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The process by which the total difference between standard and actual results is analysed is known as variance analysis. When actual results are better than the expected results, we have a favourable variance (F). If, on the other hand, actual results are worse than expected results, we have an adverse (A).

I will use this example throughout this Exercise: Standard cost of Product A Materials (5kgs x $10 per kg) Labour (4hrs x $5 per hr) Variable o/hds (4 hrs x $2 per hr) Fixed o/hds (4 hrs x $6 per hr) Budgeted results Production: Sales: Selling price:

$ 50 20 8 24 102 1,000 units 900 units 4,850 kgs, $46,075 4,200 hrs, $21,210 $9,450 $25,000 $140 per unit

1,200 units 1,000 units $150 per unit

ACTUAL Results Production: Sales: Materials: Labour: Variable o/hds: Fixed o/hds: Selling price:

1. Variable cost variances Direct material variances

The direct material total variance is the difference between what the output actually cost and what it should have cost, in terms of material. From the example above the material total variance is given by:

$ 50,000 46,075 3, 925 (F)

1,000 units should have cost (x $50) But did cost Direct material total variance

It can be divided into two sub-variances

**The direct material price variance
**

This is the difference between what the actual quantity of material used did cost and what it should have cost.

$ 48,500 46,075 2,425 (F)

4,850 kgs should have cost (x $10) But did cost Direct material price variance

**The direct material usage variance
**

This is the difference between how much material should have been used for the number of units actually produced and how much material was used, valued at standard cost

1,000 units should have used (x 5 kgs) 5,000 kgs But did use 4,850 kgs Variance in kgs 150 kgs (F) Valued at standard cost per kg x $10 Direct material usage variance in $ $1,500 (F)

The direct material price variance is calculated on material purchases in the period if closing stocks of raw materials are valued at standard cost or material used if closing stocks of raw materials are valued at actual cost (FIFO).

Direct labour total variance

000 units should have cost (x $20) But did cost Direct material price variance Direct labour rate variance This is the difference between what the actual number of hours worked should have cost and what it did cost. $ 4. $ . in terms of variable production overhead.000 (A) 1. 4200hrs should have cost (4200hrs x $5) But did cost Direct labour rate variance $21000 $21210 $210(A) The direct labour efficiency variance The is the difference between how many hours should have been worked for the number of units actually produced and how many hours were worked.000 21.000 hrs 4.210 (A) 1.The direct labour total variance is the difference between what the output should have cost and what it did cost. 2.200 hrs 200 hrs x $5 $1. valued at the standard rate per hour.000 units should have taken (x 4 hrs) But did take Variance in hrs Valued at standard rate per hour Direct labour efficiency variance When idle time occurs the efficiency variance is based on hours actually worked (not hours paid for) and an idle time variance (hours of idle time x standard rate per hour) is calculated. Variable production overhead total variances The variable production overhead total variance is the difference between what the output should have cost and what it did cost.210 1. in terms of labour. $ 20.

valued at the variable production overhead rate per hour.400 9.050 (A) 4.1.450 1.or over-absorbed production overhead. .450 (A) The variable production overhead expenditure variance This is the difference between what the variable production overhead did cost and what it should have cost $ 8.or overabsorbed fixed production overhead. Labour efficiency variance in hours Valued @ standard rate per hour Variable production o/hd efficiency variance 200 hrs (A) x $2 $400 (A) 3.450 1.000 units should have cost (x $8) But did cost Variable production o/hd expenditure variance 8. y y If actual expenditure ± budgeted expenditure (numerator incorrect) » expenditure variance If actual production / hours of activity » budgeted production / hours of activity (denominator incorrect) » volume variance.000 9. Fixed production overhead variances The total fixed production variance is an attempt to explain the under.200 hrs should have cost (x $2) But did cost Variable production o/hd expenditure variance The variable production overhead efficiency variance This is the same as the direct labour efficiency variance in hours. Remember that overhead absorption rate = Budgeted fixed production overhead Budgeted level of activity If either the numerator or the denominator or both are incorrect then we will have under.

