioner?
India
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Multi-  hief Election Commissioner


 C
member body  wo other election commissioners
 T

Appointment  B y the President of India


and term of  6 years or 65 years of
office age(whichever is earlier)

 hief Election Commissioner-


 C
Removal from Impeachment
Office  ther Election -Commissioners-
 O
Recommendation of CEC

Details of Legislative Assembly Elections Conducted in Tamilnadu

No. of Duration of
Election Dates
Elections the Assembly
1 1952-1957 1952 January 2, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 16, 21 and 25 (9days)
2 1957-1962 1957 March 1, 4, 6, 8 and 11 (5 days)
3 1962-1967 1962 February 17, 19, 21 and 24 (4 days)
4 1967-1971 1967 February 5, 16 and 21 (3 days)
5 1971-1976 1971 March 1, 4 and 7 (3 days)
6 1977-1980 1977 June 12 and 14 (2 days)
7 1980-1984 1980 May 20 and 31 (2 days)
8 1985-1986 1984 December 24 (1 day only)
9 1989-1991 1969 January 21 (1 day only)
10 1991-1996 1991 June 16 (1 day only)
11 1996-2001 1996 April 27 and May 2 (2 days)
12 2001-2006 2001 May 10 (1 day only)
13 2006-2011 2006 May 8 (1 day only)
14 2011-2016 2011 April 13 (1 day only)
15 2016-ongoing 2016 May 16 (1 day only)

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Powers and functions of the Election  S ettles disputes and petitions referred
Commission of India to it by the President of India or the
Governor of a state.
 P reparation of the electoral rolls
 D ecides disputes pertaining to election
 R evision of electoral rolls
symbol in the event of a split in the
 A llotment of seats
political party.
 C onduct of elections
 H as power to impose ceiling on the
 S uperintendence, direction and
election expenses of the contestants.
control of all matters pertaining to the
 E ntrusted with the task of collecting
elections
affidavits from the contestants to the
 G ranting of recognition of political
elections regarding their assets.
parties
 H as the power and duty to disqualify
 A llotment of symbols
a candidate if he/she fails to submit
 E nsuring fair and free elections
election returns within the prescribed
 T he Election Commission of India
period.
advises the President of India or
 I t issues a notification after the
the Governor of the concerned
election is over, that the house is duly
state regarding all electoral matters
constituted.
including questions relating to
disqualifications of members.

SUPREME COURT’’s Landmark Verdict To Cleanse the Polity


In a landmark judgement, the Supreme Court held on July 11,
2013 that a person, who is in jail or police custody ,cannot
contest elections to legislative bodies. A day earlier, on July 10,
2013, the same Bench had held that charge-sheeted Members
of Parliament (MP’s), Members of Legislative Assembly(MLA’s)
and Members of Legislative Councils (MLC’s), once they are
convicted for the offences, will be immediately disqualified
from holding office. The Bench struck down Section 8(4) of
the Representation of the People’s Act, which allowed convicted
MP’s and MLA’s, a three-month period for filing their appeal to Ravi Lalanth

the High Court. Courtesy : The Hindu, Pocket Watch, 3.5.2004

Chief Electoral Officer(CEO) of the election commission. The Election


commission of India nominates or
The chief electoral officer of a
designates an officer of the government
state/union territory is authorised to
of the state / union territory as the chief
supervise the election work in the state/
electoral officer in consultation with
union territory subject to the overall
the state government/ union territory
superintendence, direction and control
administration.
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District Election Officer(DEO) officer. One or more Assistant electoral


registration officers to assist the Electoral
Subject to the superintendence,
registration officer are appointed by the
direction and control of the chief
Election commission of India.
electoral officer, the district election
officer supervises the election work of Presiding Officer (PO)
a district. The Election Commission of
India nominates or designates an officer The Presiding officer with the
of the state government as the district assistance of Polling officers conducts
election officer in consultation with the the poll at a polling station. The district
state government. election officer appoints the Presiding
officers and the Polling officers. In the case
of union territories, such appointments
Returning Officer (RO)
are made by the returning officers.
The returning officer of a
Parliamentary or Assembly constituency Election Observers (EO)
is responsible for the conduct of elections The Election Commission of India
in the Parliamentary or Assembly nominates officers of government as
constituency concerned. The Election Election observers (general observers
Commission of India nominates or and election expenditure observers)
designates an officer of the government for Parliamentary and Assembly
or a local authority as the returning officer constituencies. They perform such
for each of the assembly or parliamentary functions as are entrusted to them by the
constituencies in consultation with commission. They report directly to the
the state government/union territory commission.
administration. In addition, the election
commission of India also appoints one 11.5 Electoral Reforms, Anti-Defection Law
and Committees related to Electoral
or more assistant returning officers for
Reforms
each of the assembly or parliamentary
consituencies to assist the returning officer
in the performance of his functions in
connection with the conduct of elections.

Electoral Registration Officer(ERO)


The Electoral registration officer is
responsible for the preparation of electoral
rolls for a parliamentary/ assembly
Based on the recommendations made by
constituency. The Election commission
the above committees and commissions,
of India, in consultation with the state/
various reforms have been introduced
union territory government, appoints
from time to time in our electoral
an officer of the government or the local
system. Let us have a look at them.
authorities as the Electoral registration
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 L
 owering the voting age from 21 to 18 government aided institutions can
through the 61st amendment act of be requisitioned for deployment on
1988. election day.
 O
 fficers, and staff engaged in  I n 1999, a provision was made for
preparation, revision and correction voting by certain classes of persons
of electoral rolls for elections to through postal ballot.
be on deputation to the Election
 I n 2003, the facility to opt for voting
commission.
through proxy was provided to the
 I ncrease of number of proposers to service voters belonging to the armed
10% of the electors of the constituency forces and members belonging to a
or 10 electors, whichever is less. force to which provisions of the Army
Act apply.
 I n 1989, a provision was made to
facilitate the use of electronic voting  I n 2003, the Election commission
machines in elections. issued an order for the declaration of
criminal antecedents, assets etc.
 I n 1989, a provision was made for
adjournment of poll in case of booth  I n 2003, Rajya Sabha elections were
capturing. reformed by removing the domicile of
the contesting candidate and further
 L
 isting the name of candidates as
introduction of open ballot system
candidates of recognised political
was introduced.
parties, candidates of registered–
unrecognized political parties and  I n 2003, an exemption of travelling
other(independent) candidates. expenditure from being included in
the election expenses of the candidate
 P
 rohibition on the sale of liquor within
was made.
a polling area during the period of 48
hours ending with the hour fixed for  F
 ree supply of electoral rolls by the
the conclusion of poll. government.
 O
 n the death of a contesting candidate,  I n 2009, restrictions were imposed on
the party concerned would be given an conducting exit polls and publishing
option to propose another candidate the results of exit polls.
within 7 days.
 I n 2009, a provision was made for the
 T
 he registered voters are entitled for a disqualification of a person found
paid holiday on the polling day. guilty of corrupt practices which
provided for a three month time limit
 P
 rohibition of arms.
within which the specified authority
 I n 1998 a provision was made whereby will have to submit the case of the
the employees of local authorities, person found to be guilty.
nationalized banks, universities, LIC,
 A
 ll officials have to be included in
government undertakings and other
corrupt practice.
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 I ncrease in security deposit. the date on which he takes his seat in the
house.
 A
 ppointment of appellate authorities
within the district. B. Exceptions:
 V
 oting rights to citizens of India living Disqualifications on the ground of
abroad were provided in 2010. defection does not apply, if a member goes
out of his party as a result of a merger of
 C
 eiling on election expenditure was
the party with another party; if a member,
increased in 2011.
after being elected as the Presiding officer
Anti-Defection Law of the house, voluntarily gives up the
membership of his party or rejoins after
The 52nd Amendment Act of 1985 he ceases to hold that office.
provided for the disqualification of the
members of Parliament and the State C.  Deciding Authority:
legislatures on the ground of defection Any question regarding
from one political party to another. disqualification arising out of defection is
For this purpose it added the Tenth to be decided by the Presiding officer of
Schedule to the Constitution. This act is the house.
often referred to as “Anti-defection law”.
Later the 91st Amendment Act of 2003 D.  Rule making power:
made one change in the provision i.e., The Presiding officer of a house is
disqualification on ground of defection empowered to make rules to give effect
not to apply in case of split. to the provisions of the tenth schedule.
All such rules must be placed before
Provisions of the Act the house for 30 days. The house may
A. Disqualification: approve or disapprove them. Further he
may direct that any willful contravention
A member of a house belonging to any by any member of such rules may be dealt
political party becomes disqualified if he with in the same manner as a breach of
voluntarily gives up his membership or if privilege of the house.
he votes or abstains from voting contrary
to any direction issued by his political Evaluation of the Act
party without obtaining prior permission A. The tenth schedule of the constitution
of the party. is designed to prevent the mischief of
An independent member of the house political defections motivated by the
becomes disqualified to remain a member lure of office or material benefits
of the house if he joins any political party
after such election. B. It is intended to strengthen the fabric
of Indian Parliamentary democracy by
A nominated member of the house curbing unprincipled and unethical
gets disqualified if he joins any political political defections
party after the expiry of six months from

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C. It provides for greater stability in the the votes are counted, it is done on the
body politic by checking the propensity basis of first preference votes secured by
of the legislators to change parties each candidate; If after the counting of all
first preference votes, required number
D. It facilitates democratic realignment of candidates fail to fulfill the quota, the
of parties in the legislature by way of candidate who secured the lowest votes
merger of parties of first preference is eliminated and his/
E. It gives a clear cut constitutional her votes are transferred to those who are
recognition to the existence of political mentioned as second preference on those
parties. ballot papers. This process continues till
the required number of candidates are
declared elected.
DEBATE
Why did India adopt the FPTP System?
Some say that Anti-Defection law The answer is not very difficult to
has reduced the freedom of the elected guess. If you have read carefully the method
representatives in the Parliament/ of election of Rajya Sabha members,
Legislatures. Have a debate on it in you would have noticed that it is a very
your classroom. complicated system which may work in
a small country but would be difficult to
Let us learn about the Rajya Sabha work in a sub-continental country like
Elections…… India. The reason for the popularity and
Transferable Vote System is followed success of the FPTP system is its simplicity.
for Rajya Sabha elections. Every state has The entire election system is extremely
a specific quota of seats in the Rajya simple to understand even for common
Sabha. The members are elected by the voters who may have no specialized
respective State Legislative assemblies. knowledge about politics and elections.
The voters are the MLAs in that state. There is also a clear choice presented to
Every voter is required to rank candidates the voters at the time of elections. Voters
according to her or his preference. To be have to simply endorse a candidate or a
declared winner, a candidate must secure party while voting. Depending on the
a minimum quota of votes, which is nature of actual politics, voters may either
determined by a formula: give greater importance to the party or to
the candidate or balance the two.

{ Total votes polled


Total number of candidates to be
} +1 The FPTP system offers voters a choice
not simply between parties but specific
elected + 1 candidates too. In other electoral systems,
For example if 4 Rajya Sabha especially Proportional Representation
members have to be elected by the 200 Systems, voters are often asked to
MLAs in Tamilnadu, the winner would choose a party and the representatives
require (200/4+1=40+1) 41 votes. When are elected on the basis of party lists. As

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a result, there is no one representative  I t is also believed that state funding


who represents and is responsible for one is a natural and necessary cost of
locality. In constituency based system like democracy. It brings new and growing
the FPTP, the voters know who their own parties, thus ensuring fair elections
representative is and can hold him or her  I f parties and candidates are financed
accountable. The FPTP system generally with only private funds, economical
gives the largest party or coalition some inequalities in the society might
extra bonus seats, more than their share translate into political inequalities in
of votes would allow. government.

Thus this system makes it possible Indrajit Gupta Committee on state


for Parliamentary government to function funding of Elections, 1998
smoothly and effectively by facilitating
the formation of a stable government. The The Indrajit Gupta Committee on
FPTP system encourages voters from State Funding of Elections, 1998, backed
different social groups to come together the idea of state funding of elections on
to win an election in a locality. The FPTP principle, stating that “The committee
system has proved to be simple and see full jurisdiction constitutional,
familiar to ordinary voters. legal as well as on the ground of public
interest, for grant of state subvention to
political parties, so as to establish such
conditions where even the parties with
Open Ballot is a system of
modest financial resources may be able
choosing the representative by raising
to compete with those who have superior
one’s hands!!
financial resources.
Secret Ballot is a system in
which the voter casts his vote without It added two limitations
the knowledge of anyone into a Ballot
A. Such funds could not be doled out
Box or uses an Electronic Voting
to independent candidates, and only
Machine!!
to national and state parties having
granted a symbol and proven the
11.6 State Funding of Elections
popularity among the electorate
What is state funding?
B. In the short –term, state funding may
 S tate funding of elections is a concept
be given only in kind, in the form of
designed to reduce corruption by
certain facilities to the recognized
funding elections with government
political parties and their candidates.
money as opposed to individual
campaign contributions
The committee has recommended
 I t is recommended that the state
the creation of a separate Election Fund
funding of elections can be the best
with an annual contribution of Rs. 600
way to achieve transparency in
core by the centre and a matching
political funding
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amount contributed by all state Why youngsters should vote??


governments together. The committee
has suggested that in order to be eligible  Elections play a vital role in a system of
for state funding, political parties and representative democracy. Youngsters
other candidates should have submitted who are involved in the electoral
their income tax returns up to the previous process affirm their support as well as
assessment year. acquire a stake in the system and an
appreciation that they too can affect
politics and policy
ACTIVITY
 Voting is the only form of participation
What are the resent steps taken by in which each citizen has an equal say
the government regarding state funding (one person, one vote). By voting,
of election? youth have the same ability as others to
exercise political influence or pressure
 Universal participation in elections
“He alone, who owns the ensures the faithful representation of
youth gains the future” the popular will
-Adolf Hitler  Young people should vote to develop a
habit of voting from the start, and thus
ensure high turnout
 Young people may have political
ACTIVITY
interests that differ from those of old
Essay writing voters. If young people don’t vote, they
and their distinct interests are more
Topic: If you were the Prime Minister of
likely to be ignored or neglected by
India, what would you do to make India
policy makers.
a superpower by 2035?

11.7 Role of Youth in Politics ACTIVITY


This must all be the exact thought Discuss more ways in which Youth
running through the minds of all the can be utilized by a Returning Officer
political leaders in the fray to win during Elections.
elections. With a huge Percentage of first
time voters being added to the voters’ list What is NOTA?
every year, the decisions of the youth will None Of The Above - A voter’s right to
go a big way in elections. reject a step towards electoral reforms.

Today youth has the power to In its efforts of cleansing the political
transform our nation, and it will. The system, the Supreme Court of India upheld
responsibility of transformation, progress the right of voters to reject all candidates
and innovation lies on their shoulders. contesting the elections. The apex court
directed the Election Commission to have
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Before the NOTA option was


introduced, people who wanted to cast
negative votes, had to enter their names in
a register and cast their vote on a separate
ballot paper.
Under Section 49(O) of the conduct
of election rules, 1961, a voter could enter
his electoral serial number in the form
17A and cast negative vote.

an option of “None Of The


Above”(NOTA) on the electronic voting
machines (EVMs).

ACTIVITY

Interpretation of cartoon

ACTIVITY

Find out how 49(O) and NOTA are


different?

Countries which allow NOTA are…


Columbia, Ukraine, Brazil,
Courtesy: The Hindu, 28.9.2013. Bangladesh, Finland, Spain, Sweden,
Identify the context. Can you explain what Chile, France, Belgium and Greece.
this cartoon is about? USA also allows it in few cases. The
state of Texas permits the provision
Quotable
uote
since 1975.
NOTA is the option at the end of the
Candidates’ List, on the EVMs Glossary

Election : A formal and organised choice


by vote of a person for a political office or
Do you know that there was a
other position.
similar provision before NOTA?
It was called Negative Voting. Representation : The action of speaking or
acting on behalf of someone.

