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Educational Administration: Concepts and Practices, Fifth Edition Fred C. Lunenburg and Allan C. Ornstein
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Development of Administrative Theory
F O C U S I N G Q U E ST I ON S
1 To what extent is educational administration characterized by the use of theory? 2 What is theory? 3 How do theories function in educational administration? 4 What are the major components of classical organizational theory, the human relations approach, the behavioral science approach, and the post–behavioral science era? 5 Why is contingency theory popular today in administering schools? 6 Why is systems theory important for preventing organizational failures? 7 How have emergent nontraditional perspectives influenced the study and practice of educational administration?
In this chapter, we attempt to answer these questions concerning theoretical and historical developments in administration. We begin our discussion by exploring the nature of theory in administration and discuss six functions of theory in educational administration. Then we identify and explain major developments in the history of administrative thought: classical, human relations, behavioral science, and post–behavioral science approaches to administration. Finally, we examine contingency theory and open systems theory, and we conclude the chapter with a discussion of emergent perspectives in educational administration.
Educational administrators are professionals who have a code of ethics and are licensed by state boards of education.1 Thus, their behavior is guided by acceptable standards of practice. One of the best criteria of a profession, however, is that it has matured as a science; that is, it has developed a solid theoretical base — a body of organized and tested knowledge. Such is the case with educational administration as a social science. 2 Theory in educational
American Association of School Administrators, Code of Ethics for School Administrators (Arlington, VA: The Association, 2008).
It may be more accurate to refer to educational administration as an applied science.
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1995). consistency.” 4 Daniel Griffiths includes many of the same ideas in his discussion of theory. . then. 32 (1996): 379–402. Hoy. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Most theories in the social sciences require a process of refinement through revision and extension. 7 Daniel E. scanned. Daniel E.” Educational Administration Quarterly. Griffiths. Donmoyer. 25 (1997): 371–380. 1938). 5 A theory. Wayne K. M. 1988).12 Donmoyer introduces the concept of “utilitarianism” as a potential way to bridge the theory–practice gap. examples are Einstein’s theory of relativity and Newton’s theory of universal gravitation. or duplicated. Bridges and Philip Hallinger. variously called scientific methods. Handbook of Research on Educational Administration (New York: Longman. p.10 Evers and Lakomski provide a postpositivist conception of science in educational administration that they call “naturalistic coherentism. Imber. from philosophical to scientific. & J. The Knowledge Base in Educational Administration: Multiple Perspectives (Albany: State University of New York Press. 3rd ed. Griffiths proposes “theoretical pluralism” that is linked to problems of practice. 12 Edwin M.7 Willower suggests philosoph3 ical naturalism and pragmatism. inquiry. Problem-Based Learning for Administrators (Eugene: University of Oregon. pp. May not be copied. Kerlinger. 9 10 Fred N. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon. “Administrative Theory.). Foundations of Behavioral Research.8 These philosophies rely on logic and evidence. educational administration is characterized by using theory to explain and predict phenomena in educational organizations. “The Case for Theoretical Pluralism.11 Bridges and Hallinger espouse a problem-based learning model. Daniel E. familiarity of principle. Colin W.” This view contends that knowledge generation should be assessed on the basis of its testability.” Educational Administration Quarterly. 1995). defi nitions. Self-directed teams of trainees defi ne the problem. Research Methods in Education.” Educational Management and Administration. Griffiths. This approach takes the form of expanding the definition of knowledge to include nontraditional along with traditional methods of inquiry. “Science and Theory in the Practice of Educational Administration: A Pragmatic Perspective. and explanatory power.” Journal of School Leadership. and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena. 2004). 1992). To begin with. John Dewey. 300–309. pp. J. Scheurich (eds. Evers and Gabriele Lakomski. Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (New York: Henry Holt. Edwin M. Educational administration trainees focus on a problem likely to be encountered by practitioners. CA: Harcourt Brace. He adds that a theory is a deductively connected set of empirical laws and that all statements in a theory are generalizations that explain the empirical laws and unify the areas of subject matter. 32 (1996): 366–378. and apply new knowledge as they solve the problem. “Fighting the Fog: A Criticism of Postmodernism.” 5 6 11 William Wiersma et al.9 Hoy provides a pragmatic perspective on science and theory in the practice of educational administration. Some theories deal with simple generalizations such as results of educational polls or school surveys undertaken by state accrediting associations. More sophisticated theories may seek to explain why particular phenomena occur. To an increasing degree. Boyan (ed. “Administrative Theory. or reflective methods. comprehensiveness. Theories may range from a simple generalization to a complex set of laws. Such studies involve measures of the nature of some condition at a particular time. 3 What are theories? Fred Kerlinger defi nes theory as “a set of interrelated constructs (concepts). (San Diego. Griffiths. is a statement (generalization) that explains some phenomena in a systematic way. Inc. gather data from a variety of disciplines. “Theoretical Pluralism in Educational Administration. All Rights Reserved. The teams present their solutions in the form of a final project. 8 (1998): 448–463. 1986). 8th ed. 4 Donald J. fecundity. 27–51. He sees the resulting fusion of quantitative and qualitative methods of inquiry as valuable to both the researcher and the 8 See. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management. 9. “Science in Educational Administration: A Postpositivist Conception. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management.). He argues that research and theory building can serve as useful frames of reference for practitioners as they engage in real-world problem solving.6 Several such efforts to refine and extend the scientific theory movement deserve mention. which simulates the world of practice. for example. Implementing Problem-Based Learning in Leadership Development (Eugene: University of Oregon. He suggests the heuristic value of social science research and theory. J. in whole or in part.Licensed to: iChapters User 2 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts administration has been evolving since the 1950s. simplicity. They explain what is.. Bridges and Philip Hallinger. Willower. consistent with such definitions of truth as Dewey’s warranted assertibility.” in N. Griffiths.” in R.
