Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Lecture 2
Basic Vibratory Phenomena
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Simple Mechanical System
Physical System Mathematical Model
Can be a Modal Model
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
WHAT IS A DOF ?
• The ability to move in any one direction is a DOF.
• The number of coordinates required to specify the
motion of a system uniquely determines the order of
that system.
6 DOFs
1 DOF
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
NATURAL FREQUENCY AND TIME RESPONSE
frequency. natural the is where
) sin( sin cos : Solution
0 : motion of Equation
m
k
t C t B t A x(t)
kx x m
n
n n n
=
+ = + =
= +
ω
φ ω ω ω
& &
x m
& &
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
2
max
2
max
0
0
0 0
sin
cos
) sin sin cos
: case general In the
t s t cos
: shown that be can it algebra, some After
0 and 0 that assume us let instance, For
. conditions initial on the depend ) , ( or ) , ( constants The
n n n
n n n
n n n
n
n
n
Cω x ) t (ω Cω (t) x
Cω x ) t (ω Cω (t) x
t (ω C t B t A x(t)
in
x
x x(t)
x ) ( x x ) x(
C B A
= → + − =
= → + =
+ = + =
+ =
= =
& & & &
& &
&
& &
φ
φ
φ ω ω
ω
ω
ω
φ
DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY & ACCELERATION  I
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
) sin
) cos
) sin
2
φ
φ
φ
+ − =
+ =
+ =
t (ω Cω (t) x
ON ACCELERATI
t (ω Cω (t) x
VELOCITY
t (ω C x(t)
NT DISPLACEME
n n
n n
n
& &
&
DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY & ACCELERATION  II
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
SPRINGS  I
DISPLACEMENT x
FORCE F
F=kx
F=kx
0
x
0
Strain energy=1/2
kx
0
2
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• What provides the spring (or restoring)
force?
• A spring
• A float mechanism
• Beam flexibility
SPRINGS  II
• Gravity
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STIFFNESS FORMULAE
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM  I
IN ALL VIBRATION PROBLEMS, THE ORIGIN OF THE
MOTION SHOULD BE TAKEN AS THE STATIC
EQUILIBRIUM POSITION.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM  II
kx x m
k
mg
x k mg ky mg x m
F x m
k
mg
x x y
x
k
mg
stiffnes
Weight
− =
+ − = − =
=
+ = + =
= =
∑
& &
& &
& &
) (
: law second s Newton'
: be will deflection total , is amplitude vibration the If
: deflection Static
δ
δ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
TRANSLATIONAL, TORSIONAL & ROTATIONAL SDOF SYSTEMS
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
PENDULUM WITH SPRING
0 mgL) (
small assuming and arranging Re
2
= + +
−
θ θ
θ
ka I
& &
L mgsin ) sin (
: arranging  Re
L mgsin distance weight x Effective
: moment restoring Gravity
) sin ( distance nt x displaceme x Stiffness
: moment restoring Spring
: apply will We
θ θ θ
θ
θ
θ
− − =
− =
− =
=
∑
a a k I
a a k
Moment I
& &
& &
I
mgL) (
2
n
+
=
ka
ω
Note: I=mL
2
L
m
a
θ
mg
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
TORSIONAL SYSTEM
s rad
I
k
rad Nm L GJ k
r
J
L
G
J
T
T
Ang disp
Torque
k
T
n
T
T
/ 4 . 40
16 . 0
261
/ 261 / : Combining
2
where Also
stiffness Torsional
4
= = =
= =
= =
= = =
ω
π θ
θ
G= 80 GPa
D=10 mm
L= 300 mm
k
T
θ
0 = + θ θ T k I
& &
I=0.16 kgm
2
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
KINETIC ENERGY vs STRAIN ENERGY
2
2
2
1
2
1
kx SE
mv KE
=
=
x
v
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
ENERGY METHOD TO DETERMINE ω
n
MAX KINETIC ENERGY = MAX STRAIN ENERGY
Max displacement,
zero velocity
Max velocity,
zero displacement
n n n
n
ω x Max t x t x
x Max t x t x
0 0
0 0
cos ) ( : Velocity
sin ) ( : nt Displaceme
= =
= =
ω ω
ω
&
m
k
kx ω x m n n = = ω
2
0
)
0
: Hence
2
1
(
2
1
2
FOR THE SDOF MASSSPRING SYSTEM
0
0
AND x x ω x x MAX n MAX → →
&
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
MORE COMPLEX SYSTEMS
i
i i i i
Q
x
D
x
V
x
T
x
T
dt
d
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
& &
GENERAL LAGRANGE EQUATION
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
VERY COMPLEX SYSTEMS Finite element model of a car
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Simple Vibratory Phenomena
External Force – Time dependent usually periodic
One harmonic – rotational or multiples is sufficient
Mass times Acceleration
opposite to acceleration
Damping coefficient times
Velocity – dissipates energy
Mean Equilibrium position
under self weight
Static Deflection d = mg/k
Linear System
Inertia Force proportional to accln
Damping force proportional to vel
Stiffness force proportional to displ
System that can be described by one coordinate, say, x
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Torsional Vibration
Angular vibrations of any drive train
• A serious problem in reciprocating machines limiting
the speeds, multi cylinder engines are better to even out
the highly pulsating torque
• Usually not a problem in rotating machinery as the drive
torque is fairly uniform
• Torsional vibrations can be very severe under suddenly
applied loads, e.g., rolling mills, electrical short circuit
conditions …Under these conditions, couplings, gear
boxes …are susceptible for failures
• Choose proper coupling to make it work well under
normal conditions and act as a fuse under severe loads
and protect the machinery
• Torsional (Angular) stiffness Nm/rad
• Mass moment of inertia Kgm2
rad/s
0
2
2
I
k
p
k
dt
d
I
=
= + θ
θ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Bending Vibration
Bending (Flexural) vibrations of a drive train
• Most common problem in all rotating and
reciprocating machinery
• All heavy duty machinery operate above first
critical speed
• A small unbalance (residual balance or
imbalance) can cause serious problems at
critical speeds
• Bending vibrations effected by
misalignment, loosely mounted parts, bearing
stiffness, gears, asymmetry, instabilities due to
oil film, etc…They cause most machinery
problems
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
FREE MOTION OF A DAMPED SDOF SYSTEM
. ratio damping critical viscous the is
2
frequency, natural undamped the is where
0 2 : by Dividing
0 : motion of Equation
0
2
km
c
c
c
m
k
x x x m
kx x c x m
n
n
n
= =
=
= + +
= + +
ζ
ω
ω
ζω
& & &
& & &
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF MOTION
) ( : form the of is Solution
0 2 : EOM
2 1
2
t
Be
t
Ae t x
x x x
n
n
α α
ω
ζω
+ =
= + +
& & &
n
n
n
t
Ae
αt
Ae x(t)
ω ζ ζ α
ω
α ζω α
α
α α
) 1 (
0 ) 2 (
EOM. into insert , & find To
2
2 , 1
2
2
2 1
− ± − = →
= + +
=
A & B are two constants depending on initial
conditions.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
frequency. natural damped the is 1 where
) sin( ) 1 sin(
)] 1 sin( ) 1 cos( [ ) (
: becomes solution general The
) 1 (
) 1 ( : complex are roots Both
.
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
1
n d
d
n
n
n
n n
n
n
n
t C
t
e t C
t
e
t B t A
t
e t x
i
i
ω ζ ω
φ ω
ζω
φ ω ζ
ζω
ω ζ ω ζ
ζω
ω ζ ζ α
ω ζ ζ α
− =
+
−
= + −
−
=
− + −
−
=
− − − =
− + − =
< motion y oscillator with case d Underdampe 1. ζ 1. Case
POSSIBILITIES, DEPENDING ON THE VALUE OF ζ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
TIME HISTORY FOR OSCILLATORY MOTION
Exponential term
t
e
n ζω −
) sin( φ ω + t C d
Oscillatory term
t
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
CASE 2
t
Be
t
Ae t x
n
n
n
n
ω ζ ζ
ω ζ ζ
ω ζ ζ α
ω ζ ζ α
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
: becomes solution The
) 1 (
) 1 ( : real are roots Both
.
2
2
2
2
2
1
− − −
+
− + −
=
− − − =
− + − =
> motion y oscillator no with case Overdamped 1. ζ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EFFECT OF OVERDAMPING
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
CASE 3
t
e Bt A t x
n
n
ω
ω α α
−
+ =
− = =
→
=
) ( ) (
: becomes solution The
: root Double
2 1
decay of rate Max
motion damped  Critically 1. ζ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
0 ) 4 (
0 ) 5 . 2 ( , 0 ) 1 (
0 ) 0 (
: conditions Initial
=
= =
=
x
x x
x
&
EXAMPLE: SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION FROM TIME RESPONSE
t
4000 kg
Find k and c.
1.0 s 2.5 s 4.0s
x(t)
T=2π/ω
d
=3
s
ω
d
= 2π/3
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
LOGARITHMIC DECREMENT  I
n
n
d
n
n
m m n
AMP
m d
m n
m d
m n
e e
T
e
t t
e
t C
t
e
t C
t
e
ω ζ
π
ζω
ω
π
ζω
ζω
ζω
φ ω
ζω
φ ω
ζω
2
1
2
2
) (
) x(t
) x(t
) sin(
) sin(
) x(t
) x(t
: cycles successive o between tw ratio amplitude The
1
1 m
m
1
1
1 m
m
−
= = =
− −
=
+
−
+
−
=
+
+
+
+
+
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
LOGARITHMIC DECREMENT  II
) x(t
) x(t
ln
1
: cycles 1)  (N by separated are amplitudes two the If
2
2
1
2
) x(t
) x(t
ln
: sides both of logarithms Taking
2
1
2
) x(t
) x(t
N m
m
1 m
m
1 m
m
+
+
+
=
≈
−
= =
−
=
N
e
δ
πζ
ζ
πζ
δ
ζ
π
ζ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Viscous Damping Principle
• Damping force is proportional to velocity and
= Damping Coefficient C times Velocity dx/dt
– dissipates energy
• Dashpots can de designed as in shock
absorbers or the equivalent effect of energy
dissipating capacity determined from tests to
find the value of this coefficient c
s/m  N
) (
δ
µ π
δ
µ π
µ τ
Dt
c
x c
v
Dt F
dz
dv
=
= =
=
&
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
DAMPING IS NOT ALWAYS VISCOUS !
• Viscous damping ratio: ζ = c/c
0
0 = + + kx x c x m
& & &
0 ) 1 ( = + + x i k x m η
& &
•Aerodynamic damping: δ (e. g. gas pressure on a blade)
• Friction damping (energy dissipation via contact mechanism)
π δ η ζ 2 / 2 / = =
• Material damping (what the material can dissipate in one
cycle)
AT RESONANCE
Dashpot
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EXAMPLE OF DAMPED MOTION  PARACHUTE
Find the maximum compression in the
spring if m=20 kg, k=10kN/m, c=540Ns/m
and v=8 m/s.
Compression = static compression + dynamic compression
m
x
x
k
mg
stiffness
weight
d 0196 . 0
1000 10
81 . 9 20
1
= = = =
2
d
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
USE INITIAL CONDITIONS TO FIND A & B IN EOM:
x
x
o
=d
1
=0.0196 m & v
0
= 8m/s
434 . 0 gives A, for on Substituti
/ 8 ) 0 (
] sin ) ( cos ) [(
) sin sin ( ) sin cos ( ) (
) sin cos ( ) ( : ating differenti by ocity Obtain vel
, =
= − = →
+ − −
−
=
+ −
−
+ +
−
− =
+
−
=
B and
s m A B x
t B A t A B
t
e
t B t A
t
e t B t A
t
e t x
t B t A
t
e t x
d n
n d
d n d d n d
n
d d
n
d d d
n
n
d d
n
ζ ω ω
ζ ω ω
ω ζ ω ω ω ζ ω ω
ζω
ω ω
ζω
ω ω ω
ζω
ζω
ω ω
ζω
&
&
m x A x
t B t A
t
e t x d d
n
0196 . 0 ) 0 (
) sin cos ( ) (
0
− = = =
+
−
= ω ω
ζω
d
1
Datum for motion
t=0
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
i
i i i i
Q
x
D
x
V
x
T
x
T
dt
d
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
& &
0 D : damping No
0 Q : vibration  Free
systems) SDOF for 1 (i number ordinate  Co : i
force External : Q
function n dissipatio Damping : D
energy spring & Potential :
energy Kinetic :
=
=
=
V
T
0
x is some general arbitrary co
ordinate.
0 =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
x
V
x
T
dt
d
&
SDOF
LAGRANGE’S EQUATION OF MOTION
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EXAMPLE 1 – SDOF SYSTEM
FIND THE EQUATION OF MOTION
0 0
2
1
) (
2
1
2
2
= + → =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
→ =
= =
∂
∂
→ =
∂
∂
→ =
kx x m
x
V
x
T
dt
d
kx
x
V
kx V
x m x m
dt
d
x
T
dt
d
x m
x
T
x m T
& &
&
& & &
&
&
&
&
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EX 2  PENDULUM WITH SPRING
energy potential : PE energy, Spring :
Change : where
0
2
1
2
SE
PE SE V
D
I T
∆ ∆ + ∆ =
=
= θ
&
) cos 1 ( ) (
2
1
) cos 1 (
y where
2
1
SE
2
2
θ θ
θ
θ
− + =
− =
= =
mgL a k V
mgL PE
a ky
L
m
a
θ
mg
L
mgLcosθ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
OBTAIN DERIVATIVES
θ θ θ
θ
θ θ
θ θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
) ( sin
) cos 1 ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2 2
2
2
mgL ka mgL ka
V
mgL a k V
I I
dt
d T
dt
d
I
T
I T
+ ≈ + =
∂
∂
→
− + =
= =
∂
∂
→ =
∂
∂
→
=
& & &
&
&
&
&
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
INSERT INTO LAGRANGE EQUATION
0 ) (
0
2
= + +
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
θ θ
θ θ
mgL ka I
V T
dt
d
i i
& &
&
I
mgL) (ka
ωn
+
=
2
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
FORCED VIBRATION
PI CF + = x(t) : Solution
Steadystate
x(t)=x
CF
(t)+ x
PI
(t)
x
CF
(t)
Transient
x
PI
(t)
Periodic solution
RHS) with ODE order  (2nd
) ( : EOM t F kx x c x m = + +
& & &
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
PI. a guess to need now We
sin ) (
: only excitation of type one consider will We
F(t). RHS, the know must we PI, obtain the To
) sin cos ( ) (
: by given is CF the
0
t F t F kx x c x m
t B t A
t
e t x d d
n
ω
ω ω
ζω
= = + +
+
−
=
<
& & &
, 1 ζ only consider we If
) ( OF SOLUTION t F kx x c x m = + +
& & &
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
PROPERTIES OF THE PI
When a linear system is subjected to a harmonic
excitation of the form Fsinωt,
• It will respond harmonically at the same frequency.
• There will be a phase lag between the force and the
response.
) sin( ) ( :
0 sin ) ( :
0
0
φ ω
ω ω
− =
∞ < < =
t x t x Output
t F t F Input
PI
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
PHASE LAG
t F t F ω sin ) (
0
=
) sin( ) (
0
φ ω − = t x t x
100
50
0
50
100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
100
50
0
50
100
φ
Tim
e
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
SOLUTION FOR THE STEADYSTATE VIBRATION
2
2 2 2
0
0
2
2 2 2
0
0
0 0
1
2
tan &
) 2 ( ) 1 (
1
2
and Let
tan &
) ( ) (
sin EOM the into ) sin( ) ( PI the
inserting by found be can vibration state steady for the solution The
r
r
r r k
F
x
km
c
r
m k
c
c m k
F
x
t F kx x c x m t x t x
n
PI
−
=
+ −
=
= =
−
=
+ −
=
= + + − =
−
ζ
φ
ζ
ζ
ω
ω
ω
ω
φ
ω ω
ω φ ω
& & &
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
FREQUENCY RESPONSE FUNCTION (FRF)
) & properties (system Function ) & c m, (k, Function
Input
Output
: form the of is It
) ( ) (
1
) 2 ( ) 1 (
1
: expression he Consider t
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
0
ω ω
ω ω ζ
= =
+ −
=
+ −
= =
c m k r r k
F
x
H
Such a function is called Transfer Function in general
It is called Frequency Response Function (FRF) in
vibration analysis.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
FRF PLOT
I
RESONANCE
φ=90
0
at resonance
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EFFECTS OF DAMPING
Reduces
response at
resonance.
Has little effect
elsewhere.
Has relatively
little effect on
resonant
frequency.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Another look at RESONANCE
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Another look at RESONANCE……contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Another look at RESONANCE……contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Another look at RESONANCE……contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Another look at RESONANCE……contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
QFACTOR
ζ
ζ
ζ
2
1
) 2 ( ) 1 (
1
&
) 2 ( ) 1 (
: have We
1 r
0
1
2 2 2
1 r
0
0
1 r
0
0
2 2 2
0
0
=
= →
+ −
=
=
=
=
+ −
=
=
=
=
=
d
x
Q
r r
k
F
x
d
x
Q
k
F
d
r r k
F
x
r
1 r
deflection Static
amplitude Resonant
0
=
= =
d
x
Q
Inverse of Damping Ratio x 2
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
HALFPOWER POINTS
Halfpower points
X
0
/d
ω
Q
Q/1.414
r =1
1.0
points. power half called are
2
amplitude
to ing correspond s Frequencie
−
=
Q
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
DAMPING ESTIMATION FROM AN FRF
2
) ( such that Determine
/ at
1
) ( ) (
1
2 2 2
0
0
res
n
n
res
H
H
m k
c
H
c m k
F
x
H
=
= = =
+ −
= =
ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω ω
Q
H
H H t
c
c m k
n
res
n
n
1
2
km
c
shown that be can It
2
) ( ) ( such tha & s frequencie 2 are There
) ( in equation quadratic a Yields
2
1
) ( ) (
1
1 2
2 1 2 1
2
2 2 2
= =
−
= =
→ =
+ −
→
≈ ζ
ω
ω ω
ω ω ω ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
1
ω
2
ω
n
res H
H
2
) ( ) ( 2 1
res H
H H = = ω ω
ω
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR F=F
0
sinωt
π π ω + = 2n t
sin 0 t F ω
0 F
t ω
π ω 2n = t
50
50
0 0.04 0.08 0.12
π π ω 2 2n + = t
F
0
is rotating with speed ω
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
RELATIVE PHASE BETWEEN DISP, VEL & ACCEL
. by and ,
2
by leads ie
) sin( ) sin(
2
by leads ie
)
2
sin( ) cos(
) sin(
0
2 2
0
2
0 0
0
π
π
π φ ω ω ω φ ω ω
π
π
φ ω ω φ ω ω
φ ω
x x x
t x x t x x
x x
t x t x x
t x x
& & &
& &
&
&
+ − = − = − − =
+ − = − =
− =
x
& &
x
&
x
ωtφ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
3 CASES TO CONSIDER
m
0
2
x ω
m
0
2
x ω
0
x cω
0
kx
0
F
ω> ω
n
> Kx
0
< mω
2
x
0
Inertia control
m
0
2
x ω
0
x cω
0
kx
0
F
ω= ω
n
> Kx
0
= mω
2
x
0
Damping control
0
x cω
0
kx
0
F
ω < ω
n
>Kx
0
> mω
2
x
0
Stiffness control
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EXCITATION BY ROTATING OUT OF BALANCE
m’rω
2
sinωt
m’rω
2
cosωt
' Usually
' where
sin ) ' (
2
0
0
m m
rω m F
ωt F kx x c x m m
>>
=
= + + +
& & &
2 2 2
2
0
n
0
) ( ] ) ' ( [
'
when Find : Example
ω ω
ω ω
c m m k
rω m
x
x
+ + −
=
>>
m
r m
m m
r m
m m
rω m
c m m k
rω m
x
'
'
'
) ' (
'
lim
) ( ] ) ' ( [
'
lim lim 2
2
2 2 2
2
0
≈
+
=
+
=
+ + −
=
∞ → ∞ → ∞ →
ω
ω ω
ω ω ω
→
+ −
=
) ( ) (
2 2 2
0
0
ω ω c m k
F
x
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
VIBRATION ISOLATION
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
CAR ENGINE
• Large forces over a wide
frequency range.
• They arise from the crank
connectingrodpiston system
and combustion process.
• If transmitted to the car body,
severe noise and vibration in
the passenger compartment.
• The engine is therefore
mounted on rubber blocks.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
TYPICAL ISOLATION MOUNTS
UNDAMPED
SPRING MOUNT
DAMPED SPRING
MOUNT
PNEUMATIC
RUBBER MOUNT
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
HIGHSPEED PUNCH PRESS ON RUBBER MOUNTS
MOUNTS
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
BASIC THEORY
Source of
vibration
0 Force Excitation
ed transmitt Force
: ratio the is know want to What we
: damper and spring the to due is ground to ed transmitt force The
F
F
x c kx F
T
T
=
+ =
&
F
T
sin(ωt+θ)
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
m
0
2
x ω
0
x cω
0
kx
ωtφ
φ
0
F
F
T
km
c
r
r r
r
c m k
c k
F
F
T
n
T
2
and where
) 2 ( ) 1 (
) 2 ( 1
) ( ) (
) (
: by given is T, ibility, transmiss So,
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2
0
= =
+ −
+
=
+ −
+
= =
ζ
ω
ω
ζ
ζ
ω ω
ω
) ( ) (
: that know we 4, Lecture From
) ( F
: diagram phasor the From
2 2 2
0
0
2 2
0
T
ω ω
ω
c m k
F
x
c k x
+ −
=
+ =
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
HOW TO OBTAIN LOW TRANSMISSIBILITY ?
2 2 2
2 2
0
) ( ) (
) (
ω ω
ω
c m k
c k
F
F
T
T
+ −
+
= =
• WE WANT T TO BE AS LOW AS POSSIBLE.
• T IS SMALL IF ω>>ω
n
.
• WE WANT TO LOWER ω
n
• WE WANT LOW STIFFNESS AND/OR HIGH MASS.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
VARIATION OF F
0
WITH ω
m
0
2
x ω
m
0
2
x ω
0
x cω
0
kx
0
F
F
T
0
x cω
0
kx
0
F
F
T
m
0
2
x ω
0
x cω
0
kx
0
F
F
T
m
0
2
x ω
0
x cω
0
kx
0
F
F
T
ω < ω
n
ω = ω
n
ω > ω
n
ω >> ω
n
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
TRANSMISSIBILITY CURVES
T
R
A
N
S
M
I
S
S
I
B
I
L
T
Y
F
T
/
F
0
AMPLIFICATION T> 1 ISOLATION T< 1
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EFFECT OF DAMPING IN THE ISOLATION REGION
T
R
A
N
S
M
I
S
S
I
B
I
L
T
Y
F
T
/
F
0
LESS ISOLATION WITH INCREASING DAMPING
DECREASING
T
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EXAMPLE: ISOLATION OF RAIL NOISE
RUBBER
PADS
Before isolation
After isolation
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Lecture –3
MultiDegree of Freedom Systems
+ Modal Analysis
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
MDOF VIBRATING SYSTEMS
• Two complications
– Each node has 6 degrees of freedom
– Many such nodes are needed to describe the geometry of
representative engineering systems.
FOR FE models that use 6 DOF/node elements
Total no of DOFs = No of nodes x 6
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
EXAMPLES OF SDOF AND 2DOF SYSTEMS
SDOF
SYSTEM
2DOF SYSTEMS
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Multi Degree of Freedom Systems
• Real life systems are complex, they can bend, twist and elongate in
axial direction, the mass is distributed, not discrete as assumed in
the simple models, similarly, elasticity is distributed, there are no
perfect springs without mass …
• In reality we have infinite degrees of freedom in a system, for
convenience, we can model them as finite degrees of freedom
systems.
• The methods of modeling have been refined over the years
depending on the computational facilities available at respective
times.
• We will illustrate some methods that allowed us to understand the
way real life practical systems behave and derive (rather study)
some properties of significance to practical vibration engineers and
diagnostics.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
DETAILED ANALYSIS OF A 2DOF SYSTEM
ELONGATION OF k
1
: x
1
STEP 1: SPRING DEFLECTIONS
COMPRESSION OF k
2
: (x
1