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Franchise : The right to vote in public Delimitation : The act or process of


elections. fixing limits or boundaries of territorial
constituencies in a country or a province
Voting : Go to the polls, mark one`s ballot having a legislative body.
paper
Electoral Roll/ voters`list : Grouping of
Electoral system : The way in which candidates for election
votes can be translated into elected
Nomination : The act of officially
representatives
suggesting someone or something for a
Psephology : The statistical study of position.
elections and trends in voting. Election campaign : A time when a
Plurality : Number of votes cast for a politician or party try to persuade people
candidate who receives more than any to vote for them
other but does not receive an absolute Electoral reform : A change in electoral
majority systems to improve how public desires are
expressed in election results
Panchayat : A village council in India
Anti-defection law : Law passed in 1985
Minority representation : The number which disqualifies elected members on
of elected candidates supporting the the grounds of defection to another party.
minority positions.
Constituency : A group of voters in a
Factionalism : Arguments or disputes specified area who elect a representative
between two or more small groups from to a legislative body.
within a larger group.
Secret ballot : A voting method where
Democracy : A system of government by voter`s choices are confidential
the whole population, typically through
Voters` turnout : Percentage of eligible
elected representatives
voters who cast a ballot in an election

Evaluation

I Choose the correct answer:

1.  The word ‘Franchise’ is of _____ origin.


a.  Anglo-French b. Anglo-Indian
c.  Anglo-German d. Anglo-Italian

2.  Part XV of the Indian Constitution deals with _______.


a. Elections b. Citizenship
c. Fundamental rights d. DPSP

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3.  Psephology is the study of _______.


a.  Elections b. Constitution
c.  State d. Rights

4.  _________ is the simplest form of plurality/majority electoral systems.


a.  FPTP b. Block vote
c.  Party block vote d. Limited vote system

5.  The first delimitation commission act was passed in the year ______.
a.  1952 b. 1963
c. 1973 d.2002

6.  The list of eligible voters is called as _____.


a. Electoral roll b. Campaign roll
c. Polling roll d. Nomination roll

7.  Which Amendment Act reduced the voting age of Indian citizens from 21 to 18?
a. 61st b.42nd
c.91st d.73rd

8.  Which Article of the Indian Constitution provides for a single Election Commission in India?
a. Art 324 b. Art 256
c. Art 370 d. Art 360

9.  The 52nd Amendment Act of 1985 deals with _____.


a. Anti-Defection Law b. Election Methods
c. Electoral Reforms d. Election Campaign

10. Election due to death or resignation of a member is ________.


a. By-Election b. Re-election
c. Null-Election d. Ward-Election

11. _____ seats are reserved for women in Panchayat bodies.


a.1/3rd b. 1/4th
c. 2/3rd d. 3/4th

12. The Chief Election Commissioner of India is appointed by the _______.


a. President of India b. Chief Justice of India
c. Prime Minister of India d. Chief Secretary of India

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13. The Indrajit Gupta Committee 1998 deals with_________.


a. Electoral Reforms b. Anti-Defection
c. FPTP system d. Secret ballot

14. First general elections in India took place in the year _____.
a. 1952 b.1951
c.1950 d. 1947

15. State funding of elections was backed by ______ committee.


a. Indirajit Gupta Committee c. Vohra Committee
b. Tarkunde Committee d. Tanka Committee

16. A
 ssertion: Indian Parliament has a bicameral legislature.
Reason: Loksabha is the lower house and Rajya sabha is the upper house.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

II. Answer the following questions very shortly


16. What is Franchise?
17. Define Psephology.
18. Expand the term FPTP.
19. What are electoral constituencies?
20. Explain Voters’ List.
21. What is election campaign?
22. What is Anti-Defection Law?

III Answer the following questions shortly


23. What are the features of a democratic electoral system?
24. Mention the various methods of minority representation?
25. Explain the Delimitation of constituencies.
26. What are the committees related to electoral reforms?
27. Why did India adopt the FPTP system?
28. Write about the first general election in India.
29. Explain about open ballot and secret ballot.

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IV Answer the following questions in detail


30. What does Part XV of the Indian Constitution deal with?
31. Explain the various types of representation.
32. Explain the need for free and fair elections.
33. Bring out the powers and functions of Election Commission of India.
34. Bring out the various electoral reforms in India.

Reference books
1. J.C. Johari, Indian Polity, Lotus Press, New Delhi.
2. R.C. Agarwal, Political Theory, S. Chand and Company, New Delhi.
3. B.S. Raman, Indian Constitution, United Publishers, Mangalore.
4. Subash C Kashyap, Our Constitution, National Book Trust , India.
5. The New International IDEA Handbook
6. Democratic Politics-II, Class X Political Science Textbook.
7. Democratic Politics-I, class IX Political Science Textbook
8. Lakshmikant, Indian Polity, Tata Mcgraw and Hills.

Internet Sources:

 www.britannica.com
 www.quora.com
 Search.my.way.com
 Hindustan times.com.India
 India.seminar.com

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ICT CORNER

Unit-11 Election and Representation

Right age to know who the


representatives were so far.
Shall we check and learn?

Steps

1. Click the URL or scan the QR code to launch the “indiavotes” page.
2. For, Lok Sabha Elections Select “year”, “states” and Click “GO”. For Legislative
Assembly elections (State Elections), Select “State” and “Year” to know the details.
3. On having accurate details, Go for “Advanced search” and give in the details to fetch
the data.
4. Click “Election Maps” on the home page to check the same with maps by feeding in
the required on the left of the window.

Step 3
Step 1

Step 4
Step 2

Download Link
*Pictures are indicative only.
*If browser requires, allow Flash Player or Java Script to load the page.
URL : http://www.indiavotes.com/

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UNIT

12 Local Governments

Learning Objectives

 This chapter provides insights in to the local governments in


India and as well as in Tamil Nadu state.
 It also provides the significance of local self government today
 This chapter would explain the scope of the Local Self government in the lives of
the people today.
 This chapter would throws light on historical development and the major
changes that have been made in powers and functions of local government since
independence.
 Students would learn the structure, functions,
elections, sources of revenue and issues in the rural
and urban local governments in India.

12.1 Meaning, Nature and Importance birth or death of persons in the village
of Local Government or town. The local governments are the
Local Government means, the institutions, which issues certificates
government which manages services and of proof of residence, birth, death and
amenities in our villages, towns and cities incomes etc to the residents in that area.
with focus on local problems. The local In total, the local governments are the
governments normally functions within institutions which are responsible for
a specified limited territory of a village, a all such local needs of the people. They
town, a city and also a large metropolitan are the lowest unit of administration
city. The local governments function in the administrative structure of the
as the basic link between the people in government. The local government has
a village or town with the government. council, which is normally elected by the
As and when people have problems people of the village or town concerned,
such as road repairs, water stagnation which is responsible for the representing
in the streets, non functioning of street the problems of the citizens in the council
lights and construction of small water and find solutions to the problems. The
bodies recreation parks, etc. The local council representatives are elected once in
governments have the responsibility five years, or four years, depending upon
to attend to any emergency situations, the law in operation in the country.

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The local governments are Athilakshmi and


representative institutions, representating Bala are travelling through
people in the council. There are legally CASE STUDY Sivakasi (Virudhunagar
mandated to discuss and give solutions district) in a share auto. As they go round
to the problems of the people of that area the town, they observe the following
and also represent the problem to the problems :
higher levels of the government such as
state. Since the local governments are 1. Water scarcity
established on the basis of democratic 2. Heavily damaged interior roads
process, all the problems discussed by the 3. Poor maintenance of water bodies
council of the local governments should 4. Poor implementation of rain water
go through the process of discussion, harvesting system
debate and deliberations and unanimously 5. Lack of sanitation facilities
accepted by the council. The members of
the council are given freedom to discuss You have seen the five problems
and also to take decisions at same time illustrated above. Based on these, what
within the framework of the fundamental impression do you get about your town
law of the land called Constitution. or city or village?

The importance of the local Write a paragraph describing the


government lies in the nature of public facilities available in your area
the problems handled by the local (not more than 200 words).
governments, which are basically “local”
in nature and also the variety of problems Therefore, local governments are
attended by the local government the institutions created for the purposes
cannot be attended by the higher levels of solving the local issues and addressing
of the government like state or central the local level problems. The local
governments. Because the local problems governments normally consist of elected
are specific to the local areas and the representatives drawn from the local
solutions found for those problems should population representing the local people
also be relevant to the situation. An and they represent the local issues in the
irrelevant solution to the problems may council and try to find solutions to the
hamper the situation and also it is also problems. The local governments are the
concerned with the spending of the taxes important channel of flow of resources and
collected from the people. If solutions programmes to the people at the lowest
are irrelevant to the local problems, the levels normally called “grassroots” level.
resources used for that programme may No country today afford to ignore local
by wasted and it gives more burden on the governments because of the fact that local
people again. issues at present becomes global issues.
With development of Information and
communication Technology (ICT), the
whole world have become global village.
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12.2 Classification of local government


institutions DEBATE

Local governments are classified as  Critically think the need for local
Rural and Urban based local governments. government both in rural and
The Rural and Urban divide is made urban areas in India.
based on the nature of the occupation
of the residents viz; agriculture based or  Critically view the responsibilities
non-agriculture based occupations. The of the citizens towards the local
agriculture based occupation means that governments in India.
almost or most of the residents of an area are
engaged in agriculture related occupation In India, the rural local governments
and the nature of the functions normally have given general name “Panchayati Raj”
would be farming, dairying, poultry, and which means the system of Panchayat
other similar types of activities. Whereas, institutions, that is, the institutions
in urban areas the citizens would engaged which does the panchayat, (deliberate,
in industrial, trade and business and other discuss, and deliberate). The Urban local
activities. governments in India are classified in to
various types depending upon the political
The urban areas are the places and economic basis of the formation of
where the people’s livelihood is based on the urban local governments such as,
occupations in industry, trade, commercial Municipal Corporations, Townships, Area
institutions and administration like Planning Committees and Cantonment
government offices and private company Boards. For example, in India the
offices. The urban areas are the link urban local governments are classified
between the outside world to the local into various types such, Municipal
villages. The local governments formed Corporations in metropolitan cities,
in rural and urban areas are called rural Municipalities in small towns, Townships
local governments and urban local in industrial towns, Cantonment Boards
governments respectively. in military establishments.

Types of Urban Local bodies


Local Government
 Municipal Corporations
 Municipalities
Urban Rural  Municipal Townships
 Town Panchayats
 Cantonment Boards

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machinery for providing amenities and


ACTIVITY
services to the metropolitan population.
The students group themselves
The increase in the number of the
into two or three groups and discuss
population in metropolitan cities due
about some local issues such as out-
to migration of people from rural and
break of a disease in the area or breach
other small and medium towns and other
of water bodies due to heavy rains, or
metropolitan areas over the years make
education to illiterate adults in the lo-
these cities mega polis.
cal body area or ward areas.
The Municipalities are established
The Municipal Corporations are in small and medium cities and town
established in metropolitan cities with with population of less that 1 million.
population with 1 million plus cities, The Municipalities too are reclassified as
which are large and need an elaborate Class I, Class –II etc., depending upon

ACTIVITY
"Corporate cleanliness can only be ensured if there is a corporate
conscience and a corporate insistence on cleanliness in public places"

Today on 2nd October, we pay homage to the father of our National


and work towards his vision of providing basic sanitation facilities to
the poor.

Towards Total Sanitation


 Revised Guidelines of Integrated Low Cost Sanitation (ILCS) Scheme with the
goal of eradication of manual scavenging by 2010 and increased subsidy for urban
proof for conversation of dry latrines to water sealed systems.
 Basic servces (Water, Sanitation, Sewerage, Electricity, Health, Social Security,
Affordable House) in all slums under Jawaharlal nehru National Urban Renewal
Mission (Basic Services to the urban Poor and integrated Housing and Slum
Development Programme) and Propased Rajiv Awards Yojana(RAY) with
individual water sealed toilets in each home.
 Emphasis on upgrading sewage, sanitation and soild waste management under
JNNURM (Urban Infrastrcture & Governance and Urban Infrastructure
Development Scheme for Small & Medium Towns).
 Total Sanitation Policy announced by Government.

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the number of the population and also


ACTIVITY
range of the revenue collection. The
grades of the Municipalities are reviewed Find out the various kinds of taxes
periodically by the higher levels of the (property tax, water tax, drainage tax
governments to facilitate the classification etc.,) people pay to the government by
of the municipalities. talking to a salaried person, a person
running own factory or business and a
The Townships and the Notified
shopkeeper. Share your findings in the
Area Committees are emerging urban
classroom.
areas, where the new industries are
established, the changing occupations 12.3 Local Government around the
of the residents of that area from farm world
employment to non-farm employment.
Local Governments are as old
The Cantonment Boards are as that of human civilization and in
established in military establishments, many countries around the world local
where the defense establishments such as governments are the foundation upon
Training institutes for defense personnel, which the modern state is established.
defense industry etc. Both the Rural and A preliminary reading about the Local
Urban local governments are lowest tier Governments in various countries of
in the government hierarchy. the world show us that large or small,
developed or under developed, some
ACTIVITY form of Local governments exist to deliver
amenities and services at local level.
Do you think the distribution of
pubic facilities such as water, electricity, However they differ widely in their
roads, public transport, sanitation, etc., structure, powers, functional domain,
in your district or area is adequate and fiscal resources etc. In many of the
fair? Give an example of your own to European countries there has been efforts
explain. on the part of the government to
decentralize the powers and functions,
In various countries of the world, which were otherwise centralized. The
rural and urban local governments are question of devolution of finances, the
organized differently. However, the jurisdictional issues in policing, transport
basis and principles of which local and inter-state commerce are some of the
governments are being established are pending and irritants in the case of the
almost same. Local governments are developed countries. Whereas in the
being established for the local people developing countries, there is more and
with revenue predominantly derived from more attempt on the part of the central or
local resources. The upper layer of the federal governments to centralize the
governments normally does the function powers and financial resources. In India
of supervision and monitoring the local the constant pressure is being exerted on
bodies
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ACTIVITY
the central government for more
Design a poster
devolution of administrative and financial
Water bodies in your village powers to state as well as local governments.
or town or city often hear the brunt
of carelessness, with several lakes, 12.4 Origin and development of Local
ponds or rivers filled with plastic Governments in India
trash becoming the dump yards and
sewer drains. Our country is fast In tracing the origin and development
losing critical habitats. To reclaim lost of local governments in India, one finds
habitats and to ensure protection of the evidences of the existence of local
what is left, you organize an awareness governments even before the times of
programme aimed at cleaning major Christ (BCE). The period between 600
portion of the lakes or pond or beach BCE to C.E. 600 witnessed the rise and
to ensure a garbage free natural fall of republics. During this period, there
environment for all life forms. emerged Mahavira (founder of Jainism)
What can you do? and Buddha (founder of Buddhism).
 You design a poster with catch Villages were classified according to
phrase and invite people from size and mode of habitation in Jain and
differ\rent walks of life to Buddhists literature.
eliminate trash from water bodies.
The religious orders founded by
 Catch phrase: “Remove trash, Buddha and Mahavira observed highly
Secure the water bodies.” democratic procedures in arriving
 Remember, any effort you make is at decisions. Kautilya’s Arthshastra
helpful for the future. (Treatise)gives a comprehensive account

ACTIVITY

Take some of the public facilities in your area such as water, electricity, drainage,
sanitation, etc., Is there any scope to improve these? What in your opinion should be
done? Complete the table.
Facilities Is it available? How can it be improved?
Water
Drainage
Sanitation
Electricity
Road
Public Transport system

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of the system of village administration In general there is little information


prevailing in his time In the days of on the functioning of any village
Maurya the village and the district were assemblies prior to the 9 century. Both
th

units of administration. “nadu” and “Nagaram” were concerned


about the control and regulation of land
In the South Indian peninsula, holdings, management of irrigation works,
the existence of the local self governing temples, collection and remission of taxes,
institutions could be traced well before floating of loans for capital works and the
the period of the Christian calender. The management of charitable institutions.
historical period can be grouped in to The “ur” and the “mahasabha” were the
early Chola period, Kalabira period, and two institutions that assisted the officers
the later Chola period, the emergence of in executing the orders of the king.
Vijayanagara empire, entry of Muslims
and Moghuls and the British. There were It has been found that Raja Raja
very little evidence available about the Chola, the First, ordered the “mahasabha”
system of local governance in the early of the Viranarayana Chaturvedi Mangalam
Chola Period(which dates back to Before to confiscate the property of traitors.
Christ) and the Kalabira Period. Many historians such as Sir Charles
Metcalfe, Sir George Bird wood and
But there were some account of Eliphinstone opined that a strong system
existence of local governments during the of local government existed in Ancient
times of Pandyas (rulers of deep south and medieval South India. But doubts
India) and the Pallavas (rulers of mid are expressed by some of the historians
south india). But Cholas (rulers who ruled about the elaborate existence of the local
mid Tamil country) period witnessed a self government in ancient and medieval
well developed local self governments. South India.
The inscriptions of Paranthaka Chola – During the Moghul period A.D
I(919.C.E. – 922.C.E) from Utthiramerur (C.E.)1500 to A.D (C.E.)1777), the
in Kanchipuram district of Tamilnadu fundamental principles of central local
state, give detailed account of local self relationships hardly changed with change
government. They inform that each of kingdoms. When the Mughal Empire
village had an assembly consisting of was at its zenith of glory, it was divided
all adult males and their involvement in into provinces (Subhas), and Provinces
general matters. These assemblies are of into sub divisions (Sarkars), and Sakars
two types, the “Ur” and the Mahasabha”. into union of villages (Paraganas). At
The third kind was the nagaram (town) each level the government is organized
confined to mercantile towns(trading and the officials were appointed by the
centers) and the fourth was the “nadu”. Emperor. In the Twilight of the Mughul
Hence two types of institutions were Empire, the self governing institutions in
mentioned one nadu (village and other rural areas had been severely damaged at
areas) and nagaram (urban centers). vital points, but they had withstood the
onslaughts with remarkable tactics.
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After the Battle of Plassey in A.D commission to enquire into the question
(C.E.) 1757, the British East India Company of administrative and financial relations
derived land taxing rights (Diwani rights) between the Government of India,
from Bengal ruler (Nawab), which was the Provincial governments and subordinate
first step in the ascendency of the British authorities under them so as to simplify
rule in India. The rural and the other urban and improve the prevalent system through
trading centers during the British East devolution or otherwise. With the passing
India company rule, was not under any of Government of India Act, 1919, the
control or supervision, except the three local governments were entrusted with
Presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay the elected elements of the provincial
and Madras. The District administration government under the diarchy system of
under the charge of the district collector government.
was the king pin in the British control
over vast rural areas. The number of the village bodies in
Tamilnadu increased from 1417 in 1926 to
The important mile stone during the 6250 in 1937. There are three tier system
company rule was the establishment of the of rural local bodies viz; District Boards,
Municipal Corporations , as mentioned Taluk Boards, and Village Boards. The
earlier at Calcutta (Kolkata), Bombay District and Taluk boards have undergone
(Mumbai) and Madras (Chennai). changes by 1923, the non-official
Viceroy Lord Rippon in 1882 brought chairman in all provinces replaced
out a resolution, proposing a smaller unit official chairman. In Tamilnadu, most of
for constituting rural local boards, a sub the District Boards came to be dominated
division, tehsil (taluk) and district boards by Justice Party members, which stood
to supervise. at 545 in 1927. From 1937 upto 1947,
the rural local authorities faced many
Lord Rippon’s resolution emphasized challenges including the national freedom
that the institutions he proposed should movement.
have a majority of non-officials who
should be elected wherever it was feasible. After Indian Independence in 1947,
Nearly 500 rural boards were created with an attempt was made to revive local
a two third majority of non officials who governments in India. Mahatma Gandhi
depended upon the district magistrate argued for the decentralized administrative
(district collector) for the favour of system in India entrusting responsibility
nomination. The main activities of the of governance with the village panchayats
district boards till 1909 were police, public (self sufficient Gram Swaraj). Shrima
works, education and village sanitation. Naryan with blessings of Gandhiji
published a blue print of the Gandhian
The rural local government Constitution for Free India wherein
introduced by Lord Rippon faced many panchayats are the basic institutions for
criticisms and in the A.D (C.E.) 1907, organizing social, economic and political
the British government appointed a activities of the citizens. In addition to the

