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Internship Summer’s

Programme 2019
VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROJECT REPORT

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“REFINERY OF CRUDE SOYA OIL”

THE SUMMER INTERNSHIP PROJECT REPORT

BY

AAHVANAY MANGOTRA
(17BME0388, B.TECH undergraduate, VIT VELLORE)

UNDER THE ABLE GUIDANCE OF

MR. SUDHIR GUPTA


(PRODUCTION MANAGER, REFINERY SECTION)

AT

RUCHI SOYA INDUSTRIES LTD. , MANGLIYA


INDORE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My summer Internship at Ruchi Soya Industries Ltd. has given me a


wonderful industrial exposure. My learning, from the very first day at
the refinery plant has been very informative and useful. During the
internship I gained substantial knowledge and I got accustomed to
traditional environment, got exposure to enterprise tools and got an
opportunity to apply my knowledge. I feel obliged to express my
gratitude thanks to those people who have rendered their invaluable
help throughout my project.
First of all, I consider myself fortunate to have, Production In charge
(Refinery) as my guide. I sincerely thank him for providing me to
perform the training at RSIL and for his valuable guidance at all
stages of this project work.
I would like to thank all the respondents who spared time for filing up
the Questionnaires and for inspiring me in their own way. Their help
is gratefully acknowledged.

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CONTENTS

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………………..3
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………….5
Company Profile-
Ruchi group promoter companies………………………………………………7
Ruchi Soya Industries Ltd. …………………………………………………………11
Ruchi Soya ‘ Products……………………………………………………………….16
Edible Oil Introduction-
Edible Oil Market in India………………………………………………………….18
IMPORTANCE OF EDIBLE OILS IN THE COUNTRY………………………20

SOYA-

SOYBEANS……………………………………………………………………………………..21
SOYABEAN OIL……………………………………………………………………………….22
SOYUMM………………………..……………………………………………………………..23

PROJECT PROFILE-

RSIL –BOAD OF DIRECTORS……………………………………………………………25


REFINERY DEPARTMENT………………………………………………………………..25
TECHINCAL DEPARTMENTS……………………………………………………………26
REFINERY……………………………………………………………………………………….28
PROCESS DESCRIPTION…………………………………………………………………..31
FLOW CHARTS…………………………………………………………………………………35
Process parameters………………………………………………………………………...38
DISTRIBUTION NETWORK………………………………………………………………..40
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS………………………………..42
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………….…43

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INTRODUCTION

The 30-year old Ruchi Soya Industries Limited is the flagship


company of Ruchi Group of Industries. It’s recent merger with sister
concerns ( Aneja Solvex Ltd, General Foods Ltd, Ruchi Credit
Corporation, Ruchi Health Foods Ltd, Param Ind. Ltd, Ruchi Private
Ltd and soya businesses of MP Glychem) has catapulted it among the
top five FMCG players in the country, with a turnover of 8625 crores.
This merger illustrates the strength that is to be found in increased
transparency, firm market position and better control of systems.

Besides being a leading manufacturer of high quality edible oils,


vanaspati, bakery fats and soya foods, Ruchi Soya is also the highest
exporter of soya meal and lecithin from India. Nutrela (soya chunks,
granules, soya flour) is the largest selling soya foods brand in the
country today.

Ruchi Soya is the undisputed leader in the branded edible oil category
as well with brands like Nutrela Soyumm (Soyabean Oil), Ruchi Gold
(Palmolein Oil), Sunrich (Sunflower Oil) and Mandap (Mustard Oil).
New healthy oil variants like Nutrela Vitamin Sunflower oil and
Nutrela Groundnut oil make Nutrela a trusted option in edible oils as
well.

Superior procurement and trading skills, continuous innovation, an


endeavor to meet consumer needs and stringent quality control
standards have enabled Ruchi to emerge as a highly-respected and
admired Indian company. The scrip is listed and the BSE code is
500368, while the NSE code is RUCHISOYA.

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Ruchi Group Promoter Companies

RUCHI Infrastructure Limited


RUCHI Infrastructure Limited is primarily engaged in the businesses of
storage and transportation of edible oils, petroleum, liquid bulk chemicals,
agricultural products etc., in refining of edible oils and manufacturing of
vanaspati. Ruchi Infrastructure Limited is having storage terminals at major
ports (jamnagar, haldia, mangalore, chennai, cochin, karwar etc) and at
railway side terminals (kanpur, doraha, jaipur, hyderabad & cuttack).

Ruchi Infrastructure Limited is forayed into the field of agricultural


warehousing which would be guided by principles of direct sourcing from
farmers, cleaning, grading, packing, processing, scientific storage through
capacity building and infrastructure creation.

Ruchi Soya Industries Ltd.


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HISTORY
Ruchi Soya Industries, a company which has been in the business of edible
oils for over two decades. They are offering a cooking medium to match the
various tastes of this vast and varied nation. They are the leader in edible oil
and soya food businesses in India. They are the first exporter of Soya Bean
Meal from India. They are the also leading manufacturer of Textured Soya
Protein and Vanaspati.

