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QUALITY PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) is the technique, adopted by most of the companies, which helps to establish the steps necessary to assure that a product satisfies the customer. The goals of product quality planning are effective communication in a team with everyone involved, on time completion of all required steps, minimal or no quality problem. APQP should be used as a guideline to utilize the resources towards customer satisfaction, to identify the required changes early, to provide a quality product on time at competitive cost. Effective product quality planning depends on a company’s top management commitment to the effort required in achieving customer satisfaction.
The purpose of this workshop is to provide individuals and teams with the knowledge and skills to the different phases of APQP requirement. The training program covers Plan and Define program, Product design and development, Process design and development, Product and Process validation, Feedback assessment and Corrective action.
After completion of this workshop, participant will be able to: 1. Explain the importance of thinking. 2. Understand different stages of APQP 3. Able to take decision fast
The participant manual was designed for use in the context of an instructor-led workshop and as a reference outside the workshop. All presentations are in transparent sheet material. It was not designed as a self-study text. This material should not be photocopied without the permission of author. Also this material should not be shown or given to any Consultant or Consultancy Organization.
Dr. S Bhuniya
In some cases. 3 . the new product development will be considered.Product design and development Phase III. Effective product quality planning depends on a company’s top management commitment to the effort required in achieving customer satisfaction.Product and Process validation Phase V. The quotation package will be prepared & submitted to the customer for acceptance. the same is submitted. An initial feasibility study. when the customer requires some sample parts before submitting the quotation.Process design and development Phase IV.Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) What is APQP? Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) is a structured method of defining and establishing the steps necessary to assure that a product satisfies the customer. 3. Phase –I ( Plan and Define the Program) 1. 5. to enable to do a preliminary feasibility study. The cost estimation will be done for the new product. sample parts etc. Phases of APQP Phase I. preliminary process flow & risk assessment are done based on the checklist to evaluate the suitability of designing and manufacturing the new product. This initial feasibility and risk assessment will be done in a team. specifications. * minimal product launch quality risk Benefits of APQP * Resources are directed towards customer satisfaction * Required changes are identified early * A quality product on time at competitive cost. The qualities planning activities starts once the customers conforms the orders either verbally or give it in writing. 2. Based on the initial feasibility studies. Objectives of APQP The goals of product quality planning are * effective communication in a team with everyone involved * on time completion of all required steps * minimal or no quality problem.Plan and Define program Phase II. Organization will interface with the customer& get all the necessary customer inputs like customer drawings. 4.Feedback assessment and Corrective action.
The following are the outputs are the end of phase-1 of APQP: * Customer inputs like drawings. then the selection will be done. If the customer requires the APQP status reporting form to be sent to him at a determined frequency. Organizer will ensure that all customer standards like packaging standards. This chart will show all the activities of APQP in detail along with the responsibilities. 8. Organizer will prepare the Bill of Material for the new product. 4 . The progress of the product introduction is also monitored using this chart. 10. Organizer will combine feasibility review & quality system requirements review. If any new subcontractors are required. Organizer will select the subcontractors from the Approved subcontractors list. specs. 12. 9. Organizer will review the existing Family data sheet and decide the part families for the new product for all components made in-house. The program need dates and the supplier timing dates are planned depending on when the customer requires the product. Management review will be conducted by organizer to ensure the adequacy of all the activities conducted during Phase-1. start-date and end-date. Quality system development of existing subcontractors will be done. Based on the BOM and the similarity of the new product components with the existing ones. Organizer will conduct a Quality system requirements review with the customer to ensure that all TS 16949:2002 system requirements are clarified and any additional customer specific requirements are required. inspection standards are received from the customer. and correspondences * Initial feasibility and risk assessment checklist * Quotation * Customer’s Purchase order * Contract and feasibility review checklist * Quality system review checklist * New product planning and introduction Gantt chart * Bill of Material * Family data sheet * APQP status reporting form * List of subcontractors * Customer specified special characteristics 14. Organizer will initiate the APQP Status reporting form. Organizer will ensure that the status reporting form are sent to the customer as per the agreed frequency. 7. Organizer will prepare a detailed Product quality planning and introduction Gantt chart. 11. Product development with the subcontractors (new/existing) will be done. engineering standards. 13.6. The team will do a detailed contract and feasibility review based on the customer confirmation and order placement.