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providing technical services, supply and


credit. This programme was extended to
Diarchy
most of the blocks as National Extensions
The diarchy system entries that Service aimed at transferring scientific
the subjects of the administration had and technical knowledge to agricultural,
been divided into reserved subjects animal husbandry and rural craft sectors.
and transferred subjects. The police, In 1956, under the Second Five Year Plan,
law and order, finance are the reserved (1956-1961), it was recommended that
subjects, which will be under the village panchayats should organically link
Governor and other subjects like with popular organizations at higher levels
education and other as mentioned and in stages, the popular body should
earlier will be entrusted to the elected take over the whole administration. In
representatives. 1957, Government of India appointed a
Committee on Plan Projects under the
civic, political and administrative roles, Chairmanship of Balwant Rai Mehta. The
the Panchayat was to play the economic Mehta Committee recommended two
role of organizing production and points namely, the administration should
distributing resources in such a way that be decentralized and the administration
the village communities became self should be placed under the control of
sufficient for meeting most of their basic local bodies.
needs.
Secondly, the community
Thus Article 40 came to be development blocks should be designed
incorporated in the Constitution, as part as administrative democratic units with
of the Directive Principles of the State an elected Panchayat Union to operate
policy (Part –IV) of the Constitution of as a fulcrum of developmental activity
India adopted on Nov. 26th 1949. The Art. in the area. It also recommended for
40. States that, “ the state shall take steps the formation of District Development
to organize village panchayats and endow Councils (Zila Parishad) at the district
them with such powers and authority level consisting of all the Presidents of the
as may be necessary to enable them to Panchayat Unions (Samities), Member
function as units of self government” of legislative assemblies and Members of
Parliament with district level officers of
In compliance with the provisions the public health, agriculture, veterinary
of the Directive Principles of the and education departments as members
State Policy, an ambitious rural sector and the collector as the chairman. The
initiative, the Community Development district body is only an advisory body. The
Programme was launched in 1952 with recommendation of the Mehta Committee
main focus of securing social- economic were generally welcomed and Panchayati
transformations of village through Raj legislations were enacted and by 1960s
people’s own democratic and cooperative about 90 per cent of the population were
organizations with the government covered by the Panchayati Raj bodies.
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In 1977, the Government of exercises on this subject, government


India formed a committee under the drafted and introduced the 73rd and
chairmanship of Ashoka Mehta to go in to 74th Constitutional Amendment bills in
the working of the Panchayati Raj bodies Parliament in 1992 which was passed by
and suggest measures to strengthen it. It the Indian Parliament in 1993. The 73rd
recommended that Panchayati Raj should and 74th Constitutional Amendments
emerge as the system of democratic local introduced new parts IX and IXA in the
government, discharging developmental, Indian Constitution containing Articles
municipal and ultimate regulatory 243to 243 ZG.
functions. Hence the first recommendation
was to set up district Panchayat (Zilla 12.5  73rd Constitutional Amendment –
Parishad) as the directly elected body. As implementation and implications.
a temporary arrangement, the committee Article 243 B of the Constitution
recommended continuation of the which was inserted into the Constitution
Panchayat union at the block level. Not under the 73rd Constitutional Amendment,
as a unit of local self government but as a envisages that states and union territories
nominated middle level support arm for except those with population not
the District Development Council. The exceeding 20 lakhs, will have to constitute
Ashoka Mehta Committee submitted it's a three tier system of Panchayat ie, village,
report in 1978, which was well received and intermediate and district levels. While
led many states to introduce appropriate the district has been defined as a normal
amendments in their Panchayat Acts such district in state, the jurisdiction of village
Karnataka, Maharastra Andhra Pradesh, and intermediate levels have not been
West Bengal and Gujarat. specifically defined in the Act.
A number of committees were The territorial area of a village
formed between 1978 and 1986, to look Panchayat can be specified by a public
into various aspects of strengthening the notification by the Governor of the
local self government institutions, such state, and may consist of more than one
as, C.H.Hanumantha Rao Committee, village. Similarly, the intermediate level
G.V.K Rao Committee and L.M.Singhvi which can be a Taluk or Block is also to
Committee. Only minor changes were be specified by the Governor through a
suggested by these committees from the public notification in this regard. This
Ashok Mehta committee, The next land provides a certain amount of flexibility
mark was the introduction of 64th and to the States in constituting Panchayats at
65th Constitutional Amendment Bills, in the lower and middle levels.
July 1989 by Rajiv Gandhi government,
which could not be passed in the Council A new schedule, Eleventh Schedule
of States (Rajya Sabha). was inserted in to the Constitution of
India, which provided for obligatory and
After many attempts, in 1992, discretionary functions of the Panchayats
incorporating important features of earlier at three levels,
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(a) The Village Level well as members of the Union and State


legislature in the Panchayats above the
(b) The District Panchayat at the district
village level.
level
(c) The Intermediate Panchayat which Hence, the new Amendment
stands between the village and district Act provided for participation of
Panchayats in the states where the Members of Parliament and Members of
population is above 20 lakhs Legislative Assemblies in the Panchayat
Union Councils and also in the District
All the seats in a Panchayat shall be Panchayats. The Amendment Act also
filled by persons by direct election from provided reservation of seats in the three
territorial constituencies in the Panchayat tiers for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
area. The electorate is named as “Gram Tribes and not less than one third of the
sabha” consisting of persons registered total seats for women. The tenure of the
in the electoral rolls relating to a village Panchayats shall be five years.
comprised within the area of a Panchayat.
The law provides that any person
The Chairperson of each Panchayat who is eligible to be elected to the state
shall be elected according to the law legislature shall be qualified to be chosen
passed by a State and such State law shall as a member of a Panchayat. The
also provide for the representation of responsibilities of the Panchayats are
Chairpersons of Village and Intermediate clearly laid down in the Eleventh Schedule.
Panchayats in the District Panchayat, as (Box.1). Like the National Finance
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Box-1 : Eleventh Schedule (Article 243 G)


Agriculture, including agricultural
  Non-conventional energy sources
 
extension Poverty alleviation programme
 
L and improvement, implementation
  Education including primary and
 
of land reforms, land consolidation secondary schools
and soil conservation Technical training and vocational
 
Minor irrigation water management
  education
and watershed development Adult and non – formal education
 
Animal Husbandry, dairying and
  Libraries
 
poultry Cultural activities
 
Fisheries
  Market and fairs
 
S ocial forestry and farm forestry
  Health and sanitation including
 
Minor forest produce
  hospitals, primary health centres
Small scale industries, including
  and dispensaries
food processing industries Family welfare
 
Khadi, village and cottage industries
  Women and child development
 
Rural housing
  S ocial welfare including welfare
 
Drinking water
  of the handicapped and mentally
Fuel and fodder
  retarded
Roads, culverts, bridges, ferries,
  Welfare of the weaker sections and
 
waterways and other means of in particular of the scheduled castes
communication and the scheduled tribes.
Rural electrification, including
  Public distribution system
 
distribution of electricity Maintenance of community assets.
 

commission, the Constitution Amendment be treated as “Government or state”, The


Act also provided for the State Finance Panchayats that have acquired substantial
commission for recommending the legitimacy are recognized as an instrument
formula for transfer of the financial aid to of the Government and have created
local governments from the states. participatory structure of grass roots
democracy for the rural people. Creation
of constitutional bodies like the State
Election Commissions and the State
There are around 2,50,000 village
Finance Commissions have also given
panchayats in India as per 2011Census
permanency and stability to these
institutions. However, most Panchayats
continue to be treated as agencies of the
Consequent to the 73rd
state for implementation of prescribed
Constitutional Amendment as well as the
schemes, even though essential services
Supreme court’s rulings which effectively
such as provision of drinking water, rural
mandate that local authorities are also to
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sanitation, preventive health and primary 12.6 74th Constitutional Amendment


education are accepted as their legitimate Implementation and Implications
core functions. The structure of district
administration under the control of the Under the 74th Constitutional
Collector, characteristically by a command Amendment, the urban areas comprise
structure and lack of horizontal different types of municipal bodies
coordination at the grass roots level, has constituted with reference to character,
become somewhat anachronistic in the size and importance of different towns
modern democratic framework of out and cities. Municipal Corporations,
polity. In order to make local Municipal Committees, Notified Area
administration more responsive Committees, Town Area Committees, and
transparent and accountable to citizens Cantonment Boards are the usual types
there is a need to have a representative of municipal bodies and while the first
government not only in the Union and four types were created under the state
States but also at the District and Village municipal laws, the Cantonment Boards
levels with an equitable division of owed their origin to the Central Act called
functions among them. the Cantonments Act, 1924.

In most of the states, all these types


Panchayati Raj (1959 – 2009) of urban local bodies existed except
the Town Area Committees, which had
Golden Jubilee Year – on 2nd since been abolished and converted into
October 1959, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru class – III Municipal Committees. Town
laid the foundation of Panchayati Area Committees were semi municipal
Raj in Nagaur, Rajasthan; the most committees constituted for small towns
revolutionary step in the context by a separate act of the state legislative
of governance of rural India. The assembly.
journey which commenced with
the commitment of comprehensive After passing the Constitution
development of villages and to put (74th
Amendment) Act, 1992, the
power in the hands of people. Government of India notified the
Amendment in June 1993. The Act of 1992
provided for a period of one year from
Three tier Panchayati Raj system the date of its commencement, the states
under 73rd Constitutional were required to change amend or modify
Amendment(1993)
 D
istrict Panchayats
(Elected and nominated) The Grama Sabha meetings are
 P
anchayat Union Councils (Elected) held four times in a year ie. January,
 Village Panchayats (Elected) 26 (Republic Day), May, 01 (May Day)
 G
ram Sabha (All Voters in a village) August, 15 (Independence Day) and
(Advisory Body) October, 02 (Gandhi Jayanthi).

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there legislations in order to incorporate comprising transitional area or any part


the Central Amendment. Various states of thereof, and two members nominated
and union territories have enacted by the state government from amongst
legislations for the governance of the persons having special knowledge or
urban local bodies in their respective experience in municipal administration.
jurisdictions. For example, the Punjab The nominated members shall not have
government enacted the Punjab Municipal the right to vote in the Town panchayat
Bill, 1998 to replace the Punjab Municipal meetings. The term of a Town Panchayat
Act, 1911. shall be 5 years.
A three tier structure of urban
The government shall divide a
local bodies were proposed in the
transitional area (town panchayat area) in
74th Constitutional Amendment act
to a number of territorial constituencies
namely, Nagar Panchayat or Town
known as wards and each ward shall
Panchayat, Municipalities and Municipal
elect only one member. Out of the total
Corporations. We shall discuss briefly
number of seats in Town Panchayat to be
the details of the above three urban
filled by direct election, seats are reserved
local bodies established under the 74th
for Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled
Constitutional Amendment Act.
Tribes (ST) in the same proportion of the
Nagar Panchayat or Town Panchayat population of SCs and STs to the total
population of that town panchayat area. In
A Nagar Panchayat or Town addition, one third of the total number of
Panchayat is constituted for a transitional seats of that area are reserved for women,
area, ie. , an area in transition from a rural including the seats reserved for SCs and
area to an urban area. The population of STs. The town panchayat members shall
such an area is 5000 or more but less than be elected from amongst its members,
15,000 and the revenue generated from One President and one Vice President
tax and sources exceeds such amount per in a meeting convened by the Deputy
capita per annum as many be specified by commissioner. Every Town Panchayat
the government from time to time. Every shall perform obligatory functions such
Nagar Panchayat is a body corporate and as water supply, drainage, clearing the
has a perpetual succession and a common streets etc. Every town panchayat shall
seal with power to acquire and hold, or have an executive officer appointed by the
dispose of properties and may sue and state government
sued.
Municipal Council
A Town panchayat shall consist of
such number of elected members not A Municipal Council or municipality is
less than 9 or not more than 15, as the constituted for a small urban area with a
state government may determine by population of 15,000 or more but is less
rules. The members of the legislative than 3 lakhs and the revenue generated
assembly representing the constituencies from the tax and other sources exceeds

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such amount per capita per annum as President and Vice-President. As that of
may be specified by state government Town Panchayats, seats are reserved for the
from time to time. SCs and STs according to the proportion
of the population of SCs and STs to the
Municipality Grade Population total population of the municipal area. In
addition, 30 per cent of total seats are
Class A 1 Lakh or more
reserved for women including the SCs and
50,000 –
Class –B STs seats.
less than one lakh
Class – C Less than 50,000 The 74th Amendment provide
A Municipal Council or Municipality the constitution of ward committees
for example in Class-A, not less than 20 consisting of one or more wards within
and not more that 50 elected members; the territorial area of a Municipality,
Class-B 15-30, and Class-C, 10-15. The having a population of 3 lakhs or more. A
members of State Legislative Assembly member of a Municipality representing a
representing the constituencies lying ward with in the territorial area of the ward
within the municipal area are “Ex-Officio” committee shall be a member of the ward
members of the Municipal Council. Not committee. The Standing Committees
more than 3 members are nominated by shall be constituted for each Municipality
the state government. The nominated consisting of the President, senior Vice-
members do not have the right to vote in President, and Vice president and 4 other
the elections of the chairpersons and vice members in the case of Class- A, 2 in the
chairpersons. The members are elected case of Class-B from among the elected
through secret ballot. members for a period of 2 and half years.
The term of office of Municipality is five
The whole municipal area is years. The elected municipality can be
divided into wards, as per the number dissolved if it is not performing as per
of councilors to be elected , say 15 or 30 the provisions of law.
or 10 . The electoral rolls of the legislative
assembly in relation to municipal area The Municipal Council meets
are generally taken as the voters list. The at least once in a month, presided over
candidates contesting in the elections by the President or in his/her absence
are allotted symbols. The symbols of the Vice- President. The Municipal Council
recognized political parties are allotted with the increasing load of work, elects
only to the candidates sponsored or subcommittees comprising councillors
adopted by the them. from amongst itself to study a problem
in depth and make recommendation for
The Deputy Commissioner has to its solution. The sub committees are of
call the meeting of the elected members two types statutory committees and, non-
within 14 days of the notification of the statutory committees. Municipal bodies
election results to administer the Oath also appoint special sub committees for
of office and to hold the election of the certain specific purposes and follow the

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same procedure for their election as it municipal staff, and bringing to the notice of
adopts the constitution of standing sub the appropriate administrative head or to raise
committees. the matter in the council meetings. The powers
and responsibilities of municipalities are
A Municipal Council elects enshrined in the Twelfth Schedule of the
its President from amongst members Constitution. (See Box-2)
within one month of the constitution
of Municipal Council. The Municipal ACTIVITY
Council is constituted after elections
are held. The President is elected for a Examine why local governments
period of 5 years. The Municipal Council have been entrusted with the very
also elects one or two Vice- Presidents. important responsibilities provided
The Presidents of the municipalities in in the 11th and 12th Schedule of the
various states draw monthly salary in Constitution.
addition to travelling allowance . The
President convenes and presides over The 74th Constitutional Amendment
the meeting of the Municipal Council. He provided the constitution of committee
/ She is empowered to take disciplinary for district planning, to prepare a draft
action against offending councilors. The development plan for the district as a
President is the chief spokesperson of the whole. The Committee shall consolidate
Municipal Council and represents it at the plans prepared by the panchayats
official functions and also with regard to and municipalities in the district. The
correspondence with the government. composition of the District Planning
Committee as provided in the Act of 1992,
The state government in every consists of that not less than 4/5th of the
municipality appoints an Executive total members of the committee. They
Officer. The Executive Officer is the shall be elected by and from amongst the
principal executive authority and all elected members of the Panchayats at the
municipal staff is sub-ordinate to him/ district level and of the municipalities
her. He/ She is the important officer to in the district, in proportion to the ratio
execute, supervise monitor and report between the population of the rural areas
the activities of the Municipalities to and of the urban areas in the district.
the council. The Municipal Council is
the governing body of the Municipality, The Municipalities have been
responsible for Municipal Administration. provided with the power to raise revenue
It makes by laws the governing place and for discharging its duties and performing
time of council meetings, the manner of its functions such as the taxes, duties and
giving notices, the conduct of meetings. fees which could be levied and collected
by the Municipalities (For example: tax
The councilors are expected to keep on lands and buildings, scavenging tax
themselves in touch with the citizens and on octroi, a tax on advertisements, a fire
enquire about their grievances against tax, toll on roads and bridges etc) the 74th