x
2
) DUE TO DISPLACEMENT
OF BOTH ENDS
REFERENC
E
DEFLECTED
k1 force
k2 force
k2 force
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STEP 2: FREEBODY DIAGRAMS
m
1
m
2
k
2
(x
1
x
2
)
k
1
x
1
k
2
(x
1
x
2
)
x
1
x
2
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STEP 3: OBTAIN THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION
0 0 ) (
) ( ) (
: 2 Mass : 1 Mass
: law 2nd s Newton'
2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1
= + − = − +
− = − − − =
=
+
∑
x k x k x m x k x k k x m
x x k x m x x k x k x m
F x m
& & & &
& & & &
& &
m
1
m
2
k
2
(x
1
x
2
)
k
1
x
1
k
2
(x
1
x
2
)
x
1
x
2
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STEP 4: ASSUME SHM WRITE THE MATRIX EOM


.

\

=


.

\

−
−
+


.

\

−
= + −
= − + −
= + −
= − +
+
+
− = − =
+
0
0
0
0
0
0
that g Rememberin
0
0 ) ( : have We
2
1
2 2
2 2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2 2 1 2 2
2
2
2 2 1 2 1 1
2
1
2
2
2 1
2
1
2 2 1 2 2 2
2 2 1 2 1 1 1
x
x
k k
k k k
x
x
m
m
ω
x k x k x ω m
k )x k (k x ω m
x ω x & x ω x
x k x k x m
x k x k k x m
x
& & & &
& &
& &
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STEP 4: CONTINUED
} 0 { } { ]) [ ([K]
2
= − x M ω
2
1
0
0
m
m


.

\

2
1
x
x
−
− +
2 2
2 2 1
k k
k k k
STIFFNESS
MATRIX
MASS
MATRIX
MODE SHAPE
VECTOR
EIGENVALUE = (NATURAL FREQUENCY)
2
2DOF system> 2 modes > 2 natural frequencies & 2 mode shapes
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STEP 5: CHECK SYMMETRY & POSITIVE MAIN DIAGONAL
THE MASS & STIFFNESS MATRICES MUST BE SYMMETRIC.
THE MAIN DIAGONAL ELEMENTS MUST BE POSITIVE.
−
− +
2 2
2 2 1
k k
k k k
2
1
0
0
m
m
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STEP 6: OBTAIN THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES
FOR LARGE N, THERE ARE MANY NUMERICAL SOLUTION TECHNIQUES.
USE DET=0 FOR SMALL SYSTEMS.
n2) n1 ( n2. n1
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
2
2 2
2 1
2
2 1
2

2

2

& : s frequencie natural 2 in Quadratic
0 ) )( (
0 0 ]) [ ([K] det
: solution trivial non a For
} 0 { } { or 0 ]) [ ([K] det
} 0 { } { ]) [ ([K]
ω ω ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
≤ →
= − − →
=
− −
−
→ =
−
= = →
=
− +
− +
ω
k m k m k k
m k k
k m k k
M
x M
x M
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STEP 7: OBTAIN THE MODE SHAPES
Insert ω
n1
into ([K]ω
2
[M]){x}={0}
By definition, det([K] ω
n1
2
[M])=0
x
1
& x
2
are linearly dependent, but we can obtain x
1
/x
2
2
2
2
1 2 1
1
2
2
2
1
1 2 1
1
2
2 2 1 2 1 1
2
1
2
1
: mode 2nd for the Similarly,
:
0 : result previous the Using
k
m k k
x
x
k
m k k
x
x
Hence
x k )x k (k x ω m
n
n
n
n
ω
ω
ω ω
ω ω
−
=
−
=
= − + −
+
=
+
=
+
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
1 & 1
: gives k, m, for values inserting that, Assume
2 1
1
2
1
2
− = =
= = n n
x
x
x
x
ω ω ω ω
ω
MODE 1
MODE 2
The masses move in
phase. X1 and X2 move by
+1 unit each.
The masses move out of
phase. X1 moves by +1 unit,
X2 moves by –1 unit.
MODE SHAPE INTERPRETATION
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GENERAL MDOF ANALYSIS
shape Mode
frequency Natural modes N
and in problem Eigenvalue
0 ]) (
: gives
0
: motion of equation Matrix
damping. Ignore
2
2
1 1 1
2
2
1 1 1 1
{x}
) (ω
{x}
} { {x} M [K]
{X} {x}
} { {x} [K] } x { [M]
Nx Nx Nx
Nx Nx Nx Nx NxN
→
= −
− =
= +
ω
ω
ω
& &
AN NDOF SYSTEM HAS N MODES.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
3 DOF SYSTEM
FREQUENCY
TIME
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
MODAL SUPERPOSITION
MODE 1
MODE 2
MODE 3
= +
+
=
+
+
TIME DOMAIN
FREQUENCY DOMAIN
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
One of the earliest fatigue failures experienced
is that of the propeller shaft of a steam engine
driven naval ship during the I world war. It was
reported that the propeller shaft (which has the
lowest torsional stiffness in the system because
of its length) upon its failure was stiffened by
increasing its diameter, however, it failed
earlier. Then it was identified that the excitation
became closer to the new natural frequency
causing fatigue failure in lesser time. From then
onwards, torsional analysis became mandatory
for all reciprocating installations.
• Briefly, we will talk about simple modeling adopted for torsional analysis of a reciprocating diesel engine
driving a generator.
• All the 8 cylinders are considered as discs, whose rotational mass moments of inertia can be determined
and connected by equivalent torsional stiffnesses of the crank shaft.
• The damper connected to cylinder 8 is divided into two separate disks.
• The coupling stiffness is usually the lowest when compared to the stiffness of any of the shaft sections in
the train.
• The generator is modeled as one rotor
• A model thus derived (the details to arrive these values is out of current scope) is given in the next slide.
Torsional System
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Reciprocating Engine Installation
The system given here has 13
inertias connected by 12
angular stiffnesses, therefore,
we have a system with 13
degrees of freedom.
• We will attempt to understand
the behavior of such a system
and study some important
vibrational terms that are
regularly used in routine
testing and analysis.
• It is suggested that the
mathematical intricacies in this
process may be ignored by an
engineer in the field – we will
emphasize the physical
concepts that are of concern to
field vibration engineers and
just brush aside the
mathematical stuff (unless, of
course you are otherwise
interested)
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• These are governing differential
equations of motion written from
equilibrium conditions, 13 for 13 inertias
• These equations are written in a compact
matrix form
• Mass Matrix
• Stiffness Matrix
 { }  { }
 
 
−
− − + −
− −
−
=
=
= +
= + −
= − + + −
= − +
12 12
12
...
3 3 2 2
2 1 1
1 1
13
3
2
1
0
0
13 13 12 12 13 13
...
0
3 3 2
)
2 1
(
1 1 2 2
0
2 1 1 1 1 1
k k
k k k k k
k k k
k k
M
I
I
I
I
M
K M
K k I
K k k k I
k k I
θ θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ
& &
& &
& &
& &
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Free Vibration  Mode Shapes
Let us assume that the system vibrates at a natural
frequency p and when it does, each disk has a
specified amplitude, capital theta with a subscript
denoting the disk number. This assumption gives
what is called an eigen value problem, given below.
• On expansion the above gives, a thirteenth degree
polynomial equation and therefore, thirteen natural
frequencies p1, p2, .. p13. This shows, a n degree of
freedom has n natural frequencies.
• Each frequency gives a specific pattern for the thirteen
amplitudes, with any one amplitude arbitrarily fixed,
for example one unit for the first disk
Arranging each shape in corresponding columns, we get the modal matrix.
     { }
      0
0
13 ,... 2 , 1 cos
2
2
= −
= −
= =
M p K
M p K
i pt
i i
θ
θ θ
 
=
NN N N N
N
N
N
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ
3 2 1
3 33 32 31
2 23 22 21
1 13 12 11
{ }
{ }
{ }
13
13
3
2
1
13 13
2
13
3
2
1
2 2
1
13
3
2
1
1 1
...
1
...
1
...
1
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
= =
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
= =
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
=
= =
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
p p
p p
p p
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Bending Vibration
• The conclusions in the previous slide are not restricted to
torsional vibrations alone, they are true for all kinds of
vibration, bending, torsion, axial, combined bending and
torsion etc.
• Here, in this slide we show how the same equations can be
derived for bending, by using influence coefficient approach.
• In all vibration problems, the first thing is to set up a
workable
mathematical model, write the eigen value formulation,
determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes.
• Modern FE codes, ANSYS, NASTRAN …use finite
elements, make a CAD model, mesh and ask for the natural
frequencies and mode shapes.
  { }  { }
 { }    { }
 { }  { } 0
0
0
0 ...
...
0 ...
0 ...
1
1 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 2 2 22 1 1 21
1 1 2 2 12 1 1 11
= +
= +
= +
= + + + +
= + + + +
= + + + +
−
x K x M
x I x M
x I x M
x x m x m x m
x x m x m x m
x x m x m x m
n n n n n n
n n n
n n n
& &
& &
& &
& & & & & &
& & & & & &
& & & & & &
α
α
α α α
α α α
α α α
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
FORCED RESPONSE
THE RESPONSE OF THE SYSTEM TO SOME GIVEN
HARMONIC EXCITATION CAN BE FOUND USING A
TRANSFER FUNCTION APPROACH:
} ]{ [ } { ]) [ ([K] } {
: have we response, forced For
orce x )
INPUT x FUNCTION SYSTEM OUTPUT
1 2

2
F H F M X
{F} [M]) {X} ω ([K]
F ω roperties, H(system p X

= = →
=
=
=
−
ω
WE WANT THE NORMALIZED RESPONSE TO A SINGLE
EXCITATION, APPLIED TO EACH COORDINATE IN
TURN SO THAT WE CAN OBTAIN THE TOTAL
RESPONSE BY SUMMATION.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Orthogonality Conditions
• The mode shapes of a system have special
and useful properties that explain significant
physical observations. We will just state
them.
• Let us take two different modes, say rth and
sth modes. When they are multiplied with
mass matrix or stiffness matrix, the result is
zero. This multiplication is orthogonalization
as written in a compact matrix form here.
• Generalized Mass – However, if we choose
the mode shapes r and s to be the same, say,
r, we get rth mode generalized mass, similarly,
sth mode generalized stiffness.
• Remember, the mode shapes are
proportional, therefore the generalized mass
and stiffness depend upon the original shapes
that you choose – a unique way of choosing
the shapes is such that the generalized mass is
one unit and the stiffness is p2. They are then
called orthogonolized mode shapes.
{ }  { }
{ }  { }
{ }  { }
{ }  { }
{ }  { }
{ } { }
r
T
r
r
r
T
r
r
T
s
r
T
s
r
r
T
s
r
T
s
u
m
u
u M u
s r k u M u
s r u K u
s r m u M u
s r u M u
1
~
1
~ ~
0
0
=
=
= =
≠ =
= =
≠ =
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis
We will write the multidegree system equations
first.
• Recall, we stated that the natural frequencies and
mode shapes are special solutions to the system. We
haven’t yet been able to say what happens, if one just
bumps, or raps the system, how does it respond? The
system knows its mode shapes and try to respond in
all modes, and adjust them in such a way they satisfy
the type of displacement given in the test. That is it
weighs how much amount in each mode it should
respond, as decided by the generalized coordinates
(weighing terms) and the result that we can obtain is
called Modal Analysis. This expansion is called
modal expansion.
• We premultiply the equations with transpose of the
modal matrix and use the orthogonal properties
derived before to get the result given here.
• All practical systems, therefore reduce to simple
single degree of freedom models for any given mode
of vibration.
• We can introduce damping in the system for each
mode and get the damped modal equations.
 { }  { }
{ }  { }
  { }   { }
    { }     { }
 { }  { }
N r p p
N r t p t
I
U K U U M U
U K U M
U q
q K q M
T T
K
& &
K
& &
& &
& &
& &
& &
, 2 , 1 0 2
, 2 , 1 0 ) ( ) (
0
0
~ ~ ~ ~
0
~ ~
~
0
2
2
2
= = + +
= = +
= +
= +
= +
=
= +
η η ξ η
η η
η λ η
η η
η η
η
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Proportional Damping
• Damping matrix does not obey the
orthogonality properties stated earlier, hence, the
concept of a proportional damping is evolved,
wherein, the damping matrix is taken to be the
sum of a mass matrix and stiffness matrix with
appropriate proportionality constants, a and b.
• If we know a and b we can find the
viscous damping ratio in the corresponding
mode and thus use experimental value to
write damped modal equations.
• General finite element codes such as
ANSYS, NASTRAN …adopt beta
damping in place of viscous damping..
     