Multiple phenomena are associated with each subsystem.” 18 19 Deobold B. Educational administrators would most likely flounder without theories to guide them in making choices. Joseph Murphy. For example. Such action is referred to in the research literature as participatory decision making.) A relevant component in the open systems approach is the external environment that impacts the organization. (Open systems theory is discussed later in this chapter. a school administrator may include others in a decision involving an issue that is relevant to them and that they have the expertise to make. “The Continuing Quest for a Knowledge Base. pp. For example. Expectations. Social scientists may study the external environment from within all these frameworks. almost every action a school administrator takes is based to some degree on a theory. should be involved in decisions because they have expertise that is crucial to improving school performance. Furthermore. Ellen Goldring and William Greenfield. 4th ed.).17 Without knowing it. . Donmoyer. distributive. Louis (eds.). Louis (eds. Upon closer examination.19 Identifying Relevant Phenomena Theories deter- mine the number and kinds of phenomena that are relevant to a study. and resource systems. In education. All Rights Reserved. The Educational Leadership Challenge: Redefi ning Leadership for the 21st Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. May not be copied. Several subsystems exist within this environment. instead of making the decision unilaterally. (New York: McGraw-Hill. collaborative.18 Deobold Van Dalen has suggested six functions of theories. and those with the most knowledge about the children. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. however. or duplicated. Geologists have developed schemes for classifying rocks. 39 (2002): 176–191. A theory tells a social scientist what to observe and to ignore. they will be more committed to implementing and sup- porting the decision. CA: Corwin Press.” in J.13 Finally. Among the more important are economic. parents. S. Duke. They prefer that social scientists provide them with practical prescriptions for administering their schools. “A Century’s Quest to Understand School Leadership. the school administrator made the choice to involve others in the decision-making process on the basis of a theory. namely teachers. productive. 1–19. and botanists have devised systems for classifying plants. ciently with masses of phenomena. 1979). in whole or in part. pp. political. Theories also contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field. “The Continuing Quest for a Knowledge Base: 1976–1998. 2nd ed. Inc. The Landscape of Leadership Preparation: Reframing the Education of School Administrators (Newbury Park. or group decision making. Social scientists will not know precisely what phenomena to observe until they construct theoretical solutions for each problem area under investigation. 45–72. participatory decision making is based on the idea that active involvement of teachers. Murphy discusses a “dialectic” strategy to bridge the theory–practice gap14 and later offers some unifying concepts—a “synthesizing paradigm”—to aid in the preparation and practice of school administrators. Participatory decision making. scanned. Understanding Educational Research. 2002). 1999). 25–43. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. and controlling behavior in organizations. Murphy and K.16 It is believed that those closest to teaching and learning. S. Murphy (ed.” in J. social scientists may study school administration from the open systems perspective. therefore. 2nd ed. predicting. they construct theoretical frameworks for classification. it is believed that when teachers and parents are involved in decision making. Classifying Phenomena Scientists rarely work effi- 13 Robert Donmoyer. 1999). Joseph Murphy. pp. focuses on decision processes that involve others. or community members in school decisions will lead to improved school performance. The physical sciences have been successful in developing such conceptual schemes. also referred to as shared. Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. and Dilemmas.” Educational Administration Quarterly. and a sense of ownership in the school will result. Murphy and K. Van Dalen. namely parents.15 Functions of Theories Many school administrators feel uncomfortable with theories. “Reculturing the Profession of Educational Leadership: New Blueprints. Thus. 1992).” in J. Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. “Understanding the Involving Concept of Leadership in Education: Roles. 14 17 15 16 Kenneth Leithwood and Daniel L.). theories provide a guiding framework for understanding.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 3 practitioner. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. and we follow his categorization in this discussion.
resource-allocator. This type of summary is not usually referred to as a Andrew W. theory enables one to predict what should be observable where no data are available. May not be copied. interests. it is inferred from using instruments that sample subject behavior. the more mature the science becomes. liaison (interpersonal). autonomous. They may range from simple generalizations to complex theoretical relationships. disseminator. . rev. The more comprehensive the theory. they are observed indirectly as they manifest themselves in behavior. 1990). But the superintendent might construct a more complex generalization. familiar. These summaries can be stated with varying degrees of comprehensiveness and precision. structured observation of five executives (one a school superintendent). Motivation and Personality. spokesperson (informational). All Rights Reserved. Affective predispositions such as attitudes. Croft. many aspects of behavior cannot be directly observed. and entrepreneur. the superintendent may note a relationship: Public recognition is a means of motivating teachers. paternal. In the natural sciences. 21 If educational administrators fail to develop theoretical frameworks for classifying phenomena. 23 A deprived need dominates the person’s attention and determines behavior. Such refi nement through revision and extension is necessary to provide the maturity required for continually expanding the knowledge base in educational administration. the stronger it grows. disturbance-handler. Halpin and Don B. The more this need is satisfied. they developed eight dimensions of organizational climate and classified them into six categories: open. Inc. for instance. Another example comes from the work of Henry Mintzberg. 22 Summarizing Phenomena Theories summarize iso- lated lists of data into a broader conceptual scheme of wider applicability. Field Theory in Social Science (New York: Harper & Row. It includes two different management perspectives: scientific management Abraham Maslow. scanned. The Organizational Climate of Schools (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 23 Henry Mintzberg. or duplicated. social scientists have developed constructs to explain why certain types of behavior occur. which is supported by verified observations. After extensive. Predicting Phenomena Revealing Needed Research Theories generalize about phenomena and predict phenomena. controlled. Kurt Lewin’s forcefield analysis is an example of a theoretical construct. in whole or in part. 22 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 1970). That is. A theory permits social scientists to predict the existence of unobserved instances conforming to it. obtained through direct observation and measurement. Kurt Lewin. the theory of oxidation brings many of the chemical reactions common to everyday life into focus. For example. and the individual progesses up the hierarchy. 20 Using factor analysis. Abraham Maslow made the following generalization: People at work seek to satisfy sequentially five levels of needs arranged in a prepotency hierarchy. Intelligence is not an observable entity. However. negotiator (decisional). one that describes the relationship between phenomena.Licensed to: iChapters User 4 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts An example of a classification scheme in educational administration is the study of organizational climate by Andrew Halpin and Don Croft. 1951). and closed. Mintzberg classified managerial activities into ten administrative roles: figurehead. Earlier we noted that theories in the social sciences may lack supporting evidence and therefore require a refi ning process. Consequently. MA: Addison-Wesley. Summarizing and explaining phenomena permit deeper understanding of data and translate empirical findings into a more comprehensive. For example. the next higher-level need is activated. The Nature of Managerial Work (New York: HarperCollins. leader. they will limit the advancement of knowledge in the field. 1963). (Reading. On the basis of this theory. monitor. 21 20 Classical Organizational Theory Classical organizational theory emerged during the early years of the twentieth century. theoretical framework. When the level of self-actualization is reached. after observing the granting of certificates of achievement to deserving teachers. Formulating Constructs Reliable information can be theory. Once this deficit is satisfied. one can expect to fi nd a similar pattern of behavior in a variety of work settings where no statistics have been generated. and opinions cannot be observed directly. These constructs are often referred to as hypothetical constructs to imply that they are a construction of the social scientist’s imagination. They also pinpoint crucial areas to be investigated and crucial questions to be answered. A school superintendent making a generalization about granting certificates of achievement to outstanding teachers in the school district is an example of low-level summarizing. ed. progression ceases.
