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CONTENTS

Contributors xv
Preface xvii

Section 1. Properties of Structural Steels and Effects of Steelmaking and


Fabrication Roger L. Brockenbrough, P.E. 1.1

1.1. Structural Steel Shapes and Plates / 1.1


1.2. Steel-Quality Designations / 1.6
1.3. Relative Cost of Structural Steels / 1.8
1.4. Steel Sheet and Strip for Structural Applications / 1.10
1.5. Tubing for Structural Applications / 1.13
1.6. Steel Cable for Structural Applications / 1.13
1.7. Tensile Properties / 1.14
1.8. Properties in Shear / 1.16
1.9. Hardness Tests / 1.17
1.10. Effect of Cold Work on Tensile Properties / 1.18
1.11. Effect of Strain Rate on Tensile Properties / 1.19
1.12. Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Tensile Properties / 1.20
1.13. Fatigue / 1.22
1.14. Brittle Fracture / 1.23
1.15. Residual Stresses / 1.26
1.16. Lamellar Tearing / 1.28
1.17. Welded Splices in Heavy Sections / 1.28
1.18. k-Area Cracking / 1.29
1.19. Variations in Mechanical Properties / 1.29
1.20. Changes in Carbon Steels on Heating and Cooling / 1.30
1.21. Effects of Grain Size / 1.32
1.22. Annealing and Normalizing / 1.32
1.23. Effects of Chemistry on Steel Properties / 1.33
1.24. Steelmaking Methods / 1.35
1.25. Casting and Hot Rolling / 1.36
1.26. Effects of Punching Holes and Shearing / 1.39
1.27. Effects of Welding / 1.39
1.28. Effects of Thermal Cutting / 1.40

Section 2. Fabrication and Erection Thomas Schflaly 2.1

2.1. Shop Detail Drawings / 2.1


2.2. Cutting, Shearing, and Sawing / 2.3
2.3. Punching and Drilling / 2.4
2.4. CNC Machines / 2.4

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vi CONTENTS

2.5. Bolting / 2.5


2.6. Welding / 2.5
2.7. Camber / 2.8
2.8. Shop Preassembly / 2.9
2.9. Rolled Sections / 2.11
2.10. Built-Up Sections / 2.12
2.11. Cleaning and Painting / 2.15
2.12. Fabrication Tolerances / 2.16
2.13. Erection Equipment / 2.17
2.14. Erection Methods for Buildings / 2.20
2.15. Erection Procedure for Bridges / 2.23
2.16. Field Tolerances / 2.25
2.17. Safety Concerns / 2.27

Section 3. General Structural Theory Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D. 3.1

3.1. Fundamentals of Structural Theory / 3.1


STRUCTURAL MECHANICS—STATICS
3.2. Principles of Forces / 3.2
3.3. Moments of Forces / 3.5
3.4. Equations of Equilibrium / 3.6
3.5. Frictional Forces / 3.8
STRUCTURAL MECHANICS—DYNAMICS
3.6. Kinematics / 3.10
3.7. Kinetics / 3.11
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
3.8. Stress-Strain Diagrams / 3.13
3.9. Components of Stress and Strain / 3.14
3.10. Stress-Strain Relationships / 3.17
3.11. Principal Stresses and Maximum Shear Stress / 3.18
3.12. Mohr’s Circle / 3.20
BASIC BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
3.13. Types of Structural Members and Supports / 3.21
3.14. Axial-Force Members / 3.22
3.15. Members Subjected to Torsion / 3.24
3.16. Bending Stresses and Strains in Beams / 3.25
3.17. Shear Stresses in Beams / 3.29
3.18. Shear, Moment, and Deformation Relationships in Beams / 3.34
3.19. Shear Deflections in Beams / 3.45
3.20. Members Subjected to Combined Forces / 3.46
3.21. Unsymmetrical Bending / 3.48
CONCEPTS OF WORK AND ENERGY
3.22. Work of External Forces / 3.50
3.23. Virtual Work and Strain Energy / 3.51
3.24. Castigliano’s Theorems / 3.56
3.25. Reciprocal Theorems / 3.57
ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
3.26. Types of Loads / 3.59
3.27. Commonly Used Structural Systems / 3.60
3.28. Determinancy and Geometric Stability / 3.62
3.29. Calculation of Reactions in Statically Determinate Systems / 3.63
CONTENTS vii