 { }       ( ) { }  { }
 { }     ( ){ }  { }
K
& & &
& & &
& & &
, 2 , 1 0 2
2 2
2
0
0
~ ~
2
2
2 2
2
= = + +
+ =
+ =
= + + +
= + + +
+ =
r p p
p
p
p p
p p I I
p U K M U I
K M C
r r r r r r
r
r
r
r r r
T
η η ξ η
β α
ξ
β α ξ
η η β α η
η η β α η
β α
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis  example
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis – example.. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis – example.. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis – example.. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis – example.. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis – example.. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modal Analysis – example.. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
VIBRATION ABSORBER
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
VIBRATION ABSORBER …contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
LECTURE 4
Continuous Systems Approach
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS Systems governed by Wave Equation
Strings under tension
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Axial vibration of Bars
CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS WAVE EQUATION contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Torsional vibration of RODS
CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS WAVE EQUATION contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Solution of WAVE EQUATION
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Solution of WAVE EQUATION contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Solution of WAVE EQUATION contd….
Free Vibration of Strings
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Solution of WAVE EQUATION contd….
Free Vibration of Bars
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Solution of WAVE EQUATION contd….
Free Vibration of Bars contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
BEAMS Bending Vibrations
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
RAYLEIGH’s Method
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
RAYLEIGH’s Method contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example………..RAYLEIGH’s Method
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example………..RAYLEIGH’s Method …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example………..RAYLEIGH’s Method …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example………..RAYLEIGH’s Method …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
RAYLEIGH – Ritz Method
undetermined
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
RAYLEIGH – Ritz Method …. contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
RAYLEIGH – Ritz Method contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example………..RAYLEIGH – RITZ Method
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example………..RAYLEIGH – RITZ Method …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example………..RAYLEIGH – RITZ Method …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GALERKIN Method
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GALERKIN Method …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GALERKIN Method …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GALERKIN Method …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Lecture 5
Stability Considerations
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STABILITY
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane ..contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane ..contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane ..contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane ..contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• other criterion to be discussed during Rotor Dynamics
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Lecture 6
FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION
&
COMPONENT MODE SYNTHESIS
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Finite Element Formulation – Axial Vibration of Beams
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Reference Systems
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Guyan Reduction Scheme
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Component Mode Synthesis
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Stiffness and Mass Matrices for substructures 1 and 2
Reduced Equation
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Lecture 7
Rotor Dynamics
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rotor Dynamics is different from Structural
Dynamics, as we deal with a rotating
structure. Basically, all the vibration
phenomena will be valid, however, there are
several differences and we have to set up
procedures on handling the rotors and their
vibratory phenomena.
• Rankine is attributed to have mentioned the
existence of a critical speed of a rotor in
1869. He defined this as a limit of speed for
centrifugal whirling.
• There were many doubts whether a rotor can
cross such a critical speed? It was presumed
that it will be unstable after crossing the
critical speed. This is somewhat similar to
Speed of sound and whether one can cross
this barrier in flying.
• We have to wait for nearly 50 years to have
a clear understanding on this topic.
Rotor Dynamics
William John Macquorn Rankine (18201872)
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Ingenious Flexible Shaft
• Though, we have not understood clearly about the
basics of rotor dynamics, Laval built the first
turbine in 1883 which ran successfully at 40000
rpm!!!
• From simple equilibrium conditions, he derived a
correct relation for the whirl radius (though whirl
and spin have not been clearly differentiated), in his
own notation, it is
• When the denominator is zero, the whirl radius is
infinity, defining the critical speed.
• Laval proved that one can cross the critical speed
and is stable at high speeds as y approaches d
2
2
ω
δ ω
−
=
W
F
y
g
eccentricity
stiffness
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Jeffcott’s fundamental contribution
• Jeffcott in 1919 treated the problem as
forced vibration and identified the basic
principles of rotor dynamics. He showed
that the shaft did not rotate about rest
position but about its own center line, which
is spinning. The spinning rotor whirled
about the mean bearing center line.
• He identified the unbalance in the system
to be the driving force setting the whirl in
forced vibration. He derived simple
differential equations of the system and
solved them.
• Jeffcott through this model has shown that
one can cross the critical speed without any
instability.
• In English speaking countries, a rotor
such as the one shown is named after
Jeffcott, though in Germany, Scandinavia,
Holland, they prefer to call it as Laval rotor,
because, it was Laval who derived the
expression in the previous page.
• In this model, the shaft is assumed mass less and
the disk to be rigid. The total mass M of the rotor is
put as disk and the stiffness K is represented as
shaft. The eccentricity is denoted by EG = a. The
rotor spins about its own axis with an angular velocity
w and whirls with angular velocity n. Jeffcott
considered synchronous whirl, i.e., n=w.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Equations of Motion  Solution
O is the bearing center line, E is the disk geometric
center, G is the mass center, EG=a is the eccentricity,
OE=R is the whirl radius about the bearing center line.
Disk rotates/spins about E with angular velocity w ccw
direction and the whirl is assumed synchronous with
spin. The whirl is lagging in phase by an angle f from
the unbalance force vector in direction of EG.
• Write down the inertia forces, stiffness forces and
damping forces in the respective directions …
• Solution for the amplitude R of r, in
terms of a and W = w/p
t i
e Ma Kr
dt
dr
C
dt
r d
M
iy z r
Ky
dt
dy
C t a z
dt
d
M
Kz
dt
dz
C t a z
dt
d
M
ω
ω
ω
ω
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
0 ) sin (
0 ) cos (
= + +
+ =
= + + +
= + + +
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
Ω −
Ω
=
Ω + Ω −
Ω
= =
ξ
φ
ξ
a
R
R
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Jeffcott Rotor  Solution
• When the rotor is stationary initially, the rotor
speed is zero and the response is also zero for all
damping values.
• As the speed increases, the whirl radius
increases with the phase angle less than 90 deg
until resonance. At resonance, the phase angle is
90 deg irrespective of damping. The peak value
occurs slightly beyond resonance.
• Damping limits the resonant response and the
quality factor (magnification) is 1 over twice the
damping ratio, 1/2x.
• At high speeds beyond resonance, the system
runs smoothly with response equal to eccentricity
and a phase 180 deg, thus keeping the cg steady
at the bearing center line.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Translatory and Conical Whirl
•Rigid rotor on flexible bearings is same as
a flexible rotor on rigid bearings  however
it provides for translatory and conical whirl
modes. The first flexure of the rotor comes
after these whirls.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Bowed Rotor  Bow r
0
at
Rotors get statically bent or bowed or warped
due to sudden thermal loads, or leaving the rotor
unattended for long periods without barring.
Sometimes, the rotor is balanced in a tunnel and
left for long periods in a crate without adequate
support to avoid gravity sag. In all these cases,
the rotor comes to a halt at the heavy spot, with
the rotor sag and eccentricity in one line.
•In the above, OO’=R is whirl radius, O’E=r0 is
the bow, EG=a is the eccentricity, a0 is the bow
location with the eccentricity.
•If the rotor is dropped from a height, the bow
location angle is 180 deg, which is in a direction
opposite to the mass center.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
bow of angle phase
unbalance of angle phase
1
2
tan
factor bow
2 1 2 1
0 b
2
1 
0
0
) (
2
2
2
0
) (
2
2
2
2
) ( 2
2
2
0
0
a
a
r
R
e
e R
e
a
R
R
Kre e Ma Kr
dt
dr
C
dt
r d
M
b
t i
ia
t i
a ax i t i
+ =
Ω −
Ω
=
=
Ω + Ω −
+
Ω + Ω −
Ω
=
=
+ = + +
− −
+
φ φ
ξ
φ
ξ ξ
ω
φ ω φ ω
ω
Response due to bow unbalance.
•Response due to conventional unbalance.
0
α
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Response  Self Balancing Speed
•A is response due to conventional unbalance and
B due to the bow unbalance.
•Usually, the bow gives a0 = 0, then these two
responses get added, i.e., the unbalance increases.
•For a dropped rotor the bow usually is a0 = 180,
then these two responses oppose.
•The above condition leads to a self balancing
speed, Ws, speed at which the response becomes
zero.
( )
[ ]
[ ]
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
+
+
=
Ω + Ω −
=
Ω + Ω −
Ω
=
+ =
+ =
−
− −
+ − −
b
b
t i ia
t i a i i
B A
B A
R
B
A
e Be A
e Be Ae R
φ φ
φ φ
ψ
ξ
ξ
ψ ω
ω φ φ
cos cos
sin sin
tan
2 1
2 1
1
2
2
2
0
2
2
2
2
0
0
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
2
2
2
0
2
0
0
2
2
2
0
2
0
0
2 1
180
2 1
0
R
R
a
R
R
a
R
a
R
R
a
s
= Ω
Ω + Ω −
− Ω
= =
=
Ω + Ω −
+ Ω
= =
=
ξ
ξ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Response of a bowed rotor
Phase relationship of a bowed rotor
Whirl Amplitude of a bowed rotor
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rotor with bow phase 180
0
Phase relationship of a bowed rotor
Whirl Amplitude of a bowed rotor
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings ..contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings ..contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings ..contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings
with CrossCoupling & Damping
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings .contd..
with CrossCoupling & Damping
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings .contd..
with CrossCoupling & Damping
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
.contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Instability in Torsional Systems
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Instability in Torsional Systems …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Hill’s Equation; Mathieu‘s Equation
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Floquet’s Theory; Strutt Diagram
Floquet’s Theory determines the behaviour of the Mathieu’s
Equation and describes the Strutt Diagram
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GRAVITATIONAL Effect
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GRAVITATIONAL Effect …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GRAVITATIONAL Effect …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GRAVITATIONAL Effect …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GRAVITATIONAL Effect …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
OIL WHIRL
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
ROTOR STABILITY IN FLUID FILM BEARINGS contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
ROUTHHURWITZ CRITERION
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
ROUTHHURWITZ CRITERION contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example ROUTHHURWITZ CRITERION
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example ROUTHHURWITZ CRITERION …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Holzer’s Method for Torsional Systems
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Holzer’s Method for Torsional Systems …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Holzer’s Method for Torsional Systems …. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example ……Holzer’s Method
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
MyklestadProhl Method for Beams
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
MyklestadProhl Method for Beams ..contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
MyklestadProhl Method for Beams ..contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
MyklestadProhl Method for Beams ..contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS Freely Spinning Disc
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS Freely Spinning Disc ..contd..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS Disc on Shaft
Additional term in place of 0
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS Disc on Shaft .. contd…
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotor Imbalance Classification
•The imbalance in a rotor can be static – i.e., the
principal inertia axis is shifted parallel to the shaft axis,
a single correction mass is sufficient to balance the
rotor in a plane containing cg.
•A special case of imbalance can be a coupled
unbalance, in which the principal inertia axis passes
through the center of gravity, then a couple, two equal
and opposite masses are needed for correcting the
imbalance.
•In a general dynamic unbalance case, sum of the
above two special cases, we need two correction
masses in any two convenient planes – we will discuss
this further.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Dynamic Unbalance
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Single Plane Balancing
•Balancing of single discs is a fairly simple task
as
all the unbalance can be considered as confined
to be in one plane.
•If you run the rotor with the residual unbalance
as it existed and which is to be corrected, a
vibration pickup on the bearing will sense a
response due to this unbalance. In order to relate
the vibration signal to the rotor, one can have a
phasor placed on the shaft, relative to which the
vibration signal is measured, that gives the
magnitude and phase angle of the response with
the residual unbalance. Let that be a vector Ov as
shown. Note the 0, 90, 180 and 270o positions
taken for the given rotation with 0 as the phasor
location.
•Though we know a phasor location marked on
the shaft, we have no idea where the unbalance
is, now we place a known mass at a known
location as per the chart and measure the
response which is O+T. The effect of trial mass is
now given by (O+T) – Ov = Tv.
•The correction mass is therefore to be placed at
35o in the direction of rotation from the location of
trial mass, the magnitude is decided by the
lengths of the vectors Tv and Ov.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotor Balancing
•Very few rotors can be considered as single plane rotors, therefore we
have to devise a method of balancing rotors with distributed unbalance.
•When the rotors do not deform and retain the original shape, the rotor can
be considered as rigid – in practice rotors running well below the critical
speed are rigid rotors, then we can devise the following procedure.
•Divide the rotor into several disks, as many as you want, say n in number.
Let us consider the ith rotor at a distance zi from a plane which we will
denote left plane marked L. In this plane, the unbalance is taken as miai at
an angle fi from x axis. There are n such masses in these n disks chosen.
•We also choose another convenient plane and denote this as plane R as
shown.
Distributed Unbalance
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rigid Rotor – Two Plane Balancing
•Let F
i
be the unbalance force in ith plane. Introduce
two equal and opposite forces F
i
in plane L. Since
the rotor is rigid these two equal and opposite forces
have no effect on the equilibrium of the system. We
have three forces now, two of them form a couple
ML as shown.
•Now split the couple into two equal and opposite
forces in the planes L and R separated by distance a.
•In plane L we have now two forces, combine them
to form into one and let this be F
i
L and let the force
in the right plane be denoted as F
i
R.
•Repeat this to all the n disks and form a set of n
concurrent forces in each of the planes L and R.
Find the resultants of these concurrent forces and
denote them F
L
and F
R
.
•Thus we reduced the original distributed unbalance
in the system to two unbalance forces in any two
convenient planes – remember this is valid only for
rigid rotors and a process of removing these two
unbalance forces is called Two Plane Balancing or
Dynamic Balancing, in place of simple statics used
in Single Plane Balancing or Static Balancing.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Influence Coefficients
•As in single plane balancing fix the
angular locations and use a phasor to
measure the phase. Choose the
measurement planes to be, say left
bearing and right bearing. Let the
responses without any trial mass be as
shown.
•Now introduce a trial mass in right plane
and let the responses be as denoted here.
•Similarly, let a trial mass in left plane
give the responses as shown here.
•Using these six responses, we derive the
influence coefficients, measures that tell us
how the responses will be arising out of
known forces. The example in the
following pages illustrates how to achieve
the balancing of a rigid rotor.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example
i R
i L
i T
i R
i L
R
274 . 8 9906 . 0 99 at microns 6.35
: R Plane Right
311 . 2 521 . 4 27 at microns 5.08
: L Plane Left
608 . 2 294 . 6
Plane Right in 22.5 at 6.8g Mass Trial : 2 Run
188 . 7 188 . 7 45 at microns 10.16
: R Plane Right
144 . 9 90 at microns 9.144
: L Plane Left
Mass Trial No : 1 Run
2
o
2
o
o
1
o
1
o
+ − =
+ =
+ =
+ =
=
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example – contd.
•Influence coefficient denoting the
response in plane b due to a unit force in
plane R
•Influence coefficient denoting the
response in plane a due to a unit force in
plane R
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
i
i
i i
T
L L
a
i
i
i i
T
R R
a
R
aR
R
bR
181 . 1 229 . 0
608 . 2 294 . 6
144 . 9 311 . 2 521 . 4
336 . 0 160 . 1
608 . 2 294 . 6
188 . 7 188 . 7 274 . 6 9906 . 0
1 2
1 2
+ =
+
− +
=
−
=
+ − =
+
+ − + −
=
−
=
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example – contd.
•Influence coefficient denoting the response in
plane b due to a unit force in plane L
•Influence coefficient denoting the response in
plane a due to a unit force in plane L
( ) ( )
i
i
i
a
T
L L
a
i
i
i i
a
T
R R
a
i R
i L
i T
aL
L
aL
bL
L
bL
L
9 . 1 327 . 0
997 . 3 5 . 5
144 . 9 4 . 9
76 . 3 558 . 0
997 . 3 5 . 5
188 . 7 188 . 7 1 . 30 775 . 4
1 . 30 775 . 4
90 at microns 30.5 : R e Right Plan
0 4 . 9
0 at microns 9.4 : L Left Plane
997 . 3 5 . 5
36 at 6.8g : 3 Run Final
1 3
1 3
3
o
3
o
o
− =
+
−
=
−
=
+ − =
+
+ − + −
=
−
=
+ − =
+ =
+ =
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Example – contd.
•We need to eliminate the original response vectors
by using correction masses in planes L and R, to
estimate these masses, we form the set of
equations given here using the influence
coefficients determined earlier.
•Solving the above two equations, we get
the expressions for correction masses.
•When these correction masses are added, (we may
have to do this in two masses each by placing them
in the nearest locations) the response theoretically
should be zero. This does not happen as there are
several assumptions made in this analysis, the first
correction should bring the responses to be low, one
or two additional balancing runs may be needed to
achieve the desired grade quality.
i m
i m
a a a a
a L a R
m
a a a a
a R a L
m
a m a m L
a m a m R
L
R
bL aR aL bR
bR aR
L
bL aR aL bR
aL bL
R
aL L aR R
bL L bR R
9 . 1 81 . 2
56 . 1 94 . 10
1 1
1 1
1
1
− − =
+ =
−
−
=
−
−
=
+ = −
+ = −
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Shop Balancing set up
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Flexible Rotor Balancing
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Influence Coefficients
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Balancing Masses
{ } [ ] { } v a U
T
v v
a
T
v v
a
T
v v
a
k
i ij
k
ij
i ij
ij
i i
i
1
1
th
1 1
1
1 1
2
1
2
Tests Speed k
...
j Plane in Mass Trial
2 Plane in Mass Trial
−
=
−
=
−
=
−
=
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Classification of Rotors
•Class 1 – Rigid Rotors: Rotors that can be corrected in any two arbitrary planes and after
correction, its unbalance does not significantly change at any speed upto the maximum
operating speed and when running under conditions which approximate closely to the final
supporting system. Rotors which do not satisfy this condition are classified as flexible rotors.
•Class 2 – Quasi Flexible Rotors: Rotors that cannot be considered rigid but can be balanced
adequately in a low speed balancing machine. These are rotors, (1) where the axial distribution
of unbalance is known – e.g., 2A – shaft with a grinding wheel; 2B – Shaft with a grinding wheel
and pulley; 2C – Jet engine compressor rotor; 2D – Printing roller; 2E – rotors with a long rigid
mass supported by a flexible shaft, whose unbalance can be neglected, such as computer
memory drum; (2) where axial distribution is not known – e.g., 2F – Symmetrical rotors with two
end correction planes, whose maximum speed does not significantly approach II critical speed
and whose service speed does not contain I critical speed and with controlled initial unbalance;
2G – same as 2F but with an additional central correction plane and that it may have its service
speed in I critical speed range; 2H – Same as 2F rotors but unsymmetrical.
•Class 3 – Flexible Rotors: Rotors that cannot be balanced in a low speed balancing machine
and that require some special flexible rotor balancing technique – e.g., Generator rotors•
Class 4 – Flexible Attachment Rotors: Rotors that could fall in categories 1 or 2 but have in
addition one or two more components that are themselves flexible or flexibly attached – e.g., a
rotor with centrifugal switch
•Class 5 – Single Speed Flexible Rotors: Rotors that could fall into category 3, but for some
reason, e.g., economy, are balanced only for one speed of operation – e.g., high speed motor
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
ISO 1940: Rotor Classification
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Balance Quality Grade G
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
L8
Vibration Measurement
Pickups, Analyzers, Modulation,
Cepstrum Analysis,
Digital Measurement
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Why Vibration Measurements?
• We studied basic principles of structural vibrations, and special applications to rotors and their
behavior under dynamic conditions.
• While all this information and much more is basic to the understanding of machine behavior, the
current course is concerned primarily with the health of a machi ne. Every machine deteriorates in
condition, however well it has been designed/ The rotating machinery is very expensive and they
should be available for their operation for long uninterrupted intervals (years) and without any failures
and unexpected shut downs.
• Asset management is an important aspect to any heavy industry with rotating machinery. We find
several indications reflecting the condition of a machine in its life time; e.g., we know that an
automobile engine needs a change of lubricating oil as it becomes contaminated with dirt over a
period of time, so if we can find a measure of the state of the lubricating oil, an appropriate action can
be planned – or if one finds the bearing temperatures are going up, there is some rubbing and
inadequacy of lubricating oil, so on and so forth. Some of these measures, however, do not tell us the
problem in a machine sufficiently well in time for a proper asset management.
• Over years of asset management by maintenance people, we know that the earliest indications of any
fault in a rotating machine are detected by an increase in vibration and sound levels, that is why every
asset management practice adopts vibration measurement as the first and foremost step that may be
further assisted by other measurements such as lub oil particle counting, bearing pressure and
temperature measurement, process parameter variations …Basically it is the vibration level, its
signature in time and frequency domains, orbits, and trends over short and long durations that help us
in understanding the health of the machine and predicting any impending problem so that timely
action is taken. Therefore vibration measurement and its analysis is important first step in asset
management of rotating machinery.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Vibration Units of Measure
AMPLITUDE
Displacement in microns, mils, below 10 Hz
Is a measure of the distance the object moves
Velocity in mm/sec, inch/sec, between 101000 Hz
Is a measure of how fast it moves  (Speed)  most destructive
energy
Acceleration in mm/sec², Spike Energy  g above all
The force imparted on the vibration object as it changes its velocity.
TIME (FREQUENCY) Cycles / Sec, Hertz, RPM
PHASE Radian, Degree
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration
• Displacement, velocity
and acceleration for a
given frequency are all
related through
• V = Xp
• A = Vp = Xp
2
• Usually velocity is taken
as a standard as it
represents the energy
associated in the system;
for a given velocity and
frequency, we can find
the associated amplitudes
of displacement and
acceleration.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Type of Measurement:
1) Contact (Seismic)
2) Non NonContact (Relative) Contact (Relative)
•Displacement: Eddy Current Proximity Pickup
•Velocity (Seismic): Electro Dynamic Transducer
•Acceleration: Piezoelectric Pickup
Direction & Location of Measurement: Direction & Location of Measurement:
• Horizontal, Vertical and Axial
• Bearing Pedestal, Shaft, Journal housing, Structure
Transducers Selection
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• Measure Relative Distance Between Two Surfaces
• Accurate Low Frequency Response
• Limited High Frequency Sensitivity
• Require External Power Source
• Sensitive to observed material
• Often Measure Bearing Housings or Machinery Casing Vibration
• Effective in Low to Mid Frequency Range (10 Hz to around 1,500 Hz)
• Self Generating Devices
• Are ElectroMechanical Devices With Moving Parts That Can Stick or Fail
• Rugged Devices
• Operate in Wide Frequency Range (Near 0 to above 400 kHz)
• Good High Frequency Response
• Some Models Suitable For High Temperature
• Require Additional Electronics
Eddy Probe – Velocity Transducer  Accelerometer
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Sensor Relationships
• The adjoining figure gives the
displacement and acceleration for a
velocity of 0.628 in/sec
• At 1 Hz, displacement x = v/p, i.e.,
mils
• Corresponding acceleration at 1 Hz
is a = vp
• Common machinery operating
range is shown by the rectangular
area, displacement and acceleration
at any frequency can be obtained in
terms of 0.628 in/sec velocity
Amplitude
(mils, in/sec, g’s)
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Vibration Sensor Principle
• A vibration sensor utilizes the basic single degree system response.
• The sensor when placed on a vibrating member experiences x(t) that is to to be measured
• The mass responds with absolute displacement y(t)
• Relative displacement z(t) = y(t)  x(t) and Z/X is shown above used as a measure of x(t)
• The sensor range and application is depends on how we proportion its mass and spring,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Seismometer / Velocity Transducer
• A Seismometer or Velocity Transducer measures rate of
change of relative displacement z(t) = y(t)  x(t) using
the electromagnetic principle through the induced
voltage as illustrated in right side, as a measure of x(t)
• The sensor range for Z=X is r >> w/p, therefore p
should as low as possible, i.e., the mass is relatively
heavier to the spring stiffness, then we measure the
velocity of the support and hence Velocity Transducer.
• Electromagnetic Principle
Variation of Permeance of magnetic
circuit causes a change in the flux FX
V
dt
dx
dt
d
n
dt
d
n V
8
8
10
10
−
−
× − =
× − =
φ
φ
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Accelerometer Principle
• An Accelerometer uses Piezo electric principle
given in next slide to measure the acceleration
directly
• The sensor range for Z to represent Xw2 the
acceleration of the support is r << w/p, therefore p
should as high as possible, i.e., the mass is
relatively lighter
• Since p is a constant, we need the factor f to be as
close to unity as possible, then we measure
acceleration directly.
• When the damping ratio is 0.7, the factor f equals
unity to a large possible range of r, say up to 0.2.
Damping is therefore very crucial to an
accelerometer.
• Piezoelectric crystals have very low mass and
very
high frequencies, therefore are very good
candidates for measurement of acceleration. They
can also be made very light and hence have useful
applications for measurements on small
components without effecting the basic structure.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
1
2 1
r r
f
f
p
r r
r
X
Z
ξ
ω
ξ
+ −
=
=
+ −
=
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Output impedance from accelerometer is very high  problems
matching, noise, cable length Charge amplifier is therefore used.
Accelerometer Elements
Elements of a measurement system
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Proximity Probe – Non contact Measurement
Probe mounted in the proximity of the moving object 
High frequency field setup in the gap.
•Can act as a key phasor
•Two probes can give the orbit
•Mounted in the bearing  relative displacement
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• The vibration signal in general is somewhat periodic with
several harmonics, the basic signal is therefore a sinusoid.
• A sinusoid, its squared sinusoid are shown above. Since the
energy in the system is proportional to velocity squared, we
prefer a root mean square value of the amplitude, rms value, to
judge the condition of the machine.
Sinusoid Signal  Characteristics
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Let the pk to pk value of a sinusoid be 240 mils/s.
• The amplitude is 240/2 = 120 mils/s
• Square of the signal varies from 0 to 1202 = 14400 mils/s
• Mean of the square = 7200 mils/s
• RMS = (7200)1/2 =120/1.414 = 84.85 mils/s
• Pk to Pk RMS = 169.7 mils/s
Calculation of RMS Value  Sinusoid
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Both sinusoids amplitude = 1
Peak to peak of sum = 3.5203
Mean = 0
Root Mean Square of sum = 1
Sum of Two Sinusoids in Phase
The amplitudes of both sinusoids that make
up the sum is obtained in frequency domain.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Peak to peak = 3.2506
Mean = 0
Root Mean Square = 1
Sum of Two Sinusoids out of Phase
• Frequency Domain remains same
• Phase Information lost
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Consider a periodic signal with a sum (0.1 sin 81.1t +0.05
sin 173.52t). Let us find the means, mean squares and root
mean squares of the components and the total signal.
1. Let the two components be denoted by 1 and 2. The mean
values of individual components as well as the sum, being
harmonic signals, are zero
M1 = 0, M2 = 0, Mean of sum = 0
2. The time period of the lower frequency is large of the two
and is given by 2p /81.1 = 0.0775 s. We now follow the steps
given here to find MS (mean squares) and RMS [Integrate
and average over the period 0.0775s]
Calculation of RMS with two components
( ) ( )  
( ) ( )  
00125 . 0 005 . 0
0775 . 0
2
0025 . 0
0775 . 0
2
01 . 0
0775 . 0
1
52 . 173 sin 0025 . 0 1 . 81 sin 1 . 0
0775 . 0
1
52 . 173 sin 05 . 0 1 . 81 sin 1 . 0
0775 . 0
1
0775 . 0
0
2 2
0775 . 0
0
2 2
+ =