Once the job is analyzed. Luther Gulick. Managers should cooperate with workers to ensure that all work being done is in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. and Max Weber. teach. equity. there was almost no systematic study of management. Rather than relying on past practice or rules of thumb. Taylor tried to change that view. His basic theme was that managers should study work scientifically to identify the “one best way” to perform a task. reporting. An engineer. He coined the acronym POSDCoRB. efficiency. rather. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Max Weber also recognized the importance of these factors. management determines the “one best way” of performing each job. and decision-making activities. and budgeting. whereas workers perform their jobs. 4. Selection of Personnel. workers chose their own work and trained themselves. allocation of authority. Taylor’s scientific management consists of four principles:24 Administrative Management Whereas scientific management focuses on jobs of individual workers. to a set of management principles that he used. Luther Gulick. he observed fi rsthand how workers performed well below their capacities. The practice of management was based on experience and common sense. the next step is to scientifically select and then train. Management Cooperation. another classical theorist. data gathering. Roosevelt’s Committee on Government Administration. he served as managing director of a large coal-mining fi rm in France. Scientific Job Analysis. Scientiﬁc Management Prior to the turn of the twentieth century. Papers on the Science of Administration (New York: Columbia University Press. In the past. May not be copied. In his early career as a laborer in the steel industry. organizing. Planning involves developing an outline of the things that must be accomplished and the methods for accomplishing them. he provided managers with explicit guidelines for improving production management. Taylor felt that scientific management — time study 24 1. staffi ng. Through observation. coordinating. organizing. and incentive systems — would correct the problem. Henri Fayol was an engineer and French industrialist. Fayol identified fourteen principles that he felt should guide the management of organizations and that he found useful during his experience as a manager (Table 1–1). commanding. 1937). Frederick W. Fayol claimed that all managers perform five basic functions: planning. Organizing establishes the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are 25 Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick (eds. and stability. and controlling. 2. He referred to this activity as soldiering. coordinating. In the past. for setting standards. But Fayol was the fi rst to recognize management as a continuous process. which identified seven functions of management: planning. All Rights Reserved. administrative management concentrates on the management of an entire organization. Taylor. organizing. It attempts to forecast future actions and directions of the organization. based on proven research and experimentation. He attributed his success as a manager not to any personal qualities he may have possessed but. order. almost all work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrust on workers. scientific management focused on the management of work and workers. For many years. The primary contributors to administrative management were Henri Fayol. 25 1. Fayol’s fourteen principles of management emphasize chain of command. . Managers assume planning. Functional Supervising. in whole or in part. Historically. directing. Administrative management addressed issues concerning how an overall organization should be structured. scanned. separation of managerial and employee duties. Such job analysis replaces the old rule-ofthumb method.). and careful measurement.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 5 and administrative management. augmented Fayol’s five basic management functions while serving on Franklin D. and develop workers. Taylor's four principles of scientific management were designed to maximize worker productivity. 1911). Inc. Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper. he pursued the idea that through careful scientific analysis the efficiency of work could be improved. 3. Frederick W. or duplicated. 2. Besides the five basic management functions.
The appropriate degree of centralization will vary depending on circumstances. An employee should receive orders from only one superior. Inc. team spirit. or duplicated. Unity of command Unity of direction Subordination of individual interest Remuneration Centralization Scalar chain Order Equity Stability of personnel Initiative Esprit de corps Source: Adapted from Henri Fayol. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Discipline implies respect for the rules that govern the organization.Licensed to: iChapters User 6 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts Table 1–1 Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management Component Division of work Authority Discipline Description The object of division of work is improved efficiency through a reduction of waste. Managers must retain fi nal responsibility. including fiscal planning. training. defi ned. 4. pp. or chain of command. accounting. The exact lines of authority should be clear and followed at all times. and evaluating subordinates properly. Staffing involves the whole personnel function of selecting. All Rights Reserved. Max Weber. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Successful organizations need a stable workforce. (Originally published in French in 1916 with the title Administration Industrielle et Generale. Weber’s contributions were not recognized until years after his death. and coordinated to implement the plan. One of the most influential contributors to classical organizational theory was German sociologist Max Weber. The scalar chain. and control. Budgeting concerns all activities that accompany budgeting. a corollary of authority. Similar in concept to many of Fayol’s fourteen principles. General and Industrial Administration (New York: Pitman. Employees should be encouraged to develop and carry out plans for improvement. Human and material resources should be coordinated to be in the right place at the right time. 5. Responsibility. Weber’s guidelines were believed to constitute an ideal structure for organizational effectiveness. Authority is the right to give orders and the power to extract obedience. A desire for equity and equality of treatment are aspirations managers should take into account in dealing with employees. Adherence to this principle avoids breakdowns in authority and discipline. and the state of discipline of any group depends on the quality of leadership. closely related to leading. 26 Weber’s concept of bureaucracy is based on a comprehensive set of rational guidelines. 1949).) arranged. The interests of individuals and groups within an organization should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole. Compensation should be fair and satisfactory to both employees and the organization. . trans. Clear statements of agreements between the organization and its employees are necessary. Weber’s ideal bureaucracy and Fayol’s fourteen principles of 26 3. It becomes a question of the proper amount of centralizing to use in each case. scanned. Similar activities that are directed toward a singular goal should be grouped together under one manager. includes the continuous task of making decisions. Reporting verifies progress through records. is the chain of supervisors ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest ranks. in whole or in part. 6. and a sense of unity and togetherness among employees. who fi rst described the concept of bureaucracy. Coordinating involves all activities and efforts needed to bind together the organization in order to achieve a common goal. increased output. 7. communicating and implementing decisions. May not be copied. Talcott Parsons (New York: Oxford University Press. 20–41. Managers should foster and maintain teamwork. is the obligation to carry out assigned duties. and developing the staff and maintaining favorable working conditions. and inspection. but they should give subordinates enough authority to do the task successfully. 1947). and keeps those to whom the chief executive is responsible informed. Directing. and a simplification of job training. Managerial practices should encourage long-term commitment of employees to the organization. takes any corrective action when necessary. ensures that things happen according to plan. research.