Management review will be conducted at the end of Phase-2 to ensure the adequacy of all the activities done during phase-2. 17. which have to be given to the subcontractor.Phase II. 20. Organization will ensure that the existing gauges/measuring equipment is capable of measuring the characteristics for the new product made. Facilities planning and review will be done. 19. If any new test equipment is required. 18. This also includes any tooling/dies/fixtures. Organization prepares detailed drawing using customer drawing / sample wherever required and make tooling drawing accordingly. If any new gauges/measuring equipment is required.Product design and development 15. 5 . A detailed plan for any new facilities. then team will prepare a list of new gauges/measuring equipment for procurement and to be procured. Organization will review whether any customer specified testing is needed and any additional test equipment are required for doing the testing. 21. Organization will review the tooling/die/fixture requirements and identifies the existing tools/dies/fixtures and the tools/dies/fixtures to be manufactured for making the new product. equipment or tool if required will be prepared by organization. specs * Design FMEA * Preliminary list of special characteristics * Prototype control plan (if contracted to produce prototype parts) * Design verification plan * Design verification test results * Design reviews * List of new equipment/facilities (if required) * List of new gauges/measuring equipment (if required) * List of new test equipment (if required) * List of tool /die/fixture 22. The following are the outputs at the end of Phase-2: * Drawings. Product design and development will be done ( only for design-responsibility organization) * Design FMEA * Design for manufacturability and assembly * Design Verification * Design reviews * Prototype build * Engineering Drawing * Engineering specification * Material specification * Drawing and specification changes 16. team will prepare a list of test equipment for procurement.
Tool/ Die/ Fixture Drawing. Packaging drawings and specifications will be done as per the customer specified packaging standard (if provided) or internal standards by organization. Stability. Prepare sample and submit to customer for initial verification with dimensional report. 29. Validated tooling (including tooling at subcontractor) 4. Gage R & R) for similar type of components or have the plan for those studies at the time of PPAP sample. Packaging requirements 9. Control plans/any other customer equivalents 15. Organization will prepare floor plant layout. Test equipment 6. Prepare preliminary capability study plan for special characteristics. 32.Phase III. 28.Process design and development 23. Trained operators 2. Facilities/equipment (including facilities at subcontractor) 3. Drawings/specifications 12. Conduct MSA study (Bias. 26. 8. The APQP team will prepare Process Flow Diagram. 30. Special characteristics & Pre launch Control. 6 . Linearity. TYPE Man Machine Method Measurement Material Atmosphere Documents REQUIREMENTS 1. List of special characteristics 17. At the end of Phase-3. 27. Organization will prepare work / operation instructions based on the activities required 25. Review is conducted at the end of Phase-3 to ensure the adequacy of all the activities done during phase-3. Leader along with the APQP team ensures that the following are available for conducting the Production part approval process. Calibrated gauges/measuring equipment 5. Process FMEA. Good housekeeping 10. 24. Any other environmental conditions (if any) 11. Raw materials 7. 31. Customer standards 16. Process FMEA 14. Process flow chart 13. Subcontractor processes developed and qualified. Any training required for the operators as part of the new process are identified by team and provided. Work / Operation instructions 33. Process development and Qualification will be done.
If customer approves the PPAP part for regular production. 40. Packaging evaluation will be done 41. then relevant above activities have to be reviewed and make those effective for approval of customer. 39.Product and Process validation 34. 35.Phase IV. 43. will be kept. 46. If customer has not accepted the PPAP part. PPAP has to be submitted Phase V. If the customer wants a different process to be followed. PPAP sample will be sent to customer for approval with PSW (Part submission warrant). MSA studies (Bias. Preliminary process capability studies ( Pp. 36. PPAP sample (quantity as agreed or 300 nos minimum) will be produced as per Pre launch Control plan. Linearity. Stability. then APQP team prepares the Production control plan and releases it to the shop floor. Ppk) will be carried for special characteristics as per plan. Production Part Approval Process will be followed as per the PPAP reference manual after tool/die/fixture validation or those can be verified thoroughly by lay out inspection of component. 44. Work/ Operations instruction. 42. The review frequency will depend on the following: * Type of the new product * Difference in the processes from the existing processes * Customer requirement date 7 .Feedback assessment and Corrective action. One master sample of PPAP. Common activities: 47. then it will be agreed during Quality systems review with the customer. Gage R &R) to be carried out. Changes for which as agreed with the customer during Quality systems review. 38. Dimensional. Quality Planning sign off will be done. 45. Product quality planning data and experience will be used as an input for the future same type of product development. and the progress of the product planning tracked. 37. Performance testing or Production validation testing will be carried out. APQP timing plan initiated during Phase-1 will be reviewed and updated. if it was planned in Phase 3.