At Present, Ruchi Soya Industries has only one subsidiary namely Ruchi
worldwide Ltd. The company plants are located at Indore, Shajapur,
Narsinghpur and Mandla in Madhya Pradesh, Mangalore in Karnataka,
Raigad and Nagpur in Maharashtra, Haldia in West Bengal, Gandhidham in
Gujarat, Thiruvallur in Tamilnadu, Sriganganagar and Bundi in Rajasthan.

Ruchi, a pioneer Soya Processor Group started operations in the year 1972-
73. In the year 1986 the company became a Public Limited company. In
March 1991, the Production in Vanaspati Plant, Edible Soya flour and Oil
Commenced with capacity of 7,500 MT, 60,000 MT, 12,000 MT
respectively.

During the year1991-92, the Company increased their existing capacity of


Textured Soya Protein by 12,000 MT to 24,000 MT and Vanaspati by 7,500
MT to 15,000 MT. Also they commenced the production in their Lecithin
Plant during the year.

During the year 1992-93, the company increased the production capacity of
Vanaspati from 15,000 MT to 30,000 MT. Also they installed Soyabean
Extraction with a capacity of 60,000 MT. In the year 1994-95, the production
capacity of oil has been increased from 30,000 tpa to 55,000 tpa and
Soyabean Extraction from 60,000 tpa to 1,85,000 tpa. In the year 1995-96,
they further increased the production capacity of Soya bean extraction, oils
and Vanaspati by 2,47,000 tpa, 53,000 tpa, and 22,500 tpa respectively.

In the year 1997-98, the company launched two new brands namely
SUNRICH for Sunflower Refined Edible Oil and RUCHI GOLD for Refined
Edible Palmolein Oil. In the year 1998-99, the Company launched two
products namely Ruchi Sona and Ruchi Star.

In the year 1999-2000, the company has invested in equity shares of Ruchi
Health Foods Ltd which has become wholly owned subsidiary of the
company. Also in the same year, Imperial Exports Ltd has ceased to be a
subsidiary of the company.

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In the same year, one of the subsidiary company has set up a Refinery unit
near Chennai which has commenced commercial production in the month of
January, 2000. The Company has also increased the capacity of Vanaspati by
70000 MT during this period.

During the Year 2001-2002, the Company has set up a composite unit
comprising of Refinery, Vanaspati and Texturised Vegetable Protein Plants at
Mangalore. The production capacity of Texturised Soya proteins has been
increased by 30,000 MT to 54,000 MT and Oil by 189000 MT to 297000
MT.

During the Year 2002-2003 the capacity of Soyabean Extraction, Oil and
Vanaspati has increased to 555,000, 687,000 and 172,500 respectively.
During the year 2003-2004 the Company set up a composite Unit Comprising
of edible oil refinery and Vanaspati Plant at Raigad in Maharashtra. The
Company acquired a Solvent Extraction Plant at Sriganganagar in Rajasthan
through its Wholly owned Subsidiary Aneja Solvex Ltd during the year.

In the same year, the company has launched two new product in the bakery
segment namely Avanti and Bakefat. Also they launched Nutrela Proflo
defatted soya flour, which offers the consumers another option to include
soya in their diet.

During the year 2004-2005, the company has set up a solvent extraction plant
and refinery unit at Nagpur in Maharashtra. The Company has also
commissioned wind turbine of 1.2 MW capacity at Nagda Hills, Dewas in
Madhyapradesh for generation of Power for captive use. The Capacity of
Textured Soya Proteins, Seed Extraction, Oils, were also increased to 84,000
MT, 10,47,000 MT and 11,01,000 MT respectively.

In the year 2005-06, General Foods Limited, Ruchi Health Foods Limited,
Ruchi Credit Corporation Limited, Aneja Solvex Limited, Param Industries
Limited and Ruchi Private Limited have been amalgamated with Ruchi Soya
Industries Limited. The SVF business of Anik Industries Limited formerly
known as Madhya Pradesh Glychem Industries Limited has also been
acquired by the Company on slump sale basis.

In the same year, the company has increased their production capacity for
Textured Soya Proteins by 30000 MT to 114000 MT, Seed Extraction by
847224 MT to 1894224 MT, Oil by 951000 MT to 2052000 MT and for
Vanaspati by 237000 MT to 469500 MT.
Food business sales comprising Nutrela and branded oils. From Rs

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5,544 crore in 2011-12, the company steadily increased the
contribution of branded sales to Rs 9,094 crore in 2015-16.

An unprecedented crash in global prices of the castor seed in January last year —
of Rs 3,051 per quintal from a high of Rs 5,100 in January 2015 — coupled with
falling revenues in the oil business dealt a crippling blow to the agri-food FMCG
company. For the first time since it was founded in 1986, Ruchi Soya crashed into
the red in the year ended March 2016, with a loss of Rs 878.7 crore. Debt
ballooned to Rs 4,513.8 crore from Rs 2,568.05 crore two years back.

Ruchi Soya as on 2019 is the second largest producer of edible oils in India
and holds 14% of the total market share second to Adani Wilmar.