MA: Harvard University Press. 1939).” in J.). widely known as the Hawthorne studies. In the lighting experiment. Mayo and his associates interviewed over 20. the results were attributed to the fact that the test group began to be noticed and to feel important. As in the Relay Assembly Test Room experiments. The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New York: Macmillan. Researchers discovered that the improvement in productivity was due to such humansocial factors as morale.126 employees was conducted to learn what workers liked and disliked about their work environment. the research began with the designation of two groups of female workers. Increases in productivity were more of an outgrowth of group dynamics and effective management than any set of employer demands or physical factors. and the Bank Wiring Observation Room experiments. Human Relations Approach The human relations approach is considered to have started with a series of studies conducted at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric near Chicago by Elton Mayo and his associates between 1927 and 1933. in whole or in part. each of which was equally lighted. . One group. the Typewriting Group. Workers who produced too much were called “rate-busters” and sometimes were physically threatened to make them conform with the rest of the group. Roethlisberger and William J. Murphy and K. the focus of classical organizational theory was on the task. To understand the complex and baffling pattern of results. 45–72. On the other hand. Inc. Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. an interview program involving 21. designated the control group. in fact. an efficiently designed job and organization were of prime importance. An emphasis on efficiency characterized the classical approach to management. the MicaSplitting Group. employees who underproduced were labeled “chislers” and were pressured by the group to increase their productivity. Most workers. 28 These studies. The interviews and observations during the experiments suggested that a human-social element operated in the workplace. The critics claim that when managers ignore the social and psychological needs of workers. To these theorists. In addition. 28 Two experiments in particular are noteworthy. and Fritz J. “A Century’s Quest to Understand School Leadership. All Rights Reserved. for example. the “deviants. This flaw was primarily responsible for the emergence of the second approach to management thought: the human relations approach. Each group performed the same task. Seashore Louis (eds. The classicists assumed that fi nancial incentives would ensure worker motivation. In the Relay Assembly Test Room experiments. was to have no changes made in lighting or other work-environment factors. In the Bank Wiring Observation Room experiments. and the groups were located in two separate rooms. 2nd ed. have strongly influenced administrative theory. called a group norm. a feeling of belongingness. the “regulars. The Hawthorne Studies The Hawthorne studies consisted of several experiments. That is. Those who did not conform.” ignored the incentive system and voluntarily conformed to the group’s standard level of acceptable output. Elton Mayo. Regardless of the light level or various changes in rest periods and lengths of workdays and workweeks. 27 Classical organizational theories and their derived principles have many critics. pp. Duke. Dickson. Researchers expected that worker productivity would rise over time. researchers found an unexpected pattern of results. or duplicated. Psychological and social factors in the workplace were ignored.” were disciplined by the group to bring their output in line with the group’s standard output. May not be copied. the higher the productivity rose. productivity in both the control and the experimental groups improved. They included the fi rst Relay Assembly Test Room. their pay increased as their productivity increased. organizations do not provide adequate motivation to their employees. and effective management in which such interpersonal skills Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Management and the Worker (Cambridge. Changes in the productivity of the two groups was subsequently measured and analyzed.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 7 management laid the foundation for contemporary organizational theory. the worse things got. a group of nine men were paid on a piecework incentives pay system. 1999). with little attention given to the individual or group in the workplace.000 employees who had participated in the experiments during the six-year study. They discovered that the group informally established an acceptable level of output for its members. the second Relay Assembly Group. 1933). scanned. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. The other was the experimental group in which lighting and other environmental factors were varied. 27 Kenneth Leithwood and Daniel L. In short.
who perceives the field of experience as real- ity for her. Whyte found that selective preferences among group members are associated with such factors as similarities in age. Moreno was interested in interpersonal relations within groups. participative decision making. maintain. 30 Furthermore. or duplicated. Researchers concluded. Moreno. and the like. scanned. 29 Noteworthy is his work on democratic and authoritarian groups. values. and similar factors may affect behavior in the work setting. Whyte. and Weight Watchers) and the action-research approach to organizational development is based on Lewin’s pioneering work. Carl Rogers deserves mention here as well. Homans conceptualized the totality of group structure and functioning that has received wide attention among organizational theorists and practitioners alike. cognition. Jacob L. 35 His study is significant because the findings are based on observations of real-life situations rather than isolated laboratory conditions. 34 Additional contributors to the human relations school of thought include William Whyte and George Homans. in which members actively participate in decisions. and security. Whyte studied the nature and functioning of work group behavior in the restaurant industry. 2. Rogers. especially group behavior. Who Shall Survive? rev. 1942). Lewin and his associates generally concluded that democratic groups. Ibid. An individual’s perceptions. Alcoholics Anonymous. Ronald Lippitt. are more productive in terms of both human satisfaction and the achievement of group goals than are authoritarian groups. 35 William F. and enhance her own human condition. but the metapsychological assumptions on which his client-centered therapy 32 is based also provide the skeletal framework on which the human relations approach is built. 36 31 Carl R. the best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual. . leading. 33 34 Kurt Lewin. 3. in whole or in part. George Homans’s general theory of small groups was a major landmark. the importance of understanding human behavior. These needs. Field Theory in Social Science. Inc. 33 The writings of Jacob Moreno made a substantial contribution to the human relations movement. The Human Group (New York: Harcourt. sex. 1949). Using a field study methodology similar to the one used by Mayo. Groups composed of individuals with similar affinities for one another will likely perform better than groups lacking such affective preferences. motivations. during this period. 1950). team building. workflow. from the results of the incentive paysystem experiment. 1953). 10 (1939): 271–299.Licensed to: iChapters User 8 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts as motivating. Counseling and Psychotherapy (Boston: Houghton Miffl in. pp. who exists in a continually changing world of experience. responses to frustration. There were several strong intellectual currents. are more important in determining worker morale and productivity than the physical conditions of the work environment. Like Lewin.’” Journal of Social Psychology. according to Rogers. 483–494. 36 The major assumptions of the human relations approach include the following ideas: 1. which influenced the human relations movement. Employees are motivated by social and psychological needs and by economic incentives. Carl R. 1951). status within groups. much of the current work on individual and organizational approaches to change through group dynamics (sensitivity training. All Rights Reserved. 29 30 Kurt Lewin. that informal work groups emerged with their own norms for appropriate behavior of group members. Consistent with Moreno’s sociometric theory. Client-Centered Therapy (Boston: Houghton Miffl in. 32 George C. and who strives to actualize. Not only did he develop a procedure for industrial counseling31 while working with Mayo and his associates at Western Electric. May not be copied. and Robert White. Brace & World. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. (New York: Beacon House. beliefs. He developed a sociometric technique: People develop selective affi nities for other people. “Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created ‘Social Climates.. Homans. Rogers. Kurt Lewin emphasized field theory and research known as group dynamics. and outside interests. He examined intergroup conflict. and effective communications were used. For example. In short. including but not limited to recognition. Other Contributors to the Human Relations Approach Mayo and his associates were not the only contributors to the human relations approach. Human Relations in the Restaurant Industry (London: Pittman. ed. belongingness. from the perspective of management was fi rmly established.