3.30. Forces in Statically Determinate Trusses / 3.64


3.31. Deflections of Statically Determinate Trusses / 3.66
3.32. Forces in Statically Determinate Beams and Frames / 3.68
3.33. Deformations in Beams / 3.69
3.34. Methods for Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Systems / 3.73
3.35. Force Method (Method of Consistent Deflections) / 3.74
3.36. Displacement Methods / 3.76
3.37. Slope-Deflection Method / 3.78
3.38. Moment-Distribution Method / 3.81
3.39. Matrix Stiffness Method / 3.84
3.40. Influence Lines / 3.89
INSTABILITY OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
3.41. Elastic Flexural Buckling of Columns / 3.93
3.42. Elastic Lateral Buckling of Beams / 3.96
3.43. Elastic Flexural Buckling of Frames / 3.98
3.44. Local Buckling / 3.99
NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
3.45. Comparisons of Elastic and Inelastic Analyses / 3.99
3.46. General Second-Order Effects / 3.101
3.47. Approximate Amplification Factors for Second-Order Effects / 3.103
3.48. Geometric Stiffness Matrix Method for Second-Order Effects / 3.105
3.49. General Material Nonlinear Effects / 3.105
3.50. Classical Methods of Plastic Analysis / 3.109
3.51. Contemporary Methods of Inelastic Analysis / 3.114
TRANSIENT LOADING
3.52. General Concepts of Structural Dynamics / 3.114
3.53. Vibration of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems / 3.116
3.54. Material Effects of Dynamic Loads / 3.118
3.55. Repeated Loads / 3.118

Section 4. Analysis of Special Structures Louis F. Geschwindner, P.E. 4.1

4.1. Three-Hinged Arches / 4.1


4.2. Two-Hinged Arches / 4.3
4.3. Fixed Arches / 4.5
4.4. Stresses in Arch Ribs / 4.7
4.5. Plate Domes / 4.8
4.6. Ribbed Domes / 4.11
4.7. Ribbed and Hooped Domes / 4.19
4.8. Schwedler Domes / 4.22
4.9. Simple Suspension Cables / 4.23
4.10. Cable Suspension Systems / 4.29
4.11. Plane-Grid Frameworks / 4.34
4.12. Folded Plates / 4.42
4.13. Orthotropic Plates / 4.48

Section 5. Connections William A. Thornton, P.E., and T. Kane, P.E. 5.1

5.1. Limitations on Use of Fasteners and Welds / 5.1


5.2. Bolts in Combination with Welds / 5.2
FASTENERS
5.3. High-Strength Bolts, Nuts, and Washers / 5.2
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5.4. Carbon-Steel or Unfinished (Machine) Bolts / 5.5


5.5. Welded Studs / 5.5
5.6. Pins / 5.7
GENERAL CRITERIA FOR BOLTED CONNECTIONS
5.7. Fastener Diameters / 5.10
5.8. Fastener Holes / 5.11
5.9. Minimum Number of Fasteners / 5.12
5.10. Clearances for Fasteners / 5.13
5.11. Fastener Spacing / 5.13
5.12. Edge Distance of Fasteners / 5.14
5.13. Fillers / 5.16
5.14. Installation of Fasteners / 5.17
WELDS
5.15. Welding Materials / 5.20
5.16. Types of Welds / 5.21
5.17. Standard Welding Symbols / 5.25
5.18. Welding Positions / 5.30
GENERAL CRITERIA FOR WELDED CONNECTIONS
5.19. Limitations on Fillet-Weld Dimensions / 5.31
5.20. Limitations on Plug and Slot Weld Dimensions / 5.33
5.21. Welding Procedures / 5.33
5.22. Weld Quality / 5.36
5.23. Welding Clearance and Space / 5.38
DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS
5.24. Minimum Connections / 5.39
5.25. Hanger Connections / 5.39
5.26. Tension Splices / 5.47
5.27. Compression Splices / 5.50
5.28. Column Base Plates / 5.54
5.29. Beam Bearing Plates / 5.60
5.30. Shear Splices / 5.62
5.31. Bracket Connections / 5.67
5.32. Connections for Simple Beams / 5.77
5.33. Moment Connections / 5.86
5.34. Beams Seated Atop Supports / 5.95
5.35. Truss Connections / 5.96
5.36. Connections for Bracing / 5.98
5.37. Crane-Girder Connections / 5.107