THE SOYA REVOLUTION

In early 1960s, when Mr. Mahadev Shahra went about convincing


farmers in M.P., about the potential of Soya, he would not have
imagined that he will be instrumental in bringing up a small green
revolution in the State, by introducing and encouraging Soya bean
cultivation on a commercial scale. The family was in the business of
commodities trading and subsequently, they entered the business of
ginning and oil milling. The family's efforts, along with that of the
others, resulted in Soya revolution in M.P. Today M.P. is considered
as Soya bowl of the country, and contributes to 70% of its production.
Despite all odds, Ruchi Soya is now the largest player in the country
in edible oils, Soya foods and processed foods categories. This is
largely due to its strict quality commitment and continuous innovation
to keep with the times. Also, Ruchi Soya has evolved from being a
large manufacturing firm to a respected brand. Its Nutrela and Ruchi
Gold brands have captured leading positions in the Soya foods and
edible oils categories respectively. Ruchi Soya has also ventured into
other businesses like bakery specialties, where it foresees a big
potential for growth. With Ruchi's innate manufacturing and logistics
advantages, and its foray into the branded sector, one only sees
immense potential for growth in the future

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VISION OF RUCHI SOYA

• We will strive to become India's No.1 packaged goods company in


related businesses of Edible oils and Soya based food products.
• We will constantly explore innovative methods of driving growth &
profitability.
• We will maintain overall leadership position in the Edible Oils &
Soya Foods Industries.
• Our promise to the consumer is to provide him/her with value for
money product at the lowest cost, with utmost quality assurance

RUCHI'S MARKETING STRENGTHS

The extensive distribution network, built over the years, is a major


strength for Ruchi. Catering nationally through 3 Lac retail stores,
with 38 Company depots, 36 Super Stockiest and a sales staff of
over 200, Ruchi has attempted to penetrate depth wise, along with
opening new markets. With its emphasis on providing value goods
to consumers, Ruchi's dual strategy of popular and premium range
works well. Ruchi Gold is our value for money offering but with
no compromise in quality. This positioning helps generate large
sales volumes for the products. Nutrela series is more premium,
and offers healthy options in soya foods and edible oils. This dual
strategy is based on our cultivated understanding of the Indian
consumer psyche.
We also have a firm footing in modern retail due to our undivided
focus on new channels of distribution. With our alliances with big
players like Pantaloon and visible presence in all leading national
and regional supermarkets, we hope to grow our consumer base
and product portfolio.

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RUCHI’S REFINING AND CRUSHING STRENGTHS

Ruchi Soya is one of the few edible oil companies in the country that
has a balanced mix of inland and port based refineries. This enables it
to optimize production depending upon the availability of cheaper
alternatives – local oilseeds or imported crude oil. Moreover, multi-
location refineries have reduced road travel costs leading to
significant transportation cost advantage. Ruchi Soya has fifteen
refineries and ten inland crushing plants.

STRENGTHS OF BRANDS

Over the years, Company has grown to become a multi-million US


Dollar company. Two of our strongest brands, Nutrela and Ruchi Gold
are category leaders.

Nutrela, the biggest Soya foods brand in the country, enjoys more
than 50% of the market share. It has enjoyed the trust of consumers
for last 20 years now, and continues to expand its range to cater to
varying needs of its consumers. It has become generic to the soya
category. We have effortlessly strived to educate people about health
and goodness of Soya as our firm commitment is to provide healthy
solutions to the consumers.

Edible oils brands like Ruchi Gold and Nutrela Soyumm enjoy mass
acceptability and acclaim from the people. Ruchi Gold is the leader in
the palmoline category. As a part of packaged goods thrust, ‘Ruchi
Gold' was introduced about 6 years back in Chennai. The market
share in southern states ranges from 50 to 85%. The brand has grown
from35% to 40% CAGR since its introduction. Today, it enjoys the
number one position in branded palmoline oil category.

Nutrela Soyumm ranks in the top three soya oils category, and
continues to strive to reach the top position. Both brands symbolize
health and quality.It is also leader in the vanaspati category with
brands like Ruchi No 1 and have also ventured into bakery and
special fats category.

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RUCHI'S EXPORTS

Ruchi Soya is the Flagship Company of Ruchi Group, a pioneer Soya


Processor group, which started operating back in 1972-73 and is the
first exporter of Soyabean Meal from India.

Ruchi is one of the largest crushers of Soya beans in India, and has
installed a crushing capacity of 4150 mts. per day in Indore, which is
the largest crushing capacity at a single location. On a yearly basis,
Ruchi crushes 25% of the soy crop in India. This has lead to the
export of 30% of India's Soya bran meal on a yearly basis. Soya meal
is the crushed seed after the oil has been extracted. It has a big export
market, and is used to feed cattle/chicken. It also accounts to the
export of value added products like the edible defatted soy flour, full
fatted edible flour, Soya lecithin, Soya granules and Soya chunks. All
the products are made from non GMO beans. The countries of exports
include Indonesia, Vietnam, South Korea, Thailand, Philippines,
Japan, Taiwan and all the Gulf countries, apart from those in the
Indian subcontinent.
Ruchi's Soya Products
Ruchi Soya Industries Limited (RSIL) has a large team of experts,
technicians, scientists, administrators who are involved from the very
beginning of the process of selection of soyabeans, processing and
transporting them to most advanced plants. The products are produced
under the supervision of an expert. The competent quality control team
keeps close watch right from the beginning to dispatch to the dealers.