.

\

× +

.

\

× =
+ =
+ =
∫
∫
dt t t
dt t t MS
units 0.1582 signal all over of pk pk to RMS
0791 . 0 00125 . 0 005 . 0
0354 . 0 00125 . 0 2
0707 . 0 005 . 0 1
=
= + =
= =
= =
total
RMS
RMS
RMS
2
2 cos 1
sin
2
pt
pt
−
=
Note
and integral of cosine term becomes zero
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
3D View
Fourier Analysis
View in frequency domain
View in time domain
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• Fourier analysis is a mathematical tool
that helps us in identifying the frequency
components of a periodic vibration signal
which is composed of several harmonics.
• The periodic signal is assumed to consist
of several harmonics of the fundamental
frequency and an infinite series gives
accurate results. In practice, first few
components are considered. The harmonic
cosine and sine components are
• The amplitude in each harmonic, n = 1, 2,
is given by
• The phase angle is
Fourier Analysis
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
n
n
n
n n n
n
n
T
n
T
n
n
n n
a
b
b a A
n t n A a t f
tdt n t F
T
b
tdt n t F
T
a
t b t n a a t f
1
2 2
1
0
0
0
1
0
tan
cos
2
1
sin
2
cos
2
sin cos
2
1
−
∞
=
∞
=
=
+ =
− + =
=
=
+ + =
∑
∫
∫
∑
φ
φ ω
ω
ω
ω ω
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Fourier Analysis  Complex Form
• Fourier analysis is written in complex
form so that faster numerical tools can be
developed. The cosine and harmonic
terms are written in exponential form as
given here
• The harmonics can be written as one
sided series 0, 1, 2, …infinity
• Or as two sided series,  infinity, …, 2, 
1, 0, 1, 2, …infinity.
• In this form we loose phase information,
the harmonics in two sided series have a
magnitude equal to half the values.
• A finite time signal is considered in this
process.
• Average power of the signal over a
period of time, T0 is
• Complex harmonic components directly
represent the average power in the
corresponding frequency term, this is
Parseval theorem.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) { }
∑
∑
∫
∫
∑
∑
=
+ 
.

\

=
=
=
= − =
=
+ + − + =
− =
+ =
∞
=
+
−
∞ +
∞ −
∞
=
−
−
−
2
1
2
2
0
0
2
0
2
1
2
1
1
0
2 2
1
) (
1
Complex
Components
Harmonic
2
1
2
1
) ( series sided Two
2
1
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
sin
2
1
cos
0
n
n
n
T
av
T
T
t in
n n
s s n n n
t in
n
n
t in
n n
t in
n n
t in t in
t in t in
C
A a
dt t x
T
P
e t f
T
C C
A C ib a C
e C t f
e ib a e ib a a t f
e e
i
t n
e e t n
ω
ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
We will get back to this again
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• To illustrate the usefulness of Fourier series, consider a periodic
saw tooth signal given above with its components.
• The top figure shows addition of terms one by one up to six.
• The figure below shows the net result of sum of first six terms,
which is getting closer to the original saw tooth form.
Saw Tooth Signal
( )
,... 3 , 2 , 1
2
sin
4
6
sin
3
1 4
sin
2
1 2
sin
4
0
4
2
0
0 0 0
0
0
= =
+ + =
< < − =
k
T
kt
k
T
t
T
t
T
t
T t
T
t
t x
π
π
π π π
π
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• We can increase the number of terms in the summation to get more accurate result.
• Sixty terms sum is given in the figure below.
• In practice, we are interested in the lower harmonics, or those harmonics which can be
excited to resonance from any per rev or nozzle excitations.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• Here, the sum up to 25 terms is given above with the harmonics in
frequency domain given below.
• The first harmonic is one unit, followed by the second at ½ unit and
the higher ones decrease in magnitude rapidly.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Rectangular Signal
• This and the next slide illustrate a rectangular periodic signal and its Fourier components.
( )
,... 3 , 2 , 1
2
sin
4
...
2
5 sin
5
1 2
3 sin
3
1 2
sin
4
2 / 0 1
2 / 0 1
0
0 0 0
0
0
= =
+ + + =
< < − =
< < =
k
T
kt
k
T
t
T
t
T
t
T t
T t t x
π
π
π π π
π
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• 45 decades ago, a Fourier analysis was a tedious job, the signal is first recorded on a
recorder, e.g., a UV recorder, it was then enlarged and digitized manually to obtain the signal
as a function of time. A hand calculation or a main frame computer was then used to determine
the Fourier components in any diagnostics and trouble shooting exercise.
• Dedicated analog instruments are then developed using filter circuits, which are expensive –
the accuracy was limited octave bands, e.g., 11 filters are common with center frequencies
beginning from 31.5 and doubling consecutively.
• A vibration chart thus developed is called octave band analysis, which gave the relative
energy levels in these bands to make a diagnostics analysis.
Octave Band Analysis
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• Subsequently, we had 1/3 octave band analyzers which helped in
narrowing the frequency zones for a better diagnostics.
Sequential analysis
One filter at a time
Analysis time
between each analysis
Significant transient
data may be lost
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
•Inverse Transform – Conversion
from frequency to time domain
Fourier Transform – time to frequency domain
•Not limited to periodic functions alone
•Achieved through Fourier Integral
•Aperiodic function repeats itself
after a large (infinite) time
•Associated frequency becomes negligibly small
•Replace w by w’, nw’ becomes continuous
•T = 2 / pw’ approaches infinity
Forward Transform – Fourier Integral
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
∫
∫
∫
∞ +
∞ −
− −
∞ +
∞ −
−
∞ +
∞ −
−
∞ →
= =
= =
= =
→
ω ω
π
ω
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
d e f F F t f
dt e t f t Ff F
dt e t f TC F
n
t i
t i
t i
T
n
2
1
1
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
• f(t) is analog should be converted
to a digital text file
• N intervals of a vibration record in
time T, time step T/N
• Frequency of the entire period = 2p /T
• Discrete frequencies 2p /0, 2pN /T , 2pN /2T , 2pN /3T, …2pN /(N1)T
Example:
• Let 5000 samples be taken in 1 sec.
• Let us use N = 4096 out of these 5000 data points.
• T = 4096/5000
• Smallest discrete frequency = 2pN /(N1)T = 2p(4096) /
[4095(4096/5000)] rad/s
= 5000/4095 = 1.22 Hz.
( )
( )
( )
{ }   { }
1 1
1
0
2
1
1 , 2 , 1 , 0
1
1 , 2 , 1 , 0
1
,
2
, , 0
× × ×
−
=
−
=
− = =
− = =
−
=
∑
N N N N
N
k
N
kr
i
k r
k
F A
N
F
N r e f
N
F
N k
N
kT
N
T N
N
T
N
T
t
K
K
K K
π
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Fast Fourier Transform  FFT
{ }   { }
1 1
1
× × ×
=
N N N N
F A
N
F
N
kr
i
kr
e a
π 2
−
=
 
→ ↓ ← ↑
↓ ↑ ↓ ↑
← ↓ → ↑
↑ ↑ ↑ ↑
=
3
2
1
0
A
      
↓ ↑
↓ ↑
↑ ↑
↑ ↑
← ↑
→ ↑
↓ ↑
↑ ↑
=
=
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1
2 1
A A P A
   