Section 6. Building Design Criteria R. A. LaBoube, P.E. 6.1

6.1. Building Codes / 6.1


6.2. Approval of Special Construction / 6.2
6.3. Standard Specifications / 6.2
6.4. Building Occupancy Loads / 6.2
6.5. Roof Loads / 6.9
6.6. Wind Loads / 6.10
6.7. Seismic Loads / 6.21
6.8. Impact Loads / 6.26
6.9. Crane-Runway Loads / 6.26
6.10. Restraint Loads / 6.28
6.11. Combined Loads / 6.28
CONTENTS ix

6.12. ASD and LRFD Specifications / 6.29


6.13. Axial Tension / 6.30
6.14. Shear / 6.34
6.15. Combined Tension and Shear / 6.40
6.16. Compression / 6.41
6.17. Bending Strength / 6.45
6.18. Bearing / 6.48
6.19. Combined Bending and Compression / 6.48
6.20. Combined Bending and Tension / 6.50
6.21. Wind and Seismic Stresses / 6.51
6.22. Fatigue Loading / 6.51
6.23. Local Plate Buckling / 6.62
6.24. Design Parameters for Tension Members / 6.64
6.25. Design Parameters for Rolled Beams and Plate Girders / 6.64
6.26. Criteria for Composite Construction / 6.67
6.27. Serviceability / 6.74
6.28. Built-Up Compression Members / 6.76
6.29. Built-Up Tension Members / 6.77
6.30. Plastic Design / 6.78
6.31. Hollow Structural Sections / 6.79
6.32. Cable Construction / 6.85
6.33. Fire Protection / 6.85

Section 7. Design of Building Members Ali A. K. Haris, P.E. 7.1

7.1. Tension Members / 7.1


7.2. Comparative Designs of Double-Angle Hanger / 7.3
7.3. Example—LRFD for Wide-Flange Truss Members / 7.4
7.4. Compression Members / 7.5
7.5. Example—LRFD for Steel Pipe in Axial Compression / 7.6
7.6. Comparative Designs of Wide-Flange Section with Axial Compression / 7.7
7.7. Example—LRFD for Double Angles with Axial Compression / 7.8
7.8. Steel Beams / 7.10
7.9. Comparative Designs of Single-Span Floorbeam / 7.11
7.10. Example—LRFD for Floorbeam with Unbraced Top Flange / 7.14
7.11. Example—LRFD for Floorbeam with Overhang / 7.16
7.12. Composite Beams / 7.18
7.13. LRFD for Composite Beam with Uniform Loads / 7.20
7.14. Example—LRFD for Composite Beam with Concentrated Loads and End
Moments / 7.28
7.15. Combined Axial Load and Biaxial Bending / 7.32
7.16. Example—LRFD for Wide-Flange Column in a Multistory Rigid Frame / 7.33
7.17. Base Plate Design / 7.37
7.18. Example—LRFD of Column Base Plate / 7.39

Section 8. Floor and Roof Systems Daniel A. Cuoco, P.E. 8.1

FLOOR DECKS
8.1. Concrete Fill on Metal Deck / 8.1
8.2. Precast-Concrete Plank / 8.8
8.3. Cast-in-Place Concrete Slabs / 8.9
ROOF DECKS
8.4. Metal Roof Deck / 8.10
8.5. Lightweight Precast-Concrete Roof Panels / 8.11
x CONTENTS

8.6. Wood-Fiber Planks / 8.11


8.7. Gypsum-Concrete Decks / 8.13
FLOOR FRAMING
8.8. Rolled Shapes / 8.14
8.9. Open-Web Joists / 8.17
8.10. Lightweight Steel Framing / 8.18
8.11. Trusses / 8.18
8.12. Stub-Girders / 8.19
8.13. Staggered Trusses / 8.21
8.14. Castellated Beams / 8.21
8.15. ASD versus LRFD / 8.25
8.16. Dead-Load Deflection / 8.25
8.17. Fire Protection / 8.25
8.18. Vibrations / 8.28
ROOF FRAMING
8.19. Plate Girders / 8.29
8.20. Space Frames / 8.29
8.21. Arched Roofs / 8.30
8.22. Dome Roofs / 8.31
8.23. Cable Structures / 8.33

Section 9. Lateral-Force Design Charles W. Roeder, P.E. 9.1

9.1. Description of Wind Forces / 9.1


9.2. Determination of Wind Loads / 9.4
9.3. Seismic Loads in Model Codes / 9.9
9.4. Equivalent Static Forces for Seismic Design / 9.10
9.5. Dynamic Method of Seismic Load Distribution / 9.14
9.6. Structural Steel Systems for Seismic Design / 9.17
9.7. Seismic-Design Limitations on Steel Frames / 9.22
9.8. Forces in Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads / 9.33
9.9. Member and Connection Design for Lateral Loads / 9.38