The Company offers a great range of products in Soya foods and Oils as
well. Its range of Soya Foods include Nutrela Soya Chunks, Nutrela Soya
Mini Chunks, Nutrela Soya Granules, Defatted Soya Flour, etc. The range of
oil offers a variety of low cholesterol health prone products such as
Soyumm (Pure refined Soyabean Oil), Sunrich & Pamban(Refine Sunflower
Oil), Nutrela Vanaspati, Mandap (Pure refined mustard oil ).It also offers
Soya products such as Prosoy (Soyabean Meal) and Ruchithin.

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EDIBLE OIL MARKET IN INDIA

India accounts for 9.3 percent of world oilseed production. It has the world’s
fourth largest edible oil economy. Yet, about 43 percent of edible oil available in
India is imported. In 1999 India ranked as the world’s largest importer of edible
oils, displacing China. The bulk of edible oil India imports under the Open
General License (OGL) are RBD Palmolein of Malaysian and Indonesian
origin.
India has approximately 300 crude edible oil refining units. 60-70 percent
of which are small. Unlike the bigger refiners. The small ones are unable to
import huge quantities of crude either due to their low capacity or lack of
financial resources, and may be forced to close down or sell out to the
bigger ones in the foreseeable future.

The total import of edible oils during the period form November 1998 to
October 1999 totaled 4.4 million tones valued at more than Rs. 9.000 crores.
That was against a demand –supply gap of 1.4 million tones in 1998-99.
Imports have therefore deluged the market.

The import of relined palm oil was put under OGL (Open general License) in
March 1994. Other edible oils were put under OGL in April 1995 (when an item
is brought under OGL, it means that the item can be imported without seeking
any approval).

Originally, there was no discrimination between refined and non refined edible
oil as far as import duty concerned. The duty on both was 65 percent. Duty was
the slashed to 30 percent for both, then to 20 percent in 1996 and 15 percent in
then 1999-2000 budgets.

On December 30, 1999 a differential duty structure was introduced. Duty on


refined oil was fixed at 27.5 percent (25 percent plus 10 percent surcharge)
while that on crude was retained at 16.5 percent (15 percent plus 10 percent

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surcharge) But only actual users (as opposed to traders) are allowed to avail of
this reduced duty on crude oil. Traders are nevertheless allowed to import crude
at the reduced duty but only to sell to actual users on a high seas basis. This
requires that the actual users fills in the import documents (and pays the reduced
duty) but leaves the importing process to the trader.

In most parts of the world, the import duty on oilseeds is lower than that on oils.
But, in India it is higher 40 percent. That is why no import of oilseeds of oil
bearing material has taken place in India. The industry wants the duty to be
lowered from the present 40 percent to 5 percent.

Edible oils prices in the Indian market have crashed due to large imports by
multinational trading houses see table.

Oilseeds and edible oils are two of the most sensitive essential commodities.
India is one of the largest producers of oilseeds in the world and this sector
occupies an important position in the agricultural economy and accounting for
the estimated production of 28.21 million tonnes of nine cultivated oilseeds.

IMPORTANCE OF EDIBLE OILS IN THE COUNTRY’S


ECONOMY

Oilseeds and edible oils are two of the most sensitive essential commodities.
India is one of the largest producers of oilseeds in the world and this sector
occupies an important position in the agricultural economy and accounting for
the estimated production of 25.14 million tonnes of nine cultivated oilseeds
during the year 2003-2004. India contributes about 8-9% of the world oilseeds
production. Export of oil meals, oilseeds and minor oils has increased from
2.28, million tones in the financial years 2003-2004. In terms of value,
realization has gone up from Rs.2653/- crores to Rs.5447/- crores. India
accounted for about 6.4% of world oil meal export.

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India is fortunate in having a wide range of oilseeds crops grown in its
Different agro climate zones. Groundnuts, mustard/rapeseed, sesame,
safflower, linseed, Niger seed/ castor are the major traditionally oilseeds.
Soya been and sunflower have also assumed importance in recent years.
Coconut is most important amongst the plantation crops. Efforts are being
made to grow oil palm in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu in
addition to Kerala and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Among the non-
conventional oils, rice bran oil and cottonseed oil are the most important.
In additional, oilseeds of tree and forest origin, which grow mostly in tribal
inhabited areas, are also a significant source of oils.

TYPICAL % COMPOSITION OF SOYABEAN OIL

Saturates 15

Monounsaturated 23

Polyunsaturated 62

What are soybeans?


Soybeans belong to the legume family and are native to East Asia. They have
been an important protein source in the Orient for over five thousand years.
Soybeans have only been introduced to the Western world since the 20th
century. Soybeans grow on a variety of soils and a wide range of climates,
ranging from tropical Brazil to the snowy island Hokkaido in the north of
Japan. As soybeans mature in the pod, they ripen into hard, dry beans.
Although most soybeans are yellow, there are also rare varieties which are
black, brown or green coloured. A given area of land planted with soybeans
can produce much more protein than land planted with other crops, or if
the land were used to raise cattle.