000 Actual production at std rate (1.200 x $24) Actual overhead Expenditure variance Fixed production overhead volume variance This is the difference between actual and budgeted production volume multiplied by the standard absorption rate per unit. 4.000 3.000 1.000 x $24) .800 (F) Budgeted overhead (1.000 units x $24) Overhead variance Fixed production overhead expenditure variance This is the difference between the budgeted fixed production overhead expenditure and actual fixed production overhead expenditure $ 28. $ 24.000 (A) Overhead incurred Overhead absorbed (1.or over-absorbed fixed production overhead) $ 25. the total number of hours worked could have been more or less than was originally budgeted (employees may have worked a lot of overtime or there may have been a strike and so actual hours worked were less than budgeted) » volume capacity variance. The fixed production overhead variances are calculated as follows: Fixed production overhead variance This is the difference between fixed production overhead incurred and fixed production overhead absorbed (= the under. Regardless of the level of efficiency.800 25.000 24.y y The workforce may have been working at a more or less efficient rate than standard to produce a given output » volume efficiency variance (similar to the variable production overhead efficiency variance).

The fixed overhead volume capacity variance is unlike the other variances in that an excess of actual hours over budgeted hours results in a favourable variance and not an adverse variance as it does when considering labour efficiency.800 4. which is a favourable variance.600 (A) KEY. . Selling price variance The selling price variance is a measure of the effect on expected profit of a different selling price to standard selling price.Budgeted production at std rate (1. Labour efficiency variance in hours Valued @ standard rate per hour Volume efficiency variance 200 hrs (A) x $6 $1.200 (A) Fixed production overhead volume capacity variance This is the difference between budgeted hours of work and the actual hours worked.200 hrs 600 hrs (A) x $6 $3.800 hrs 4. multiplied by the standard absorption rate per hour. It is calculated as the difference between what the sales revenue should have been for the actual quantity sold.200 x 4) Actual hours Variance in hrs x standard rate per hour 4. variable overhead efficiency and fixed overhead volume efficiency. and the number of hours actually worked (usually the labour efficiency variance).200 x $24) 28. Sales variances 5.800 (A) Fixed production overhead volume efficiency variance This is the difference between the number of hours that actual production should have taken. multiplied by the standard absorption rate per hour Budgeted hours (1. Working more hours than budgeted produces an over absorption of fixed overheads. and what it was.

Don¶t forget to value the sales volume variance at standard contribution marginal costing is in use. $ Budgeted profit before sales and admin costs Sales variances .000 (A) Sales volume variance The sales volume variance is the difference between the actual units sold and the budgeted quantity. valued at the standard profit per unit. Operating Statement Operating statements The most common presentation of the reconciliation between budgeted and actual profit is as follows.price .000 9.volume X Actual sales minus standard cost of sales X Cost variances (F) (A) Material price Material usage etc X $ X __ $ X X $ X . In other words it measures the increase or decrease in standard profit as a result of the sales volume being higher or lower than budgeted.000 126.800 (A) KEY. Budgeted sales volume Actual sales volume Variance in units x standard margin per unit (x $ (150 102) ) Sales volume variance 1.Revenue from 900 units should have been (x $150) But was (x $140) Selling price variance $ 135.000 units 900 units 100 units (A) x $48 $4.

more effective use made of material (A) defective material. excessive waste. illness Labour efficiency y y (F) output produced more quickly than expected because of work motivation. lack of training. better quality of equipment or materials (A) lost time in excess of standard allowed. . output lower than standard set because of deliberate restriction. non-availability of material. careless purchasing. greater care taken in purchasing. stricter quality control Labour rate y y (F) use of workers at rate of pay lower than standard (A) wage rate increase Idle time y Machine breakdown. change in material standard (A) price increase.X Sales and administration costs Actual profit X X X X Variances in a standard marginal costing system y y No fixed overhead volume variance Sales volume variances are valued at standard contribution margin (not standard profit margin) Reasons. theft. interdependence and significance 6. sub-standard material used. change in material standard. Material usage y y (F) material used of higher quality than standard. Reasons for variances Material price y y (F) unforseen discounts received.