Argyris believes that people The Individual and the Organization Behavioral scientists fueled a new interest in individuals and the way in which they relate to the organization. in a single framework. Wight Bakke. and manipulation are all important relationships within an organization. Thus. A number of authors attempted to reconcile or show points of conflict between classical and human relations theory. Barnard. managers must have both human and technical skills. For many years. The Functions of the Executive (Cambridge. he argues. Increased morale results in increased productivity. These social scientists made important contributions to our understanding of employee behavior in the workplace. thus. All Rights Reserved. . an attempt to integrate. in whole or in part. group loyalty. the workflow. and the system of rewards and punishments. organizational psychology resulted in one of management’s few classic textbooks. the task(s) to be completed. He views the organization as embodying a fusion process. Inc. 37 Effectiveness/Efﬁciency Although a contemporary Chester I. 37 His best-known idea is the cooperative system. Ibid. power. the informal organization. especially between superior and subordinate. havioral science approach was E. or duplicated. The fusion of the personalizing process of the individual and the socializing process of the organization is accomplished through the bonds of organization. Chris Argyris argues that there is an inherent conflict between the individual and the organization. 40 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 9 4. The human relationists used field study methods extensively as well as laboratory experiments to study the work environment. of many human relationists. which is the degree to which the common purpose of the organization is achieved. 38 His major point is that an organization can operate and survive only when both the organization’s goals and the goals of the individuals working for it are kept in equilibrium. attempts to use the organization to further his own goals. Chester Barnard was one of the fi rst authors to take the behavioral science approach. 7. Team effort. Barnard argues that the executive must meet two conditions if cooperation and fi nancial success are to be attained. 1993). 5. Second. Informal social groups within the workplace create and enforce their own norms and codes of behavior. May not be copied. 1955). His executive experience and extensive readings in sociology and 38 39 E. and emergent leadership are important concepts for determining individual and group behavior. the executive must emphasize the importance of effectiveness. Communication. First. the behavioral science approach was born. Chris Argyris.39 The individual. such as the formal organization. 1938).40 This conflict results from the incompatibility between the growth and development of the individual’s maturing personality and the repressive nature of the formal organization. conflict between groups. whereas the organization uses the individual to further its own goals. emphasizing democratic rather than authoritarian leadership. motivation. MA: Harvard University Press. In the fusion process. the executive must be aware of efficiency. Effective communication channels should be developed between the various levels in the hierarchy. influence. social conformity. Wight Bakke of the Yale University Labor and Management Center. 6. communication patterns. authority. Individual/Organization Conﬂict Having views similar to Bakke’s. which is the satisfaction of “individual motives” of employees. Barnard served as president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company. Employees have higher morale and work harder under supportive management. People in all types of organizations tend to develop informal social organizations that work along with the formal organization and can help or hinder management. human relations and classical management principles. Fusion Process Another major contributor to the be- Behavioral Science Approach Behavioral scientists considered both the classicists’ rational-economic model and the human relationists’ social model to be incomplete representations of employees in the work setting. CT: Yale University Press. scanned. The Individual and the Organization (New York: Irvington. the organization to some degree remakes the individual and the individual to some degree remakes the organization. The Fusion Process (New Haven.
Conformity to the institution. in whole or in part. “Social Behavior and the Administrative Process. Systems 1–4 Another writer concerned with the way in which the goals of individuals and those of the organization can coincide is Rensis Likert. 1993). May not be copied. scanned. Hygiene–Motivation Extending the work of Maslow. and their needdispositions results in individual efficiency. ranging from System 1. and its expectations results in organizational effectiveness. Bakke. Further. 42 Nomothetic/Idiographic A useful theoretical formu- to satisfy. (Reading. McGregor viewed Theory Y as a more appropriate foundation for guiding management thinking. He developed four management systems. frustration. Allan Harrington. 45 43 Jacob W. NJ: Transaction. to drawn heavily on the work of Abraham Maslow. his motivation factors relate to the needs at the top of Maslow’s hierarchy: esteem and self-actualization. who developed a need hierarchy that an individual attempts 41 William H. Inc. Motivation and Personality. Whyte. Theory X and Theory Y Based on the work of lation for studying administrative behavior is the social systems analysis developed for educators by Jacob Getzels and Egon Guba.” School Review. That is. Guba. frustration. (Note the similarity between Getzels and Guba’s framework and those of Barnard. Getzels and Egon G. or dysfunctional behavior. preventing them from achieving their full potential. He called these Theory X and Theory Y. Herzberg’s hygiene factors relate closely to Maslow’s lower-level needs: physiological.) Need Hierarchy The behavioral science approach has Maslow. The resulting incongruence between individual personality and the organization causes conflict. Frederick Herzberg developed a two-factor theory of motivation. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. or duplicated. 44 42 Abraham Maslow. This trend to conformity has been espoused in such popular books as The Organization Man 41 and Life in the Crystal Palace. Douglas McGregor. Life in the Crystal Palace (London: Jonathan Cape. First are institutions with certain roles and expectations that together constitute the nomothetic dimension of activity in the social system. The Organization Man (New York: Simon & Schuster. 46 Frederick Herzberg. He also thought that a modified version of Theory X was consistent with the human relations perspective. rev. and conflict resulting from the incongruency by ascending the organizational hierarchy.45 McGregor believed that the classical approach was based on Theory X assumptions about people. negative attitudes. 1956). Recognition of motivation factors calls for a different style of management from that proposed by the classical or human relations advocates. Only the latter group of factors can lead to motivation. human relations concepts did not go far enough in explaining people’s needs and management’s strategies to accommodate them. The Motivation to Work (New Brunswick. Douglas McGregor formulated two contrasting sets of assumptions about people and the management strategies suggested by each.46 Herzberg makes a distinction between factors that cause or prevent job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) and factors that cause job satisfaction (motivation factors). 1960). 1960). or by developing apathy toward their work that ultimately leads to the dysfunction of the organization’s goals. Likert conducted extensive empirical research at the Institute for Social Research—University of Michigan to examine the effect of management systems on employees’ attitudes and behavior. and social.Licensed to: iChapters User 10 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts progress from a state of psychological immaturity and dependence to maturity and independence and that many modern organizations keep their employees in a dependent state. and failure for people at work. The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill. its roles. MA: Addison-Wesley. . Exploitive Authoritative.44 Maslow’s theory suggests that an administrator’s job is to provide avenues for the satisfaction of an employee’s needs that also support organizational goals and to remove impediments that block need satisfaction and cause frustration. by using defense mechanisms. ed. safety. People learn to adapt to the failure. 1970). All Rights Reserved. their personalities.43 Getzels and Guba conceive of the social system as involving two classes of phenomena that are independent and interactive. Argyris believes that some of the basic principles of management are inconsistent with the mature adult personality. Behavior then in any social system can be seen as a function of the interaction between personal needs and institutional goals. 65 (1957): 423–441. whereas conformity to individuals. and Argyris. Second are the individuals with certain personalities and need-dispositions inhabiting the system who together constitute the idiographic dimension of activity in the social system.