Section 10. Cold-Formed Steel Design R. L. Brockenbrough, P.E. 10.1

10.1. Design Specifications and Materials / 10.1


10.2. Manufacturing Methods and Effects / 10.2
10.3. Nominal Loads / 10.4
10.4. Design Methods / 10.5
10.5. Section Property Calculations / 10.7
10.6. Effective Width Concept / 10.7
10.7. Maximum Width-to-Thickness Ratios / 10.11
10.8. Effective Widths of Stiffened Elements / 10.11
10.9. Effective Widths of Unstiffened Elements / 10.14
10.10. Effective Widths of Uniformly Compressed Elements with Edge Stiffener / 10.14
10.11. Tension Members / 10.16
10.12. Flexural Members / 10.16
10.13. Concentrically Loaded Compression Members / 10.25
10.14. Combined Tensile Axial Load and Bending / 10.27
10.15. Combined Compressive Axial Load and Bending / 10.27
10.16. Cylindrical Tubular Members / 10.30
10.17. Welded Connections / 10.30
10.18. Bolted Connections / 10.34
CONTENTS xi

10.19. Screw Connections / 10.37


10.20. Other Limit States at Connections / 10.41
10.21. Wall Stud Assemblies / 10.41
10.22. Example of Effective Section Calculation / 10.42
10.23. Example of Bending Strength Calculation / 10.45

Section 11. Design Criteria for Bridges 11.1

Part 1. Application of Criteria for Cost-Effective Highway Bridge


Design Robert L. Nickerson, P.E., and Dennis Mertz, P.E. 11.1
11.1. Standard Specifications / 11.1
11.2. Design Methods / 11.2
11.3. Primary Design Considerations / 11.2
11.4. Highway Design Loadings / 11.4
11.5. Load Combinations and Effects / 11.13
11.6. Nominal Resistance for LRFD / 11.19
11.7. Distribution of Loads through Decks / 11.20
11.8. Basic Allowable Stresses for Bridges / 11.24
11.9. Fracture Control / 11.29
11.10. Repetitive Loadings / 11.30
11.11. Detailing for Earthquakes / 11.35
11.12. Detailing for Buckling / 11.36
11.13. Criteria for Built-Up Tension Members / 11.45
11.14. Criteria for Built-Up Compression Members / 11.46
11.15. Plate Girders and Cover-Plated Rolled Beams / 11.48
11.16. Composite Construction with I Girders / 11.50
11.17. Cost-Effective Plate-Girder Designs / 11.54
11.18. Box Girders / 11.56
11.19. Hybrid Girders / 11.60
11.20. Orthotropic-Deck Bridges / 11.61
11.21. Span Lengths and Deflections / 11.63
11.22. Bearings / 11.63
11.23. Detailing for Weldability / 11.67
11.24. Stringer or Girder Spacing / 11.69
11.25. Bridge Decks / 11.69
11.26. Elimination of Expansion Joints in Highway Bridges / 11.72
11.27. Bridge Steels and Corrosion Protection / 11.74
11.28. Constructability / 11.77
11.29. Inspectability / 11.77
11.30. Reference Materials / 11.78
Appendix A. Example of LRFD Design for Two-Span Continuous
Composite I Girder / 11.78

Part 2. Railroad Bridge Design Harry B. Cundiff, P.E. 11.80


11.31. Standard Specifications / 11.153
11.32. Design Method / 11.153
11.33. Owner’s Concerns / 11.153
11.34. Design Considerations / 11.154
11.35. Design Loadings / 11.155
11.36. Composite Steel and Concrete Spans / 11.163
11.37. Basic Allowable Stresses / 11.164
11.38. Fatigue Design / 11.168
11.39. Fracture Critical Members / 11.170
11.40. Impact Test Requirements for Structural Steel / 11.171
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11.41. General Design Provisions / 11.171


11.42. Compression Members / 11.173
11.43. Stay Plates / 11.174
11.44. Members Stressed Primarily in Bending / 11.174
11.45. Other Considerations / 11.178