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Storing soybeans - Fresh soybeans, or edamame, should be refrigerated and
used within two days. Frozen edamame can be stored in the freezer for
several months. Dried soybeans can be kept in an airtight container for a
very long period.

Cooking soybeans - Soybeans are most often transformed in other foods


such as tempeh, tofu, miso, shoyu, soy milk or other food ingredients.
However, cooked soybeans can also be used as an ingredient in soups,
sauces and stews. To prepare two cups of soybeans for cooking, soak them
in about six cups of water for about eight hours. This soaking shortens the
cooking time, improves the texture and appearance of the beans and
removes some of the indigestible sugars. Drain, rinse and cook the soaked
soybeans in about six cups of fresh water. Do not add salt at this point or it
will delay the softening of the soybeans. Pressure-cook the soaked
soybeans for about 40 min. When you cook soybeans, make it worth your
while by cooking two or three times what you need and freezing the rest for
later use.
In processing soybeans for oil extraction and subsequent soy flour production,
selection of high quality, sound, clean, dehulled yellow soybeans is very
important. Soybeans having a dark colored seed coat, or even beans with a
dark hilum will inadvertently leave dark specks in the flour, and are undesirable
for use in commercial food products. All commercial soybeans in the United
States are yellow or yellow brown.
To produce soybean oil, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture
content, rolled into flakes and solvent-extracted with commercial hexane. The
oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and
sometimes hydrogenated.
The major unsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil triglycerides are 7% linolenic
acid (C-18:3); 51% linoleic acid (C-18:2); and 23% oleic acid(C-18:1). It also
contains the saturated fatty acids 4% stearic acid and 10% palmitic acid.
Soybean oil has a relatively high proportion, 7–10%, of oxidation-prone
linolenic acid, which is an undesirable property for continuous service, such as
in a restaurant. In the early nineties, Iowa State University developed soybean
oil with 1% linolenic acid in the oil. Three companies, Monsanto
Company, DuPont/Bunge, and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic, (C18:3;
cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 octadecatrienoic acid) Roundup Ready soybeans. In the
past, hydrogenation was used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenic acid, but
this produced the unnatural trans-fatty acid configuration, whereas in nature

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the configuration is cis (see trans fat). This external picture from North Dakota
State University compares soybean oil fatty acid content with other oils.

Soyabean Oil
Soyabean oil is the world's largest source of vegetable oil. It is grown

extensively in the U.S.A., as well as South America and China. The North

American Soya harvest, which takes place around October each year,

historically tends to determine the prices of most other major oils, although in

recent years the North American crop has increasingly come under pressure

from South American Soya, which is harvested about March, and from

European Rapeseed, which is harvested about July. Soyabean is also

extensively grown in India. Madhya Pradesh is known to be the Soya bowl of

the country.

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Soyumm (Ultra Refined Soya Oil)
It is pure sparkling, odourless oil manufactured from selected golden yellow
Soyabean With sophisticated, advanced, most modern technology preserving
and enchanting natural flavour, taste and nutritive value of the food stuff
cooked. It is healthy medium of cooking and recipes. High in nutrition, low in
calories It is high in poly - unsaturates with approximately 55% and low in
saturates.

One tbsp of Soyumm gives approximately 120 calories. It has 15% less
saturated fatty acids hence it helps in controlling cholesterol levels. It is rich in
vitamin E. According to medical experts, it is good source of essential amino
acids, which are required for good health. Boon for cooking medium In
chemical terms, it is tasteless but develops taste of the recipes cooked. not have
It adds to the nutritive value of the food cooked making it more tasteful. Earns
admiration of the Housewives and cooks alike. It prepares nutritious, health
effective recipes maintaining wholesome taste. Guests and host will enjoy the
dishes in their natural enhanced flavor cooked in sparkling clear, odourless
flavor preserving cooking medium of Soyumm. Cookshanced flavor cooked in
sparkling clear, odourless flavor preserving cooking medium of Soyumm.
Cooks will earn smile and admiration.

Universal Cooking Medium Soya oil is used world wide as a cooking medium.
Most of the hotels, restaurants, eateries use Soya oil as cooking medium. You
must have tasted recipes cooked in Soya oil but find the difference in dishes
cooked in Soyumm. It stands unique.

It is economical and you home ministry and finance ministry will love it.
Applicable and availability Ruchi’s Soyumm is available in bulk for industrial
use such as in manufacture of mayonnaise, salad dressing, margarines,
vanaspati, shortenings, surface coating and fish canning industries. For domestic
use, it is available in 15 kg tins and branded consumer packs of ½ lt. and 1 lt.
poly packs at all wholesale and retail outlets.