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Box No-2 : Twelfth Schedule of the constitution: Powers and


Responsibilities of Municipalities
Subject

Urban Planning including


  town Slum improvement and up gradation
 
planning
Urban poverty alleviation
 
Regulation of land use
  and
Provision of urban amenities and
 
construction of buildings
facilities such as parks, gardens and
Planning for economic and social
  play grounds
development
Promotion of cultural, educational
 
Roads and Bridges
  and aesthetic aspects
Water supply for domestic purposes,
  Burials and burial grounds,
 
cremations, cremation grounds and
Public
  Health, sanitation
electric crematoriums
conservancy, and solid waste
management Cattle ponds, prevention of cruelty
 
to animals
Fire services
 
Vital statistics including registration
 
Urban forestry, protection of the
 
of births and deaths
environment, and promotion of
ecological aspects Public amenities including street
 
lighting , parking, bus stops and
Safeguarding the interests of weaker
 
public conveniences
sections of society, including the
handicapped and mentally retarded Regulation of slaughter houses and
 
tanneries

Amendment Act made it obligatory for (ii) Allocation of share of such proceeds
the state governments to Constitute State between the municipalities at all
Finance Commission within one year levels in the states;
from the commencement of Act. (iii) 
Determination of taxes, duties
The State Finance Commission shall make tolls and fees to be assigned or
recommendations regarding: appropriated by the municipalities;

(i) 
Distribution between the state (iv) G
 rants-in-aid to fund the state;
government and municipalities of (v) 
Measures needed to improve
the net proceeds of taxes, duties, the financial position of the
tolls and fees to be assigned or municipalities.
appropriated by the state;
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However in practice, the principle of management of local affairs


Municipalities in our country undertake by the representatives of the people of
only such functions which have been the city concerned, who are to be elected
specifically assigned to them by respective periodically on the basis of universal
state legislative enactments. This adult franchise with reservation of seats
restrictive approach to municipal for SCs and STs in proportion to their
functions no longer and holds good in the population and also for women. The
changed political context and needs of the Municipal Corporation is marked by
country. There has been increasing statutory separation of deliberative and
tendency on the part of the state executive wings.
government to take over more and more
local functions either directly or by The Corporation Council and
creating special purpose agencies. the Standing Committees Constituted
the deliberative wing and the executive
ACTIVITY wing. The Council, consisting of elected
representatives and a few nominated
Imagine a city’s commercial area. members, is responsible for the exercise
The footpaths on either side of the road of legislative powers. The Standing
have trees, vendors, junction boxes, Committees function as an auxiliary
electricity poles and parked vehicles of the Corporations. All the matters to
too. With the lack of space, people walk be passed by the council pass through
on the road instead of the foot path. it after it considers the proposals
Can you give suggestions to local self- and recommendation made by the
government institutions/ corporation Municipal Commissioner. The Municipal
to make public facilities accessible to all Commissioner is the chief executive and
in not more than 200 words. implementing the decisions taken by the
council.
Municipal Corporations
Municipal Corporations in India
The Municipal Corporations are generally structured on the pattern of
constitute the highest or the top most Bombay Municipal Corporation. The
form of urban local government in India. tenure of the Municipal Corporation is 5
They are created for big cities by the years. The 74th Amendment provides
enactments of the State Legislatures or wards committees, which shall be
of the Parliament in the case of Union considered for one or more wards within
Territory. The various categories of the the territorial areas of the Corporation.
cities are determined by its population, The chairperson shall be elected for one
area or revenues. Municipal Corporations year and shall be eligible for re - election.
in the early period were established in A ward committee supervises provision
three Presidency towns viz; Bombay, of water supply, pipes and sewage,
Madras and Calcutta. A Municipal drainage connections to premises
Corporation is based on the democratic removal of accumulated water on streets

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or public places due to rain or other, from amongst the members. The Mayor
collection and removal of solid waste, shall be the chairperson of the Standing
provision of health immunization, services Committee. The Municipal Corporation
for the civic services in slum and lighting, also constitutes committees to deal with
repair of roads, maintenance parks drains subject matters such as water supply,
and etc.,. sewage etc.,. Each subject committee
shall consist of not less than three and not
A Municipal Corporation shall have more than five members.
a Standing Committee constituted by it,
consisting of Mayor, the senior deputy The term of the subject committees
Mayor and other councilors elected is one year. The Municipal Corporations
by the councilors of the Corporation have been provided with financial
resources to carry out its duties assigned
ACTIVITY

Pune Tops In Urban Governance, Bengaluru Worst, Finds Survey


Top Five Cities

Top Five Cities Ranking Bottom Five Cities Ranking


Pune 5.1 Chennai 3.3
Kolkata 4.6 Patna 3.3
Thiruvanathapuram 4.6 Dehradun 3.1
Bhubaneswar 4.6 Chandigarh 3.1
Surat 4.5 Bengaluru 3.0
Ranking of cities out of 10
Cities Face Five Systemic Challenges
A. Lack of modern contemporary framework of spatial planning of Cities and
design standards for public utilities such as roads, footpaths, bus stops and other
underground utilities.
B. Weak finances, both in terms of financial sustainability and Financial accountability
of cities.
C. Poor Human Resource Management, in terms of number of staff, Skills and
competencies of staff, organization design among others.
D. Powerless mayors and city councils and severe fragmentation of Governance across
municipalities, parastatal agencies and state departments.
E. Total absence of platforms for systematic citizen participation and lack of
transparency in finances and operations of cities.
Source : Annual Survey of India’s City Systems (ASICS)
Courtesy : The New Indian Express, 15.3.2018.

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to it by the 74th Amendment. A list of 18 can be extended by the state government.


functions to be performed by Municipal He/she is one of the statutory municipal
Corporations has been given in the 12th authorities to carry out the provisions of
Schedule of the Constitution. Like the 73rd the Corporation Act.
Amendment Act, the 74th Amendment Act
12.7 The case of Tamilnadu
also provided for a committee planning
metropolitan area. The Tamilnadu State Election
Commission established under the 73rd
The Committee consists of not less
and 74th Constitutional Amendments,
than 2/3rd of the members who shall be
gives a brief account of the status of local
elected by and from the elected members
government in the state of Tamilnadu.
of the Municipalities and chairpersons of
the panchayats in the metropolitan area As stated by the Tamilnadu State
in proportion to the ratio between the Election Commission, under the 73rd
population of Municipalities and of the Constitutional Amendment Act (Rural
Panchayats in that area. Local Bodies) the government of
Tamilnadu as a constitutional obligation
All Municipal Corporations are
has taken into account important points
provided with the office of the Mayor
including: formation of Gram Sabha in
and Deputy Mayor. Mayor in some states
every village with powers of general
are directly elected by all the voters with
supervision over the elected village
in the metro city. In some states, Mayor
Panchayat and the power to grant approval
is elected from amongst the elected
to the annual plans of the Panchayats;
councilors. The Mayor presides over
formation of three tier Panchayats i.e.,
council meetings, guide its deliberations
District Panchayats, Panchayat Unions
to maintain decorum and exclude any
and Village Panchayats made obligatory;
objectionable portion from the record
reservation of seats for weaker sections of
of the proceedings of the council. He/
society like SCs, STs and Women; powers
She is also empowered to expel and even
to impose taxes and provision for grants ,
suspend members for gross misconduct
assignments etc., from government funds
or disorderly behaviour. In case of a tie
through constitution of a State Finance
he/she exercises his /her casting vote.
Commission.
The Municipal Commissioner
is the chief executive officer of the ACTIVITY
Corporation. Normally the commissioner
is being appointed from officers in I.A.S Students are divide into, as many
(Indian Administrative Service) cadre. groups as needed to visit nearby
The commissioner’s appointment vested local body office for understanding
in the state government, has been a the problems of the local bodies.
subject of great controversy. The term of
the commissioner is three years, which

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Urban Local Governments


The State of Tamilnadu has 12,564
As far as urban local bodies are
village panchayats, 388 panchayat
concerned, the 74th Constitutional
unions and 31 district panchayats.
Amendment Act, paved the way for
setting up urban local bodies in various
Under the 74th Constitutional states. Elections were held to the rural and
Amendment Act, devolution of more urban local bodies in Tamilnadu in 1996,
functions and taxing powers; revenue 2001, 2006 and 2011.
sharing with state governments; regular
conduct of elections; reservation of seats 12.8 Contemporary Issues
for SCs and STs and for women; uniform
composition of the urban bodies There are many issues which are
throughout the country were provided. highlighted by the experts in the field of
local governance from time to time. The
Following 73rd constitutional main issues brought out by the experts
amendment the Tamilnadu Panchayats are provided in the following section.
Act was passed in 1994, which replaced First there is considerable expansion in
the earlier Tamilnadu Panchayats Act, responsibilities of local governments,
1958. The Tamilnadu Panchayats Act, which were previously state government
1994 was amended in 1996. The Act of responsibilities.
1996 provided as far as Panchayats are
concerned : to plan for their developmental Taking into account the capacities of
needs, constitution of District Planning the levels of government and the line of
Committee; constitution of State Election control, throughout government apparatus
Commission and constitution of State should be considered and reclassification
Finance Commission. In the first elections of list is needed. Second, maintenance of
under the 1994 Act, 1,17,000 village courts is also an important issue,
representatives were elected for the three where the policing is state wise centralized,
different tiers of local government across which can not entrusted practically to the
Tamilnadu. local governments.

ACTIVITY Third, urban local bodies are entrusted


with many functions out of which many
 Do you feel that local governments of them are connection with the state
are the channels of development in government departments.
your area? In sum, the 73rd and 74th
Constitutional Amendment Acts brought
 What is your assessment of the
reforms in local government in India. The
functioning of the local government
rural and urban local bodies prior to the
in your area? Give a report card to
reforms were the creation of the British.
your teacher.
Many new and innovative changes were
brought in the amendments. So far only
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Glossary
Panchayati Raj (1959 – 2009)

The Tamilnadu Municipal Laws Municipal Corporation: Municipal


(Fourth Amendment) Bill, 2018 and Corporation is the legal term for a local
the Tamilnadu Panchayats (Second governing body. A Municipal Corporation
Amendment) Bill, 2018 – for extending or city corporation is a local government
the tenure of the special officers of in India that administers urban areas with
the urban and rural local bodies for a a population of more than one million.
period of six more months.
Municipality: A Municipality is usually
a single urban or administrative division
18 states in India have ratified or approved having corporate status and powers of
the amendments in their legislative self-government or jurisdiction as granted
assemblies, which is required as per the by national and state laws to which it is
law. In addition, many state government subordinate.
even after enacting the amendments and
ratified them, have not put in to operation Cantonment Board: A Cantonment
many provisions, because of the issues Board is a civic administration body in
mentioned above. Unless these issues are India under the control of the Ministry
resolved, the objectives for which the 73rd of Defence. The Board comprises elected
and 74th amendments were made, could members besides ex-officio and nominated
not realized. members as per the Cantonments Act,
2006.
ACTIVITY
Town Panchayat: A town panchayat is
Take some leading dailies and a small town of approximately 20,000 to
collect information about the local 25,000 inhabitants. It is formed under the
issues published in the paper, and panchayati raj administrative system.
among the class students, try to evolve
some solution to the issues. Panchayati Raj: Panchayati Raj generally
refers to the system of local self-
government in India introduced by a
Constitutional Amendment in 1992,
There are 12 Municipal
Corporations, 148 Municipalities and Gram Sabha: Gram Sabha is a body
561 Town Panchayats in Tamilnadu as consisting of all persons whose names
urban local bodies. are included in the electoral rolls for the
Panchayat at the village level.

Mayor: Mayor is a person who is elected


or chosen to lead the group who governs
a town or city
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Ward: A ward is a local authority area, Councillor: A member of a council


typically used for electoral purposes.
Dyarchy: Government by two independent
Nagar Palika: In India, Nagar Palika, is an authorities (especially in India 1919–35).
urban local body that administers a city of
population 100,000 or more

Evaluation

I Choose the correct answer:

1. When was the Madras (Chennai) Municipal Corporation established ?

(a)1870 (b)1882
(c)1687 (d)1992
2. When was the Lord Rippon’s Resolution adopted ?
(a)1992 (b)1858
(c) 1882 (d) 1870
3. The dyarchy system was established for the first time under
(a) Government of India Act, 1909 (b) Government of India Act, 1919
(c) Government of India Act, 1935 (d) Government of India Act, 1958

4. The Nagarpalika Bill was passed in the year


(a) 1989 (b) 1990
(c) 1991 (d) 1992

5. W
 hat is the percentage of reservation of seats in local bodies for women under 73rd
and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts?
(a) 45 (b) 50
(c) P
 roportionate to the percentage of (d) 20
population of women in the constituencies

6. State Finance Commission is the organ responsible for


(a) R
 ecommend to the state government about sharing of taxes between state and
the local bodies
(b) Recommend to the state governor on the issue of elections
(c) R
 ecommend to the President of India on issues connected with financial
emergencies
(d) R
 ecommend to the chief Minister about the law and financial situations in the
state
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7. District Planning Committee is provided under


(a) 93rd Constitutional Amendment Act
(b) 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act
(c) 89th Constitutional Amendment Act
(d) 94th Constitutional Amendment Act

8. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana is a programme


(a) To provide employment guarantee
(b) To get loan from Public sector banks
(c) To construct housing units
(d) To get employment abroad

9. The Delhi Development Authority (DDA) was set up on 30 December 1957 under
(a) An act of Delhi Assembly
(b) An executive order of the President of India
(c) An Act of the Parliament
(d) The order of the Leivtenant Governor of Delhi.

10. W
 hich of the following election has no place for political parties?
(a) Municipal Corporation Mayor Election
(b) Municipal Council Election
(c) Panchayat President and Panchayat Ward Member Election
(d) District Councillor Election

11. who is considered as the father of Local self Government in India ?


(a) Lord Mayo (b) Robert Clive
(c) Warren Hastings (d) Lord Rippon

12. Who conducts Local body elections in states?


(a) State Election commission (b) Election commission of India
(c) Chief election commissioner (d) The State Government

13.which are the Articles in the Constitution of India that deals with Local Government?
(a) Art. 40, Art. 243 to 243 O , Art. 243 p to 243 ZG
(b) Art. 300, Art. 300A
(c) Art. 3A , Art. 43 A
(d) Art. 31 , Art. 117 (1)

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14. Arrange the Three tier Panchayati Raj System as per the Constitutional Provisions
(a) Village Panchayat – Intermediate Panchayat – District Panchayat
(b) Panchayat Union – District Panchayat – Village Panchayat
(c) District Panchayat – village Panchayat – Intermediate Pachayat
(d) V
 illage Panchayat – Town Panchayat – District Pachayat – Intermediate
Panchayat

15. A
 ssertion: 73rd Amendment Act brought rural local bodies
Reason: Democracy reached grass root level through local governments
Directions: Given below are two statements labelled as Assertion (A) and Reason (R)
in the context of the two statements, which of the following is correct?
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

II Answer the following questions very shortly

16. What is the lowest unit of the Panchayati Raj system in Tamilnadu?
17. What are the days the Gram Sabha meets in a year?
18. What is the term of office of a Mayor of Municipal Corporation.
19. Describe the powers and functions of the State Finance Commission.
20. Does the local bodies in Russia have any executive powers to do anything?
21. Which committee recommended the establishment of Panchayati Raj
Institutions?
22. What are the sources of revenue of a village Panchayats?
23. Give at least two reasons for the need for the PRI institutions in India?
24. How many municipal corporations are there in the state of TamilNadu?
25. Who is levying and collecting Entertainment Tax?

III Answer the following questions shortly


26. Give at least three salient features of the PRI.
27. Define an urban area
28. Explain the concept of local self government
29. What are the main problems of big cities in India ?
30. Explain the organization of Mahasabhas.
31. What were the major changes brought by the British in local administration?
32. Explain that functions of the Metropolitan Planning committee.

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IV Answer the following questions in detail


33. Explain the system of Panchayati Raj in India .
34. Describe the functions and powers of the Mayor of a Municipal corporation
35. Write a short note on the State Election Commission.
36. Trace the developments in Local governments in India after passing of the 73rd
and 74th Constitutional Amendments.
37. Trace the origin of the local self government in India

Reference

1. Basu, Durga Das., 2013. Introduction to the constitution of India.


2. Pardeep Sachdeva. 2011. Local Government in India. Delhi: Pearson.
3. Burton Stein. 1994. Peasant State and society in medieval south India. Oxford and
New York : Oxford University Press.
4. Nirvikar Singh . 1997. Issues in local government in India. Department of Economics,
University of California.
5. TamilNadu social development Report 2000.
6. International Scientific Researchers (ISR) 2012. Local Government system in
South Africa. International Advances in Engineering and Technology (IAET).
ISSN: 000.0000 Vol.9 September 2012

Internet Sources

 TamilNadu State Election commission. Introduction.


http://tnsec.tn.nic.in/about_us/introduction.html
 Wikipedia . Local Bodies in TamilNadu.
https://wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_bodies_in_Tamil Nadu
 Http://www.cssforum.com.pk/cssaccessed on 1/16/2018\
 Copy right material : enquiries to Jeffrey Hays ajhays@yahoo.com
 TamilNadu state election commission,
http://www.tnsec.tn.in/about_us/introduction.html

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ICT CORNER

Unit-12 Local Government

Let us learn about the


villages in Tamil Nadu.