Act) plan. * Help to establish priorities based on expected failures and severity of those failures. Design FMEA End user. * Always best to include end users in the process. which combines the technology and experience of several engineering disciplines in identifying foreseeable failure modes of a product or process and planning for its elimination. * Rank failures according to relative impact on the product.. Service Takes the technical / physical limits of a Mfg. Process responsible engineers in activities such as Mfg. How to get started: Select 4 to 8 people who are knowledgeable of the process or the design to be used for a new process. * Will not replace the PDCA (Plan. Do. * Should be a team effort. What FMEA will not: * Will not fix the identified problems. Mainly FMEA are Design FMEA and Process FMEA.Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA) Definitions & Types FMEA is an analytical technique. which should be used to track major potential problems to resolution. Subsequent or downstream Mfg. misjudgments and errors that may have been made. Assembly. * Will not define the action that needs to be taken. What FMEA will do: * Identify known and foreseeable failure modes. * Help to uncover oversights. Check. or Assembly operation Customer Assumptions The product as designed will meet design intent 8 . * Help to reduce development time and cost of manufacturing process by eliminating many potential failure modes prior to operation of the process and by specifying the appropriates tests to prove the designed product. / Assembly process into consideration Process FMEA End user. Design responsible engineers or Higher assemblies or Mfg.
Develops a ranked list of potential failure modes.Identifies the potential manufacturing or assembly process causes and identifies process variables on which to focus controls for occurrence reduction or detection of the failure conditions. . utilized primarily by Manufacturing Responsible Engineer / Team as a means to assure that. . FMEA details should include: * FMEA Number * Item * Process Responsibility * Prepared by * Model Year (s) / Vehicle (s) * Key Date * FMEA Date * Core Team 9 . ‘Assembly’.Identifies potential product and process-related failure modes. .PROCESS FMEA What is it? A process potential FMEA is an analytical technique.e. ‘OEM’ and ‘Application / Vehicle’ or ‘government regulation’. process intent. What it does? It . Team Effort During the initial process potential FMEA process. potential failure modes and their associated causes / mechanisms have been considered and addressed.Documents the result of the manufacturing or assembly process. Which customer is to be considered? “Customer” for a Process potential FMEA is seen as the ‘Next Process (NP)’. . the responsible engineer is expected to direct and actively involve representatives from all affected areas. thus establishing a priority system for preventive /corrective action considerations. .Assesses the effects of potential failures on the customer. to the extent possible.Identifies the process functions and requirements. Development of a Process FMEA FMEA begins by developing a list of what the process is expected to do and what it is expected not to do i.
Open circuited. Inoperative. Severity applies to the effect only. Short circuited. Intermittent operation. Erratic operation. Does not match.. Cracked. Vehicle control impaired. subsystem. * Typical failure modes could be bent. Excessive. Scrap. Customer dissatisfaction etc. would the customer define the failure? * What are the effects of this failure mode that the customer sees? * Typical failure effects could be . Surface too rough. Hole missing. Cannot face. Surface too smooth. endangers operator etc. Burred. Hole too shallow. in case of final operation. Dirty. Does not connect. Severity should be estimated on a “1” to “10”scale. Does not fit. Can not bore/tap. system or process characteristic. 10 . Hole too deep. Draft. Effort. Handling damages. Severity Severity is an assessment of the seriousness of the effect of the potential failure mode to the customer. Unstable. Potential Effect (s) of Failure * In what form. Deformed. Poor appearance.. A reduction in Severity Ranking Index can be effected only through design change. Rework /Repairs. Leaks. Can not mount.Can not fasten. Causes excessive tool wear. . Hole off-location. in case of customer being next operation or subsequent operation. Mis-labeled etc.Noise. Rough. Operation impaired.Process Function/ Requirements * What is the process? * What is it supposed to achieve? Potential Failure Mode * How can the process / part fail to meet the specification? * List each potential failure mode for the particular operation in terms of a component. Damages equipment.