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RSIL-BOARD OF DIRECTORS
 Chairman Kailash Shahra
 Managing Director Dinesh Shahra
 Director P D Nagar, S P Joshi, A B Rao
 Company Secretary R L Gupta

Refinery Department at RUCHI SOYA


INDUSTRY

Various Posts and Employees (Refinery Section):


Production manager : Mr. Sudheer Gupta

Shift Incharge : Mr. Suresh Singh Kushwaha

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PACKING DEPARTMENT
REFINERY PLANT

SEP DEPT. SOLVENT


EXTRACTION PLANT

TECHNICAL
DEPARTMENTS

BASIC PROCEDURE:
The SEP dept crushes the soya seeds and then using hexane solvent
carries out crude soya oil as the final product. This crude oil is the
basic raw material for the refinery plant. Getting refined soya oil from
the crude oil is refining. This Refined oil is then transferred to the
packing Dept. Where according to demands suitability and needs the
refined oil is packed into tins, container, jams, bottles, pouches etc.

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EXTRACTION OF CRUDE OIL FROM SOYABEAN

SOYA SEEDS
CRUS
H
Hexene solvent is used

To extract oil From the


Soya seeds

HEXENE

+
VAPORISATION
SOYA OIL (CRUDE)

CRUDE OIL HEXENE IS REMOVED


(FINAL
PRODUCT)

REFINING

REFINED SOYABEAN OIL

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REFINERY

Refinery is basically getting refined oil from the crude oil. Oil refineries are
large scale plants, processing about a hundred thousand to several hundred
thousand barrels of crude oil a day. Because of the high capacity, many of the
units operate continuously, as opposed to processing in batches, at steady
state or nearly steady state for months to years. The high capacity also
makes process optimization and advanced process control very desirable.

REFINERY AT A GLANCE:
CRUDE OIL

DEGUMMING

NEUTRALIZATION
AND WASHING

BLEACHING SECTION

DEDORISATION

REFINED OIL

ACTIVITY/OPERATION ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS


 DEGUMMING ;REMOVAL OF  OIL SPILLAGE OF GUMS AND OIL

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GUMS
 SPILLAGE OF GUMS AND
 LECITHIN PRODUCTION
 OIL,GREASE,DUST,WASTE
 MAINTENANCE OF PLANT AND COTTON,SPILLAGE OF OIL
MACHINERY
 SPILLAGE OF OIL,SOAP,PHOSPHORIC
 REFINING(NEUTRALIZATION) ACID,CAUSTIC & WASH WATER.

 GENERATION & STORAGE OF SPENT


 BLEACHING EARTH.

 IMPROPER DISPOSAL
 DISPOSAL OF SPENT EARTH

 SPILLAGE OF FATTY ACID,DISTIALTE


 DEDORISATION AND OIL;GENERATION OF DISPOSAL
BAGS

 VARIOUS CLEANING ACTIVITIES


 GENERATION OF OIL SOAKED
COTTON WASTE;SPILLAGE ALONG
WID WASHING WATER

 FILLING
 SPILLAGE OF OIL;WASTAGE OF
PACKING MATERIAL

 DISPOSAL OF GENERATED
WASTE  IMPROPER DISPOSAL

 ACID OIL(STORAGE OF  SPILLAGE;BURSTING IN TANK DUE


CHEMICALS) TO LONGER LIFE

26
BASIC STRUCTURE OF REFINERY PLANT

27
Process Description

Neutralizing:
The incoming oil is first heated in the Feed Economizer by outgoing bleached
or deodorized oil or in the Feed Heater during start-up. Next it is intensively
mixed with phosphoric acid in the high shear Acid Mixer (Acid Conditioning)
to optimize precipitation of gums and trace metals. When appropriate the oil
temperature is reduced in the Reaction Cooler. Caustic soda solution (lye) is
mixed with the conditioned oil in the Lye Mixer, which neutralizes the acid as
well as the free fatty acids in the oil.The treated oil enters the
Degumming/Neutralizing Reactor where the reaction continues and the soap
and precipitated materials agglomerate.

The mixture of oil and soap flocks is gently discharged via the Separation
Heater to the Gum/Soap Separator. There the heavy phase soap with entrained
impurities is removed and sent to intermediate storage.The neutralized oil is
sent directly to bleaching if this process incorporates the use of soap adsorbing
adsorbents to supplement regular bleaching earths. If not, the oil must first be
water washed, i.e. heated, mixed with water and centrifuged in a second
separator not shown in this drawing.

DEGUMMING:
When applied as the first step of physical refining, the process depends on the
type and quality of the feed stock. Most oils can be treated in a fashion similar
to neutralizing. The main difference is that the amount of caustic is reduced to
the point that the acid added to the oil is neutralized and only a small amount of
soap is created in the oil. This method is referred to as Special Degumming.

In some cases, such as when processing certain expeller pressed and organic
oils, it is not necessary or acceptable to enhance the removal of gums by adding
caustic. This process is called Acid Degumming and typically uses using citric
acid. In other cases, such as when physically refining oils with low gum
contents, the conditioned oil does not need to be centrifuged and can be sent
directly to bleaching from the Conditioning Reactor. This process is referred to
as Acid Conditioning or Dry Degumming.

28
29
BLEACHING:
Incoming degummed or neutralized oil is heated in the Bleaching Heater before
entering the Adsorbent Mix Tank where it is mixed with a special soap and gum
attracting adsorbent (silica). The oil and adsorbent mixture enters the Pre-
filtration Dryer where the moisture in the oil and adsorbent is evaporated.