Steps Local Government

1. Click the URL or scan the QR code to launch the “Village maps” page and learn
the name of the districts and number of villages in the district.
2. “Click any “district” (For Example: Cuddalore) to know the sub districts of the
district and number of villages in it and click the “Map” on the right side to
have satellite view.
3. Click any “Sub-District” (For Example:Virudhachalam) to know the number of
villages pertaining to the sub district and click the “Map” on the right side to
have satellite view.
4. Click any “village” (For Example:Nallur) to know the map of the village.

Step 1 Step 3

Step 2 Step 4

Download Link
*Pictures are indicative only.
*If browser requires, allow Flash Player or Java Script to load the
page.
URL: http://villagemap.in/tamil-nadu.html

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UNIT

13 Social Justice

Introduction
Until the late 20th century, most philosophical discussions
of justice and equality were limited in scope to a single society.
Even Rawls’s theory of justice, for example, had nothing to say
about the distribution of wealth between societies. In the 1990s
philosophers began to think about the moral implications of
the vast inequality in wealth between the leading industrialized
countries and the countries of the developing world, some
of which were afflicted with widespread famine and disease.
The German-born philosopher Thomas Pogge argued that
affluent countries are responsible for increasing the poverty of
developing countries and thus for causing millions of deaths
annually.

Learning Objectives

This Social Justice chapter – Provides insights into

 S everal dimensions of the concept  T


 he concept/political principle
of Social Justice of Affirmative Action/Positive
 S ignificance of Social Justice Discrimination.

 T
 he meaning and importance of  C
 aste discrimination and its
distributive justice. -Impact of consequences
Social hierarchy  E
 galitarian society
 J ohn Rawls perspective of fair and  R
 eservation policy and its essentiality
just society
 G
 overnment’s role in upliftment
 S ocial Justice Movements in Tamil
Nadu.  P
 rivileges and its impact

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13. 1 What do you mean by Social Justice? to capture the power sector. Among
different communities in a plural society,
The negative values which are
dominance of a single group is considered
made by the society results in inequality
as unfair and unjust. The dominant groups
and cleavation among people. Gender
activate racial, religious, caste, lingual and
inequality may be quite natural, if looked
cultural feelings and intend to misuse the
upon superficially. All along the centuries,
social rights of other groups that may end
women were subjugated and exploited
in permanent hostility between different
without an opportunity which portrays
groups. The struggle that is undertaken
them as weaker section. The negative
by the weaker groups in order to react for
attitude against blacks of Africa belongs to
establishing equal society is known to be
same category which is mentioned in the
Social Justice.
previous lines. Blacks were discouraged
and kept aside as knowledge less. This Background of Social Hierarchy
situation continued for many centuries and
The ancient Indian civilization had
factualised against the black community.
evolved with the “Varnashrama Dharma”
Same situation prevails also in India.
which kick-started the principle of
Many people were refused opportunities
hierarchy i.e. Upper and Lower strata. The
on the basis of caste and it is believed as
Varna system is also called as “Four Varna
natural one in the society. Every action
System” by which people were divided as
and reaction is fudged one in our country.
Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vysyas and Shudras.
Power as a demon spread its tentacles in
all the sphere of the society, as stated by This division on the
so many experts and exponents. Social basis of birth has been
power is the dominant phenomenon inculcated and socialized
which leads to cut-throat competition and along different phases of
ends in absolute control of the subjects. It civilization from which
is in order to protect the social identity, inequalities surfaced in
the dominant communities endeavor the society.

Race, religion and lingual minorities UN proclamation – December 18, 1992.


Salient Features
1. All minorities are having equal right without any discrimination and intervention
to exercise their freedom in following hereditary values, to cling with religion, to
propagate and to use their language.
2. All minorities can make their own organization and are having every right to
maintain it.
3. Minorities should have right to upgrade their knowledge related with their history,
conventions, language and other hereditary values. They should also be provided
with opportunity to learn about entire society to which they belong to.
4. This declaration may not affect the basic freedom which is stipulated in the existing
rights declaration.

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Article 15 (4) of Indian Constitution different groups of religion, race and other
factors can live with their social identity,
Article 29 (2) may not act as an
tolerance and shared power.
obstacle in making special policy decisions
for socially and educationally backward Economic condition and status
communities or SC/ST people. is one among the reason for the wedge
created in the European society. Whereas
Article 16 (4) of Indian Constitution in India, the division is on the basis of
This will not prevent any sort of purusasvktha of Rigveda and particularly
appointment or reservation among Four Varna System.
backward communities, if sufficient
This Varna System prevents
representation is not provided. India is a
individuals from their exercise of rights
sub-tropical, sub-continent with varied
and values. Indian Constitution in this
geographical atmosphere. People speak
regard is implementing all its supervisory
different languages and follow unique
mechanisms and also is delivering
hereditary values. Albeit of these factors,
distributive justice which is the motto
inequality is existing due to the Varna
of the largest democracy. This justice
System. It is in order to advance and
intended to weed out the caste distinction
develop the socio-economic conditions
(Varna System) and to establish equal
of the downtrodden communities; Indian
society in India.
Constitution is having its ideal guidelines
with strong structural foundation. The democratic values in Indian
Constitution protects and delegate power
According to Indian Constitution, to all the people equally to develop
States which are having low technological themselves in the socio-economic sectors.
development or inadequate natural Sticking on with this constitutional
resources can make their own special provisions may lead to social development
policies for holistic advancement. In and further give place for social freedom
accordance with the existing constitutional and justice. Hence, vibrant social justice
provisions, the downtrodden and in India protects National Integration
underprivileged communities were from which distributive justice and
provided with special laws and privileges democratic values are concretized.
in all the states.
DEBATE
Ideas like all inclusive development
and self-sufficient societal growth highly
Democracy is being
hinges upon social justice along with
misunderstood as in terms of numbers,
special arrangements for the marginalized
votes or the reflection of majority. All-
sections. Equal opportunity is the process
inclusive representation is the new
and social arrangement by which social
thought which is growing in the society.
democracy can sustain and pluralism
Democracy succeeds successfully only
will be strengthened. In such a society
in the all inclusive system.
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In such a democratic atmosphere,


the fabric of ‘plurality’ will be generated.
Plural thinking and all-inclusive
representations are considered as bed
rock of Indian Democracy.

I3.2 Equality is essential for Social


Justice
People accept equality as an essential We give our voice for justice. First let
phenomenon but still inequality and us understand what we accept and which
discrimination are serving as distributing we refuse. If a person is treated with great
factors. Inequality prevails in almost respect on the basis of his caste, language
all spheres like opportunities, comforts or race, we may not tolerate the reputation.
and working atmosphere. This kind If a person wants to achieve in a field like
of inequality and discrimination are music and if he is denied opportunity on
permanent and unavoidable in our life, the basis of caste, religion, gender and
is it so? What we are going to do for the race that is injustice. Why this kind of
people, who do not have opportunities to discrimination and divisive tendencies
work for the development of our nation? exist?
How far cultural values are responsible for
ACTIVITY
this kind of inequality.
Visit a nearby building
This is not only happening in India,
construction site and check whether
but also at global level which creates stir
different wages are given to male and
in the minds of the people. It is for this
female workers for the same job?
reason, social equality stood in primary
place in the Socio-political principles. We have to understand the reasons.
Equality as a principle indicates what? If opportunity is denied along with social
What do you mean by “equal society”. identity, that is absolute injustice in a
How do we assure equality? With that society. This creates inequality among
assurance, what we are going to achieve? the people. Regardless of caste, gender,
Do we try to resolve inequality only in our religion and other differences, people
income? What type of equality has to be should be provided with appropriate
established? To whom we have to provide opportunities to prove their talent and
equality? capacities in the individual life. In socio-
political theories, the distinction between
Need of special privileges the difference among individual and
If poor children were not provided socio-cultural differences exiting among
with adequate education and proper them is considered as an important
health care, we are raising hue and cry. aspect. Individuals should receive respect
and reputation on the basis of their
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achievements and talents. It should 13.3 Just Distribution


not be on the basis of social identities.
When we agreed to the idea that
Inequalities and discriminatory practices
different people in a society must be treated
which prevail in the society are artificial
differently, the subsequent question
and are known as prejudices.
would be who and how we can ensure the
Justice. Governments can and will enact
ACTIVITY laws to facilitate the just distribution of
resources to individuals with in a society.
Extended Learning Laws simply pave the way for the fair
distribution of resources. Law enforcing
agencies may have to monitor the process
of the distribution itself. This is the ideal
situation.

Visit Frontline magazine website


and read the article by Nobel Laureate
Amartya Sen. His thought-provoking
essay entitled Many Faces of Gender
A country like ours where socio-
Inequality highlighted seven types of
cultural inequalities are well entrenched,
inequality. They are:
a law for fair distribution will not
1. Mortality inequality automatically ensure just distribution
2. Natality inequality of resources. Governments will have to
3. Basic facility inequality ensure a level playing field in order to
4. Special opportunity inequality establish Justice. In other words, before
the law brings us together, people should
5. Professional inequality
enjoy some basic equality of life conditions
6. Ownership inequality and opportunities. This attempt to create
7. Household inequality a level playing field must be seen as a
In his essay, which is based on necessary condition for each person to
the text of his inaugural lecture for pursue his/her objectives in life. Since our
the Radcliffe Institute at Harvard constitution has abolished untouchability
University, Professor Sen takes a and other caste based discriminatory
comprehensive and deeply concerned practices, both the State and the legislature
look at the “many faces of gender would have to ensure the creation of such
inequality.” After reading this essay a level playing field. Thus, the government
share your views in the classroom. which swears in the name of protecting

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our constitution has the obligation of This clearly conveys the meaning
ensuring one of the finest promises of our of what is the aim of providing equal
constitution itself – bringing in equality opportunity. When modern education
to our society. Therefore, it is legal, becomes the most significant resource
constitutional and moral on the part of and employment in government sector
the government to create a level playing remains a major source of livelihood,
ground for all its citizens especially those the concept of level playing ground or
who have been historically denied basic equal opportunity was advocated and
rights. subsequently this idea became an integral
part of our constitutional apparatus.
This level playing field or what we
popularly call ‘equal opportunity’ must There are several opinions in this
not be treated either as charity or as regard. How should we distribute the
philanthropic gesture of the government. resources and ensure equal opportunity/
It is the obligation on the part of the fair access to education and jobs to all
government to treat people differently in especially to the disadvantaged groups.
order to ensure Justice; more importantly Many especially people from the so called
it is a fundamental right enshrined in the upper echelon of the society tend to think
constitution for disadvantaged people to of treating people differently in order
seek legal, constitutional remedy. to ensure just distribution effectively
Similarly, level playing ground is aimed at amounts to discrimination. This opinion
creating equal opportunity only in slowly and steadily invokes strong passion
education and employment opportunities and at times results in violence too. The
for the disadvantaged communities. In fear of losing educational and employment
many realms of our everyday lives, there is opportunities among the privileged
virtually no demand from the marginalized communities was steadily growing as
sections to provide a level playing ground. the government planned to ‘reserve’
seats for people from marginalized and
underprivileged communities as part of
DEBATE its equal opportunity plan.
The idea of ‘merit’ would be
 Do people ask the Government invoked by the privileged sections of
to provide a level playing field in our country to argue that any attempt
sports? to ‘reserve’ seats for the underprivileged
people would strongly damage merit
 Does anyone seek similar
based output of our education system;
intervention from the government
thus it would subsequently affect the
in Private sectors, Armed forces?
professional abilities of the candidates.
 Does anyone demand that people But as students of political theory, we
must be treated differently in our must be able to dispassionately examine
criminal procedural system? the issues involved in our quest to
understand Justice. Do you first of all
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agree that some interventions are required B. Common Ownership Theories 


to help the marginalized, underprivileged These theorists argue that a fair
people? What would be the outcome if the distribution means each person in the
privileged section retains all the resources initial stages must have the same amount of
including education and employment land or other valuable resources. It clearly
opportunities with themselves even after means there are no major differences in
we become an independent country and terms of an individual’s preferences and
a republic? Should we opt for an inclusive abilities. All individuals are endowed with
nation or an exclusive mob? What kind equal amount of abilities. Therefore, by
of social Justice we would eventually ensuring common ownership of resources,
emulate? we can bring in substantial Justice.
13.4 Distributive Justice and Retributive
Justice C. Entitlements Theory

The substantial point of debate while It defines just distribution when land
studying the concept of Justice would be or any other resources disbursed must be
how the resources would be distributed historically justified. Individuals who have
to all section of the society. In order to never had the ownership of land or other
understand this point more clearly let us resources can appropriate it by voluntary
dwell upon a few important perspectives transfer between and among themselves.
on the issue of Justice. In conventional Transfer of resources, for them, must be
understanding of politics, there are a few absolutely voluntary.
major theories of Justice being discussed
All these perspectives as it is evident from
at length. Equality of Resources, Common
the brief description do focus on both
Ownership theories and Entitlements are
resources and human ability. Resources
often referred while discussing Justice.
could be for example, land as well as
A. Equality of Resources knowledge; human ability also plays a
vital role for some theorists. There is a
This perspective defines distribution
grand consensus that Justice in a society is
of resources to be just; that is to say, if
possible only when it becomes distributive
every individual has the same effective
rather than retributive. How do we define
resources that amounts to Justice. If, for
retributive justice?
some given work, each person obtains the
same amount of wage or reward, that is D. Retributive Justice
how we must realize Justice. If inequality
exists it is singularly the result of individual The concept of retributive justice is
choices – to be a productive earner or to often invoked in several contexts. One can
be a person of leisure. This perspective understand the framework of this form of
effectively rejects self-ownership and justice by following certain principles.
resource ownership but strongly advocates
only responsibilities and obligations. i). Those who have committed wrongful
acts, serious crimes do deserve harsh

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punishment quite proportionate to in our Indian context to realize the spirit


their crime. of Justice. Of all these perspectives, the
framework offered by John Rawls stands
ii). It is morally good; when the legitimate
out as a significant one; let’s study the vital
punisher gives the culprit a stern
aspects of his theory.
punishment what that person deserves;
no matter whether the punitive action 13.5 John Rawls Theory of Justice
against wrong doers is compared
with others or not, the punishment is John Rawls is considered as one of
necessary as moral good. the finest political philosophers of 20th
century. He developed the theory of
iii). 
It does not encourage punishing Justice based on the paradigm called
the innocent intentionally and Justice as Fairness. His framework treats
also disapproves inflicting large all personal attributes as being morally
punishments on wrongdoers arbitrary; therefore Justice for him
disproportionately. demands equality. For him ‘all social
values including liberty, opportunity,
Even though, the idea of retributive income, wealth, self-respect are to be
justice played vital role in theorizing distributed equally. In other words,
punishment and Justice for some time, injustice is ‘simply inequalities that not to
some of its pivotal features such as the benefit of all’. If/when any action/
proportionality, normative status of attribute of an individual that does not
suffering and the ultimate justification for benefit all actually signifies inequality and
retribution become highly contentious. unfair/unjust character of a society. This
perspective compels us to have a more
In a country like India, there are a few
comprehensive understanding of Justice
who tacitly approve violence as a mean to
itself. Let’s see what he says about Justice.
achieve and establish Justice by advocating
retributive justice for many wrong acts.
Impotant works of John Rawls
This is highly untenable proposition in
modern context. Retributive justice as a
 Theory of Justice - 1971
modes operandi to establish justice was  Die Idee Des Politischen
firmly rejected in our constitution itself. liberalismus - 1993
The architects of our constitution firmly  J ustice as fairness - 1985
believed that violent methods will not  The law of People - 1993
bring in peaceful and enduring solutions
to our problems nor does it establish Just think of a moment when you
sustainable Justice in our society. are asked to imagine a new society. It is
obvious many would construct a society
Our intention is to introduce
in which they would place themselves
several perspectives on Justice to you. In
with all power/authority and privileges.
the process, we must also realize which
Do you think that anyone will imagine
perspective would be very appropriate
themselves in a pitiable situation? Most
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likely no one would do that? Why? It is not exactly who he/she would be and what is
possible also to imagine people sacrificing going to benefit him/her. Each one of us
their personal ambitions and self-interest will imagine the future society from the
in a new society. People will immediately point of view of the worst off. We usually
think of their children and their grand tend to place ourselves with all privileges
children’s welfare. Why would people and entitlements. Now in the new
sacrifice the well-being of themselves imagined society, we really do not know
and their children? You may wonder how where and what we will be. In such a
this simple question would be the basis situation, what strikes people is, what if we
for John Rawls theory of Justice. There unfortunately are born in a disadvantaged
are strong foundations for this simple section of the society with a few or very
question and its plausible answer. minimal opportunities? Suddenly, we
try to create new system in which even
John Rawls tries to find out an answer persons from the most marginalized
for this question. He offers a hypothetical sections get reasonable opportunities and
situation for us to imagine. Yes, let’s resources.
imagine ourselves to be in a situation in
which we have to make decisions about Even though this is a moment of
how society should be organized although departure, it is not so easy to erase our
we do not know which position we would identities and think/imagine oneself under
ourselves occupy in that society. We may a veil of ignorance. Similarly, it is not easy
not know which family we would be born to expect people to be self sacrificing and
in and similarly no knowledge about our share their good future with unknown
caste, class, religion, gender and region people. However, the merit of the ‘veil
etc. Here Rawls argues that if we do not of ignorance’ framework is that it expects
know where we will be and what options people to just be their usual rational selves;
would be available for us in the future they are expected to think for themselves
society, we will most likely support a and choose what they regard to be in their
decision on the rules and organizations of interest.
that future society which would be fair for
all members. When we are quite uncertain But what is more important here is
about our future, we like to facilitate an that by wearing an imagined veil of
order in which all members would get a ignorance is the first step towards arriving
fair deal. at a system of fair laws and policies. It
tries to latch its trust in the human agency
This moment Rawls describes as of rationality among people in
thinking under a ‘Veil of Ignorance’. We contemporary world. The ethics of reason
are ignorant about our possible position will create, for Rawls, a new political
and status in society; each person would structure in which people will think of
decide the way they generally do – trying polices not to optimize their self interests
to have optimum self interest in the new but rather envisage society as a whole.
society. But surprisingly no one knows This comprehensive and holistic

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perspective embedded in Rawls’ healthcare, education, nutritious food


framework makes it highly pertinent stuffs, minimum emoluments are the
while debating on Justice. That is to say, it basic needs to be provided to all without
would be in the interest of all sections of discrimination. Without these basic
the society as a whole must benefit from facilities, we may not call a society as
the policies and rules; not for an exclusive egalitarian one.
section of a society. Such fairness would
be the outcome of rational action not What are the main issues of our Nation?
benevolence or generosity. John Rawls Beliefs and practices on the basis of
theory premises upon the arrival of caste and religion are dastardly obstacles.
quintessential modern, rational beings to In many parts of India, the status of women
realize the spirit of Justice in our society; a is at lower level - education, employment,
society like ours wherein non-rational right to property are refused to women.
identities and sentiments play a major role If this situation extends and established
in organizing the society, may have to toil as our culture, a major catastrophe may
to truly understand the spirit of Justice as not be averted in India. If inequality and
emulated by John Rawls. discrimination is stamped as our cultural
value, the path of equality may be at cross
roads and cannot be attained at all.