4 N For
row each in elements zero non only two
A matrices log into factored
i 2
=
N A
[P] Permutation matrix
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• On the present day Desk top or lap top
computers, FFT can be performed in milli
secs, thus making the conversion of time
domain data to frequency domain almost
instantaneous and in real time.
• With an A/D converter card, a lap top has
thus become a good diagnostics
instrument and tool.
Comparison  DFT/FFT Computation Requirements
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Amplitude Modulated Signal
( )
( ) ( )
a
a a
a
a a
x to x
x
t t x x t x
ω
ω ω
Frequency Modulation
x  x Amplitude
Amplitude Modulation
cos cos
+
+ =
( )
( ) ( )t x t x t x
t t x x t x
a a a a
a a
ω ω ω ω ω
ω ω
− + + + =
+ =
cos
2
1
cos
2
1
cos
cos cos
bands side
 and
speed rotational
frequency carrier
frequency mesh gear
gear mounted lly Eccentrica
a c a c
a
c
=
+
=
ω ω ω ω
ω
ω
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Mean = 0
Mean square = 0.56
Root Mean Square = 0.75
Side bands in Frequency domain
Amplitude Modulated Signal
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Frequency or Phase Modulated Signal
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
Signal. Modulated Frequency
a is signal resultig the and speed rotational
the to ing correspond mean value over the changes
frequency angular the , vibration al In torsion
speed angular Variable
magnitude constant of Phasor
' to ' varies Frequency
index modulation  / '
modulation of frequency and magnitude  and '
Re
cos ' cos
ω ω ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω ω ω
φ
+ −
=
+ =
a
a
t i
a
Xe t x
t t X t x
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Modulation Magnitude = 0.5
Modulation Freq = 4 Hz
Carrier Freq = 15 Hz
Frequency or Phase Modulated Signal
Mean = 0
Mean square = 0.50
Root Mean Square = 0.71
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Torsional Vibration Measurement
Ω
−
=
Ω + ∞ = Ω − ∞ =
Ω Ω =
Ω + =
Ω
2
to
range speed Angular
t sin  locity Angular ve
t cos t
position shaft ous Instantane
vibration torsional of amplitude
n oscillatio torsional of frequency
speed rotational
min max
max min
ω ω
θ
θ ω θ ω
θ ω φ
θ ω φ
θ
ω
&
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Ω
−
=
= =
2
2
,
2
min max
min
max
max
min
ω ω
θ
π
ω
π
ω
T T
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Power (Auto) Spectrum  CrossSpectra
• Amplitude spectrum is given by the magnitude
and frequency of each harmonic component.
• Power spectrum is obtained by squaring each
amplitude and halving them and plotted in
discrete form at each frequency.
• Auto spectrum is same as power spectrum when
the frequency domain is expressed continuously,
this is obtained by taking the product of F(w)
and its conjugate marked by *
• Auto or Power spectrum is a measure of power
associated with corresponding frequency
component and hence important for vibration
engineers.
• Cross spectrum involves two different functions.
Let us take the excitation and response functions
and their cross spectra are defined by
• Cross spectra are used in defining coherence,
which is a degree of linear dependence between
two signals, see next slide.
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
φ ω
F X
X F
x(t)
f(t)
F F
A
A F
n
n n
* S
* S
Response
Excitation
* S
Spectrum Auto
2
1
Spectrum Power
,
xf
fx
ff
2
=
=
=
Amplitude Spectrum
Discrete
Continuous
Cross spectra
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Coherence
• Consider the frequency response function.
• Express this function in two different ways, first
using the conjugate of amplitude spectrum of
forcing function and next by using the conjugate
of amplitude spectrum of response function.
• Coherence is defined by the ratio of these two
response functions.
• If the measurement of forcing function and
response function are free from noise error and
that there is a perfect linear relationship between
them, Coherence will be unity.
• Coherence can be used to determine whether two
different signals are coming from the same
machine or if any of the signals are lost in
measurement due to some fault, coherence
between a good and a bad signal will be poor.
This property can be used in identifying any
faulty sensor or problem in the transmitting path.
( )
( )
( ) ω
ω
ω
F
X
H =
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ω
ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
ff
xf
S
S
F F
F X
F
X
H
=
=
=
,
*
*
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ω
ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
fx
xx
S
S
X F
X X
F
X
H
=
=
=
,
*
*
2
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
xx
fx
ff
xf
S
S
S
S
H
H
y
=
=
2
1 2
Frequency Response Function
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Cross and Auto Correlations
• Correlation is a measure of how well two
functions relate each other, cross correlation is
given by the average of the product
where t is the delay period.
• Autocorrelation function is a measure of a
function correlates with itself.
• Autocorrelation has a maximum value when the
delay period is zero, and it reduces to mean
square value of the function.
• Autocorrelation decreases as the delay period is
increased.
• When a signal is random, its mean square value
will be negligible.
• If a weak periodic signal is buried in a truly
random noise, the spectrum reveals very little,
however, autocorrelation reveals this weak
periodic signal, since the random part has zero
autocorrelation.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
∫
∫
−
∞ →
−
∞ →
+ = −
+ =
2 /
2 /
2 /
2 /
1
lim
1
lim
T
T
T ff
T
T
T fx
dt t f t f
T
R
dt t f t x
T
R
τ τ
τ τ
( ) ( ) τ + t f t x
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
• Definitions of Cepstrum
• Terminology
Cepstrum for Spectrum
Quefrency (sec) for Frequency
Rahmonics for Harmonics
Lifter for Filter
Gamnitude (Hz) for Magnitude
Saphe for Phase
• Applications
• Side bands of a multi stage gear box,
they appear as distinct frequencies in
cepstrum domain.
Cepstrum (Time Domain)
( ) ( )  
2
log
spectrum power c logarithmi a of spectrum Power
ω τ
xx xx
S F C =
( ) ( )   ω τ
xx xx
S F C log
spectrum power c logarithmi of ansform Fourier tr Inverse
1 −
=
sec / 1 and / 1
frequency at peaks distinct Two
and s difference frequency
bands side of families Two
cepstrum in peaks distinct as Appear
spectrum a in structures periodic Identify
2 1
2 1
∆f ∆f
Hz ∆f ∆f
( ) ( )   ω τ X F C
xx
log
spectrum amplitude of ansform Fourier tr Inverse
1 −
=
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Two Speed Gearbox with Defects
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Advantage of Cepstrum Analysis
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
A/D Converter
• Analog to Digital converters and
modern high speed desk top computers
have revolutionized the way we record
and analyze vibration and other
process parameter time domain
signals. The analog tape recorders
have disappeared and the storage has
become very simple and reliable. The
analog instruments have also been
replaced by software and we can have
today a sensor and its conditioner
directly connected to a computer for
all the required analyses in real time.
• A 3 bit parallel A/D converter is
illustrated here. Analog voltage
compared with each node’s voltage
• Output voltage high (on) when the
analog voltage is above ref. voltage
and low (off) when it is below.
• Binary encoder compares and gives a
3 bit binary output.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
An encoder circuit which reads the comparator
outputs, high or low and produces a 3bit binary
output corresponding to one of the eight possible
on/off conditions of the inputs 1 through 7
3bit encoder binary output
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Resolution with
16 bit comparator
Examples
3 bit comparator
range 10V to 10  for 0.3mV resolution Voltage
increments 65,536 2 into divided Range
card converter A/D bit  16
bits of number n range, scale full
2
1
E bit per resolution Voltage
2
1
output s encoder' parallel bit  3
removal offset dc or n attenuatio amplitude
viz., ng conditioni signal e Appropriat
limit lower or upper the exceeds
signal input the if saturates Converter
V 10 to 10  : tage output vol for range Typical
16
n
v
3
+
=
∆
∆ =
+
fs
fs
ref
V
V
E
( )
0) ( 000 is output the low, read s comparator All
7) ( 111 is output the high, read s comparator All
4 0 2 0 2 1 2 100
output binary to ing correspond
4 is state Input
low read 7  5 and high read 4  1 s comparator
8
5
and
8
4
between signal Input
2
2
0 1 2
2
=
=
= × + × + × =
ref ref
E E
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Signal Sampling
• Signal sampling is an important
criterion while acquiring the data
• The same signal above shows
inadequate sampling rate, number of
points captured in a unit time is too
low and the original signal character
is lost.
• Decreasing sampling time or
increasing sampling rate improves
the digitization process.
t
f
s
∆
=
1
rate Sampling
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Aliasing – Nyquist Criterion
s Nyq
f f
2
1
=
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Sampling Example
( )
Hz 1.22 5000/4096 f samples these of 4096 N
second per samples 5000 f signal Vibratory
4096 FFT in samples of Number
Hz 4000 rage sampling Minimum
rpm) (120,000 Hz 2000  component frequency Highest
f N∆∆
2
1
n∆∆f 2∆∆f ∆f, 0, resolved s Frequencie
s
Nyq
= = ∆ =
=
>
= K K
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Multiplexer – Demultiplexer
• A multiplexer is an IC chip (Transistor
Transistor Logic TTL 74150) which
performs like a selectable commutator, in
this case a 16 position – single pole
switch, 1 of 16 selector. A desired input is
chosen by the 4 digit binary number dcba
(d is Most Significant Bit and a is Least
Significant Bit). Saves costs of wiring
while acquiring a large number of signals.
The signals are monitored in sequence,
one by one by a computer separated by a
few seconds.
• Demultiplexer or a 1 of 16 data
distributor is similar but with reversed
action (TTL 74154). Here a multiplexer –
demultiplexer is shown where a single
line is used rather than separate lines to
connect two positions. For the purpose of
binary control the ports d, c, b and a
should be connected.
• Only 5 circuits instead of 16 to connect
between two points
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Simple Mechanical System
Physical System
Mathematical Model Can be a Modal Model
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
WHAT IS A DOF ?
• The ability to move in any one direction is a DOF. • The number of coordinates required to specify the motion of a system uniquely determines the order of that system.
1 DOF
6 DOFs
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
NATURAL FREQUENCY AND TIME RESPONSE
m&& x
Equation of motion : m&& + kx = 0 x Solution : x(t) = A cos ω nt + B sin ω nt = C sin(ω nt + φ ) k where ω n = is the natural frequency. m
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY & ACCELERATION  I
The constants ( A, B ) or (C , φ ) depend on the initial conditions. & & For instance, let us assume that x( 0 ) = x0 and x( 0 ) = x0 After some algebra, it can be shown that : & x0 x(t) = x0 cosω n t + sinω n t
ωn
In the general case : x(t) = A cos ω nt + B sin ω nt = C sin (ωnt + φ ) & & → x max = Cωn x(t) = Cωn cos (ωnt + φ) &&(t) = −Cωn 2 sin (ωnt + φ) x → && max = Cωn x
2
VELOCITY & ACCELERATION .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur DISPLACEMENT.II DISPLACEMENT x(t) = C sin (ωnt + φ ) VELOCITY & x(t) = Cωn cos (ωnt + φ ) ACCELERATION &&(t) = −Cωn 2 sin (ωnt + φ ) x .
I FORCE F F=kx0 F=kx Strain energy=1/2 kx02 x0 DISPLACEMENT x .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur SPRINGS .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur SPRINGS .II • What provides the spring (or restoring) force? • Gravity • A spring • A float mechanism • Beam flexibility .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STIFFNESS FORMULAE .
.I IN ALL VIBRATION PROBLEMS.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM . THE ORIGIN OF THE MOTION SHOULD BE TAKEN AS THE STATIC EQUILIBRIUM POSITION.
II Weight mg = Static deflection: δ = stiffnes k If the vibration amplitudeis x. total deflection will be : mg y = x +δ = x + k x Newton's second law : m&& = ∑ F m&& = mg − ky = mg − k ( x + x m&& = −kx x mg ) k .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur POSITION OF EQUILIBRIUM .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur TRANSLATIONAL. TORSIONAL & ROTATIONAL SDOF SYSTEMS .
arranging : & Iθ& = −k (a sin θ )a − mgsinθ L θ L Re − arranging and assuming small θ mg && + (ka 2 + mgL)θ = 0 Iθ (ka 2 + mgL) ωn = I Note: I=mL2 m .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur PENDULUM WITH SPRING We will apply : & Iθ& = ∑ Moment a Spring restoring moment : Stiffness x displacement x distance = − k (a sin θ )a Gravity restoring moment : Effective weight x distance = −mgsinθ L Re .
16 kgm2 D=10 mm L= 300 mm G= 80 GPa Torque T Torsional stiffness = kT = = Ang disp θ T Gθ πr 4 Also = where J = J L 2 Combining : kT = GJ / L = 261Nm / rad kT 261 ωn = = = 40.4 rad / s I 0.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur TORSIONAL SYSTEM kT θ I=0.16 & Iθ& + kTθ = 0 .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur KINETIC ENERGY vs STRAIN ENERGY 1 2 KE = mv 2 1 2 SE = kx 2 x v .
zero displacement Max displacement. zero velocity Displaceme : x(t ) = x0 sinωnt nt & Velocity: x(t ) = x0ωn cosωnt Max = x0 Max = x0ωn & xMAX → x0ωn AND xMAX → x0 FOR THE SDOF MASSSPRING SYSTEM 1 1 2 2 m( x0ωn) = kx0 Hence:ωn = k m 2 2 .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur ENERGY METHOD TO DETERMINE ωn MAX KINETIC ENERGY = MAX STRAIN ENERGY Max velocity.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur MORE COMPLEX SYSTEMS GENERAL LAGRANGE EQUATION d ∂T ∂T ∂V ∂D − = Qi + + ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x &i dt &i i i .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur VERY COMPLEX SYSTEMS Finite element model of a car .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Simple Vibratory Phenomena External Force – Time dependent usually periodic One harmonic – rotational or multiples is sufficient Mass times Acceleration opposite to acceleration Damping coefficient times Velocity – dissipates energy Mean Equilibrium position under self weight Static Deflection d = mg/k Linear System Inertia Force proportional to accln Damping force proportional to vel Stiffness force proportional to displ System that can be described by one coordinate. say. x .
. rolling mills. electrical short circuit conditions … Under these conditions. multi cylinder engines are better to even out the highly pulsating torque • Usually not a problem in rotating machinery as the drive torque is fairly uniform • Torsional vibrations can be very severe under suddenly applied loads.g. e. gear boxes … are susceptible for failures • Choose proper coupling to make it work well under normal conditions and act as a fuse under severe loads and protect the machinery • Torsional (Angular) stiffness Nm/rad • Mass moment of inertia Kgm2 d 2θ I 2 + kθ = 0 dt k p= rad/s I . couplings.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Torsional Vibration Angular vibrations of any drive train • A serious problem in reciprocating machines limiting the speeds.
etc… They cause most machinery problems . loosely mounted parts. gears. bearing stiffness. instabilities due to oil film. asymmetry.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Bending Vibration Bending (Flexural) vibrations of a drive train • Most common problem in all rotating and reciprocating machinery • All heavy duty machinery operate above first critical speed • A small unbalance (residual balance or imbalance) can cause serious problems at critical speeds • Bending vibrations effected by misalignment.
m c c ζ = = is the viscous critical damping ratio. c0 2 km .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur FREE MOTION OF A DAMPED SDOF SYSTEM Equation of motion : m&& + cx + kx = 0 x & & Dividing by m : && + 2ζωnx + ω 2 x = 0 x n k where ωn = is the undamped natural frequency.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF MOTION EOM : && + 2ζωnx + ω 2 x = 0 & x n Solution is of the form : x(t ) = Ae α1t + Be α 2t αt into EOM. insert x(t) = Ae A & B are two constants depending on initial conditions. αt (α 2 + 2ζωnα + Ae 2 ω )=0 2 n → α1. To find α1 & α 2 . 2 = (−ζ ± ζ − 1)ωn .
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur POSSIBILITIES. Underdamped case with oscillatory motion. DEPENDING ON THE VALUE OF ζ Case 1. ζ < 1. Both roots are complex : α1 = (−ζ + i 1 − ζ 2 )ωn α 2 = (−ζ − i 1 − ζ 2 )ωn The general solution becomes : − ζωnt [ A cos( 1 − ζ 2 ωnt ) + B sin( 1 − ζ 2 ωnt )] x(t ) = e =e − ζωnt C sin( 1 − ζ 2 ωnt + φ ) = e − ζωnt C sin(ωdt + φ ) where ωd = 1 − ζ 2 ωn is the damped natural frequency.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur TIME HISTORY FOR OSCILLATORY MOTION Exponential term e − ζωnt t Oscillatory term C sin(ωdt + φ ) .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur CASE 2 ζ > 1. Both roots are real : α1 = (−ζ + ζ 2 − 1)ωn α 2 = (−ζ − ζ 2 − 1)ωn The solution becomes : x(t ) = Ae + Be (−ζ + ζ 2 − 1)ωnt (−ζ − ζ 2 − 1)ωnt . Overdamped case with no oscillatory motion.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EFFECT OF OVERDAMPING .
Critically .damped motion → Max rate of decay Double root : α1 = α 2 = −ωn The solution becomes : − ω nt x(t ) = ( A + Bt )e .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur CASE 3 ζ = 1.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EXAMPLE: SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION FROM TIME RESPONSE x(t) 1. 5 ) = 0 x(4) = 0 .0 s 2. Initial T=2π/ωd=3 s ωd= 2π/3 conditions : & x (0 ) = 0 x (1 ) = 0 . x ( 2 .5 s 4.0s 4000 kg t Find k and c.
I The amplitude ratio between two successive cycles : − ζωntm e C sin(ωdtm + φ ) x(tm) = x(tm + 1) e− ζωntm + 1C sin(ωdtm + 1 + φ ) x(tm) − ζωn(tm − tm + 1) =e x(tm + 1) AMP =e ζωnT =e ζωn 2π ζωn 2π 1 − ζ 2 ωn ωd = e .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur LOGARITHMIC DECREMENT .
1) cycles : 1 x(tm) δ = ln N x(tm + N) .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur LOGARITHMIC DECREMENT .II ζ x(tm) =e x(tm + 1) 2π 1−ζ 2 Taking logarithms of both sides : 2πζ x(tm) δ = ln = ≈ 2πζ x(tm + 1) 1−ζ 2 If the two amplitudes are separated by (N .
s/m c= δ δ & = cx • Dashpots can de designed as in shock absorbers or the equivalent effect of energy dissipating capacity determined from tests to find the value of this coefficient c .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Viscous Damping Principle τ =µ dv dz v • Damping force is proportional to velocity and = Damping Coefficient C times Velocity dx/dt – dissipates energy F = (πDt ) µ πDtµ N .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur DAMPING IS NOT ALWAYS VISCOUS ! • Viscous damping ratio: ζ = c/c0 m&& +cx + kx = 0 x & Dashpot • Material damping (what the material can dissipate in one cycle) m && + k (1 +iη ) x = 0 x •Aerodynamic damping: δ (e. g. gas pressure on a blade) • Friction damping (energy dissipation via contact mechanism) ζ =η / 2 = δ / 2π AT RESONANCE .
0196m stiffness k 10 x1000 d2 . k=10kN/m. c=540Ns/m and v=8 m/s.PARACHUTE Find the maximum compression in the spring if m=20 kg. Compression = static compression + dynamic compression weight mg 20 x9.81 d1 = = = = 0.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EXAMPLE OF DAMPED MOTION .
434 x . ωn .0196m − ζωnt Obtain velocity by differentiating : x(t ) = e ( A cos ωdt + B sin ωdt ) − ζωnt − ζωnt & x(t ) = −ζωne ( A cos ωdt + B sin ωdt ) + ωde (− A sin ωdt + B sin ωdt ) − ζωnt =e [( Bωd − Aωnζ ) cos ωdt − ( Aωd + Bωnζ ) sin ωdt ] & → x(0) = Bωd − Aωnζ = 8m / s Substitution for A.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur USE INITIAL CONDITIONS TO FIND A & B IN EOM: d 1 t=0 Datum for motion xo=d1=0.0196 m & v0= 8m/s − ζωnt x(t ) = e ( Acosωdt + B sinωdt ) x(0) = A = x0 = −0. ωd and ζ gives B = 0.
0 SDOF d ∂T ∂V =0 + & dt ∂x ∂x .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur LAGRANGE’S EQUATION OF MOTION d ∂T ∂T ∂V ∂D − = Qi + + ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x &i dt &i i i T : Kinetic energy V : Potential & spring energy D : Damping dissipation function Q : External force i : Co .vibration : Q = 0 No damping : D = 0 x is some general arbitrary coordinate.ordinate number (i = 1 for SDOFsystems) Free .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EXAMPLE 1 – SDOF SYSTEM FIND THE EQUATION OF MOTION 1 2 ∂T d ∂T d & & & T = mx → = mx → x = (mx) = m&& & & 2 ∂x dt ∂x dt 1 2 ∂V V = kx → = kx 2 ∂x d ∂T ∂V = 0 → m&& + kx = 0 x + & dt ∂x ∂x .
PENDULUM WITH SPRING a 1 &2 T = Iθ 2 D=0 V = ∆SE + ∆PE where ∆ : Change SE : Spring energy.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EX 2 . PE : potential energy θ mgLcosθ L m mg L 1 2 SE = ky where y = aθ 2 PE = mgL(1 − cosθ ) 1 V = k (aθ ) 2 + mgL(1 − cosθ ) 2 .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur OBTAIN DERIVATIVES 1 &2 T = Iθ 2 ∂T & → d ∂T = d ( Iθ&) = Iθ& & → & = Iθ & dt ∂θ dt ∂θ 1 V = k (aθ ) 2 + mgL(1 − cosθ ) 2 ∂V 2 2 → = ka θ + mgL sin θ ≈ (ka + mgL)θ ∂θ .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur INSERT INTO LAGRANGE EQUATION d ∂T ∂V + =0 ∂θ& ∂θ i dt i && + (ka 2 + mgL)θ = 0 Iθ (ka + mgL) ωn = I 2 .
order ODE with RHS) Solution : x(t) = CF + PI xCF(t) Transient xPI(t) Steadystate x(t)=xCF(t)+ xPI(t) Periodic solution .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur FORCED VIBRATION EOM : m&& + cx + kx = F (t ) x & (2nd .
F(t). We will consider one type of excitation only : m&& + cx + kx = F (t ) = F0 sin ωt x & We now need to guess a PI. . we must know the RHS.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur & SOLUTION OF m&& + cx + kx = F (t ) x If we consider ζ < 1 only . the CF is given by : x(t ) = e − ζωnt ( A cos ωdt + B sin ωdt ) To obtain the PI.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur PROPERTIES OF THE PI When a linear system is subjected to a harmonic excitation of the form Fsinωt. • • It will respond harmonically at the same frequency. Input : Output : F (t ) = F 0sin ωt xPI (t ) = x0 sin(ωt − φ ) 0<ω < ∞ . There will be a phase lag between the force and the response.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur PHASE LAG 100 φ 100 F (t ) = F0 sin ωt 50 50 0 0 x(t ) = x0 sin(ωt − φ ) 50 50 100 0 0.1 Tim e 0.3 .2 100 0.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur SOLUTION FOR THE STEADYSTATE VIBRATION The solution for the steady − state vibration can be found by inserting x & the PI xPI (t ) = x0 sin(ωt − φ ) into the EOM m&& + cx + kx = F0 sin ωt x0 = F0 (k − mω 2 ) 2 + (cω ) 2 c and ζ = 2 km 1 cω & tan φ = k − mω 2 ω Let r = ωn x0 = F0 k (1 − r 2 ) 2 + (2ζr ) 2 2ζr & tan φ = 1− r 2 .