The dry oil and adsorbent mixture is filtered in one of the three Adsorbent
Filters removing the spent adsorbent. This filter has previously been used to
separate bleaching earth and already has a layer ("packed bed") of earth on the
leaves that is still active. This first filtration results in a "press effect" that starts
the bleaching process (Pre-Bleaching) before fresh earth has been added. When
combined with the silica treatment, this reduces earth consumption by as much
as 50%. In cases when the special adsorbents are not available, the Mix Tank
and Discharge Pump are simply by-passed. Most of the savings from Pre-
Bleaching are still realized.

The filtered oil is further heated in the Bleaching Heater before entering the
Bleacher where it is mixed with bleaching earth.

The earth adsorbs pro-oxidants, color bodies and other residual impurities. The
Bleacher has multiple agitated compartments and also operates under vacuum to
ensure complete moisture and air removal.

The oil and earth mixture is filtered in another one of the three Adsorbent
Filters. The bleached and filtered oil is sent to intermediate storage via one of
the alternating Polish Filters and, typically, an economizer located upstream in
degumming or neutralizing.

The system includes three filters of which two are on line (one for adsorbent
and pre-bleaching, the other for bleaching earth) while the third is being cleaned
and prepared for the next cycle. A filter begins its cycle by filtering oil from the
Bleacher. When a layer of earth has been accumulated on the filter leaves, the
flow from the Bleacher is switched to a fresh filter. The partially filled filter,
now with a "packed bed" of bleaching earth, is then ready to be used for
removing adsorbent as described above. When the filter that is on line for this
purpose has reached its maximum capacity it is taken off line for cleaning and
replaced by the next partially filled filter.

30
DEDORISATION:
The incoming oil is pre-heated by deodorized oil in the Deaerating Economizer
before entering the packed column type Deaerator. The deaerated oil is further
heated by hot deodorized oil in the Deodorizing Economizer and finally by
high-pressure steam under vacuum and steam agitation in the Vacuum Heater.
Some of the free fatty acids are flashed off in the heater as the oil temperature
increases.

The fully heated oil enters the Double Shell Packed Column (DSPC) where it is
distributed into thin film layers as it flows down through the structured packing.
The oil is intensively agitated by steam rising counter currently from the bottom
of the column. As a result, free fatty acids and other volatile impurities in the oil
are evaporated and removed with the steam. The stripped oil drains into the
Deodorizer where it flows through a series of vertically stacked compartments
(trays) agitated by steam. The prolonged thermal action (heat bleaching) breaks
down color bodies thereby lightening the oil’s color. Also, the amount of free
fatty acids is reduced to an absolute minimum. The retention time in the
Deodorizer is adjustable.

The heat bleached oil is pre-cooled in the Deodorizing Economizer and then
mixed with anti-oxidant before entering the packed column type Post
Deodorizer. Residual flavor altering compounds and water from the anti-oxidant
solution are vaporized and removed. The oil is cooled to storage temperature in
the Deaerating Economizer and Product Cooler and then sent to storage via one
of the alternating Product Filters.

Fatty acids and other materials evaporated from the oil are condensed by contact
with recycled and cooled distillate in the Scrubber and collected in the Distillate
Receiver.

31
Quality Check :
 Crude Oil Fatty acid(%) ; Colour ; Moisture content ;
Sediment ; Gums

 After Degumming Gums

 After Neutralization
Fatty acid content

 After Bleacher
Colour

Fatty acid
 Deo Section

Fatty acid; Colour; Moisture content;


 Refined oil Peroxide value

Quality is very strictly checked very frequently after every of these processes.
The motive behind doing so is to maintain the prestige in the market by
providing the best quality. There is no compromise with quality. To ensure
consistently in the quality of various products manufactured at Kota and to

Further improve the quality of its various products; company has very good
quality control systems together with the research and development department
which is comparable to the best in the country.

32
FLOW CHART FOR UNLOADING CRUDE OIL:

33
sINPUO a rn em (l pa a r r r a n g e m e n t o f
IM S
pataou ltia e on nk e r s &
No

Material Returned

P ro
codt hfi n e c
hkcg e a s m m a l s ,w e i g h m e n
Gs R N
t o f l o a d e d ta n k e r )
FLOW CHART FOR “LECITHIN PROCESS”

34
CLPMS ac rc a k
reip xn
i g ;
ucSis n u t or fr a a
digc t ee ; H
g
ehaTe an td
Giae xe c s h p
D
unana nt c g h e
mk
s
PROCESS FLOW CHART OF REFINERY
( CHEMICAL)
35
WATER DEGUMMING
NEUTRALIZATION

WASHING

NEUTRAL OIL

BLEACHING

FILTERATION

DEDORISATION

POLISH FILTER

STORAGE

36
Process Parameters and Specifications for Refinery

1. Parameter Check of Neutralization and Washing


 Oil flow rate:5000-11000 L/Hr.
 Inlet oil temp. : (60-75) for Degumming;(75-85)for Neutralization
 Phosphoric acid dosing: (08-.15 %) of flow rate
 Washing flow rate:10-15% of flow rate
 Hot water temp. : 80-90 C
 Vaccum in VD: 600-700 mm of Hg
 Pressure of LP stream: 3 Kgf /sq. Cm