Or Vehicle / item repaired in repair dept. Product may have to be sorted and portion (less than 100%) scrapped. notify the design responsible engineer since this may affect the engineering documents concerning control item identification. but at a reduced level of performance. The product may have to be sorted. but comfort / convenience item (s) inoperable. on-line but in-station. Defect noticed by most customers (greater than 75%). with loss of primary function. 11 .g. with no scrap and a portion (less than 100%) reworked. Vehicle / item operable. Customer dissatisfied. Defect noticed by 50% of customers. 100% of the product may have to be reworked. Slight inconvenience to operation or operator.Effect Criteria: Severity of effect (Customer Effect) Hazardous Very high severity ranking when a without potential failure mode affects safe warning vehicle operation and / or involves noncompliance with government regulation without warning Hazardous Very high severity ranking when a with potential failure mode affects safe Warning vehicle operation and / or involves noncompliance with government regulation with warning Very High Vehicle / item inoperable. A portion (less than 100%) of the product may have to be reworked with no scrap. Customer very dissatisfied. but comfort / convenience item (s) operable at reduced level of performance. Fit & Finish / Squeak & Rattle item does not conform. with a repair time less than a half-hour. Critical. High Vehicle / item operable. on-line but out-of-station. Vehicle / item operable. Vehicle / item repaired in repair dept. A portion (less than 100%) of the product may have to be reworked with no scrap. with a repair time between a half-hour and an hour. subsystems or systems that may require additional process controls. If a classification is identified in the process FMEA. or no effect 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Classification Classify any special product characteristics (e. Defect noticed by discriminating customers (less than 25%) No discernible effect Criteria: Severity of effect (Manufacturing / Assembly Effect) May endanger operator (machine or assembly) without warning Rank 10 May endanger operator (machine or assembly) with warning 9 Moderate Low Very Low Minor Very Minor None 100% of product may have to be scraped. Fit & Finish / Squeak & Rattle item does not conform. A portion (less than 100%) of the product may have to be scrapped (no sorting) or Vehicle / item repaired in repair dept. with a repair time greater than one hour. Major/ Significant) for components. Or Vehicle / item repaired in offline but does not go to repair dept. Key. Fit & Finish / Squeak & Rattle item does not conform.
Detection should be estimated on a “1”to “10” scale. Occurrence Occurrence is how frequently the specific failure cause / mechanism will occur.94 ≥ 1.55 ≥ 0. Probability of Failure Likely Failure Rate Very High: Persistent Failure ≥ 100 per thousand pieces 50 per thousand pieces High: Frequent Failures 20 per thousand pieces 10 per thousand pieces Moderate: Occasional Failure 5 per thousand pieces 2 per thousand pieces 1 per thousand pieces Low: Relatively Few Failures 0. Inaccurate gauging.Potential Cause (s) / Mechanism (s) of failure * What are the ways in which this process failure could occur? * Describe in terms of something that can be corrected / controlled. Detection Detection is the rank associated with the best detection control listed in process control column.00 ≥ 1.78 ≥ 0. 12 .55 ≥ 0. under). review all prevention controls to determine if any occurrence rankings need to be revised. Part missing or mislocated.20 ≥ 1. Chip on locator. Occurrence should be estimated on a “1” to “10” scale. Once the process controls have been identified. * Detect the failure mode or cause / mechanism of failure Controls can be process controls such as error / mistake proofing or Statistical Process Control (SPC) or can be post-process evaluation. temperature). time. Improper heat treatment (time. improper weld (Current.67 Rank 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Current Process Controls What are the existing process controls that: * Prevent to the extent possible the failure mode or cause/ mechanism of failure from occurring. generally the planned process control has to be improved. or reduce their rate of occurrence * Detect the cause / mechanism of failure or the failure mode. Improper machine set up. Inadequate or no lubrication.86 ≥ 0.01 per thousand pieces Ppk < 0.30 ≥ 1. pressure). * Typical failure causes may be Improper torque (over. and lead to corrective action (s).10 ≥ 1. In order to achieve a lower ranking. Two types of process controls to be considered * Prevent the cause / mechanism of failure or the failure mode from occurring. Broken tool. Worn locator. Inadequate gating / venting.1 per thousand pieces Remote: Failure is Unlikely ≤ 0. Worn tool. Improper programming etc.5 per thousand pieces 0.