Migrated people are also having Economic Equality


certain rights in the alien nations.
Economic equality can be
Refugees, migrated and exiled are also
identified by individual’s income and
exercising vital rights. The member
the value of property, he possess in a
nations of UN recognized those vital
society. Otherwise, the gap between
rights.
rich people community and poor may
indicate the status of economic equality.
13.6 Socio-Cultural Equality Further, by calculating number of people
In the diversified society, people under poverty line, we may draw strong
from different groups may practice their inferences and resolutions. This kind of
cultural values, habitual factors and identification is widespread among all
improve individual talents. For this to the nations. But certain discriminations
happen, equality in society is an essential on the basis of culture and historical cum
criterion. Every individual should be habitual practices, may create precarious
assured of fair opportunity in the society. issues in the concerned society. Radical
To a large extent, unequal atmosphere reformers during different phases of
should be wiped out for attaining liberal history, has made wide awareness about
society. these untoward and unethical happenings
to the people.
To put it in a nutshell, actions must
be taken at least to reduce the unequal "Humans respected on the basis of
circumstances. For instance, a good caste which he belongs to, is barbarian
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and anti-human thinking", exclaimed other benefit-less offices. They were not
E.V.Ramaswamy alias Periyar in permitted to occupy higher positions,
Tamilnadu. He out- rightly condemned because of their caste identity. Individuals
the cultural practices, habitual follow-ups and organization for the past centuries
and other so called values which refutes made onerous efforts to curb out in equal
equality in all its aspects. Periyar also was menace from the society.
against “Patriarchal Chauvinism” which
subjugated women all along the history. There some human communities
which needs special attention, since they
were totally ignored and exploited by the
DEBATE upper strata people.

Have a debate on State Intervention Truthful equality can be identified


and Free Market ? only in those rare occasions. Injustices
unleashed in the past must be identified
to know about what real or fair equality is.
That society is best which got rid
of caste, religion, gender and suppressive Reservation policy is a good initiative
habitual practices”, lamented Periyar. from the part of government in delivering
Modern society cannot be sanctified by equal justice. People, who were denied of
the people who cling towards the language education and employment opportunities
and discriminatory cultural practices. so far, were provided with reservation for
Apart from Periyar, various saints, seers uplifting the condition and status.
and philosophers took strenuous efforts
to have egalitarian society. People who Discriminatory practices which were
enjoyed all kind of privileges on the basis followed for long time in the historical
of dynasty, birth and descent so far has to phases may not be curbed out in a short
come to end. Determining an individual’s span. Expecting the change within one
capacity on accordance with the birth is or two generations is an utopian faith,
the primary and precarious feature of the stated researchers. If reforms happened
unequal society. in short time, it will be a good sign for the
development of the entire nation.
All are equal and individual’s
capacity, if decided on the basis of merit, Social Justice and Equality
is the first step towards equal society. So
far, number of modern nations refused to All civilizations were equipped with
provide voting rights for the poor people. the awareness of their practices. The
There are nations which restricts women accepted practices are “Dharma” and the
education and public offices in the 21st negative is “Adharma”. Those people who
century. breach these practices will be punished
by the king. Mistakes and related
In India, lower strata people are punishments are quite natural in all the
permitted to work only in the clerical and countries.

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First Commission for backward


community was established on 1953.
Kaka Kalelkar was the first head of
this Commission in Independent
India.
Greek philosopher Plato and his
disciples often debate and discuss about 13.7 Discrimination - Social Basis
justice and its practices. Discourses and Theory
teachings of Socrates consists of anti- As socio – psychologists describes,
justice people and their impact in the Human beings identify themselves as part
society. Justice and fairness may do only of their group. They felt prestigious and
good things in a society. energetic only when they are recognized
If justice do favour for certain as a part of their own group. What
individuals, that may not be considered discrimination means is that out grouping
and called as justice. Justice is all about their own members from the membership
the entire development and advancement of their group or ban their members
of a society. Fair justice is applicable from accessing natural resources. Indeed,
to all the people in a society, claimed wealth is an important matter. Someone
Socrates. We may infer from the above of the group’s eligibility and self – respect
said arguments that reservation is the fair indirectly defends of someone getting
justice provided to the people, who were wealth.
hitherto discriminated and exploited. Empirical studies confirm that
Proportional Justice persons with a low sense of social
recognition display more out-group
The social justice provided by our
devaluation and group-focused enmity
Indian Constitution to the depressed
based on an ideology of human inequality.
and downtrodden communities is a
Negative attitudes toward different out-
helping hand for their development and
groups (ethnic and religious minorities,
advancement. But how much and to whom
women, and people who are disabled or
are the major questions?
homeless) are strongly correlated with
Caste hierarchy is the primary reason each other, indicating the unspecific
for inequality in our nation. Hence on the nature of discrimination.
basis of the caste hierarchy, social justice
has to be maintained/must be maintained. 13.8 Affirmative Action
In categorization, we are having backward The principle of affirmative action
caste, most backward caste, scheduled is to promote societal equality through
caste and scheduled tribe for whom; the preferential treatment of socially
governments’ policies are distributed and economically disadvantaged people.
accordingly.
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Often, these people are disadvantaged for program in each executive department
historical reasons, such as oppression or and agency". In the U.S., affirmative
slavery. Support for affirmative action has action's basic purpose was to pressurize
sought to achieve a range of goals: bridging institutions into compliance with the
inequalities in employment and pay; nondiscrimination mandate of the Civil
increasing access to education; enriching Rights Act of 1964. Affirmation Action
state, institutional, and professional was extended to women in 1967.
leadership with the full spectrum of
society; redressing apparent past wrongs, United Nations
harms, or hindrances and in particular The International Convention on
addressing the apparent social imbalance the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
left in the wake of slavery and slave laws. Discrimination stipulates that affirmative
action programs may be required for all
For example, a 2017 study found that
countries that ratified the convention, in
affirmative action in the United States of
order to rectify systematic discrimination.
America "there is an increase in the share
It states, however, that such programs
of black employees over time: in 5 years
"shall in no case entail as a consequence
after an establishment is first regulated."
of unequal or separate rights for different
United States of America racial groups after the objectives are
achieved."
Though there were developments
in Liberty, Economy and Technology in The United Nations Human Rights
United States of America, still there were Committee states that "the principle of
sustained discrimination on the basis of equality sometimes requires State parties
colour till the later period of Twentieth to take affirmative action in order to
century. This raised Civil Rights agitations diminish or eliminate conditions which
there. cause or help to perpetuate discrimination
Following this Affirmation Action prohibited by the Covenant.
was introduced by John F.Kennedy in
Social Justice laws in South Africa
1960s in the United States of America.
This was called as Executive Order 10925. Following the transition to democracy
Through this order, Govt requested in 1994, South Africa chose to implement
the employers not to discriminate their affirmative action through legislations
employees or candidates on the basis of to correct previous imbalances. As such,
race, creed, colour, or national origin. all employers were compelled by law to
employ previously disenfranchised groups
This order was replaced by another (blacks, Indians, and Coloured). By this
order 11246 in the year 1965. By this the the companies employing more than 50
Federal Government commit "to promote people have to design and implement plans
the full realization of equal employment to improve the workforce demographics,
opportunity through a positive, continuing and report them to the Department of
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Labour. Employment Equity also forms British Empire. Laws like ‘Ryotwari’ were
part of a company's Black Economic made. Moreover, tax collecting system
Empowerment scorecard. Moreover, the was introduced. Further, military forces
Supreme Court has ruled that in principle were also instigated. In 1835, English was
blacks may be favoured. declared as official and administrative
language in India. Indians were appointed
China in the British Indian military forces.
China followed some sort of Majority of the people who joined in
affirmative action in education for military were non-Brahmins and deprived
minority nationalities. communities.

Russia
Quota systems existed in the USSR
for various social groups including ethnic
minorities, women and factory workers
for access to university education, offices
in the former Soviet union.

New Education – New Requisites


The educational system which we
had in Ancient India was discriminatory.
People were permitted to undergo
education on the basis of their own caste.
After the introduction of new education
system in modern India, the marginalized
communities are not allowed in the main Although colonial British regime
stream. appointed Indians in military forces, it
hesitated to permit Indian languages in the
In south India, new or modern educational institutions. This untoward
education was introduced by Christian situation remained same until the end of
missionaries of European nations. In the 19th century. People who are fluent in
the initial part of 19th century, British English were appointed in these services.
established more number of Christian Apart from the Europeans, Anglo- Indians
missionaries in many parts of India. and Brahmins were appointed in all
Many communities, who were denied government services.
educational opportunities, utilized the
choice for their development. Due to the establishment of
‘Jamindari’ and ‘Ryotwari’ system in the
13.9 Status in Madras Presidency initial part of 19th century, ‘Landlords’,
During the same period, Chennai ‘Zamindars’ and other dominant groups
presidency came under the direct rule of spearheaded in entire India. All the above

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said are “Caste Hindus”. “Caste Hindus” admission of children who belong to lower
domination in all villages greatly affected caste groups but the condition remains
the villages and particularly, the unchanged.
downtrodden communities were kept
Preferential Rights for the Downtrodden
aside from the lands in all villages of India.
In 1885, Madras Presidency
Government declared financial assistance
policies for the downtrodden communities
and also the government oriented new
schools for the lower caste people.
In the meantime, Tremancre,
collector of Chengalpet district submitted
a report on the downtrodden communities
of Chengalpet. Those excerpts are: People
In this connection, a British officer of downtrodden community were at low
‘Francis Ellis’ was appointed to submit the level in all aspects, particularly social-
status report regarding ‘Ryotwari System’. economic, educational spheres. Lands are
In similar way, another officer, ‘Thomas denied for them. They were not permitted
Munro’ also submitted a report related to to build houses for their own. Educational
the ‘Ryotwari System’. opportunities were rejected. They are sold
as slaves. Lots of lands are kept barren.
According to the reports, ‘Lands Due to this, income for the government
which were tilled by lower strata people, has been diminished. To increase the
were illegally occupied and acquired by income of the government, lands can be
‘Zamindars’ and ‘Landlords’ and thus distributed to the people.
caused quality-less farming and low level
of yields. It is also reported that Land There were so many
Income Tax was also affected due to this recommendations present in the officers’
acquisition. Moreover, the deprived and report. In 1892, this report was considered
downtrodden communities were checked- and accepted by the government.
out of their lands and also their children Accordingly 12 lakh acres were distributed
denied admissions in the schools and to the lower caste groups. These lands are
other educational institutions. called as “Panchami.” Schools for lower
caste groups are called as “Panchamer
In 1854, court delivered direction School”.
that there may not be any restriction to “Panchamer” means people who
admit children who belongs to lower caste are out of Varna System or excluded
groups. The Caste Hindus and other communities. ‘Ayothidasa’ and
dominant communities, however, didn’t ‘Singaravela’ opined that “Panchamer
obey the judgment of the court Schools” can be called as “Adidravidar”
proceedings. In 1865, Secretary of state schools. Since it is the traditional name
for India in British Parliament ordered for carved to the category.

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British India in the end part of 19th efforts in Maharastra for educating the
century supported Brahmin development depressed and downtrodden communities.
in all spheres, whereas minorities were
denied opportunities in education, society,
power and employment sectors.

The Non-Brahmins, particularly


minorities (lower caste) who studied in
the modern educational institutions were
dissatisfied with the government’s biased
stand. They demanded representation for
Justice Party
lower caste groups in government services.
There were
more applications
forwarded in 1913 to
Royal Commission
which was headed by
Alexander Cardow.
Apart from Madras
Presidency, Rangoon Thravi Association
and others also submitted their application
with demands to the commission. All
applications emphasized for appropriate
representation in employment for
backward, downtrodden and religious
minorities. Dr. Natesan, Pitti. Theagarayar,
T. M. Nair tried to submit and a report on
Those people who demanded for the burning issue of the minorities and
appropriate representation are Ayothidasa, low caste groups. P. Theagarayar has
Singaravelar, Rettamalai Srinivasan, Pitti written and published it as "Non-Brahmin
Theagarayar, Raja of Panagal and many Manifesto" in December, 1916.
others. Demands put forth by these people
were accepted in 1892. Community based
representation order was issued in all
departments of Madras Presidency. This
order is called 128(2). The order has to
be implemented in all parts of Chennai
Presidency, declared the government.
In 1916, Pitti. Theagarayar, T. M.
The efforts taken towards “education
Nair and others started South Indian
to all” in Tamilnadu also spread over to
Liberal Federation for the welfare of the
other states of India. Leaders like Jyotirao
Non-Brahmin communities. A magazine
Phule, Savithribai Phule took onerous
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“Justice” was also published by this It is the red lettered day in Indian
Federation to express their thoughts and history, lower caste groups, who were
ideas. Later on, this Federation was suppressed and deprived of Social and
popularly known as “Justice Party”. Economical condition for many centuries
had fullest confidence to lead their life
with self-respect and dignity by this
decree.

A resolution was submitted by


Munusamy the member of legislative
assembly in Chennai. The Resolution
reads; "Non-Brahmins with minimum
educational qualification should be
This movement spread out provided with employment opportunity.
“communal representation for Non- Non-Brahmins specifically, Christians,
Brahmin in education, and employment Muslims and lower caste groups to be
sectors. In 1915, Justice Party submitted appointed in all government services. For
a petition in which it condemned the this, a permanent order should be legalized.
domination of English and Sanskrit in If salary is above Rs.100, this order should
higher education. Further they demanded be implemented for 7years until it reaches
to include Tamil and other languages in 75% of the population". With regard to this
higher education. resolution, R.K.Shanmugam stated that “If
this historical and land mark resolution
In 1917, 54 Associations met the is implemented, the future generation
representative members of British empire may really appreciate our truthful efforts
and demanded “Fair Representation” for towards emancipation”. In supporting this
Non-Brahmin communities and other view, Dr.C.Nadesan voiced that “If fair
minorities. Moreover, “Communal representation is not provided for our
Representation” was demanded during people, we will not pay taxes”.
multiple conferences.
Periyar, EV.Ramaswamy, a staunch
First Communal Representation Order supporter of congress party also eulogized
the ideas of Justice Party, he expressed the
During the rule of Justice Party same demand in Congress Party. In 1925,
in Chennai Presidency, the demand during the Kanchipuram Congress Party
for communal representation reflected Conference, Periyar passed a resolution
in vigorous manner. The prolonged regarding communal representation in
struggle for communal representation by education and employment. Periyar came
Justice Party and wide support from the out of congress party, since his resolution
people propelled the central government was rejected by the high command.
to make resolution in this regard in 1921.
This resolution, later on was called as In 1928, during the leadership of
Communal Representation Decree. R.Muthiah, (Justice Party), Communal
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representation was passed and State wide protests erupted in


implemented in all the government Tamilnadu against the Verdict. E. V.
departments. Ramasamy, demanded for an amendment
in the constitution. It is due to efforts of
First Amendment Periyar, Tamilnadu congress committee
In the aftermath of the effective President Kamaraj, Prime Minister
implementation of Indian Constitution, Jawarharlal Nehru and Ambedkar, an
in 1951, Mr. Senbagarajan filed a suit in amendment was made related with the
the High Court; related to the denial of extension of Reservation Policy. This
Medical Seats. He also mentioned that, was the first Amendment in the Indian
communal representation is the reason Constitution. Due to this, backward
for the denial of his seat. and other communities retained the
opportunity of reservation.
According to articles 15 and 16
of Indian Constitution, "Socially and
economically backward people can be
provided with special privileges". This
provision made Nehru to come with First
Amendment in the Indian Constitution.
Accordingly, sub-sections 15 (4) and
16 (4) were included in the constitution.
The High Court gave its Verdict After the Amendment, from 1951 onwards
that Communal representation decree Backward Communities receive 25% and
is against the constitution and to be Lower Caste 16% respectively due to
abandoned. In addition to that, Supreme reservation policy.
Court also sided with the same Verdict.
Reservation Policy on the basis of caste Expansion of Reservation
was abandoned due to the Verdict.
Under the
Chief Ministership
of M.Karunanidhi,
a commission was
constituted under
the Chairmanship of
Sattanathan to take into account on the
welfare of backward community.
It is on the basis of the
recommendations of Sattanathan
commission, backward community
got 31% and SC/ST received 18% as
reservation in 1971.
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In 1979, Social Welfare Department In opposing this order, Indira