decision-making patterns. 1987). Fiedler and Martin M. Managerial Effectiveness (New York: McGraw-Hill. 8th ed. The New Leadership: Managing Participation in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs. in his best-selling book on leadership. which he calls linkingpins. Chemers. A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations. 5 (1979): 147–156. 50 The basic premise is that in some situations relationship-motivated leaders perform better. Three variables determine the situations under which one or the other type of leader will be most effective: leader–member relations (the degree to which leaders feel accepted by their followers). and performance goals. task structure (the degree to which the work to be done is clearly outlined). 1975). to understand how subordinates are affected by their leadership style. His Systems 1–4 represent four different leadership styles. including leadership. communications. 48 and high-performance goals of the leader. Hersey and Blanchard see two types of maturity as particularly important: job maturity (a person’s maturity to perform the job) and psychological maturity (the person’s level of motivation as reflected in achievement needs and willingness to accept responsibility). 1984). 49 48 47 Post–Behavioral Science Era The behavioral science approach influenced the preparation and practice of school administrators for some time. Rather. change approaches. identifies bureaucracy and other classical management principles as the “unconscious conspiracy” that prevents leaders from leading. 2nd ed. Reddin. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton assess managerial behavior on two dimensions: concern for production and concern for people. (Note the parallel here to McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y dichotomy. school administrators must find different ways that fit different situations. leader task behavior. Inc. 1988). ship have come into vogue in recent years. provides more categories and more specificity. ed. goal setting. NJ: Prentice Hall. however. (Paramus. May not be copied. 52 William Reddin. NJ: Prentice Hall. Bennis. Managerial Grid In the area of leadership. Why Leaders Can’t Lead: The Unconscious Conspiracy Continues (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.” Journal of Management.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 11 System 4. motivation. There are no motivation strategies. communication techniques. and position power (the extent to which the leader has control over rewards and punishments the followers receive). Likert posits the participative group system (System 4) as coming closest to the ideal. while other conditions make it more likely that task-motivated leaders will be most effective. 54 53 Robert R. 2007). or leadership styles that will fit all situations. 1994). Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. the theory suggests that the style of leadership will be effective only if it is appropriate for the maturity level of the followers. All Rights Reserved.47 Each system characterizes an organizational climate based on several key dimensions of effectiveness. Participative Group. Contingency Theory Contingency theories of leader- Situational Leadership Another popular leadership theory is situational leadership developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard. 52 Victor Vroom and Arthur Jago. William J. Fred Fiedler developed a contingency theory of leadership effectiveness. 50 Warren G. 53 and Amitai Etzioni54 did much to assist its development. Other Important Contributors The great diversity of perspectives in the behavioral science school makes it impossible to discuss all of its contributors here.49 The grid is designed to help managers identify their own leadership styles. Management of Organizational Behavior. The Managerial Grid: Leadership Styles for Achieving Production Through People (Houston: Gulf. decision making. organizational structures. Rensis Likert. In general terms. . Mouton. Rensis Likert. Social scientists like Victor Vroom. and leader relationship behavior. group decision making in an overlapping group structure. and to explore the use of alternative leadership styles consistent with employees’ needs. Amitai Etzioni. 1990). rev. Blake and Jane S. The essence of System 4 theory is based on three key propositions: supportive relationships. Improving Leadership Effectiveness. (New York: Wiley.) Likert. or duplicated. New Patterns of Management (New York: Garland. (New York: Free Press. interaction/influence. 55 A key contribution of the contingency perspective may best be summarized in the observation that there is no one best way to administer an organization. control. 55 Fred E. scanned. 1970). 51 Situational leadership theory is based primarily on the relationship between follower maturity. Warren Bennis. “From Production and EmployeeCenteredness to Systems 1–4. in whole or in part. but it has lost much of its original appeal recently 51 Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard. Managers can plot their scores on an eighty-one-celled managerial grid.
60 They achieved this in two ways: greater organizational capacity and greater external support. Clarifying Purpose The school district and the administrators and teachers who work in it are accountable for student learning. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-110) sets demanding accountability standards for schools. with science standards and assessments to follow. and accountability. May not be copied. 58 Purposes cannot remain static for all time. States must identify adequate yearly progress (AYP) objectives and disaggregate test results for all students and subgroups of students based on socioeconomic status. Joseph Murphy reminds us that “persons wishing to affect society as school leaders must be directed by a powerful portfolio of beliefs and values anchored in issues such as justice. Clearly and jointly held purposes help give teachers and administrators an increased sense of certainty. democratic community. its logic is clear. CA: Wadsworth/ Thompson. CA: Corwin Press. and social justice emerge. and to apply academic learning to important realistic problems) and student learning. they found that external agencies helped schools to focus on student learning and to enhance organizational capacity through three strategies: setting standards for learning of high intellectual quality. The Principalship: Vision to Action (Belmont. School Reform from the Inside Out: Policy. according to Newmann and Wehlage. and Performance (Cambridge. (4) providing support. these five dimensions provide a compelling framework for accomplishing sustained districtwide success for all children. For example. 59 In their studies of “successful school restructuring” in over 1500 schools. (2) encouraging collective learning. Irby. and states. Moreover. were those that functioned as professional communities. the No Child Left Behind Act requires states to participate every other year in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. political.” 56 School Improvement Accountability for school improvement is a central theme of state policies. and (5) making data-driven decisions. and social appeal. race/ethnicity. They must be constantly adapted to changing circumstances and the needs of the system.” Educational Administration Quarterly. Learning by Heart (New York: John Wiley. 57 Superintendents need to develop a practical rationale for school improvement. they found a way to channel staff and student efforts toward a clear. Newmann and Wehlage found that successful schools focused on “authentic” pedagogy (teaching that requires students to think. security. 59 Fred C. . Michael G. school districts. providing sustained schoolwide professional development. coherence. commonly shared purpose for learning. 1995). All Rights Reserved. Learning Places: A Field Guide for Improving the Context of Schooling (Thousand Oaks. Practice. 38 (2002): 186. 2004). interrelated concepts of school improvement. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. including new state testing requirements designed to improve education. Roland Barth. community. 2006). This will require districtwide leadership focused directly on learning. Lunenburg and Beverly J. and practices directly on teaching and learning. Furthermore. That is. three powerful. English language proficiency. scanned. Will schools. Taken together. Inc. In short. Evidence on the critical combination of internal and external learning is mounting. or duplicated. School leaders can accomplish this by (1) clarifying purpose. which form the development of the next era of the profession: the post–behavioral science era. school districts. 2004). MA: Harvard Education Publishing Group. the law requires that states develop both content standards in reading and mathematics and tests that are linked to the standards for grades 3 through 8. however.Licensed to: iChapters User 12 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts with challenges to modernist views of organizations and leadership. Building on the strengths and shortcomings of the past. “Reculturing the Profession of Educational Leadership: New Blueprints. school improvement efforts focus educational policy. Moreover.61 57 Richard F. 2006). This assertion has strong economic. What teachers teach and students learn is a matter of public inspection and subject to direct measurement. and states be able to respond to the demand? In an ideal system. (3) aligning with state standards. and using deregulation to increase school autonomy. in whole or in part. 60 Fred Newmann and George Wehlage. Successful School Restructuring (Madison. WI: Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools. Fullan. The most successful schools. and schools that function for all children and youth. Elmore. to develop an in-depth understanding. Few really successful schools lack purpose. administration. and disability. dynamic internal learning communities and their relationships with external networks made the difference. the law mandates that 100 percent of students must score at the proficient level on state tests by 2014. 61 58 56 Joseph Murphy.