. m.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur FREQUENCY RESPONSE FUNCTION (FRF) Consider the expression : x0 1 1 H= = = 2 2 2 F0 k (1 − r ) + (2ζr ) (k − mω 2 ) 2 + (cω ) 2 It is of the form : Output = Function (k. c & ω ) = Function (system properties & ω ) Input Such a function is called Transfer Function in general It is called Frequency Response Function (FRF) in vibration analysis.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur FRF PLOT φ=900 at resonance I RESONANCE .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EFFECTS OF DAMPING Reduces response at resonance. . Has relatively little effect on resonant frequency. Has little effect elsewhere.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Another look at RESONANCE .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Another look at RESONANCE……contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Another look at RESONANCE……contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Another look at RESONANCE……contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Another look at RESONANCE……contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur QFACTOR Q= Resonant amplitude x0 = Static deflection d r = 1 We have : x0 = F0 k (1 − r 2 ) 2 + (2ζr ) 2 F0 & d= k x0 1 x0 Q= = = d r =1 F0 (1 − r 2 ) 2 + (2ζr ) 2 r =1 k r =1 1 x →Q = 0 = Inverse of Damping Ratio x 2 d r =1 2ζ .
amplitude = X0 /d Halfpower points Q Q/1.0 r =1 ω .414 1.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur HALFPOWER POINTS Frequencies corresponding to Q 2 are called half − power points.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur DAMPING ESTIMATION FROM AN FRF H x0 1 = Hres H = H (ω1) = H (ω 2) = F0 (k − mω 2 ) 2 + (cω ) 2 2 1 Hres = at ω = ωn = k / m ω1 cωn ω n Hres ω2 Determine ω such that H (ω ) = Hres ω 2 1 ω 2 = → → Yields a quadratic equation in ( ) 2 2 2 ωn 2cωn (k − mω ) + (cω ) 1 There are 2 frequencies ω 1 &ω 2 such that H (ω 1) = H (ω 2) = c 1 ω 2 − ω1 It can be shown that ≈ = 2ζ = Q ωn km Hres 2 .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur PHASOR DIAGRAM FOR F=F0sinωt F0 is rotating with speed ω 50 F 0 sinωt F0 ωt 50 0 0.04 0.08 0.12 ωt = 2nπ ωt = 2nπ + π ωt = 2nπ + 2π .
&& x x & x ωtφ . VEL & ACCEL x = x0 sin(ωt − φ ) & x = ωx0 cos(ωt − φ ) = x0ω sin(ωt − φ + ) 2 & ie x leads x by π π 2 && = −ω 2 x0 sin(ωt − φ ) = −ω 2 x = ω 2 x0 sin(ωt − φ + π ) x & ie && leads x by x π 2 . and x by π .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur RELATIVE PHASE BETWEEN DISP.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 3 CASES TO CONSIDER mω2 x0 F0 kx0 mω 2 x0 cωx0 ω < ω n > Kx0 > mω2x0 Stiffness control F0 kx0 mω2 x0 cωx0 ω= ω n > Kx0 = mω2x0 Damping control F0 kx0 cωx0 ω> ω n > Kx0 < mω2x0 Inertia control .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EXCITATION BY ROTATING OUT OF BALANCE (m + m' ) && + cx + kx = F0 sin ωt x & where F0 = m' rω m’rω2cosωt m’rω2sinωt x0 = F0 (k − mω ) + (cω ) 2 2 2 2 Usually m >> m' m' rω 2 Example : Find x0 when ω >> ωn →0 x = [k − (m + m' )ω 2 ]2 + (cω ) 2 m' rω2 m' r m' r = lim = ≈ lim x0 = lim 2 2 2 2 m + m' m ω →∞ ω →∞ [k − (m + m' )ω ] + (cω ) ω →∞ (m + m' )ω m' rω2 .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur VIBRATION ISOLATION .
severe noise and vibration in the passenger compartment. • • .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur CAR ENGINE • • Large forces over a wide frequency range. If transmitted to the car body. They arise from the crankconnectingrodpiston system and combustion process. The engine is therefore mounted on rubber blocks.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur TYPICAL ISOLATION MOUNTS UNDAMPED SPRING MOUNT DAMPED SPRING MOUNT PNEUMATIC RUBBER MOUNT .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur HIGHSPEED PUNCH PRESS ON RUBBER MOUNTS MOUNTS .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur BASIC THEORY FT sin(ωt+θ) Source of vibration The force transmitted to ground is due to the spring and damper : & FT = kx + cx Force transmitted FT What we want to know is the ratio : = Excitation Force F 0 .
transmissibility.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur mω x0 2 F0 φ FT cωx0F ωtφ From the phasor diagram : T = x0 k 2 + (cω ) 2 F0 (k − mω 2 ) 2 + (cω ) 2 From Lecture 4. T. is given by : FT k 2 + (cω ) 2 1 + (2ζ r ) 2 = = T= 2 2 2 F0 (k − mω ) + (cω ) (1 − r 2 ) 2 + (2ζ r ) 2 ω where r = ωn c and ζ = 2 km . we know that : x0 = kx0 So.
WE WANT TO LOWER ωn WE WANT LOW STIFFNESS AND/OR HIGH MASS. T IS SMALL IF ω>>ωn. .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur HOW TO OBTAIN LOW TRANSMISSIBILITY ? FT k 2 + (cω ) 2 T= = F0 (k − mω 2 ) 2 + (cω ) 2 • • • • WE WANT T TO BE AS LOW AS POSSIBLE.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur VARIATION OF F0 WITH ω mω2 x0 ω<ω n F0 ω>ωn FT cωx0 ω=ωn mω 2 x0 FT cωx0 kx0 mω2 x0 F0 ω >> ω n kx0 mω2 x0 F0 FT cωx0 kx0 F0 FT cωx0 kx0 .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur TRANSMISSIBILITY CURVES TRANSMISSIBILTY FT/F0 AMPLIFICATION T> 1 ISOLATION T< 1 .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EFFECT OF DAMPING IN THE ISOLATION REGION TRANSMISSIBILTY FT/F0 LESS ISOLATION WITH INCREASING DAMPING DECREASING T .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EXAMPLE: ISOLATION OF RAIL NOISE RUBBER PADS Before isolation After isolation .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Lecture –3 MultiDegree of Freedom Systems + Modal Analysis .
FOR FE models that use 6 DOF/node elements Total no of DOFs = No of nodes x 6 .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur MDOF VIBRATING SYSTEMS • Two complications – Each node has 6 degrees of freedom – Many such nodes are needed to describe the geometry of representative engineering systems.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur EXAMPLES OF SDOF AND 2DOF SYSTEMS SDOF SYSTEM 2DOF SYSTEMS .
not discrete as assumed in the simple models. twist and elongate in axial direction. • We will illustrate some methods that allowed us to understand the way real life practical systems behave and derive (rather study) some properties of significance to practical vibration engineers and diagnostics. • The methods of modeling have been refined over the years depending on the computational facilities available at respective times. . the mass is distributed. they can bend. for convenience. there are no perfect springs without mass … • In reality we have infinite degrees of freedom in a system. elasticity is distributed.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Multi Degree of Freedom Systems • Real life systems are complex. similarly. we can model them as finite degrees of freedom systems.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur DETAILED ANALYSIS OF A 2DOF SYSTEM STEP 1: SPRING DEFLECTIONS REFERENC E k2 force k2 force DEFLECTED k1 force ELONGATION OF k1: x1 COMPRESSION OF k2: (x1x2) DUE TO DISPLACEMENT OF BOTH ENDS .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STEP 2: FREEBODY DIAGRAMS k1x1 m1 x 1 k2(x1x2) k2(x1x2) m2 x2 .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STEP 3: OBTAIN THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION k1x1 m1 x1 k2(x1x2) k2(x1x2) m2 x2 Newton' s 2nd law : m&& = ∑ F x Mass 1 : m1&&1 = −k 1 x1 − k 2( x1 − x 2) x m1&&1 + (k 1 + k 2) x1 − k 2 x 2 = 0 x Mass 2 : m 2 &&2 = k 2( x1 − x 2) x m 2 &&2 − k 2 x1 + k 2 x 2 = 0 x .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STEP 4: ASSUME SHM WRITE THE MATRIX EOM We have : m1&&1 + (k 1 + k 2) x1 − k 2 x 2 = 0 x m 2 &&2 − k 2 x1 + k 2 x 2 = 0 x Remembering that &&1 = −ω 2 x1 & &&2 = −ω 2 x 2 x x − m1ω 2 x1 + (k 1 + k 2 )x1 − k 2 x 2 = 0 m 2ω 2 x 2 − k 2 x1 + k 2 x 2 = 0 m1 0 x1 k 1 + k 2 − k 2 x1 0 −ω x 2 = 0 x 2 + − k 2 0 m 2 k 2 2 .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STEP 4: CONTINUED EIGENVALUE = (NATURAL FREQUENCY)2 ([K] − ω [M ]) {x} = {0} 2 k 1 + k 2 − k 2 − k2 k2 STIFFNESS MATRIX m1 0 0 m2 MASS MATRIX MODE SHAPE VECTOR x1 x2 2DOF system> 2 modes > 2 natural frequencies & 2 mode shapes .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STEP 5: CHECK SYMMETRY & POSITIVE MAIN DIAGONAL THE MASS & STIFFNESS MATRICES MUST BE SYMMETRIC. k 1 + k 2 − k 2 − k2 k2 m1 0 0 m2 . THE MAIN DIAGONAL ELEMENTS MUST BE POSITIVE.
THERE ARE MANY NUMERICAL SOLUTION TECHNIQUES. ([K] . USE DET=0 FOR SMALL SYSTEMS.ω 2 [ M ]) {x} = {0} → det ([K] .ω [ M ]) = 0 → =0 2 k 2 − ω m2 − k2 2 2 2 → (k 1 + k 2 − ω 2 m1)(k 2 − ω 2 m 2) − k2 = 0 Quadratic in ω2 → 2 natural frequencies : ωn1 & ωn2.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STEP 6: OBTAIN THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES FOR LARGE N. (ωn1 ≤ ωn2) .ω 2 [ M ]) = 0 or {x} = {0} For a non − trivial solution : k 1 + k 2 − ω m1 − k2 det ([K] .
but we can obtain x1/x2 Using the previous result : − m1ω x1 + (k 1 + k 2 )x1 − k 2 x 2 = 0 2 2 k 1 + k 2 − m1ω n1 x2 = Hence : x1 ω =ωn1 k2 x2 k 1 + k 2 − m1ω = Similarly.ωn1 2 [M])=0 x1 & x2 are linearly dependent.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STEP 7: OBTAIN THE MODE SHAPES Insert ωn1 into ([K]ω2[M]){x}={0} By definition. det([K]. for the 2nd mode : x1 ω =ωn 2 k2 2 n2 .
inserting values for m. X1 and X2 move by +1 unit each. X2 moves by –1 unit. The masses move out of phase. .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur MODE SHAPE INTERPRETATION Assume that. X1 moves by +1 unit. k. ω gives : x2 =1 x1 ω =ωn1 MODE 1 & x2 = −1 x1 ω =ωn 2 MODE 2 The masses move in phase.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GENERAL MDOF ANALYSIS Ignore damping. Matrix equation of motion : [M] NxN {&&}Nx1 + [K] Nx1{x}Nx1 = { 0 }Nx1 x {x} = −ω 2{X} gives : ([K] − ω 2 M ]) Nx1{x}Nx1 = { 0 }Nx1 Eigenvalue problem in ω 2 and {x} N modes → (ω 2 ) Natural frequency {x} Mode shape AN NDOF SYSTEM HAS N MODES. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 3 DOF SYSTEM TIME FREQUENCY .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur MODAL SUPERPOSITION MODE 1 MODE 2 MODE 3 TIME DOMAIN = FREQUENCY DOMAIN + + = + + .
we will talk about simple modeling adopted for torsional analysis of a reciprocating diesel engine driving a generator. Then it was identified that the excitation became closer to the new natural frequency causing fatigue failure in lesser time.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Torsional System One of the earliest fatigue failures experienced is that of the propeller shaft of a steam engine driven naval ship during the I world war. • The coupling stiffness is usually the lowest when compared to the stiffness of any of the shaft sections in the train. • Briefly. . it failed earlier. • The damper connected to cylinder 8 is divided into two separate disks. however. • The generator is modeled as one rotor • A model thus derived (the details to arrive these values is out of current scope) is given in the next slide. whose rotational mass moments of inertia can be determined and connected by equivalent torsional stiffnesses of the crank shaft. torsional analysis became mandatory for all reciprocating installations. From then onwards. It was reported that the propeller shaft (which has the lowest torsional stiffness in the system because of its length) upon its failure was stiffened by increasing its diameter. • All the 8 cylinders are considered as discs.
• It is suggested that the mathematical intricacies in this process may be ignored by an engineer in the field – we will emphasize the physical concepts that are of concern to field vibration engineers and just brush aside the mathematical stuff (unless.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Reciprocating Engine Installation The system given here has 13 inertias connected by 12 angular stiffnesses. we have a system with 13 degrees of freedom. therefore. of course you are otherwise interested) . • We will attempt to understand the behavior of such a system and study some important vibrational terms that are regularly used in routine testing and analysis.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur • These are governing differential & I1θ& + k1θ1 − k1θ 2 = 0 1 & I 2θ&2 − k1θ1 + ( k1 + k 2 )θ 2 − K 3θ 3 = 0 equations of motion written from equilibrium conditions.. 13 for 13 inertias ... − k12 k12 . & I13θ& − k12θ12 + K13θ13 = 0 13 matrix form • These equations are written in a compact • Mass Matrix • Stiffness Matrix & [M ]{θ&}+ [K ]{θ } = 0 I1 I2 [M ] = I3 I13 − k1 k1 − k k1 − k 2 1 [M ] = − k 2 k 2 + k3 − k3 − k12 ..
. we get the modal matrix. a n degree of freedom has n natural frequencies.. p2.. θ13 2 θ1 = 1 θ 2 = θ3 . a thirteenth degree polynomial equation and therefore. with any one amplitude arbitrarily fixed. for example one unit for the first disk θ11 θ12 θ13 θ1N θ θ 22 θ 23 θ 2 N 21 [θ ] = θ 31 θ 32 θ 33 θ 3 N θ N 1 θ N 2 θ N 3 θ NN p = p2 {θ }2 p = p13 {θ }13 Arranging each shape in corresponding columns.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Free Vibration ...13 [[K ] − p [M ]]{θ } = 0 [[K ] − p [M ]] = 0 2 2 θ1 = 1 θ 2 = θ3 . given below.. p13. .2... p = p1 {θ }1 θ i = θ i cos pt i = 1. thirteen natural frequencies p1. • Each frequency gives a specific pattern for the thirteen amplitudes.. This assumption gives what is called an eigen value problem. capital theta with a subscript denoting the disk number. θ13 1 θ1 = 1 θ 2 = θ3 .Mode Shapes Let us assume that the system vibrates at a natural frequency p and when it does... each disk has a specified amplitude. θ13 13 • On expansion the above gives. This shows.
. ANSYS. + α1n mn &&n + x1 = 0 x x x α 21m1 &&1 + α 22 m2 &&2 + .. torsion. + α 2 n mn &&n + x2 = 0 x x x α n1m1 &&1 + α n 2 m2 &&2 + ... in this slide we show how the same equations can be derived for bending.. NASTRAN …use finite elements. write the eigen value formulation. bending. combined bending and torsion etc. + α1n mn &&n + xn = 0 . they are true for all kinds of vibration.. make a CAD model. mesh and ask for the natural frequencies and mode shapes. axial. by using influence coefficient approach. [α ][M ]{&&} + [I ]{x} = 0 x [M ]{&&} + [α ]−1 [I ]{x} = 0 x [M ]{&&} + [K ]{x} = 0 x • The conclusions in the previous slide are not restricted to torsional vibrations alone. • In all vibration problems.. • Modern FE codes.. determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes. • Here.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Bending Vibration x x x α11m1 &&1 + α12 m2 &&2 + .. the first thing is to set up a workable mathematical model.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur FORCED RESPONSE THE RESPONSE OF THE SYSTEM TO SOME GIVEN HARMONIC EXCITATION CAN BE FOUND USING A TRANSFER FUNCTION APPROACH: OUTPUT = SYSTEM FUNCTION x INPUT X = H(system properties. .ω 2 [ M ]) −1{F } = [ H ]{F } WE WANT THE NORMALIZED RESPONSE TO A SINGLE EXCITATION. ω) x Force For forced response. we have : ([K]ω2 [M]) {X} = {F} → { X } = ([K] . APPLIED TO EACH COORDINATE IN TURN SO THAT WE CAN OBTAIN THE TOTAL RESPONSE BY SUMMATION.
if we choose the mode shapes r and s to be the same. sth mode generalized stiffness. This multiplication is orthogonalization as written in a compact matrix form here. They are then called orthogonolized mode shapes. say. therefore the generalized mass and stiffness depend upon the original shapes that you choose – a unique way of choosing the shapes is such that the generalized mass is one unit and the stiffness is p2. we get rth mode generalized mass. {u } [M ]{u }= 0 r ≠ s {u } [M ]{u }= m r = s {u } [K ]{u }= 0 r ≠ s {u } [M ]{u }= k r = s ~ ~ {u } [M ]{u }= 1 s T s T s T s T r r r r r r T r ~ {u }= r 1 mr T {u } r . the result is zero. say rth and sth modes. r. • Generalized Mass – However. When they are multiplied with mass matrix or stiffness matrix. the mode shapes are proportional. similarly. We will just state them. • Remember.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Orthogonality Conditions • The mode shapes of a system have special and useful properties that explain significant physical observations. • Let us take two different modes.
and adjust them in such a way they satisfy the type of displacement given in the test.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis We will write the multidegree system equations first.2. how does it respond? The system knows its mode shapes and try to respond in all modes.K N . if one just bumps. This expansion is called modal expansion. That is it weighs how much amount in each mode it should respond. ~ {q} = [U ]{η } & [M ]{q&}+ [K ]{q} = 0 ~ ~ & [M ][U ]{η&}+ [K ][U ]{η } = 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ & [U ] [M ][U ]{η&}+ [U ] [K ][U ]{η} = 0 T T & [I ]{η&}+ [λ2 ]{η } = 0 & η&(t ) + p 2η (t ) = 0 & η& + 2ξpη + p 2η = 0 r = 1. • We premultiply the equations with transpose of the modal matrix and use the orthogonal properties derived before to get the result given here. or raps the system. We haven’t yet been able to say what happens. • Recall. as decided by the generalized coordinates (weighing terms) and the result that we can obtain is called Modal Analysis. K N r = 1. we stated that the natural frequencies and mode shapes are special solutions to the system.2. • All practical systems. • We can introduce damping in the system for each mode and get the damped modal equations. therefore reduce to simple single degree of freedom models for any given mode of vibration.
2. NASTRAN … adopt beta damping in place of viscous damping.. a and b. wherein. ~ ~ & & [I ]{η&}+ [U ] (α [M ] + β [K ])[U ]{η }+ [p 2 ]{η } = 0 T & & [I ]{η&}+ (α [I ] + β [p 2 ]){η }+ [p 2 ]{η } = 0 2ξ r pr = α + β pr2 ξr = α 2 pr + β pr 2 r = 1. • If we know a and b we can find the viscous damping ratio in the corresponding mode and thus use experimental value to write damped modal equations. hence. • General finite element codes such as ANSYS. the concept of a proportional damping is evolved.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Proportional Damping [C ] = α [M ] + β [K ] • Damping matrix does not obey the orthogonality properties stated earlier. K & & η&r + 2ξ r prη r + pr2η r = 0 . the damping matrix is taken to be the sum of a mass matrix and stiffness matrix with appropriate proportionality constants.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis .
example .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis – example.. contd… .
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis – example..
contd… ..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis – example.
. contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis – example.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis – example.. contd… .
contd… ..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Modal Analysis – example.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur VIBRATION ABSORBER .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur VIBRATION ABSORBER …contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur LECTURE 4 Continuous Systems Approach .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS Strings under tension Systems governed by Wave Equation .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS Axial vibration of Bars WAVE EQUATION contd…. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS Torsional vibration of RODS WAVE EQUATION contd…. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Solution of WAVE EQUATION .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Solution of WAVE EQUATION contd…. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Solution of WAVE EQUATION Free Vibration of Strings contd…. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Solution of WAVE EQUATION Free Vibration of Bars contd…. .
contd….Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Solution of WAVE EQUATION Free Vibration of Bars contd…. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur BEAMS Bending Vibrations .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd…. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd…. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd…. .
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd….
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur BEAMS Bending Vibrations contd…. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur RAYLEIGH’s Method .
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur RAYLEIGH’s Method contd….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example………..RAYLEIGH’s Method .
.RAYLEIGH’s Method ….Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example………. contd… .
contd… .RAYLEIGH’s Method …..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example……….
RAYLEIGH’s Method …..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example………. contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur RAYLEIGH – Ritz Method undetermined .
contd…. .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur RAYLEIGH – Ritz Method ….
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur RAYLEIGH – Ritz Method contd….
RAYLEIGH – RITZ Method ..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example……….
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example………..RAYLEIGH – RITZ Method ….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example……….RAYLEIGH – RITZ Method ….. contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GALERKIN Method .
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GALERKIN Method ….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GALERKIN Method …. contd… .
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GALERKIN Method ….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Lecture 5 Stability Considerations .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STABILITY .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane .
contd..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane . ..
.contd...Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane .
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane .contd. ..
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur STABILITY Considerations PhasePlane .. .contd.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur • other criterion to be discussed during Rotor Dynamics .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Lecture 6
FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION & COMPONENT MODE SYNTHESIS
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Finite Element Formulation – Axial Vibration of Beams
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Reference Systems
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Guyan Reduction Scheme
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Component Mode Synthesis
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Stiffness and Mass Matrices for substructures 1 and 2 Reduced Equation .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Lecture 7 Rotor Dynamics .