of Tamilnadu Government issued an Sawhney, filed a suit stating the order
order (MS No.1156, Dated 02.02.1979). breaches the constitutional provisions.
According to this order, annual family She also added that reservation policy
income of backward community was fixed overrides the principle “All are equal
as Rs.9,000/-. Later on, that order was before Law”.
repealed.
Supreme Court delivered a clear
verdict that 27% for backward community
A new order was issued, in which
in Central government services can be
reservation for backward community was
legalized. Further it states, “the reservation
increased from 31% to 50% and for SC/
should not reach beyond 50%”.
ST it is 18%. To sum-up, 68% reservation
came into effect in Tamilnadu. The Supreme court of India fixed 50%
as ceiling for reservation policy, whereas
In continuum with this, in 1989, it was not mentioned in the constitution.
another suit filed in Supreme Court with Moreover, the highest ceiling of 50% can
regard to allotment of separate reservation also be discharged.
for Scheduled tribe (ST) community.
Thus the Judgment says
In this case, Supreme Court of India
delivered the verdict by which, backward “Although 50% is the ceiling fixed
community, most backward, scheduled for the reservation in central government
caste and scheduled tribes received 30%, services, it may be changed, taking into
20%, 18% and 1% respectively. The entire account the diversified communities and
reservation was changed combinedly and abnormal situations of this nation”.
69% came into effect in Tamilnadu.
“People who are distant, those who
could not mingle with the mainstream
Reservation in Central Government:
society or without opportunity, unique in
Mandal Commission
culture may be exempted from this ceiling
The central government under the fixed by the Supreme Court.
Prime Ministership of V.P.Singh consented
with the recommendations of Mandal 50% of the ceiling may be exempted,
Commission. The Government issued an said the same judges who delivered the
order which confirmed 27% reservation famous verdict in this sensitive case.
for Backward Community in Central That said, a member of consumer
Government Services. trust, K.N. Vijayan from Tamilnadu filed a
suit stating, 69% reservation in Tamilnadu
is given against the Supreme Court
Verdict. Supreme Court, however, in its
Verdict mentioned that Engineering and
Medical Colleges should not be provided
reservation more than 50%. It also issued
Interim prohibition for the reservation.
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It was similar with the untoward appoint backward classes commission to


happenings during 1951, which prompted identify socially and educationally
the state government backward groups and also to submit
under J.Jayalalitha who recommendation related to their standards
passed a bill in the state and states.
assembly by citing the
reference from directive
principles of state policy
(Article 31(c)).
The bill on 30.12.1993 was given
consent by the President of India on
19.07.1994 by which 69% reservation
Hitherto, the Indian government
received fullest legal protection. To avert
has constituted the backward classes
further filing of suit against Tamilnadu
commission.
Government, it endeavored to incorporate
reservation policy in IXth schedule of the 1. Kaka Kalelkar Commission
Indian Constitution.
Kaka Kalelkar Commission was the
Parliament passed the 76th first one constituted in 29.01.1953. There
Amendment in which reservation policy of were 11 members including the Chairman
Tamilnadu Government was incorporated Jawaharlal Nehru who tabled the report
in IXth schedule of Indian Constitution. submitted by this commission in the
Further it came into retrospective effect Parliament.
from November 16, 1992.
2. Mandal Commission
Reservation for different
communities is a temporary effort to get Central Government under the
place in power sector. To attain social Prime Minister-ship of Morarji Desai
change and social ideals, caste hierarchy constituted Subindeswari Prasad Mandal
has to be demolished and eternal equality Commission on 20.12.1978. This is the
to be established. One among the means second such Commission established
to attain permanent equality is “Inter- for the backward community. S.S.Gill
Caste Marriages”. Marriages happening was appointed as the Secretary of this
within caste may further strengthen caste Commission.
system and serve as an obstacle for the It is in order to identify the condition
equal society. Casteless marriages and of backward community; a group was
lateral cum ideal thinking are the best constituted under the leadership of
contrivances for making radical social B.B.Mandal in 1978. The group travelled
change. all over the nation. This Commission on
Backward classes Commission the basis of 11 basic reasons identified
3743 castes which comes under backward
According to article 340 of Indian
community. Castes were identified on the
Constitution, President of India can
ground of peoples’ status in education and
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The Government of India appointed the 2nd Backward Classes Commission


in 1979.It was headed by B.P.Mandal. Hence it was popularly known as Mandal
Commission. It was asked to determine the criteria to identify the socially and
educationally backward classes in our country and recommend steps to be taken for
their advancement. One of the recommendations was that 27 per cent of government
jobs be reserved for the socially and economically backward classes.

It was in December 1980 members of Mandal Commission submitted their report


to Zail Singh, the then Home Minister. After submitting the report B.P.Mandal said,

“I know much labour has gone into the writing of this report. But let me tell you
that today we have performed its immersion (visarjan) ceremon.”

Next ten years, the report lay in the Home Ministry’s office. Report was dusted
up by the then National Front Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap Singh (1931 – 2008)
for implementation in 1990. Mandal Commission report became the single-most
burning topic of controversy and heated discussion. There was total confusion in the
national political arena and V.P. Singh was accused of indulging in the worst form
of opportunism. No major political party supported the implementation of Mandal
Commission recommendations.

Some section of people and associations opposed to this order filed a number of
cases in the court. Eleven judges of the Supreme Court heard arguments of both sides
and by a majority, the Supreme Court judges in 1992 declared that this was valid.
At the same time the Supreme Court asked the government to modify its original
order. It said that well-to-do persons among the backward classes should be excluded
from getting the benefit of reservation. Accordingly, the Department of Personnel
and Training issued another Office Memorandum on September 8, 1993. The dispute
thus came to an end and this policy has been followed since then.

Indira Sawhney V. Union of India AIR 1993 SC 477


 Also known as Ma n d a l Commission Case.

On January, 1979 under the Chairmanship of B.P.Mandal, the second Backward


 
Classes Commission under Article 340 was appointed by the Union Government
headed by Prime Minister Morarji Desai.

One of the major recommendation made by the commission was that, besides
 
the SCs and STs, for other backward classes which constitute nearly 52% of the
population, 27% government jobs are be reserved so that total reservation for all,
SC,ST and OBCs, amount to 50%.

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 No action was taken on the basis of the Mandal Report for long after it was
submitted, except that it was discussed in the Houses of Parliament twice, once in
1982and again in 1983.

 On August 13, 1990, the V.P.Singh Government at the Centre issued an office
memorandum accepting the Mandal Commission recommendation and
announcing 27% reservation for the socially and educationally backward classes in
vacancies in civil posts and services under the Government of India.

society. Promoting Social Justice


In order to achieve social justice, it
Mandal has written in the preface
is often suggested that reservation policy
of the report which reads, “Madras is a
is an important tool. We must realize that
pioneer state in communal representation.
reservation in education and in jobs is one
It has given representation for backward
of the methods to achieve ‘Social Justice’
classes”. We may infer that Tamilnadu is
and not the only method. Social Justice
the birth place for Social Justice and serve
must necessarily premise upon the idea
as a great pioneer for all other states.
of egalitarian philosophy that no one is
52% of the backward communities in inferior or superior to anyone by birth.
India has to be provided with 27%
Those who have been benefitted
reservation, remarked Mandal Report.
extensively by the philosophy of ascriptive
This reservation was implemented by
status (status based on birth) must realize
V.P.Singh Government on 13.08.1990 in
that such status cannot be part of a modern
all Government (Central) Services. Due
world; to be a modern person what is
to this order, backward communities who
more important is to have the
are backward in social and educational
consciousness of being equal to everybody
sectors entered into central services.
around us. Unfortunately ‘modern’ is
being equated with latest electronic items
ACTIVITY and luxury items we possess. Having
latest gadgets will not make us modern.
THINK-PAIR-SHARE For India to become a modern nation, this
Topic : "Secularism and Social Justice" radical transformation is required more
are two defining principles of Indian than anything. That is why the social
politics. justice is organically embedded in the idea
of modern India.
Students can think individually
about topic for three minutes and share
Glossary
his or her view with the pair. His/her pair
will share the views with counterparts.
Teacher can ask any three pairs to share Fraternity - Universal brotherhood which
their view in the class. is stipulated in the Indian constitution

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Exploitation – Misusage of resources Social change - Change which creates


behavioral variation
Egalitarian society - Society without
stratification Civil rights - Rights provided by the
Privileges - Special schemes or rights for government to live in a society
particular human communities Political rights - Rights of the people in
Injustice - Activities which are against the the political sector
will of people
Economic equality - Less cleavage between
Social identity - An indicator which people in terms of economic condition
locates the people in a society
Dharma - Do’s and Don’ts
Apartheid - Suppression of one race by the
other Landlordism - Exploitation by land owners

Varna system - Divisive phenomenon in Deprived - Economically and socially


the society exploited and exhausted

Minorities - people who belongs to a Panchamer - people who are out of the
group at less number in population Varna system

Reservation - Policy which helps people Justice - Fair distribution of authoritative


for upliftment allocation of values

Plural society - Varied on the basis of


culture

Evaluation

I. Multiple Choice Questions


1. Survival of the fittest theory was coined by
a) Denim b) Roosevelt
c) Darwin d) All the above

2. Slave Trade means


a) Women trafficking b) Child trafficking
c) Men trafficking d) All

3. Apartheid regime means


a) One race suppressing other b) Blacks suppressing whites
c) Torture d) Affluent society

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4. A change effected by the social movement from capitalistic to socialistic is


a) Structural change b) Organizational change
c) Both A & B d) None

5. “Nothing to lose except blood and sweat” is a clarion call by


a)Marx b)Mao
c) Stalin d)Lenin

6. Narayana Guru belongs to which state?


a) Andhra Pradesh b) West Bengal
c) Maharashtra d) Kerala

7. “Vaikom Movement” was spearheaded by


a) Periyar b) Rajaji
c) Nehru d) Gandhi

8. "An inquiry into Wealth of Nations" was written by


a) Keynes b) Adam smith
c) Rousseau d) Bodin

9. “It is not by ballots, but by bullets” exclaimed


a) Castro b) Mao
c) Netaji d) Bagatsingh

10. "I have a dream" was a famous speech by


a) Lincoln b) Thoreau
c) Gandhi d) Martin Luther king

11. Reservation policy is to


a) Upliftment b) Advancement
c) Justice d) All

12. Caste system is at high level in


a) Hinduism b) Islam
c) Christianity d) Zorastrianism

13. Ambedkar at the end phase converted to


a) Christianity b) Hinduism
c) Buddhism d)Jain

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14. Just society means


a) No discrimination b) Casteless
c) Religion less d)All

15. Mandal Commission uplifted


a) SC b) ST
c) OBC d)OC

16 Assertion: Non- brahmins were appointed to government services in British India.


Reason: Communal Representation Decree was passed in the year 1921.
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.

II. Answer the following questions very shortly


16. Society Government and Caste-Define.
17. Casteless Society-Define.
18. What do you mean by caste discrimination?
19. What is equality?
20. What is exploitation?
21. Define about caste violence.
22. Explain temple entry movement.
III. Answer the following questions shortly
23. Write a note on Reservation policy.
24. Write about Equality in Indian constitution.
26. Give a brief account on Caste organizations.
27. Write about caste discriminatory practices in India.
28. Communal decree - Explain.
29. Explain the recommendation of Mandal Commission.
IV. Answer the following questions in detail
30. Write a note on the vitality of ideology for a Nation.
31. Discuss the basic tenets of equal society.
32. Give a brief account on political ideas of Periyar.

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33. Discuss about various leaders’ role in equality.


34. Write a note on leadership of the modern movements.
35. Explain about new social movement.

Reference Books

1. Gauba. O.P, ‘Dimension of Social Justice’, National Publishing Co, New Delhi, 1983.
2. Rawls, John, ‘A Theory of Justice’, Universal Law Publishing Co. Pvt, Ltd, Delhi,
2000.
3. Rao, Priya, ‘Development & Social Justice - A Legal Perspective’; Kalpaz Publications,
Delhi, 2012.
4. Purohit . B.R; ‘Social Justice in India’, Rawat Publications, New Delhi, 2003.
5. Barry, Brain, ‘Why Social Justice Matters’ 1st Edition, Polity Publishers, 2005

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UNIT

14 Political Developments in Tamilnadu

Diary of Events

1914 - Birth of Dravidian Association


1916 - South Indian Liberal Federation was formed
1917 - Justice Party
1919 - Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
1925 - Periyar founded Self Respect Movement
1937 - Congress Ministry formed under the leadership of Rajaji
1937 - Anti-Hindi Agitation
 t Salem conference the Justice Party was renamed into
A
1944 -
Dravidar Kazhagam (DK)
T.Prakasam of Congress formed Government in Madras
1946 -
Presidency
1947 - O.P.Ramaswamy became the Chief Minister
1949 - P.Kumaraswami Raja formed his ministry
1949 - Birth of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)
1952 - First General Elections took place
1956 - States Reorganization Act
1965 - Anti-Hindi Agitation.
 ravida Munnetra Kazhagam formed government under the
D
1967 -
leadership of C.N.Annadurai.
1969 - Madras State was renamed as "Tamilnadu"
1969 C.N.Annadurai passed away.
1969 - M.Karunanidhi became the Chief Minister of the State
1972 - AIADMK was founded by M.G.Ramachandran (MGR)
1974 - State Autonomy Resolution was passed in the Assembly

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Learning Objectives

 To understand the nature of political discourses that took place in Madras
presidency during the 1900s.
 To unravel the emergence of Non-Brahmin movement and how it had paved the
way for the Dravidian parties rule in the state of Tamil Nadu.

 To explore the nature of centre-state relations during the rule of various political
parties in the state.

 To study the welfare policies of the Dravidian parties and its significant impact on
the society.

 To examine whether any state level political will has any impact on national politics.

 The chief aim of the study is to understand various dimensions of the social welfare
policies of successive governments in the state.

 To explore the reasons for the fragmentation in Dravidian politics and in
consequences.

14.1 Political History of Tamil Nadu by the "Brahmin – non – Brahmin conflicts".
Scholars and political thinkers believed
Compared with rest of India, Tamil that understanding the conflicts between
Nadu has had a healthy administrative these two groups, (the Brahmins and non –
and political culture, more or less stable Brahmins), is necessary to understand the
economic life, and continuity of traditions South Indian Politics and society.
from the hoary past to the present. Madras
Presidency of South India came into Madras Presidency
existence due to the administrative and Simultaneously a few members
political needs of the British. The Madras of Non-Brahmin caste groups sought
Presidency was formed in A.D (C.E.) employment in industries, commercial
1801. The Presidency, as it existed during enterprises etc., Significant but a portion
the 19th and 20th centuries, comprised of non-Brahmin caste groups migrated
of the present states of Andhra Pradesh, from rural areas to urban pockets of the
Malabar region of Kerala, Southern Presidency and wanted to ascertain their
Karnataka, Southern most part of Odisha identity as ‘Dravidian’ and ‘Tamils’ and
and Union Territory of Lakshadweep. gradually challenged the monopoly of
powers and privileges enjoyed by the
Madras Presidency politics in the Brahmins in politics, administration and
early part of 20th century was dominated society.
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Presidency. In Bengal and in the rest of


North India a Sanskrit and Vedic centered
Indian culture was projected, besides an
Indo-Aryan or Indo-German group of
languages were acknowledged. Non-
Vedic, Non-Sanskrit cultures were not
recognized. The deciphering of Brahmi
script in 1837 by James Principe and
researches on south Indian languages
(Ellis in 1816 and Caldwell in 1856) came
to establish that Indian culture was not
homogeneous;
Ellis is praised by Tamil
enthusiasts as lover of
Tamil, Valluvar, Kural and
so on, without knowing
The word ‘Dravidian’ was used by the colonial and christian
scholars and non – Tamils to identify non- background of him. In
Aryan Tamil speaking people. At the same fact, he tried to forge valluvar as Jain, to
time Brahmins were identified as “Aryans” promote the "thomas myth" in India
and the custodians of Sanskrit civilisation
Francis Whyte Ellis
where as non-Brahmins were considered
as “Dravidians” and the custodians of Born: May 7, 1814,
Tamil language, culture and civilisation. Clady, United Kingdom
Died: August 28, 1891,
14.2 E
 mergence of Dravidian Kodaikanal, India
Movement
Robert Caldwell
In order to protect and promote the
Tamil identity, culture, socio-political Buddhist and Dravidian traditions
and economic interest of non-Brahmins, also existed in India. In the south, especially
a movement called ‘Dravidian Movement’ in the multi-lingual Madras Presidency,
was started in Madras Presidency by a theories on Dravidian group of languages
group of non – Brahmins. and Dravidian cultural heritage led to
assertion of Dravidian identity among the
Dravidian and Non-Brahmin Identity Non-Brahmin.
In 1801 Madras Presidency was
formed by the colonial regime as a Two factors (1) Brahmins claiming
multilingual province (Tamils, Telegus, superiority over Non-Brahmins and (2)
Malayalees, Kannadigas and Tulus). Brahmins monopolizing educational and
India’s diversity could be noticed in the employment opportunities transformed
political developments of the Madras the Dravidian identity into Non-Brahmin

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identity. (In Maharashtra too Mahatma 14.3 Justice Party


Jyotiba Rao Phule launched a Non-
Brahmin movement on similar lines). The major political organization of
Dravidian also indicated the Non- that time, Indian National Congress was
Brahmins in south India. dominated by Brahmins had refused to
consider the demands of non-brahmin
members. Thus the non-brahmin leaders
of Madras Presidency began to think of
floating a non-brahmin political
organization. The prospects of political
reforms after the First World War, and the
possibilities of representing institutions
stimulated their move.