The mix variance indicates the effect on costs of changing the mix of material inputs. y y y y The type of standard being used Interdependence between variances Controllability Materiality 9. The significance of variances The decision as to whether or not a variance is so significant that it should be investigated should take a number of factors into account. (A) increase in cost of services used. . change in type of services used Overhead volume y y (F) production greater than budgeted (A) production less than budgeted 7. more economical use of services. Interdependence between variances The cause of one (adverse) variance may be wholly or partly explained by the cause of another (favourable) variance.Overhead expenditure y y (F) savings in cost incurred. excessive use of services. y y y Material price or material usage and labour efficiency Labour rate and material usage Sales price and sales volume 8. Materials mix and yield variances The materials usage variance can be subdivided into a materials mix variance and a materials yield variance if the proportion of materials in a mix is changeable and controllable. The yield variance indicates the effect on costs of material inputs yielding more or less than expected.

Standard input to produce 1 unit of product X: $ 200 150 350 Material A 20 kgs x $10 Material B 30 kgs x $5 In period 3. Solution 1: individual prices per kg as variance valuation cases Mix Variance Standard mix of actual use: A: 2/5 x (250+350) B: 3/5 x (250+350) Kgs 240 360 600 === B 360 kgs 350 kgs 10 kgs (F) x $5 $50 (F) === Mix should have But was Mix variance in x standard cost Mix variance in been kgs per kg $ A 240 kgs 250 kgs 10 kgs (A) x $10 $100 (A) ===== 50 (A) Total mix variance in quantity is always zero. Budgeted weighted average price =$350/50 = $7 per kg . Therefore. Yield variance 13 units of product X should have used but actual input in standard mix was Yield variance in kgs x standard cost per kg (F) ===== $350 (F) ==== ===== A 260 kgs 240 kgs 20 kgs (F) x $10 $200 (F) B 390 kgs 360 kgs 30 kgs (F) x $5 $150 Solution 2: budgeted weighted average price per unit of input as variance valuation base. 13 units of product X were produced from 250 kgs of material A and 350 kgs of material B.

The difference between actual sales and budgeted sales. Sales mix variance This variance indicates the effect on profit of changing the mix of actual sales from the standard mix. Mix variance A B 13 units of product X should have used but did use kgs Usage variance in kgs (F) x individual price per kg ± budgeted weighted average price per kg $ (10 ± 7) $ (5 ± 7) (A) 260 kgs 250 kgs 10 kgs (F) 390 kgs 350 40 kgs x $3 ____ $30 (F) === $50 (A) === x ($2) $80 === Yield variance A B Usage variance in kgs kg (F) x budgeted weighted average Price per kg (F) 10 kg (F) x $7 $70 (F) === x $7 40 $ 280 ==== $350 (F) ==== 10. valued at the standard margin per unit. Sales mix and quantity variances The sales volume variance can be subdivided into a mix variance if the proportions of products sold are controllable. y y The difference between the actual total quantity sold in the standard mix and the actual quantities sold. valued at (standard profit per unit budgeted weighted average profit per unit) Sales quantity variance . It can be calculated in one of two ways.

With all variance calculations. VARIANCES ANALYSIS PRACTICE QUESTIONS Question 1 Standard Cost for Product RBT £ 80 30 40 45 195 Materials (10kg x £8 per kg) Labour (5hrs x £6 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £8 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £9 per hr) Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price 10000 units 7500 units £300 per unit 8000 units 6000 units 85000 kg Cost £700000 36000 hrs Cost £330900 £400000 £500000 Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds . from the most basic (such as variable cost variances) to the more complex (such as mix and yield / mix and quantity variances). KEY. The difference between actual sales volume and budgeted sales valued at the budgeted weighted average profit per unit. y y The difference between actual sales volume in the standard mix and budgeted sales valued at the standard margin per unit. It can be calculated in one of two ways.This variance indicates the effect on profit of selling a different total quantity from the budgeted total quantity. You must understand what your calculations are supposed are supposed to show. it is vital that you do not simply learn formulae.

e.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance Question 2 Standard Cost for Product TUH £ Materials (10kg x £8 per kg) 80 Labour (5hrs x £6 per hr) ¬ 30 Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £8 per hr) 40 Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £9 per hr) 45 195 Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds Selling Price 11000 units 7500 units £300 per unit 9000 units 7000 units 85000 kg Cost £700000 36000 hrs Cost £330900 £410000 £520000 £260 per unit Calculate a. d.Selling Price £260 per unit Calculate a. i. Material total variance . j. h. g. b. c. Material total variance Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. f.