there are several differences and we have to set up procedures on handling the rotors and their vibratory phenomena. This is somewhat similar to Speed of sound and whether one can cross this barrier in flying. • There were many doubts whether a rotor can cross such a critical speed? It was presumed that it will be unstable after crossing the critical speed. William John Macquorn Rankine (18201872) . • Rankine is attributed to have mentioned the existence of a critical speed of a rotor in 1869. as we deal with a rotating structure. all the vibration phenomena will be valid. Basically.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rotor Dynamics Rotor Dynamics is different from Structural Dynamics. • We have to wait for nearly 50 years to have a clear understanding on this topic. however. He defined this as a limit of speed for centrifugal whirling.
defining the critical speed. the whirl radius is infinity. • Laval proved that one can cross the critical speed and is stable at high speeds as y approaches d . in his own notation. we have not understood clearly about the basics of rotor dynamics. it is y= ω 2δ Fg W −ω2 eccentricity stiffness • When the denominator is zero.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Ingenious Flexible Shaft • Though. Laval built the first turbine in 1883 which ran successfully at 40000 rpm!!! • From simple equilibrium conditions. he derived a correct relation for the whirl radius (though whirl and spin have not been clearly differentiated).
. Scandinavia. because. a rotor such as the one shown is named after Jeffcott. though in Germany.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Jeffcott’s fundamental contribution • Jeffcott in 1919 treated the problem as forced vibration and identified the basic principles of rotor dynamics. Jeffcott considered synchronous whirl. • He identified the unbalance in the system to be the driving force setting the whirl in forced vibration. The total mass M of the rotor is put as disk and the stiffness K is represented as shaft. i. they prefer to call it as Laval rotor. n=w.e. . The eccentricity is denoted by EG = a. • In this model. Holland. the shaft is assumed mass less and the disk to be rigid. The rotor spins about its own axis with an angular velocity w and whirls with angular velocity n. • Jeffcott through this model has shown that one can cross the critical speed without any instability. • In English speaking countries. it was Laval who derived the expression in the previous page. which is spinning. He derived simple differential equations of the system and solved them. He showed that the shaft did not rotate about rest position but about its own center line. The spinning rotor whirled about the mean bearing center line.
Disk rotates/spins about E with angular velocity w ccw direction and the whirl is assumed synchronous with spin. • Write down the inertia forces. in terms of a and W = w/p R R= = a (1 − Ω ) + (2ξ Ω ) 2 2 Ω2 2 φ= 2ξ Ω 1 − Ω2 .Solution d2 dz M 2 ( z + a cos ω t ) + C + Kz = 0 dt dt d2 dy M 2 ( z + a sin ω t ) + C + Ky = 0 dt dt r = z + iy d 2r dr M 2 +C + Kr = Maω 2 e iω t dt dt O is the bearing center line.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Equations of Motion . G is the mass center. E is the disk geometric center. EG=a is the eccentricity. OE=R is the whirl radius about the bearing center line. stiffness forces and damping forces in the respective directions … • Solution for the amplitude R of r. The whirl is lagging in phase by an angle f from the unbalance force vector in direction of EG.
Solution • When the rotor is stationary initially. 1/2x.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Jeffcott Rotor . • At high speeds beyond resonance. The peak value occurs slightly beyond resonance. • Damping limits the resonant response and the quality factor (magnification) is 1 over twice the damping ratio. thus keeping the cg steady at the bearing center line. the system runs smoothly with response equal to eccentricity and a phase 180 deg. • As the speed increases. the whirl radius increases with the phase angle less than 90 deg until resonance. the rotor speed is zero and the response is also zero for all damping values. the phase angle is 90 deg irrespective of damping. At resonance. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Translatory and Conical Whirl •Rigid rotor on flexible bearings is same as a flexible rotor on rigid bearings .however it provides for translatory and conical whirl modes. . The first flexure of the rotor comes after these whirls.
OO’=R is whirl radius. a0 is the bow location with the eccentricity. EG=a is the eccentricity. Response due to bow unbalance.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Bowed Rotor . .Bow r0 at α0 dr d 2r M 2 + C + Kr = Maω 2 e iωt + Kre i ( ax + a0 ) dt dt R= = R a (1 − Ω ) + (2ξ Ω) 2 2 Ω2 2 e i (ω t −φ ) + (1 − Ω ) + (2ξ Ω) 2 2 R0 e ia0 2 e i (ω t −φb ) R0 = Rotors get statically bent or bowed or warped due to sudden thermal loads. O’E=r0 is the bow. Sometimes. •If the rotor is dropped from a height. In all these cases. which is in a direction opposite to the mass center. the rotor is balanced in a tunnel and left for long periods in a crate without adequate support to avoid gravity sag. or leaving the rotor unattended for long periods without barring. the bow location angle is 180 deg. with the rotor sag and eccentricity in one line. the rotor comes to a halt at the heavy spot. •In the above. r0 bow factor a 2ξ Ω phase angle of unbalance 2 1− Ω φ = tan 1 φb = φ + a0 phase angle of bow •Response due to conventional unbalance.
speed at which the response becomes zero.e. the unbalance increases. •For a dropped rotor the bow usually is a0 = 180. then these two responses get added. the bow gives a0 = 0. •Usually..Self Balancing Speed R = Ae − iφ + Be − i (φ + a0 ) eiω t − ia0 i ω t −ψ [ ] ) = [A + Be ]e ( Ω 2 2 2 a0 = 00 R R= = a (1 − Ω ) + (2ξ Ω ) 2 2 Ω 2 + R0 2 A= a0 = 180 0 2 (1 − Ω ) + (2ξ Ω) (1 − Ω ) + (2ξ Ω) 2 2 −1 R R= = a (1 − Ω ) + (2ξ Ω ) 2 2 Ω 2 − R0 2 B= R0 Ω s = R0 •A is response due to conventional unbalance and B due to the bow unbalance. then these two responses oppose. •The above condition leads to a self balancing speed. i. 2 A sin φ + B sin φb ψ = tan A cos φ + B cos φ b . Ws.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Response .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Response of a bowed rotor Phase relationship of a bowed rotor Whirl Amplitude of a bowed rotor .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rotor with bow phase 1800 Phase relationship of a bowed rotor Whirl Amplitude of a bowed rotor .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings .
. .contd..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings .
. .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings .contd..
..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings .contd. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings with CrossCoupling & Damping .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings with CrossCoupling & Damping . .contd..
contd. .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotors in Flexible Anisotropic Bearings with CrossCoupling & Damping ..
contd.. .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA …. contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA …. contd… .
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA ….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur UNEQUAL MOMENTS OF INERTIA …. contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Instability in Torsional Systems .
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Instability in Torsional Systems ….
Mathieu‘s Equation .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Hill’s Equation.
Strutt Diagram Floquet’s Theory determines the behaviour of the Mathieu’s Equation and describes the Strutt Diagram .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Floquet’s Theory.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GRAVITATIONAL Effect .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GRAVITATIONAL Effect …. contd… .
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GRAVITATIONAL Effect ….
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GRAVITATIONAL Effect ….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GRAVITATIONAL Effect …. contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur OIL WHIRL .
..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur ROTOR STABILITY IN FLUID FILM BEARINGS contd.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur ROUTHHURWITZ CRITERION .
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur ROUTHHURWITZ CRITERION contd. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example ROUTHHURWITZ CRITERION .
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example ROUTHHURWITZ CRITERION ….
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Holzer’s Method for Torsional Systems .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Holzer’s Method for Torsional Systems …. contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Holzer’s Method for Torsional Systems …. contd… .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example …… Holzer’s Method .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur MyklestadProhl Method for Beams .
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur MyklestadProhl Method for Beams .contd… .
contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur MyklestadProhl Method for Beams ..
.contd… .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur MyklestadProhl Method for Beams .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS Freely Spinning Disc .
..contd.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS Freely Spinning Disc . .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS Disc on Shaft Additional term in place of 0 .
contd… ..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur GYROSCOPIC EFFECTS Disc on Shaft .
then a couple.e. . •A special case of imbalance can be a coupled unbalance.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotor Imbalance Classification •The imbalance in a rotor can be static – i. a single correction mass is sufficient to balance the rotor in a plane containing cg. sum of the above two special cases. the principal inertia axis is shifted parallel to the shaft axis. we need two correction masses in any two convenient planes – we will discuss this further. two equal and opposite masses are needed for correcting the imbalance. •In a general dynamic unbalance case. in which the principal inertia axis passes through the center of gravity..
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Dynamic Unbalance .
The effect of trial mass is now given by (O+T) – Ov = Tv. Let that be a vector Ov as shown. 180 and 270o positions taken for the given rotation with 0 as the phasor location. a vibration pickup on the bearing will sense a response due to this unbalance. 90. relative to which the vibration signal is measured. now we place a known mass at a known location as per the chart and measure the response which is O+T. •Though we know a phasor location marked on the shaft. In order to relate the vibration signal to the rotor. that gives the magnitude and phase angle of the response with the residual unbalance. •The correction mass is therefore to be placed at 35o in the direction of rotation from the location of trial mass. the magnitude is decided by the lengths of the vectors Tv and Ov. we have no idea where the unbalance is. one can have a phasor placed on the shaft. •If you run the rotor with the residual unbalance as it existed and which is to be corrected.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Single Plane Balancing •Balancing of single discs is a fairly simple task as all the unbalance can be considered as confined to be in one plane. Note the 0. .
as many as you want. •When the rotors do not deform and retain the original shape. say n in number. Let us consider the ith rotor at a distance zi from a plane which we will denote left plane marked L. therefore we have to devise a method of balancing rotors with distributed unbalance. •We also choose another convenient plane and denote this as plane R as shown. There are n such masses in these n disks chosen. . •Divide the rotor into several disks.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotor Balancing Distributed Unbalance •Very few rotors can be considered as single plane rotors. the rotor can be considered as rigid – in practice rotors running well below the critical speed are rigid rotors. In this plane. the unbalance is taken as miai at an angle fi from x axis. then we can devise the following procedure.
combine them to form into one and let this be Fi L and let the force in the right plane be denoted as Fi R. •Repeat this to all the n disks and form a set of n concurrent forces in each of the planes L and R. •In plane L we have now two forces. in place of simple statics used in Single Plane Balancing or Static Balancing. We have three forces now. •Now split the couple into two equal and opposite forces in the planes L and R separated by distance a. •Thus we reduced the original distributed unbalance in the system to two unbalance forces in any two convenient planes – remember this is valid only for rigid rotors and a process of removing these two unbalance forces is called Two Plane Balancing or Dynamic Balancing. . two of them form a couple ML as shown. Since the rotor is rigid these two equal and opposite forces have no effect on the equilibrium of the system. Find the resultants of these concurrent forces and denote them FL and FR.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rigid Rotor – Two Plane Balancing •Let Fi be the unbalance force in ith plane. Introduce two equal and opposite forces Fi in plane L.
say left bearing and right bearing. •Now introduce a trial mass in right plane and let the responses be as denoted here. we derive the influence coefficients. The example in the following pages illustrates how to achieve the balancing of a rigid rotor.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Influence Coefficients •As in single plane balancing fix the angular locations and use a phasor to measure the phase. let a trial mass in left plane give the responses as shown here. •Similarly. . Let the responses without any trial mass be as shown. Choose the measurement planes to be. measures that tell us how the responses will be arising out of known forces. •Using these six responses.
188i Run 2 : Trial Mass 6.521 + 2.294 + 2.608i Left Plane L : 5.5o in Right Plane T R = 6.8g at 22.144 microns at 90o Right Plane R : 10.311i R 2 = −0.274i .35 microns at 99 o L 2 = 4.188 + 7.08 microns at 27 o Right Plane R : 6.144i R1 = 7.16 microns at 45o L1 = 9.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example Run 1 : No Trial Mass Left Plane L : 9.9906 + 8.
9906 + 6.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example – contd.336i L 2 − L1 TR a aR = •Influence coefficient denoting the response in plane a due to a unit force in plane R = (4. R 2 − R1 TR a bR = •Influence coefficient denoting the response in plane b due to a unit force in plane R = (− 0.608i = −1.294 + 2.160 + 0.181i .311i ) − (9.188 + 7.294 + 2.521 + 2.274i ) − (7.229 + 1.188i ) 6.144i ) 6.608i = 0.
4 microns at 0 o L 3 = 9.997i = 0.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example – contd.5 + 3.997i = −0.997i Left Plane L : 9.558 + 3.5 + 3.5 microns at 90 o R 3 = −4.5 + 3.9i a aL = .327 − 1.188i ) a bL = 5.775 + 30.188 + 7. Final Run 3 : 6.76i a bL = •Influence coefficient denoting the response in plane b due to a unit force in plane L •Influence coefficient denoting the response in plane a due to a unit force in plane L L 3 − L1 TL 9.4 − 9.1i R 3 − R1 TL (− 4.144i a aL = 5.775 + 30.1i ) − (7.4 + 0i Right Plane R : 30.8g at 36 o T L = 5.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Example – contd. one or two additional balancing runs may be needed to achieve the desired grade quality.9i •Solving the above two equations. to estimate these masses.56i m L = −2. the first correction should bring the responses to be low.94 + 1. •When these correction masses are added. (we may have to do this in two masses each by placing them in the nearest locations) the response theoretically should be zero. This does not happen as there are several assumptions made in this analysis. − R1 = m R a bR + m L a bL − L1 = m R a aR + m L a aL L1 a bL − R1 a aL mR = a bR a aL − a aR a bL R1 a aR − L1 a bR mL = a bR a aL − a aR a bL m R = 10. . we get the expressions for correction masses. we form the set of equations given here using the influence coefficients determined earlier.81 − 1. •We need to eliminate the original response vectors by using correction masses in planes L and R.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Shop Balancing set up .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Flexible Rotor Balancing .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Influence Coefficients .
. k th Speed Tests k aij = 1 vij − vik {U }= [a ] {v} −1 T .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Balancing Masses Trial Mass in Plane 2 vi12 − vi1 ai12 = T Trial Mass in Plane j 1 aij = 1 vij − vi1 T ..
. economy.g. whose unbalance can be neglected. 2A – shaft with a grinding wheel.. a rotor with centrifugal switch •Class 5 – Single Speed Flexible Rotors: Rotors that could fall into category 3. whose maximum speed does not significantly approach II critical speed and whose service speed does not contain I critical speed and with controlled initial unbalance... •Class 3 – Flexible Rotors: Rotors that cannot be balanced in a low speed balancing machine and that require some special flexible rotor balancing technique – e. 2H – Same as 2F rotors but unsymmetrical. (1) where the axial distribution of unbalance is known – e.g. its unbalance does not significantly change at any speed upto the maximum operating speed and when running under conditions which approximate closely to the final supporting system. e. Generator rotors• Class 4 – Flexible Attachment Rotors: Rotors that could fall in categories 1 or 2 but have in addition one or two more components that are themselves flexible or flexibly attached – e. 2F – Symmetrical rotors with two end correction planes. such as computer memory drum. 2E – rotors with a long rigid mass supported by a flexible shaft. (2) where axial distribution is not known – e.. 2B – Shaft with a grinding wheel and pulley. are balanced only for one speed of operation – e.g. 2C – Jet engine compressor rotor. 2G – same as 2F but with an additional central correction plane and that it may have its service speed in I critical speed range. high speed motor .g. Rotors which do not satisfy this condition are classified as flexible rotors. 2D – Printing roller.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Classification of Rotors •Class 1 – Rigid Rotors: Rotors that can be corrected in any two arbitrary planes and after correction.g. These are rotors.. •Class 2 – Quasi Flexible Rotors: Rotors that cannot be considered rigid but can be balanced adequately in a low speed balancing machine.g. but for some reason.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur ISO 1940: Rotor Classification .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Balance Quality Grade G .
Digital Measurement .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur L8 Vibration Measurement Pickups. Modulation. Analyzers. Cepstrum Analysis.
. Every machine deteriorates in condition. so on and so forth.g. we know that an automobile engine needs a change of lubricating oil as it becomes contaminated with dirt over a period of time. so if we can find a measure of the state of the lubricating oil. we know that the earliest indications of any fault in a rotating machine are detected by an increase in vibration and sound levels. We find several indications reflecting the condition of a machine in its life time. process parameter variations … Basically it is the vibration level.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Why Vibration Measurements? • We studied basic principles of structural vibrations. and trends over short and long durations that help us in understanding the health of the machine and predicting any impending problem so that timely action is taken. • While all this information and much more is basic to the understanding of machine behavior. Some of these measures. however. however well it has been designed/ The rotating machinery is very expensive and they should be available for their operation for long uninterrupted intervals (years) and without any failures and unexpected shut downs. that is why every asset management practice adopts vibration measurement as the first and foremost step that may be further assisted by other measurements such as lub oil particle counting. orbits.. Therefore vibration measurement and its analysis is important first step in asset management of rotating machinery. there is some rubbing and inadequacy of lubricating oil. an appropriate action can be planned – or if one finds the bearing temperatures are going up. do not tell us the problem in a machine sufficiently well in time for a proper asset management. e. bearing pressure and temperature measurement. its signature in time and frequency domains. • Over years of asset management by maintenance people. the current course is concerned primarily with the health of a machi ne. and special applications to rotors and their behavior under dynamic conditions. • Asset management is an important aspect to any heavy industry with rotating machinery.
below 10 Hz Is a measure of the distance the object moves Velocity in mm/sec. Spike Energy . mils. RPM PHASE Radian.most destructive energy Acceleration in mm/sec².(Speed) .g above all The force imparted on the vibration object as it changes its velocity. Hertz. between 101000 Hz Is a measure of how fast it moves . TIME (FREQUENCY) Cycles / Sec.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Vibration Units of Measure AMPLITUDE Displacement in microns. inch/sec. Degree .
. we can find the associated amplitudes of displacement and acceleration. for a given velocity and frequency.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Displacement. velocity and acceleration for a given frequency are all related through • V = Xp • A = Vp = Xp2 • Usually velocity is taken as a standard as it represents the energy associated in the system. Velocity and Acceleration • Displacement.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur .
Shaft.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Transducers Selection Type of Measurement: 1) Contact (Seismic) 2) Non NonContact (Relative) Contact (Relative) •Displacement: Eddy Current Proximity Pickup •Velocity (Seismic): Electro Dynamic Transducer •Acceleration: Piezoelectric Pickup Direction & Location of Measurement: Direction & Location of Measurement: • Horizontal. Structure . Journal housing. Vertical and Axial • Bearing Pedestal.
Accelerometer • Measure Relative Distance Between Two Surfaces • Accurate Low Frequency Response • Limited High Frequency Sensitivity • Require External Power Source • Sensitive to observed material • Often Measure Bearing Housings or Machinery Casing Vibration • Effective in Low to Mid Frequency Range (10 Hz to around 1.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Eddy Probe – Velocity Transducer .500 Hz) • Self Generating Devices • Are ElectroMechanical Devices With Moving Parts That Can Stick or Fail • Rugged Devices • Operate in Wide Frequency Range (Near 0 to above 400 kHz) • Good High Frequency Response • Some Models Suitable For High Temperature • Require Additional Electronics .
e. i. displacement and acceleration at any frequency can be obtained in terms of 0.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Sensor Relationships Amplitude (mils. mils • Corresponding acceleration at 1 Hz is a = vp • Common machinery operating range is shown by the rectangular area. g’s) • The adjoining figure gives the displacement and acceleration for a velocity of 0.. in/sec.628 in/sec velocity . displacement x = v/p.628 in/sec • At 1 Hz.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Vibration Sensor Principle • A vibration sensor utilizes the basic single degree system response.x(t) and Z/X is shown above used as a measure of x(t) • The sensor range and application is depends on how we proportion its mass and spring. . • The sensor when placed on a vibrating member experiences x(t) that is to to be measured • The mass responds with absolute displacement y(t) • Relative displacement z(t) = y(t) .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Seismometer / Velocity Transducer • A Seismometer or Velocity Transducer measures rate of change of relative displacement z(t) = y(t) . the mass is relatively heavier to the spring stiffness. • Electromagnetic Principle Variation of Permeance of magnetic circuit causes a change in the flux FX V = −n dφ × 10 −8 dt dφ dx = −n × 10 −8 V dt dt . therefore p should as low as possible. as a measure of x(t) • The sensor range for Z=X is r >> w/p. i. then we measure the velocity of the support and hence Velocity Transducer..e.x(t) using the electromagnetic principle through the induced voltage as illustrated in right side.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Accelerometer Principle • An Accelerometer uses Piezo electric principle given in next slide to measure the acceleration directly • The sensor range for Z to represent Xw2 the acceleration of the support is r << w/p. • Piezoelectric crystals have very low mass and very high frequencies. therefore p should as high as possible. Z = X = r2 (1 − r ) + (2ξ r ) 2 2 2 ω2 p 2 f 1 f = (1 − r ) + (2ξ r ) 2 2 2 . Damping is therefore very crucial to an accelerometer. They can also be made very light and hence have useful applications for measurements on small components without effecting the basic structure. say up to 0.2. then we measure acceleration directly.7. the factor f equals unity to a large possible range of r. • When the damping ratio is 0.. i. the mass is relatively lighter • Since p is a constant. we need the factor f to be as close to unity as possible. therefore are very good candidates for measurement of acceleration.e.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur .
problems matching.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Accelerometer Elements Output impedance from accelerometer is very high . cable length Charge amplifier is therefore used. Elements of a measurement system . noise.
•Can act as a key phasor •Two probes can give the orbit •Mounted in the bearing .relative displacement .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Proximity Probe – Non contact Measurement Probe mounted in the proximity of the moving object High frequency field setup in the gap.
to judge the condition of the machine. we prefer a root mean square value of the amplitude. • A sinusoid. .Characteristics • The vibration signal in general is somewhat periodic with several harmonics. Since the energy in the system is proportional to velocity squared. rms value. its squared sinusoid are shown above.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Sinusoid Signal . the basic signal is therefore a sinusoid.
85 mils/s • Pk to Pk RMS = 169.Sinusoid Let the pk to pk value of a sinusoid be 240 mils/s.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Calculation of RMS Value .414 = 84.7 mils/s . • The amplitude is 240/2 = 120 mils/s • Square of the signal varies from 0 to 1202 = 14400 mils/s • Mean of the square = 7200 mils/s • RMS = (7200)1/2 =120/1.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Sum of Two Sinusoids in Phase Both sinusoids amplitude = 1 Peak to peak of sum = 3. .5203 Mean = 0 Root Mean Square of sum = 1 The amplitudes of both sinusoids that make up the sum is obtained in frequency domain.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Sum of Two Sinusoids out of Phase Peak to peak = 3.2506 Mean = 0 Root Mean Square = 1 • Frequency Domain remains same • Phase Information lost .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Calculation of RMS with two components
Consider a periodic signal with a sum (0.1 sin 81.1t +0.05 sin 173.52t). Let us find the means, mean squares and root mean squares of the components and the total signal. 1. Let the two components be denoted by 1 and 2. The mean values of individual components as well as the sum, being harmonic signals, are zero M1 = 0, M2 = 0, Mean of sum = 0 2. The time period of the lower frequency is large of the two and is given by 2p /81.1 = 0.0775 s. We now follow the steps given here to find MS (mean squares) and RMS [Integrate and average over the period 0.0775s]
RMS1 = 0.005 = 0.0707 RMS 2 = 0.00125 = 0.0354 RMS total = 0.005 + 0.00125 = 0.0791
RMS pk to pk of over all signal = 0.1582 units
Note
sin 2 pt = 1 − cos 2 pt 2
MS = = =
1 0.0775
0.0775
0.0775
∫ [(0.1sin 81.1t ) + (0.05 sin 173.52t )
2 0 2
2
]dt
and integral of cosine term becomes zero
1 0.0775
∫ [(0.1sin
0
81.1t + 0.0025 sin 2 173.52t dt
) (
)]
1 0.01 0.0025 2 × 0.0775 + 2 × 0.0775 0.0775
= 0.005 + 0.00125
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Fourier Analysis
3D View
View in time domain
View in frequency domain
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Fourier Analysis
∞ 1 f (t ) = a 0 + ∑ (a n cos nωt + bn sin ωt ) 2 n =1
• Fourier analysis is a mathematical tool that helps us in identifying the frequency components of a periodic vibration signal which is composed of several harmonics. • The periodic signal is assumed to consist of several harmonics of the fundamental frequency and an infinite series gives accurate results. In practice, first few components are considered. The harmonic cosine and sine components are • The amplitude in each harmonic, n = 1, 2, is given by • The phase angle is
2 a n = ∫ F (t ) cos nω tdt T 0 2 bn = ∫ F (t )sin nω tdt T 0
∞ 1 f (t ) = a 0 + ∑ An cos(nωt − φ n ) 2 n =1 2 2 An = a n + bn T
T
φ n = tan −1
bn an
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Fourier Analysis  Complex Form
• Fourier analysis is written in complex form so that faster numerical tools can be developed. The cosine and harmonic terms are written in exponential form as given here • The harmonics can be written as one sided series 0, 1, 2, … infinity • Or as two sided series,  infinity, …, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, … infinity. • In this form we loose phase information, the harmonics in two sided series have a magnitude equal to half the values. • A finite time signal is considered in this process. • Average power of the signal over a period of time, T0 is • Complex harmonic components directly represent the average power in the corresponding frequency term, this is Parseval theorem.
1 inω t e + e −inω t 2 1 inω t sin nωt = e − e −inω t 2i ∞ 1 1 1 f (t ) = a0 + ∑ (an − ibn )e inω t + (an + ibn )e −inω t 2 2 n =1 2 cos nωt =
(
)
(
)
Two sided series
f (t ) = ∑ Cn e inω t
−∞
+∞
Cn = Harmonic Cn Components Complex 1 Pav = T0
2 T0
1 (an − ibn ) Cs = 1 As 2 2 1 T
1 + T 2 1 − T 2
Cn =
∫ f (t )e
inω t
∫ {x(t )} dt
2 0 2
We will get back to this again
∞ A a = 0 +∑ n 2 n=1 2
= ∑ Cn
2
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Saw Tooth Signal
x(t ) = 2 − =
4t T0
0 < t < T0
4 2πt 1 4πt 1 6πt + sin + sin sin T0 3 T0 π T0 2 4 2πkt = sin k = 1,2,3,... kπ T0
• To illustrate the usefulness of Fourier series, consider a periodic saw tooth signal given above with its components. • The top figure shows addition of terms one by one up to six. • The figure below shows the net result of sum of first six terms, which is getting closer to the original saw tooth form.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur • We can increase the number of terms in the summation to get more accurate result. or those harmonics which can be excited to resonance from any per rev or nozzle excitations. we are interested in the lower harmonics. • In practice. • Sixty terms sum is given in the figure below. .
. the sum up to 25 terms is given above with the harmonics in frequency domain given below.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur • Here. followed by the second at ½ unit and the higher ones decrease in magnitude rapidly. • The first harmonic is one unit.
..Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Rectangular Signal x(t ) = 1 = −1 = 0 < t < T0 / 2 0 < t < T0 / 2 4 2πt 1 2πt 1 2πt + sin 3 + sin 5 + . = sin kπ T0 • This and the next slide illustrate a rectangular periodic signal and its Fourier components.2.....3. sin T0 5 T0 π T0 3 4 2πkt k = 1.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur .
. the signal is first recorded on a recorder. which are expensive – the accuracy was limited octave bands. a UV recorder.. e. a Fourier analysis was a tedious job.g. A hand calculation or a main frame computer was then used to determine the Fourier components in any diagnostics and trouble shooting exercise. • A vibration chart thus developed is called octave band analysis. which gave the relative energy levels in these bands to make a diagnostics analysis.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Octave Band Analysis • 45 decades ago. 11 filters are common with center frequencies beginning from 31.. it was then enlarged and digitized manually to obtain the signal as a function of time.g.5 and doubling consecutively. e. • Dedicated analog instruments are then developed using filter circuits.
we had 1/3 octave band analyzers which helped in narrowing the frequency zones for a better diagnostics.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Sequential analysis One filter at a time Analysis time between each analysis Significant transient data may be lost • Subsequently. .
nw’ becomes continuous •T = 2 / pw’ approaches infinity nω → ω Forward Transform – Fourier Integral F (ω ) = (TC n )T →∞ = F (ω ) = Ff (t ) = −1 +∞ +∞ −∞ ∫ f (t )e −iω t dt −∞ ∫ f (t )e −iω t dt +∞ •Inverse Transform – Conversion from frequency to time domain 1 f (t ) = F F (ω ) = 2π −∞ ∫ f (ω )e −iω t dω .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Fourier Transform – time to frequency domain •Not limited to periodic functions alone •Achieved through Fourier Integral •Aperiodic function repeats itself after a large (infinite) time •Associated frequency becomes negligibly small •Replace w by w’.
2pN /T .1.K N N N kT = k = 0.2. … 2pN /(N1)T Example: • Let 5000 samples be taken in 1 sec.K . • Let us use N = 4096 out of these 5000 data points. time step T/N (N − 1)T 2T T . • f(t) is analog should be converted to a digital text file • N intervals of a vibration record in time T.2. K ( N − 1) {F }N ×1 = 1 [A]N × N {F }N ×1 N • Frequency of the entire period = 2p /T • Discrete frequencies 2p /0. K ( N − 1) N 1 Fr = N ∑f k =0 N −1 k e −i 2πkr N r = 0. 2pN /2T .22 Hz. 2pN /3T.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) t k = 0.1. • T = 4096/5000 • Smallest discrete frequency = 2pN /(N1)T = 2p(4096) / [4095(4096/5000)] rad/s = 5000/4095 = 1. .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Fast Fourier Transform .FFT [A] factored into log 2 N matrices [A ]i {F }N ×1 1 = [A]N × N {F }N ×1 N −i 2πkr N only two non zero elements in each row For N = 4 [A] = [P][A]1 [A]2 1 0 = 0 0 0 0 0 ↑ 0 1 0 ↑ 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ↑ ↓ 0 0 0 0 ↑ → ↑ 0 ↑ ← 0 ↑ 0 0 ↑ 0 ↑ 0 ↑ 0 ↓ 0 ↑ 0 ↓ a kr = e 0 ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ 1 ↑ → ↓ ← [A] = 2 ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ 3 ↑ ← ↓ → [P] Permutation matrix .
.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Comparison .DFT/FFT Computation Requirements • On the present day Desk top or lap top computers. • With an A/D converter card. thus making the conversion of time domain data to frequency domain almost instantaneous and in real time. FFT can be performed in milli secs. a lap top has thus become a good diagnostics instrument and tool.
ω a = side bands .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Amplitude Modulated Signal x(t ) = x + x a cos ω a t cos ω t Modulation Amplitude x a Modulation Frequency ω a Amplitude (x .x a ) to (x + x a ) x(t ) = x + x a cos ω a t cos ω t = x cos ω t + 1 1 x a cos(ω + ω a )t + x a cos(ω − ω a )t 2 2 Eccentrically mounted gear ω c gear mesh frequency = carrier frequency ω a rotational speed ω c + ω a andω c .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Amplitude Modulated Signal
Mean = 0 Mean square = 0.56 Root Mean Square = 0.75 Side bands in Frequency domain
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Frequency or Phase Modulated Signal
x (t ) = X cos (ω + ω ' cos ω a t )ω t x (t ) = Re Xe
i φ (t
)
and frequency of modulation ω ' and ω a  magnitude index ω ' / ω a  modulation Frequency varies (ω − ω ' ) to (ω + ω ' ) Phasor of constant magnitude Variable angular speed In torsion al vibration , the angular frequency changes over the mean value correspond ing to the rotational speed Frequency and the resultig signal Modulated Signal. is a
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Frequency or Phase Modulated Signal
Mean = 0 Mean square = 0.50 Root Mean Square = 0.71
Modulation Magnitude = 0.5 Modulation Freq = 4 Hz Carrier Freq = 15 Hz
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Torsional Vibration Measurement
ω rotational speed
Ω frequency of torsional oscillation θ amplitude of torsional vibration Instantaneous shaft position
φ = ω t + θ cosΩt
& Angular velocity φ = ω  θΩ sin Ωt Angular speed range
ω min = ∞ − Ωθ to ω max = ∞ + Ωθ ω − ω min θ = max
2Ω
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
ω min = θ=
2π 2π , ω max = Tmax Tmin 2Ω
ω max − ω min
this is obtained by taking the product of F(w) and its conjugate marked by * • Auto or Power spectrum is a measure of power associated with corresponding frequency component and hence important for vibration engineers. which is a degree of linear dependence between two signals.CrossSpectra Amplitude Spectrum • Amplitude spectrum is given by the magnitude and frequency of each harmonic component. φ n Power Spectrum 1 2 An 2 Auto Spectrum Excitation f(t) Response x(t) S fx (ω ) = F * (ω )X (ω ) Continuous Cross spectra S ff (ω ) = F * (ω )F (ω ) S xf (ω ) = X * (ω )F (ω ) . Discrete F (ω )An . • Auto spectrum is same as power spectrum when the frequency domain is expressed continuously. Let us take the excitation and response functions and their cross spectra are defined by • Cross spectra are used in defining coherence. • Cross spectrum involves two different functions. see next slide.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Power (Auto) Spectrum . • Power spectrum is obtained by squaring each amplitude and halving them and plotted in discrete form at each frequency.
Frequency Response Function H (ω ) = H 2 (ω ) = X (ω ) F (ω ) X (ω ) F (ω ) X (ω )F * (ω ) . This property can be used in identifying any faulty sensor or problem in the transmitting path. Coherence will be unity. • Coherence is defined by the ratio of these two response functions. = F (ω )X * (ω ) S (ω ) = xx S fx (ω ) = y 2 (ω ) = = H 1 (ω ) H 2 (ω ) S xf (ω ) S fx (ω ) S ff (ω ) S xx (ω ) . • Express this function in two different ways.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Coherence • Consider the frequency response function. coherence between a good and a bad signal will be poor. F (ω )F * (ω ) S xf (ω ) S ff (ω ) X (ω ) H (ω ) = F (ω ) X (ω )X * (ω ) = . first using the conjugate of amplitude spectrum of forcing function and next by using the conjugate of amplitude spectrum of response function. • Coherence can be used to determine whether two different signals are coming from the same machine or if any of the signals are lost in measurement due to some fault. • If the measurement of forcing function and response function are free from noise error and that there is a perfect linear relationship between them.
and it reduces to mean square value of the function. cross correlation is given by the average of the product x(t ) f (t + τ ) where t is the delay period. since the random part has zero autocorrelation. R fx (τ ) = lim T →∞ 1 ∫/ 2x(t ) f (t + τ )dt T −T 1 f (t ) f (t + τ )dt T −T∫/ 2 T /2 T /2 − R ff (τ ) = lim T →∞ . • Autocorrelation decreases as the delay period is increased. the spectrum reveals very little. autocorrelation reveals this weak periodic signal. • If a weak periodic signal is buried in a truly random noise. its mean square value will be negligible. however. • Autocorrelation has a maximum value when the delay period is zero. • Autocorrelation function is a measure of a function correlates with itself. • When a signal is random.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Cross and Auto Correlations • Correlation is a measure of how well two functions relate each other.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Cepstrum .(Time Domain) • Definitions of Cepstrum • Terminology Cepstrum for Spectrum Quefrency (sec) for Frequency Rahmonics for Harmonics Lifter for Filter Gamnitude (Hz) for Magnitude Saphe for Phase • Applications • Side bands of a multi stage gear box. they appear as distinct frequencies in cepstrum domain. Power spectrum of a logarithmic power spectrum C xx (τ ) = F [log S xx (ω )] 2 Inverse Fourier transform of logarithmic power spectrum C xx (τ ) = F −1 [log S xx (ω )] Inverse Fourier transform of amplitude spectrum C xx (τ ) = F −1 [log X (ω )] Identify periodic structures in a spectrum Appear as distinct peaks in cepstrum Two families of side bands frequency differences ∆f 1 and ∆f 2 Hz Two distinct peaks at frequency 1 / ∆f 1 and 1 / ∆f 2 sec .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Two Speed Gearbox with Defects .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Advantage of Cepstrum Analysis .
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur A/D Converter • Analog to Digital converters and modern high speed desk top computers have revolutionized the way we record and analyze vibration and other process parameter time domain signals. voltage and low (off) when it is below. • A 3 bit parallel A/D converter is illustrated here. . The analog instruments have also been replaced by software and we can have today a sensor and its conditioner directly connected to a computer for all the required analyses in real time. • Binary encoder compares and gives a 3 bit binary output. Analog voltage compared with each node’s voltage • Output voltage high (on) when the analog voltage is above ref. The analog tape recorders have disappeared and the storage has become very simple and reliable.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 3bit encoder binary output An encoder circuit which reads the comparator outputs. high or low and produces a 3bit binary output corresponding to one of the eight possible on/off conditions of the inputs 1 through 7 .
4 read high and 5 . the output is 1112 (= 7) All comparators read low..bit A/D converter card Range divided into 216 = 65.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Examples 3 bit comparator Resolution with 16 bit comparator Typical range for output voltage : .536 increments Voltage resolution 0.bit parallel encoder' s output Voltage resolution per bit E v = 1 ∆V fs 2n ∆V fs full scale range.10 to + 10V range . the output is 000 2 (= 0) 3 .7 read low Input signal between Input state is 4 corresponding to binary output 100 2 = 2 2 × 1 + 21 × 0 + 2 0 × 0 = 4 ( ) All comparators read high.10 to + 10 V Converter saturates if the input signal exceeds the upper or lower limit Appropriate signal conditioning viz. amplitude attenuation or dc offset removal 1 E ref 23 5 4 E ref and E ref 8 8 comparators 1 .3mV for . n number of bits 16 .
. • Decreasing sampling time or increasing sampling rate improves the digitization process. number of points captured in a unit time is too low and the original signal character is lost.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Signal Sampling • Signal sampling is an important criterion while acquiring the data Sampling rate f s = 1 ∆t • The same signal above shows inadequate sampling rate.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Aliasing – Nyquist Criterion f Nyq = 1 fs 2 .
000 rpm) Minimum sampling rage > 4000 Hz Number of samples in FFT 4096 Vibratory signal f s = 5000 samples per second N = 4096 of these samples ∆f = 5000/4096 = 1. 2∆∆f n∆∆f 2 Highest frequency component .2000 Hz (120.22 Hz .Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Sampling Example 1 K K N∆∆= (f Nyq ) Frequencies resolved 0. ∆f.
1 of 16 selector. • Only 5 circuits instead of 16 to connect between two points . c. A desired input is chosen by the 4 digit binary number dcba (d is Most Significant Bit and a is Least Significant Bit). in this case a 16 position – single pole switch. one by one by a computer separated by a few seconds. Here a multiplexer – demultiplexer is shown where a single line is used rather than separate lines to connect two positions. The signals are monitored in sequence. Saves costs of wiring while acquiring a large number of signals. • Demultiplexer or a 1 of 16 data distributor is similar but with reversed action (TTL 74154). For the purpose of binary control the ports d. b and a should be connected.Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Multiplexer – Demultiplexer • A multiplexer is an IC chip (Transistor Transistor Logic TTL 74150) which performs like a selectable commutator.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?