2. Parameter check for Bleacher:


 Bleacher temp. : 95-100 C
 Bleaching oil outlet temp. : 90-100 C
 Bleaching earth addition: .5 to 2% of oil quantity
 Oil pressure in PLF : 1-3.5 Kgf/sq.cm
 Vaccum bleacher- 600-700 mm of Hg

3. Parameter Check for Dedorisation:


 Vaccum in Deo:v740-757 mm of Hg
 Thermic Fluid : Forward-280 and Return-265C
 Oil temp. In Deo:230-235 C
 Outlet oil temp. : 50 C (max.)

37
4. Parameter check for Utility:
 Barometric water pressure: 1-2.5 KgF /sq. Cm
 Barometric water temp. : 32 C
 Stream pressure at header: 8-12 KgF /sq. Cm
 Cooling water pressure:1-3 KgF /Sq. Cm
 Cooling water temp. : 32 C
 Air Pressure : 5-7 KgF /Sq. Cm

Targets for the year (18-19) Refinery:


05-06 06-07 07-08 08-09 18-19

Steam(Kg/ton) 715 678 656 625 330

39.44 38.91 38.26 38 30


Power(u/ton)

Caustic lye(kg/ton)
2.88 2.74 2.54 2.25 1.5

Bleaching
14.22 11.3 10.25 10 2- 2.5
Earth(Kg/ton)

38
Distribution Network
The end-users of our products are: households and institutional buyers
[catering / hospitality / processed food / snacks] set-ups. RSIL has set up a
strong distribution network of Company Distributors and Super Stockists for its
retail operations. This chain helps to tap even the small retailers/traders and thus
increasing our reach. The company has a distribution network of over three lakh
retail stores. Going ahead, the company also plans to set up Rs 100-crore 20
MW wind power plant by March 2008, which would bring down the operational
costs. And Rs 275 crore infusion by promoters and strategic investors through
warrants will also fuel its expansion. However, being in the oil trade, the
company is exposed to foreign exchange risk on account of imports for sale in
domestic markets and also its export business. But with use of hedging options,
the company has been ensuring a cushioning impact on its sales.

FLOW CHART FOR DISTRIBUTION NETWORK

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New initiatives continued…
 Entry into Rs. 120 bn Mustard Oil market
 Capacity ramp-up to 850 TPD.
 Target 20% Market Share.
 Palm Plantation.
 Contract Farming.
 Emerging Biofuel opportunities
 Scale comparable to any global play
 Integrated operations
 Strong stable of branded portfolio
 Sufficient funds availability
 Professional management
 And aggressive growth plans

… is set to redefine
the traction

40
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS

Ruchi Soya Industries Limited (RSIL) has a large team of experts, technicians,
scientists,administrators who are involved from the very beginning of the
process of selection of soyabeans, processing and transporting them to most
advanced plants. The products are produced under the supervision of an expert.
The competent quality control team keeps close watch right from the beginning
to dispatch to the dealers.The products are marketed throughout the country and
even in wide range international markets. Strict quality control has developed
enhanced faith, reliability and confidence of customers in the Ruchi products.

The Refinery Plant at Ruchi Soya Industries Ltd. is well managed, equipped,
maintained and organized. The plant management is totally under production
manager, under which comes the shift incharge according to whose directions
and orders the operators works to run the machinery. The quality is checked
very frequently by the incharge and manager after all the main processes say
neutralization, washing, bleacher, deodorization. The bye-products are also
utilized either by reusing them or by selling them to other industries to which it
may be useful of. Hence, everything is well managed here.

The break down of Refinery plant arises mainly due to power failure,
mechanical fault and due to non availability of steam. The machine runs 24*7
and during break down the refinery procedure is badly affected. In order to give
maximum output break downs due to steam unavailability may be declined and
RSIL may have its own power plant of its own so such kind of break downs
may also be overcome. Also, Regarding the introduction of new products, the
company should go for aggressive marketing. There is a lot of potential in Soya
Refined oil segment, but retailers are not even aware of our product

41
References:

 Today's Refinery, the journal of record of the petroleum


industry's refining sector from Percy Publishing Inc.
 SOYBEANS AND SOYBEAN PRODUCTS-by KLARE
 REFINERY RESEARCH CORPORATION
 BUSINESS TODAY
 GREEN AND TULL,MARKETING RESEARCH
 Guide to Refinery Process Technologies(Second Edition)
-By Hardeep Hundal and Jeroen Buren

o Gary, J.H. and Handwerk, G.E. (1984). Petroleum Refining


Technology and Economics, 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker,

 Oil refineries in the 21st century -By Ozren Ocic

 http://www.enewsbuilder.net
 www.ruchisoya.com
 http://agresearch.tennessee.edu/Research.asp?t=Refinery-
17.0KB - System Administration
 http://taes.utk.edu/Research.asp?t=refinery- 17.0KB – Knoxville

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