administrators need to raise teachers’ collective sense about state standards. 2001). . XV. Seashore Louis (eds. May not be copied. administrators need to eliminate teacher isolation. the same is not true when states use generic. Inc. The Learning School and School Improvement: Linkages and Strategies (Lisse. This is what Fenwick English and Betty Steffy refer to as “the doctrine of no surprises. and using cues. offthe-shelf standardized tests.63 Furthermore. Matthew Gandal and Jennifer Vranek. 63 Carl Glickman. learning cooperatively.65 Continuous instruction-embedded staff development replaces oneshot non-instruction-specific professional development events. Potholes (Boston: Allyn and Bacon. or duplicated. 70 Peter Senge. scanned. “Standards: Here Today.” Educational Leadership. “The key to student growth is educator growth. and advance organizers. these classroom practices work well. Here Tomorrow.69 Teachers can become willing recipients of research information if they are embedded in a setting where meaningful and sustained interaction with researchers occurs in an egalitarian context. such as particularly effective leadership.66 Single-loop. 71 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. tests not based on the standards are neither fair nor helpful to parents or students. receiving reinforcement for effort and recognition for achievement. States that have developed their own tests have done a good job of ensuring that the content of the test can be found in the standards. p. Pickering. Deep Curriculum Alignment (Lanham. using nonlinguistic representations.” in K. Marzano and others 62 identified classroom practices that generally increase student achievement: identifying similarities and differences. Teachers are more likely to pursue their group and individual learning when there are supportive conditions in the school and school district.” 64 In a collective learning environment. 69 Karen Seashore Louis and Sandra Kruse. “Creating Community in Reform: Images of Organizational Learning in Urban Schools. 59 (2001): 7–13. children will not be tested on knowledge and skills they have not been taught. Regardless of whether or not teachers teach to standards. Principles. 2005). Implementing Change: Patterns. Bruce Joyce and Beverly Showers. Hord. setting objectives and testing hypotheses. Changing mental models replaces training educators in new behaviors. 2006).68 Schools where teachers collaborate in discussing issues related to their school improvement efforts are more likely to be able to take advantage of internally and externally generated information. 66 65 Gene E. Aligning with State Standards Most states are at- tempting to align their tests with their standards. Marzano. Organizational Learning and Strategies (Lisse. Debra J. Pollock. Such tests cannot measure 67 Chris Argyris. Leithwood and K.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 13 There are instructional strategies that can help teachers increase student learning. Reasons and Rationalizations: The Limits to Organizational Knowledge (New York: Oxford University Press. linear learning that monitors Robert J. 2001). Encouraging Collective Learning A key task for school administrators is to create a collective expectation among teachers concerning the state’s accountability criteria. 2002). 64 62 whether a system is reaching its goals is replaced by double-loop learning where systems are able to revisit whether goals are still appropriate and then recycle as needed. 2000). Hall and Shirley M.” 71 However. summarizing and note taking. Leadership for Learning: How to Help Teachers Succeed (Baltimore: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2000). 2001). Then administrators must work to ensure that teacher expectations are aligned with the state’s accountability criteria. (Baltimore: ASCD. That is. in whole or in part. Gandal and Vranek 70 encourage states to consider three principles in this endeavor. NL: Swets and Zeitlander.67 School administrators must develop and sustain school structures and cultures that foster individual and group learning. All Rights Reserved. Innovations are built around the system rather than using prepackaged school improvement models. 2005). 3rd ed. That is. That is.). In research recently completed at the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) Institute. Fenwick English and Betty Steffy. administrators must stimulate an environment in which new information and practices are eagerly incorporated into the system. questions. doing homework and practicing. and Jane E. First. teachers become generators of professional knowledge rather than simply consumers of innovations. NL: Swets and Zeitlinger. Schools That Learn (New York: Doubleday. Student Achievement Through Staff Development. Classroom Instruction That Works (Baltimore: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 68 Kenneth Leithwood and Karen Seashore Louis. MD: Scarecrow Press. so that discussions about state standards become a collective mission of the school and school district.