Section 12. Beam and Girder Bridges Alfred Hedefine, P.E.,


John Swindlehurst, P.E., and Mahir Sen, P.E. 12.1

12.1. Characteristics of Beam Bridges / 12.1


12.2. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Composite, Rolled-Beam Stringer Bridge /
12.5
12.3. Characteristics of Plate-Girder Stringer Bridges / 12.20
12.4. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Composite, Plate-Girder Bridge / 12.23
12.5. Example—Load-Factor Design of Composite Plate-Girder Bridge / 12.34
12.6. Characteristics of Curved Girder Bridges / 12.48
12.7. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Curved Stringer Bridge / 12.56
12.8. Deck Plate-Girder Bridges with Floorbeams / 12.69
12.9. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of Deck Plate-Girder Bridge with
Floorbeams / 12.70
12.10. Through Plate-Girder Bridges with Floorbeams / 12.104
12.11. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of a Through Plate-Girder Bridge / 12.105
12.12. Composite Box-Girder Bridges / 12.114
12.13. Example—Allowable-Stress Design of a Composite Box-Girder Bridge / 12.118
12.14. Orthotropic-Plate Girder Bridges 1 12.128
12.15. Example—Design of an Orthotropic-Plate Box-Girder Bridge / 12.130
12.16. Continuous-Beam Bridges / 12.153
12.17. Allowable-Stress Design of Bridge with Continuous, Composite Stringers /
12.154
12.18. Example—Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Composite Plate-Girder
Bridge / 12.169

Section 13. Truss Bridges John M. Kulicki, P.E., Joseph E. Prickett, P.E.,
and David H. LeRoy, P.E. 13.1

13.1. Specifications / 13.2


13.2. Truss Components / 13.2
13.3. Types of Trusses / 13.5
13.4. Bridge Layout / 13.6
13.5. Deck Design / 13.8
13.6. Lateral Bracing, Portals, and Sway Frames / 13.9
13.7. Resistance to Longitudinal Forces / 13.10
13.8. Truss Design Procedure / 13.10
13.9. Truss Member Details / 13.18
13.10. Member and Joint Design Examples—LFD and SLD / 13.21
13.11. Member Design Example—LRFD / 13.27
13.12. Truss Joint Design Procedure / 13.35
13.13. Example—Load-Factor Design of Truss Joint / 13.37
13.14. Example—Service-Load Design of Truss Joint / 13.44
13.15. Skewed Bridges / 13.49
13.16. Truss Bridges on Curves / 13.50
13.17. Truss Supports and Other Details / 13.51
13.18. Continuous Trusses / 13.51
CONTENTS xiii

Section 14. Arch Bridges Arthur W Hedgren, Jr., P.E. 14.1

14.1. Types of Arches / 14.2


14.2. Arch Forms / 14.2
14.3. Selection of Arch Type and Form / 14.3
14.4. Comparison of Arch with Other Bridge Types / 14.5
14.5. Erection of Arch Bridges / 14.6
14.6. Design of Arch Ribs and Ties / 14.7
14.7. Design of Other Elements / 14.10
14.8. Examples of Arch Bridges / 14.11
14.9. Guidelines for Preliminary Designs and Estimates / 14.44
14.10. Buckling Considerations for Arches / 14.46
14.11. Example—Design of Tied-Arch Bridge / 14.47

Section 15. Cable-Suspended Bridges Walter Podolny, Jr., P.E. 15.1

15.1. Evolution of Cable-Suspended Bridges / 15.1


15.2. Classification of Cable-Suspended Bridges / 15.5
15.3. Classification and Characteristics of Suspension Bridges / 15.7
15.4. Classification and Characteristics of Cable-Stayed Bridges / 15.16
15.5. Classification of Bridges by Span / 15.23
15.6. Need for Longer Spans / 15.24
15.7. Population Demographics of Suspension Bridges / 15.29
15.8. Span Growth of Suspension Bridges / 15.30
15.9. Technological Limitations to Future Development / 15.30
15.10. Cable-Suspended Bridges for Rail Loading / 15.31
15.11. Specifications and Loadings for Cable-Suspended Bridges / 15.32
15.12. Cables / 15.35
15.13. Cable Saddles, Anchorages, and Connections / 15.41
15.14. Corrosion Protection of Cables / 15.45
15.15. Statics of Cables / 15.52
15.16. Suspension-Bridge Analysis / 15.53
15.17. Preliminary Suspension-Bridge Design / 15.68
15.18. Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges / 15.74
15.19. Cable-Stayed Bridge Analysis / 15.75
15.20. Preliminary Design of Cable-Stayed Bridges / 15.79
15.21. Aerodynamic Analysis of Cable-Suspended Bridges / 15.86
15.22. Seismic Analysis of Cable-Suspended Structures / 15.96
15.23. Erection of Cable-Suspended Bridges / 15.97

Index I.1 (Follows Section 15.)