The tale of Textile from Indus Valley Civilization Pakistan textile enjoys a rich heritage and the origin

of textiles has traces ba ck to the Indus valley Civilization. The handloom weavers of Pakistan have been spinning their magic for thousands of years. Cotton and silk fabrics produced to day carry on centuryâ s old tradition in design and craftsmanship incorporating moder n quality and design techniques. Pakistan is famous for cotton crops and export to other countries also. Traditionally fiber is taken from plants or animals, for example cotton from cot ton seed pods, linen from flax stems, wool from sheep hair, or silk from the spu n cocoons of silkworms. In addition to these traditional materials, synthetic ma terials such as plastic acrylic are now used In order for the fiber to be made i nto cloth or clothing, it must be spun (or twisted) into a strand known as yarn. When the yarn is ready and dyed for use it can be made into cloth in a number o f ways. Knitting and crochet are common methods of twisting and shaping the yarn into garments or fabric. The most common use of yarn to make cloth is weaved fa bric called as Khadi or Khaddar, this type of fabric is coarse and bit loosely w oven. Just for my reader information that in weaving, the yarn is wrapped on a f rame called a loom and pulled taut vertically. This is known as the warp. Then a nother strand of yarn is worked back and forth wrapping over and under the warp. This wrapped yarn is called the weft. Most art and commercial textiles are made by this process but power loom are used to produce all type of fabric. Let me describe the different type of weaving done in Pakistan as this informati on is given by Artisans (Muna Shamsuddin and family) who are manufacturer of han dloom material in Orangi Town. Jamawar â Jamaâ means robe and â warâ is yard. The base of the jamawar is mostly silk thread , with a little addition of polyester. The brocaded parts are woven in similar t hreads of silk and polyester. Most of the designs seen today are floral or with a traditional pattern called the kairy (the paisley) .Pakistan has the best wove n material in Jamawar and this is mostly used for bridal dresses. Since this is a delicate fabric because of its texture and pattern. It get entangle easily wit h metallic embroidery and jewelry so care should be taken while wearing it. Now days the weaving of Jamawar in Pakistan is done on the jacquard loom. The pattas , which are the punched cards, controlled the actions of the loom, allowing auto matic production of intricate woven patterns. The bigger the motif, the greater the number of cards required to make them. Another big change were brought about in 1985 in weaving where the source of inspiration was the Chinese Shanghai cl oth. The patterns of the Chinese Shanghai were amended in accordance to the weav e construction of the jamawar cloth. Jamdani' - the great characteristic of fine art in hand weaving derived from a "PERSION" word 'JAM' meaning a 'cup' and 'DANI' denotes the 'container' . Jamdan i weaving style flourished under rich and enlightened patronage of Mughal empero rs. Excellence in weaving techniques the figured muslin with delicate motifs wor ked on by deft fingers, needed besides skill, unlimited patience, and one yard o f cloth sometimes taking months to weave. The "Mughals" recognized this excellen ce art but kept the product rare to common people .this type of weaving also com mon in India & Bangladesh. The handloom weaves of Pakistan have been spinning t heir magic for generations. Cotton and silk fabrics produced today carry on cent uryâ s old tradition in design and craftsmanship incorporating modern quality and des ign techniques. The weavers are not only expert craftsmen, but artists who captu re the spirit of the past in the unique traditional designs through bold use of colors and textures. There is also an enthusiasm for experimentation with new id eas and styles which is evident in the variety of designs and fabrics produced b y the handloom industry. Sussi The wonders of handloom include: sussi, striped and checked material in cotton. The cloth is distinguished by its intricate stripes, char-khana (four squares) o r jal of botis (flowers) all a piece of art in textile handloom .Mostly this typ e of fabrics are used to make khes ( bed spread) or Jacket ,vest and pajamas c

alled Shalwar .This is a traditional rural crafts of Sindh.. The pattern was ev olved centuries ago. Presently Gumbat and Tando Mohammad Khan in Sindh are the l eading production centuries for Sussi. A large number of colors and patterns ar e used in weaving Sussi cloth. In recent times there has been a trend away from pure cotton Sussi to silk and synthetic blends as well and this make the cloth m ore popular..

Brocade This is another beautiful fine handspun creation of silk interwoven with gold or silver threads in a rainbow of colors and thread. Silk brocades, texturally, are divided mainly into two groups: Kamkhwab Kam means little or scarcely. Khwab means a dream and itâ s said that even with such a name â Its beauty, splendor and elegance can be hardly dreamt ofâ . Kamkhwab are heavy fabrics or several layers of warp threads with an elaborate all-over pattern of extra weft, which may be of silk, gold and / or silver threads or combinations. There may be three to seven layers of warp threads. (Tipara means three layers a nd Chaupara means four layers to Satpara meaning seven layers). Kin means golden in Chinese. Its specialty is in profusely using the gold and silver thread in a manner that sometimes leaves the silk background hardly visible. Katan These are called Katan (a thread prepared by twisting a different number of sil k filaments) brocades; they are lighter in textures (lower thread count) than Ka mkhwab but loosely woven in silk and has certain portions of zari (metallic thre ad) work as a pattern. These fabrics are mostly used for making garments and now days also used in home furnishing. Zari wala silk or Zari wala georgette Zari is generally of two types Badla and Kala batto. Badla Zari was made of flat tened gold or silver wire with the ancient method of making zari from pure metal without any core thread. This accounted for its peculiar stiffness. Sometimes c racks would develop in the metal during the process of weaving which resulted in the loss of its natural luster and smoothness. Therefore weaving with Badla Zar i was difficult and required great skill. Often a touch of Badla was given to fl oral motives to enhance the beauty. This type of zari has mostly gone out of fav or amongst the contemporary weavers and they mostly depend on polyester or pure silk as a substitute. This thread can also be twisted with gold threads in order to make zari. The zari fiber is doubled with the yarn to prepare it for the pro cess of weaving. Another reason for twisting the zari fiber is to reduce its exc essive shine. The zari fiber is wrapped on reels and is doubled with the yarn wi th the help of a machine, on cones. These fibers are then wrapped on reels with the help of a doubling machine. The threads are then steamed and wrapped on the final spools. The required threads (silk, zari, etc) are then taken to the chark ha, which is a machine used to make the warp for the weaving process. This type fabric is used to make headscarf ( dupattas)or dresses for ladies. Khes Weaving Khes is a weaved fabric .different pattern and color s of threads are used ther e a bit thick in texture as its used as blanket in summer or chilly winter night . its soft and can be used from both side .the beauty of this type of weaving th at all done on small handloom mostly done by women in the privacy of their home. Khes is a traditional craft of Khairpur. Centuries ago to meet the need for a cotton blanket, it was an important item of export during the Mughal period. Pre sently Khes are used throughout Pakistan as bed covers, curtains, table cloths, floor coverings and sheets. Best know Khes come from Gumbat, nasarpur and Sukkur . Now a day the weaver started weaving shawl as there are in great demand. KHADDAR: Khaddar or Khadi is the simplest cotton wear and is described generally as coars e cloth. Until recently Khaddar was among the regionâ s major exports to Central Asia . Khaddar comes in a wide range of thickness, texture and design and is marketed in yardage for upholstery drapery, bed covers, quilts and garments. This cloth is easy to wear in summer and keep the body cool during humid and hot weather.