The Non-Brahmins of the Madras


Presidency had a grievance that the emerging
nationalist leaders paid no heed to non-
brahmin issues. In 1852 Gangalu Lakshmi In 1916 Dr.T.M. Nair, Pitti
Narash expressed this grievance, seceded Theagarayar and Dr.C. Natesan founded
from British Indian Association and floated the South Indian Liberal Federation
his own organization named Madras Native to promote and safeguard the socio-
Association. In the post-mutiny period, the economic political interests of the non-
non-brahmin leaders undertook social brahmin. This South Indian Liberal
reforms rather than political reforms. After Federation (SILF) came to be popularly
the introduction of Minto-Morley reforms known as the "Justice Party" named after
in 1909 the non-brahmin leaders of Madras the English journal Justice. Through their
Presidency began to protest the inadequate relentless efforts they secured reservation
representations to them in education and of seats for the non-brahmin in the
employment. elections to the legislative council.

Sir Alexander The main objectives of the


Gordon Cardew, Justice Party (JP)
a member of i) To create and promote the Educational,
Governor’s Executive Social, Economic, Political and material
Council submitted progress of all communities other than
statistical details Brahmins of South India.
(1913) to prove that ii) To work for Non-Brahmins upliftment
the Brahmins who formed only three through Constitutional government.
percent of the population cornered most iii) To make the government truly a
of the opportunities. representative government.
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iv) To create public opinion infavour of the elections, but many congressmen
Non-Brahmins demand. contested the elections under different
banners.

The Justice Party won majority of


the seats and A.Subbarayalu became the
Chief Minister and after his death, Raja of
Panagal became the Chief Minister of
Madras in 1921.

14.4 Contributions of Justice Party

In spite of the fluctuating fortunes in


the subsequent elections, the Justice party
continued to hold power from 1921 to
1937. They introduced a number of
reforms. Through communal Government
Order they ensured adequate number of
opportunities to every category of non-
brahmin communities. They removed
discrimination against Sudras and
Panchamas in public roads, transports,
restaurants and public wells. They
regulated the temple affairs through the
newly constituted Hindu Religious
Endowment Board, earmarked plots of
land for the Panchamas (Panchami’s Land)
introduced new township and industrial
Montagu Chelmsford reforms 1919 estates. Special efforts were taken to
introduced dyarchy in the presidencies provide education for the children of
by which a few departments were depressed classess. For the first time they
earmarked for Indian ministers chosen experimented with “Noon Meal Scheme”
from the elected members. In the first in a few schools. Knowledge of Sanskrit
elections under dyarchy in 1920, the as the basic eligibility for medical
Indian National Congress as a part of the education was removed which facilitated
Non-Co-operation Movement boycotted non-brahmin students gaining entry into

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medical education. On an initiative from and then he was elected as the president of
Dr. Muthulakshmi and others, Devadasi Justice Party. In the same year, the Justice
system was abolished in Tami nadu and Party passed a resolution that Tamil Nadu
women were enfranchised. Co-operative should be made as a separate state loyal
societies were promoted. Mirasdari system to British government and it should be
was abolished, and a under the direct control of the Secretary
number of irrigation of State for India.
schemes were
Periyar E.V.Ramaswamy who played
introduced in 1923.
a pioneering role in the Madras Presidency
Annamalai University
Congress, had tried his best to make the
and Andhra
Tamilnadu Congress Committee adopt
University were
resolutions in favour of proportional
founded during their
representation for the non-brahmins
regime. It was the Justic Party which
in political arena. He gave an effective
provided the most successful government
leadership to the Vaikom Sathyagraha and
though they were assigned only a few
campaigned against caste-discrimination
departments.
in the Cheranmadevi Gurukula, founded
14.5 Periyar E.V. Ramasamy: by congress.
When all his efforts failed to make
Peiyar E.V. Ramasamy congress adopt his programme, he left
considered the congress and launched the self-respect
decision of Rajaji’s movement in 1925. He shunned electoral
government to impose politics and instead campaigned for social
Hindi as a compulsory reforms, especially for eradication of
subject as a move caste system, removal of indignities and
to establish ‘North Indian imperialism’ gender based restrictions on women,
and destroying the Tamil language and and rejection of hereditary priesthood.
culture. Periyar, further, maintained that The self-respect movement carried on
the imposition of Hindi was a calculated a vigorous campaign against age old
effort to sub judicate the Dravidians in superstitious beliefs and practices in
order to ascertain the supremacy of the every sphere and questioned the role of
Aryans. religion in justifying and sustaining such
Madras Presidency has witnessed irrational traditions and inequalities. The
massive anti-Hindi agitations and Self Respect Movement campaigned for
Periyar was imprisoned by the provincial rationalism, and against denial of dignity
government. It is significant to note that in and equal status of individuals (including
fifteen years he went to jail twenty- three women) under the garb of tradition and
times and got the nickname as ‘jailbird’ religion.
(Siraiparavai). In 1938, Periyar was The Self Respect Movement ordained
imprisoned for his Anti-Hindi agitation its members to give up caste surname and

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caste-religious identities; it introduced the Periyar launched anti-Hindi agitations. A


self-respect marriages. It fought against large number of students have participated
not only untouchability but even against in the agitations organized by Periyar.
the caste-system and the caste based
disabilities and indignities imposed on During this period, the Communist
individuals. Party (formally launched in 1925) became
active in campaigning for socialist
The Self Respect Movement programme and organized labour
propagated not merely letter treatment of movements. M.Singaravelu, and their
women, but for equal rights, equal status associates were impressed by the social
an equal opportunities for women. Self reform programmes of the Self Respect
Respect Movement’s role in “Women Movement, which in turn extended
Liberation” was unparalleled and for that support to the economic programme of
E.V.Ramaswamy was given the title the communities, and these two
“Periyar” in a women’s conference. movements agreed to work on a common
Periyar’s journal ‘Kudiarasu’ ‘Revolt’ and programme (Erode Plan).
later ‘Viduthalai’ carried on the effective
propaganda of self-respect ideals.

Objectives of Self-Respect League


i) Reforming Dravidian society to make
14.6 Self Respect Movement it truly rational.
In 1929 the first Self-Respect ii) To teach the truth of ancient Tamil
Conference was held in Chengalpattu. In the civilization to Dravidians.
crucial elections of 1937 the Congress party,
iii) Save the Dravidian society from the
led by C. Rajagopalachari, won majority
domination of Aryan culture.
every seats except one. The Congress
party victory was largely because of the iv) 
Reforming the Hinduism by
decline of Justice Party. The Congress eliminating Brahmin influence and
formed the government and Rajaji became superstitious practices.
the Chief Minister of the Madras province.
He wanted to restore the past glory
Soon after assuming power the of Dravidian culture by creating social
Congress government introduced Hindi awareness among the non-Brahmins
as a compulsory subject in the schools.

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in general and particularly the youth.


He advocated Self –Respect marriages,
a marriage which was conducted in
the absence of Brahmin priesthood,
discouraged the people from performing
religious ceremonies and not to employ
the services of the Brahmins in any of the Mariamalai Adigal to organize the ‘Anti
social events. Hindi Movement’ in 1937. Thousands of
agitators including E.V.Ramaswamy
Decline of Justice Party courted arrests, and a number of agitators
By 1929, the Self-Respect Movement died in prison.
had become a formidable movement in the Salem Conference, 1944
Madras Presidency. In 1930’s the Justice
Party began to face decline in the province. In 1944, at Salem conference under the
There were three major factors responsible leadership of Periyar, a historic resolution
for this decline. Firstly, the party lost its was moved to change the name of Justice
support among the Depressed sections of Party to Dravidar Kazhagam (DK). Periyar
the society and minorities. Secondly the organised ‘Dravida Nadu’ conference and
Self-Respect Movement, under Periyar demanded an independent homeland for
had become more radical. Finally the ‘Dravidians’. Further, he pronounced his
elitist and pro-British outlook of Justice very famous slogan ‘Dravida Nadu for
Party had also contributed significantly Dravidians’ at the conference.
for its decline. Apart from separate ‘Dravida Nadu’
14.7 Anti Hindi Agitation demand, the Dravidar Kazhagam wanted
to establish casteless society, condemned
The decline of the Justice Party and religious rituals, traditions and
Periyar’s refusal to enter into electoral superstitious in Dravidian society. The
politics together with the growing Dravidar Kazhagam became very popular
popularity of Mahatma Gandhi, enabled in many rural and urban masses, especially
Indian National Congress to win elections among the students. Many non-Brahmin
in the Madras Presidency in 1937 and leaders and students have changed their
Rajagopalachari became the premier. name reflecting Tamil Identity.
He introduced total prohibition (ban Anti-Hindi Agitation 1965
on liquor) and abolished the Zamindari
system, and introduced legislations
removing restrictions on temple entry for
the depressed classes. Yet his measures
leading to closure of many schools and
introduction of Hindi as compulsory
language in schools provoked the admirers
of self respect and Tamil Nationalists like

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S.NO. PREMIER CHIEF MINISTER YEAR


1 A. Subbarayalu Reddiar 1920 – 1921
2 Raja of Panagal 1921-1926
3 P. Subbarayan 1926 1930
4 P. Munusamy Naidu 1930 1932
5 Poppili Raja 1932 -1937
6 P.T. Rajan 1936
7 K.V. Reddy Naidu 1937
8 C. Rajaji 1937 - 1939
(Note: Tamil Nadu was under Governor’s rule from 29 th October 1939 to 30th April 1946)
9 T. Prakasam 1946 -1947
10 O.P. Ramasamy Reddiyar 1947 – 1949
CHIEF MINISTER
11 P.S. Kumarasamy Raja 1949-1952
12 C. Rajaji 1952 - 1954
13 K. Kamaraj 1954-1957
14 K. Kamaraj 1957-1962
15 K. Kamaraj 1962-1963
16 M. Bakthavatsalam 1963-1967
17 C.N. Annadurai 1967-1969
18 M. Karunanidhi 1969-1971
19 M. Karunanidhi 1971-1976
20 M.G. Ramachandran 1977-1980
21 M.G. Ramachandran 1980-1984
22 M.G. Ramachandran 1985-1987
23 Janaki Ramachandran 1988
24 M.Karunanidhi 1989-1991
25 J. Jayalalithaa 1991-1996
26 M.Karunanidhi 1996-2001
27 J. Jayalalithaa 2001
28 O. Panneerselvam 2001-2002
29 J. Jayalalithaa 2002 -2006
30 M. Karunanidhi 2006 - 2011
31 J. Jayalalithaa 2011
32 O. Panneerselvam 2012 (Interim)
33 J. Jayalalithaa May 16, 2016 – Dec .5 2016
34 O. Panneerselvam Dec 2016 – Feb 2017
35 K. Palanisamy Feb 2017 - till date

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In accordance with the provisions In 1951, the Supreme Court struck


of Article 313 of the Indian Constitution down communal reservations in higher
Hindi was made as the official language of education. Immediately Periyar launched
the Indian Union on January 26, 1965. In a major agitation for the restoration of
order to protest the decision of the Union communal reservation.
Government the Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam decided to observe 26th January,
1965 as a ‘Day of Mourning’. Many leaders
of the party and its cadres were arrested.
Tamil Nadu had witnessed a large scale
of Anti-Hindi agitations. Because of the
agitations the cause secured considerable
amount of support among the student
community. On the other hand the
Congress party lost its base and support
in the state of Tamil Nadu. Meanwhile,
the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam had
withdrawn the demand for ‘Dravida Law and rules are only for the
people. People are not for the
Nadu’ and continue to actively participate
law and the rules
in the electoral politics of Tamilnadu and - Kamaraj
became a ruling party in the state.

14.8 Dravidian Movement during Consequently, the first constitutional


second World War and after: amendment Act was passed in the
In 1939, the Parliament in favour of reservations for
congress protested socially and educationally backward
the government’s classes.
d e cl ar at i on 14.9 Rajaji Regime (1952-54)
involving India in
the Second World The politics of Madras
War which led to State in India witnessed the
the resignation of continuation of struggle
congress ministry. In Madras Presidency between statusquoists and
Rajaji’s ministry had resigned but Periyar reformists. C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) who
raised the demand of Dravida Nadu on led the first elected ministry in the Madras,
the ground that independence prior to under the Republican Constitution, again
socio-cultural equality would be injurious reduced the number of schools, attempted
to Tamil interests. In 1949, Dravidar to impose Hindi in schools and Modified
Kazhagam split and Dravida Munnetra Scheme of Elementary Education which
Kazhagam was formed. provided for part time learning of
hereditary occupations popularly known
as kulakalvi.
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Kamaraj also introduced the noon-meal


scheme for school children.
Arundhati Roy on Dandi March

Resistance as spectacle,
as political theatre,
has a history. Gandhi’s
salt march in 1930 to
Dandi is among the
most exhilarating examples. But the
salt march wasn’t theatre alone. It was In 1963, Kamaraj resigned (Kamaraj
the symbolic part of a large act of real Plan) his chief ministership to become the
civil disobedience. When Gandhi and President of Indian National Congress and
an army of freedom fighters marched M.Bhaktavatchalam took over the reins
to Gujarat’s coast and made salt from of the government. The Food shortage
sea water, thousands of Indians across and anti-hindi agitation caused the un-
the country began to make their popularity of his ministry.
own salt, openly defying imperial
Dravidian Parties Rule
Britain’s salt tax laws, which banned
local production in favour of British In the general elections of 1967,
imports. It was a direct strike at the the congress party was defeated. The
economic underpinning of the British Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam formed the
Empire. government.
(Arundhati Roy, An Ordinary Person’s
Guide To Empire, p.307.)

Dravidian leaders launched a


statewide protest against movement. Even
a section of congress leaders resented
Rajaji’s proposals which led to change in
Chief ministership.

14.10 Kamaraj Era (1954-1963)


Kamaraj abolished the Modified
Scheme of Elementary Education,
increased manifold the number of schools,
built a number of dams for improving
irrigation, provided more industrial
estates and ensured astonishing industrial
growth in the state. He made education
more accessible to poor and rural children.

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and to overcome newly amended electoral


In 1956, through 'states laws. It won a majority in 1967 elections.
reorganization Act' Madras Annadurai ruled for a brief period (1967-
Presidency gave up malayalam regions 69), yet he renamed Madras state as
to Kerala, Telegu region to Andhra Tamilnadu, passed civil marriages act,
Pradesh and Kannada regions to rejected three language policies of central
Mysore. Thus, Madras state became government and enforced a two languages
a state of Tamils. Kamaraj provided a (English & Tamil) policy in Tamilnadu.
stable government.

The provision of affordable universal


housing for poor, precursor to food
security (Rice scheme) and establishment
of Slum Clearance Board have substantially
improved and received support among
the urban poor people also. Significantly,
the government renamed the State from
Madras to Tamil Nadu in the year 1969.
The other major achievements of the
party were:

A. Nationalisation of Bus routes larger


than 75 miles.
B. Waiver of Tuition fee for poor students
of all castes in pre-University and pre- For the first time, he introduced a
technical courses. subsidized rice (one measure one rupee)
scheme. His successor M.Karunanidhi
C. Second World Tamil Conference was continued his legacy. In 1972,
organised. M.G.Ramachandran founded his own
Dravidian Party (All Indian Anna Dravida
D. Supply of subsidised rice for people of Munnetra Kazhagam – AIADMK). He
Tamil Nadu. captured power in 1977 and retained the
same till his death in 1987. Thereafter,
14.11 Dravidian Rule in Post- Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam under
Independence Tamilnadu M.Karunanidhi and Selvi J. Jayalalitha
For the past 62 years Dravidian of All Indian Anna Dravida Munnetra
parties have been ruling Tamilnadu. Kazhagam led ministries in alternative
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam decided to elections. Besides, these two, there are a few
enter electoral politics in 1957 and gave other Dravidian parties like Marumalarchi
up its “Dravida Nadu” demand consequent Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.
to Chinese aggression of Indian territories
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More than, six decades of Dravidian Development Index). Today, Tamilnadu


rule contributed remarkably to the is in prominent position in promoting
development of Tamil. They steadfastly automobile industries, electronics, and
protected the interest of Tamil language, in pharmaceutical industries. it's new
Tamil people and Tamilnadu. A number economic zones are attracting huge
of welfare schemes were introduced to investments. Tamilnadu’s achievements in
alleviate the suffering of common people. infrastructural development are acclaimed
They ensured food security through by all. Roads, harbours, electrification
subsidized and later free rice schemes, and availability of skilled labour facilitate
nutritious meal scheme, free education industrial development.
until under graduate level, free electricity
for farming, abolition of cycle rickshaws There has been a manifold increase
and manual scavenging , cradle baby in the number of schools of different
scheme for the abandoned children, and categories. There is a manifold increase
welfare boards for various unorganized in the number of universities. Tamilnadu
workers, and even for transgender. As a has exclusive universities for women,
remedy to ruinous caste conflicts, engineering and technology, law,
‘Samathuvapuram’ and ‘Uzhavarsanthai’ medicine, siddha medicine, sports etc.
were created. Promotion of Tamil language, through
tamil university, ulaga tamil araichi
niruvanam, world tamil conference
and ulaga tamil semmozhi conference,
and script reforms, led to all-round
advancement of tamil language.

The Dravidian parties since the days


of Annadurai have been championing the
cause of secularism and autonomy of the
states. The Dravidian parties have also