Insp Suggested Range of Detection Methods Types A B C Almost Absolute certainty X Cannot detect or is not checked Imposs of non detection ible Very Controls will X Control is achieved with indirect or random checks Remot probably not detect only e Remote Controls have poor X Control is achieved with visual inspection only chance of detection Very Low Controls have poor X Control is achieved with double visual inspection only chance of detection Low Controls may X X Control is achieved with charting methods. For higher RPN. Detection Criteria: Rank 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Recommended Action(s) Intent is to reduce the severity. An action-oriented study of the process using statistical methods could be implemented for continuous improvement and defect prevention. such as detect SPC.Manual Operation Risk Priority Number (RPN) RPN = SEVERITY (S) * OCCURANCE (O) * DETECTION (D) Within the scope of the individual FMEA. Moderate Controls have a X X Error detection in subsequent operations. Regardless of the resultant RPN. verify. or gauging High good chance to performed on setup and first piece check (for setup detect causes only) High Controls have a X X Error detection in-station. select. Very High Controls almost X X Error detection in-station (automatic gauging with certain to detect automatic stop feature). Cannot pass discrepant part.Only a design and or process revision can bring about a reduction in the severity ranking. special attention should be given when severity high. B. RPN will be between “1” and “1000”.To reduce the probability of occurrence. install. C. Moderate Controls may X Control is based on variable gauging after parts left the detect station. and / or detection ranking Action such as following should be considered . Very High Controls certain to X Discrepant parts cannot be made because item has been detect error-proofed by process/product design. A. process and / or design revisions are required. the team must undertake efforts to reduce through corrective action.Error Proofed.Gauging. or error detection in good chance to subsequent operations by multiple layers of acceptance: detect supply. occurrence. 13 . or Go / No Go gauging performed on 100% of the parts after parts left the station. and cannot accept discrepant part. .
process flow * Confirming the incorporation of changes in assembly/ manufacturing documentation * Reviewing control plans and operation instructions. use of error / mistake proofing / process and / or design revisions are required. If engineering assessment leads to no recommended actions for a specific failure mode / cause/ control combination. enter a brief description of the actual action and effective date. indicate this entering “None” in this column. process /product specification.. Action taken After an action has been implemented.To increase the probability of detection. permanent corrective action is required. Resulting RPN Follow up The process responsible engineer is responsible for assuring that all the actions recommended have been implemented or adequately addressed. ______________X______________ 14 . The process responsible engineer has several means of ensuring that concerns are identified and that recommended actions to be implemented. Responsibility (for recommended action) Enter the organization and individual responsible for the recommended action and the target completion date. should only be utilized as temporary measure. improving detection controls is costly and ineffective for quality improvements. Generally. Increasing quality controls inspection frequency is not positive corrective action. They include * Ensuring that process / product requirements are achieved * Reviewing engineering drawings.
Mention Process Characteristics 7.Guidelines for preparation of “Process Flow Diagram” 1. Mention incoming source of variation 6. Mention Operation Description . Mention Operation Sketch 5. Operation Flow description diagram Flow Sketch Incoming Source of Variation Process Characteristic Product Characteristic 15 . 3. Mention Flow diagram with symbol 4. Mention Product characteristics Sl No. 2. Mention Serial No.