g.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance Question 3 Standard Cost for Product TD Materials (10kg x £5 per kg) Labour (5hrs x £6 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £8 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £9 per hr) Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds Selling Price £ 50 30 40 45 165 8000 units 7500 units £300 per unit 11000 units 10000 units 85000 kg Cost £700000 36000 hrs Cost £330900 £400000 £500000 £320 per unit Calculate a. f. e. e. Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. f. d. Material total variance Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance . c. c. h. j.b. b. d. i.

f. j. e.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance Question 4 Standard Cost for Product WXYZ Materials (4kg x £8 per kg) Labour (5hrs x £10 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £8 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £6 per hr) Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds Selling Price £ 32 50 40 30 152 10000 units 7500 units £300 per unit 8000 units 6000 units 85000 kg Cost £700000 36000 hrs Cost £330900 £400000 £500000 £260 per unit Calculate a. h. Material total variance Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. Variable overhead total variance and all sub. c. i. j.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance . h. g. d. i.g. b.

Question 5 Standard Cost for Product RTY Materials (10kg x £8 per kg) Labour (5hrs x £6 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £8 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £9 per hr) Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds Selling Price £ 80 30 40 45 195 13000 units 10000 units £300 per unit 12000 units 9000 units 90000 kg Cost £750000 40000 hrs Cost £350000 £500000 £600000 £350 per unit Calculate a. g. b. Material total variance Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. j.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance Question 6 Standard Cost for Product RED Materials (10kg x £7 per kg) £ 70 . e. d. c. f. h. i.

h. b. e. i. f. Material total variance Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. j. g. c. d.Labour (5hrs x £6 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £8 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £9 per hr) Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds Selling Price 30 40 45 185 10500 units 7800 units £310 per unit 8500 units 6200 units 87000 kg Cost £700000 36000 hrs Cost £330900 £400000 £550000 £270 per unit Calculate a.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance Question 7 Standard Cost for Product BUZZ Materials (3kg x £8 per kg) Labour (5hrs x £10 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £9 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £10 per hr) Budgeted Results £ 24 50 45 50 169 .

Material total variance Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. f. b. c. j. e. i. d. h. g.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance Question 8 Standard Cost for Product RST Materials (10kg x £20per kg) Labour (5hrs x £16 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £8 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £9 per hr) Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production £ 200 80 40 45 365 1000 units 7500 units £800 per unit 8000 units .Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds Selling Price 10000 units 7500 units £300 per unit 8000 units 6000 units 85000 kg Cost £700000 36000 hrs Cost £330900 £400000 £500000 £260 per unit Calculate a.

g. j. b. c.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance Question 9 Standard Cost for Product FGT Materials (10kg x £8 per kg) Labour (5hrs x £6 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (5hrs x £8 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (5hrs x £9 per hr) Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds £ 80 30 40 45 195 10000 units 7500 units £300 per unit 13000 units 6000 units 85000 kg Cost £700000 36000 hrs Cost £330900 £400000 £500000 . e. i. d. h.Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds Selling Price 6000 units 85000 kg Cost £700000 36000 hrs Cost £330900 £400000 £500000 £260 per unit Calculate a. Material total variance Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. f.

h. Material usage variance . e. g.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance Question 10 Standard Cost for Product White Diamond Materials (7kg x £9 per kg) Labour (6hrs x £9 per hr) ¬ Variable O/Hds (6hrs x £6 per hr) Fixed O/Hds (6hrs x £7 per hr) Budgeted Results Production Sales Selling Price Actual Results Production Sales Materials Labour Variable O/Hds Fixed O/Hds Selling Price £ 63 54 36 42 195 12500 units 8500 units £500 per unit 15000 units 8000 units 8750 kg Cost £85000 5200hrs Cost £52900 £25500 £84000 £600 per unit a. f. Material price variance c. j. c.Selling Price £260 per unit Calculate a. b. Material total variance Material price variance Material usage variance Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. i. d. Material total variance b.

f. i. j.d. h. Labour total variance Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance Variable overhead total variance and all sub. g. e.variances Fixed Production overhead total Variance and all sub-variances Selling price variance Sales volume variance .

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