7 – Significant / Major (5) Cause • Cause related to failure mode. then go by probability • For each cause. Depending on the probabilities. give the ranking Not able to take decision in the meeting / confusion. which are related Incoming source of variation. (2) Effect • Effect to be written for o Next process (NP) o Assembly o OEM o Vehicle / Application o Government Regulation (3) Severity • Follow guide lines for ranking severity number • Circle the max no. we have to detect the cause? • What is the method do we have to prevent the cause? • What is the method.Guidelines to Carry out PFMEA Corrective action (CA) for existing problem Preventive action (PA) for potential problem (1) Failure Mode • Opposite of desired outcome of that process • Mention oversize / undersize in case of dimensional (if effect is same then no need to differentiate) • How much? • Last six months problem should be covered. then straightway go to the occurrence table and rank accordingly o If it is not existed.Critical . 9 . then straightway go to the Occurrence table and rank accordingly o If it is not there. • Write those. (7) Current process Control • If the cause happens then what is the method. then go to failure mode data and give the same ranking to all causes • Check the rejection percentage corresponding to that failure mode o If it exists. mentioned in Process Flow • Write those. (4) Class • Corresponds to product characteristic • For those product characteristic having effect on Application or Customer o Severity ranking 10. Safety. which are related process characteristic (6) Occurrence • Check the data related to causes o If exists. there will be one occurrence no. Government regulation o Severity ranking 8. do we have to detect the failure mode? 16 .. which will be used for RPN calculation.
only when occurrence no. preferably. if anything goes wrong. because our ultimate aim is to reduce the frequency of cause’s occurrence. (8) Detection • • Whenever cause occurs. would it detect? Rank as per table (9)Risk Priority Number (RPN) RPN = S X O X D (10) Recommended Action • To be taken. • It should be completed within target date Outcome of the PFMEA • List of critical.Note: Difference between prevention and detection: Example: There is a sensor to stop the production process. then it is ’Prevention’. but sensor doesn’t allow to stop the production or no inconsistency in production criteria. significant or major and key characteristics of the part • List of recommended action to be implemented Customer Complaint & Rejection Analysis Customer Complaint Directly from customer Field failure Effect on Application / Vehicle Failure Mode Identify failure mode Identify Causes Look for Preventive control Look for Detection control Corrective Action Corrective Action Impact ------------------------X-----------------------Failure mode Rejection 17 .Detection If something goes wrong. is more than 3.
Copy the Potential Causes of FMEA into Process characteristics of Control Plan. Write Reaction Plan for Product and Process characteristic when it goes out of specification. and Process Description from Process Flow. Write Product specification from drawing against Product characteristic. Copy the Process No. 7.Guideline to carry out CONTROL PLAN 1. Copy the first product characteristics for that process into Product characteristic column of Control Plan. 9. Copy the Class Column of FMEA into Special Characteristics column of Control plan. Write the Process specification if applicable in the same column. Write the evaluation / Measuring Equipment used for controlling Product and Process characteristic. 5. Go to the Process FMEA. 8. 6. 10. Write the Process machine/ Device/ Jig/ Tool used for doing that Process. 4. 18 . Write control method (prevention and detection) used for controlling product and Process characteristic. 3. 2.
2.7 Dimension Results 19 .2 PPAP requirements Organization shall meet all specified requirements. process.2. Blanket statements of conformance are unacceptable for any test results.2 Any authorized Engineering Change Document Organizer shall have any authorized engineering change documents not yet recorded in the design record but incorporated in the product.4 Design FMEA (for design responsible) I.5 Process Flow Diagram Process flow diagram in organization-specified format that clearly describes the production process steps and sequence. specification or materials I.2.2. organization shall have evidence of customer engineering approval.1 Significant Production Run: Product run shall be from 1 hour to 8 hours of production with 300 minimum consecutive parts or specified by customer.2. I.2. I.2.2.1 General Organization shall obtain full approval from the customer for • A new part or product • Correction of a discrepancy on a previous submitted part • Product modified by an engineering change to design records. as appropriate and meets the specified customer needs.2.2 PPAP Process requirements: I.6 Process FMEA As per PFMEA manual I. I. which will be readily available. when required Where specified by the design record. gaging.2. part or tooling.2. All records shall be in a PPAP part file or referenced in such file. I.2.1 Design Records Organization shall have all design records.2.3 Engineering Approval.Production part Approval Process (PPAP) Purpose: To determine whether all customer engineering design record and specification requirements are properly understood by the organization & whether process has the potential to produce product consistently meeting the requirements during an actual production run as quoted production rate.2. materials and operators from the production environment. I.2.2. Section I I. I. Run shall be manufactured at the production site using productionised tooling. requirements and expectation.
9.2 Quality Indices Cpk – Capability Index for a stable process Ppk performance index Short-term studies I.9 Initial Process Studies I.2. Performance test report shall indicate • design record change level of parts tested.2.8 Record of Material / Performance test result Organization shall have records of material / performance/ functional test specified on design records or Control Plan. number.9. evaluate and wherever possible eliminate special causes of variation prior to PPAP submission.1 The level of initial process capability or performance to be evaluated for special characteristics only.67 1. but may require some improvement Process does not currently meet the acceptance criteria I. date.33 Interpretation Process currently meets Customer requirements.2. • date on which the testing took place I. change level of specification • any authorized engineering change documents that have not yet been incorporated in the design record. I.2.67 <1. Organization shall use calibrated measuring instrument with permissible measurement uncertainty. number.220.127.116.11.5 Process with one-sided specification or Non Normal Distribution 20 . Material test report shall indicate • Design record change level of parts tested. In Material test result.2. wherever chemical.3 Acceptance Criteria for Initial Study For appearing stable process (Ppk) or stable process (Cpk) Results >1. whatever specified by design record or control plan to be verified form in-house laboratory or outside-accredited laboratories. change level of specification • date on which the testing took place • material subcontractor’s name In Performance test result. date. Supplier shall identify the nature of instability.2.Organization shall provide the evidence that dimensional verifications required by the design record (Layout inspection) and Control Plan has been completed and results indicate compliance with specified requirements. I.9. physical or metallurgical requirements specified by design record or control plan to be verified form in-house laboratory or outside-accredited laboratories. begin production and follow control plan Process is currently acceptable.2. Organization shall identify one of the parts measured as the master sample.4 Unstable process An unstable process does not meet customer requirements.18.104.22.168.2. I.33 to 1. After approval.
2. as a reference or standard.2.2. tool or pattern or production process unless otherwise specified by customer.2.2.17 Master Sample: Organization shall retain a master sample for the same period as the production part approval records.22.214.171.124 Measurement System Analysis Studies Organization shall carry our Bias. die. I. stability.14 Appearance Approval Report (AAR) Appearance approval report to be completed for each part or series of parts for which submission required for parts with color.2. 21 .18 Checking Aid: Organization shall certify that aspects of the checking aids agree with part dimensional requirements.6 and / or 4.11 Qualified laboratory Requirements Organization shall have laboratory scope.2.2. Master sample shall be identified with approval date on the sample. gage R & R for all equipment used for measurement or performance test. I. Organization shall retain a master sample for each position of a multiple cavity die.2. I.g. mold.2.16 Sample Production Parts: Organization shall provide sample product as requested by the customer and as defined by the submission request. Linearity. I. grain or surface appearance requirements.2.Organization shall establish an alternative acceptance criterion or different type of index or some method of transformation data for special characteristics which are not bilateral equidistant tolerance or non normal distribution.12 Control Plan I.2. tool. Continue variation reduction efforts till Cpk greater than equal to 1. line or cell) organization shall complete dimensional evaluation on one part from each with identified “Mold/ Cavity/ Production Process”.33. I. I.15 Bulk Material Requirements checklist (apply only to bulk material only) I.7) I.13. control plan or inspection criteria.2. or until a new master sample is produced for the same customer part number for customer approval or where a master sample is required by design record. pattern or production process (e.2. mould.10.1 Part Weight Organization shall record part weight upto 4 decimal places unless otherwise specified by customer. I.2.6 Strategy when acceptance criteria are not satisfied Organization shall submit corrective action plan and a modified control plan providing 100% inspection. policy and documentation as per QS 9000 (4.2.9. I.13 Part Submission Warrant (PSW) Separate PSW shall be completed for each customer part number If production parts will be produced from more than one cavity.10.2.2.2.
19 Customer-Specific Requirement: Organization shall have the records of compliance to all applicable customer specific requirements. 22 .2.2.I.
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