And test questions could elicit content knowledge that is worth learning.77 Teachers are motivated to change when their personal goals are aligned with change. or creating an environment that supports school improvement efforts. The history of school reform indicates that innovations in teaching and learning seldom penetrate more than a few schools and seldom endure when they do.73 Such tests could require students to use facts. or during the summer. rather than recall them. Critics argue that many statemandated tests require students to recall obscure factual knowledge. school administrators must promote school cultures that reward achievement. tests must become more challenging in each successive grade. Elmore. CA: Corwin Press. School administrators need to supply the financial resources to fulfill this mandate. Third. Learning Places. This involves acquiring materials. all schools need an intervention and support system for students who lag behind in learning the curriculum. Fullan. teachers could teach children to identify what is significant. Lunenburg. after school. in preparing for tests. NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Schools need to provide additional help to students who lag behind in core subjects. when they are confident in their ability to change. during instruction. Lunenburg and Irby. changes in teaching and learning.78 To gain commitment of teachers and students to pursue school improvement efforts. 1999). Fred C. and assessment — that is. textbooks. on weekends. Yeh argues that to prepare students to think critically. Tests must tap both the breadth and depth of the content and skills in the standards. 30 (2001): 12–17. facilitating professional networks. Inc. is providing teachers with the training. teachers need access to curriculum guides. and support they need to help all students reach high standards. . Yeh. manipulating schedules or release time to create opportunities for teachers to learn. 75 72 Linda McNeil. Then there would be little incentive for teachers to drill students on factual knowledge. or specific training connected to state standards. or technology.74 Teachers must know how each student performed on every multiple-choice item and other questions on the state test. The Principalship: Concepts and Applications (Englewood Cliffs. Curriculum of School Reform: Educational Costs of Standardized Testing (New York: Routledge. in whole or in part. either in school. “Tests Worth Teaching To: Constructing State Mandated Tests That Emphasize Critical Thinking. In addition to professional development for teachers. when the standards are rich and rigorous. Test items could be created for a range of subjects and levels of difficulty. May not be copied. All Rights Reserved.Licensed to: iChapters User 14 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts the breadth and depth of each state’s standards. it is possible to design forcechoice items (multiple-choice test items) that test reasoning and critical thinking. or duplicated. 1995).76 Innovations frequently fail because the individuals who make them happen— classroom teachers — may not be committed to the effort or may not have the skills to grapple with the basic challenge being posed. Only then can teachers be prepared to help students achieve at high levels on state-mandated tests. information. and in the content of the test itself. The solid foundation of knowledge and skills developed in the early grades should evolve into more complex skills in the later grades. If one accepts the premise that tests drive curriculum and instruction. which limits the time teachers have available to focus on critical thinking skill. Second. Making Data-Driven Decisions How can school districts gauge their progress in achieving high state standards? Three factors can increase a school district’s 74 Fred C. it may be possible to rescue testing and instruction from the current focus on the recall of trivial factual knowledge. School Reform from the Inside Out. Stuart S. 76 77 78 73 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. They need access to lessons or teaching units that match state standards. scanned. They need training on using state test results to diagnose learning gaps. And training must be in the teachers’ subject areas. and the accountability provisions tied to them. through assignments. perhaps the easiest way to improve instruction and increase student achievement is to construct better tests. Teachers could model the critical thinking process in the classroom.75 Higher state standards usually mean changes in curriculum. Irby. The Principalship.72 However. High Expectations: An Action Plan for Implementing Goals 2000 (Thousand Oaks.” Educational Researcher. Specifically. 2000). instruction. Providing Support One of the biggest challenges in advancing state standards and tests. the tests must be as well. teaching tools. according to Yeh. and when they feel supported in attempting the change. Lunenburg and Beverly J. By aligning test content with worthwhile questions in core subject areas.
aligned with state standards. I did this by meeting individually with each person on the committee before I announced my decision to the board of education and the community. Previous Positions: Superintendent of Schools. Number One Achievement: In different ways. Illinois. St. will indicate what students have learned. the organization will benefit as a result of their combined efforts. 33 (2001): 305–312. HENRY S. Leadership Style: Ask tough questions during the process of resolving of an issue. Principal.e. New Trier Township High School District. Latest Degree and Affiliation: Ph. Develop a philosophy. public suburban high school education. adult to student. Number One Influence on Career: Certainly. May not be copied. develop a baseline philosophy and a set of principles around which you will build your management and leadership style. Give others credit where their work was critical in the successful completion of a project. close to the date when the committee report that was designed to create the self-contained program was scheduled to be made public.79 The primary factor is the availability of performance data connected to 79 Susan Sclafani. facilitating the work among the school board. New York. each student.. Favorite Education-Related Book or Text: Leadership Jazz by Max DePree. hopefully well before you become a superintendent. not having the opportunity to see several important initiatives come to fruition. these must embody respect for all individuals within the organization: student to student. As an educator who had spent my whole career in high school education. Example of How an Issue Could Have Been Handled Better: When I entered my fi rst superintendency. Learning the unique challenges which golf brings to the human spirit. my gut feeling was that it was unfair and inappropriate. Inc. I knew very little about this matter. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. In my opinion. or duplicated. student to adult. Support them in their job in a way that will allow them to flourish. Additional Interests: Spending time with my children as they grew up in the schools and communities which I served as superintendent. I learned early where the bar could be set for fi rst-rate.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 15 ■ Exemplary Educational Administrators in Action Professional Vision: Hire the best people you can fi nd as leaders and other staff members. Words of Advice: As early in your career as possible. staff. Illinois. “Using an Aligned System to Make Real Progress in Texas Students. The state standards should be clear enough to specify what each teacher should teach. broken down by specific objectives and target levels in the state standards. All Rights Reserved. Northwestern University. Educational Administration. However. students.” Education and Urban Society. Ultimately. a system in which the brightest students in the district would be educated in classes together. My predecessor. through caddying as a youngster and playing golf competitively during college and adulthood. Then schools across the district and across the state are able to connect what is taught to what is learned. Lake Forest High School — East Campus.. Illinois. trust your basic principles. And a state-mandated test. Superintendent of Schools. and act on them. Thus.D. in whole or in part. therefore. thus leaving behind those students who needed them as role models). it was the fi rst district in which I taught and served as an administrator. BANGSER Superintendent. New Trier was and is one of the finest high schools in the nation. I inherited a committee which had been formed to address the issue of a gifted program for the elementary grades. and parents in four school districts where expectations were and are extremely high. Charles Community Unit School District. had appointed twenty passionate advocates for a self-contained program (i. Take responsibility for the decisions that are made within the organization. scanned. Finally. . progress in meeting state standards. These are standards from which you will not vary. Number One Regret: Leaving my fi rst two superintendencies after four and three years. an interim superintendent. What I learned from this experience — and what I have told superintendent aspirants often — is that many more leadership errors are made by omission than commission. I allowed the committee to deliberate longer than I should have. Pelham Union Free School District. and adult to adult. respectively. I pulled the plug on it. community. Winnetka/Northfield.
This provides an impetus for low-performing schools to improve their performance. stable political environments. A resurgence of interest in Dewey and his concept of a democratic community as it relates to schooling has emerged in education in recent years. All Rights Reserved. community. economics. James Contant suggested that the basic tenets of American democracy should be taught in schools. history. it provides a blueprint of those areas where teachers should focus their individual education plans and where grade levels or schools should focus the school’s professional development plans. Wood expanded this theme by suggesting that democratic citizenship should be taught in schools. lateral working relationships. 7. or duplicated. The public nature of the data from the accountability system makes clear where schools are. 81 82 Dewey.83 More recently. at the turn of the twentieth century. and assist in the development and implementation of an improvement plan. and the arts. The School and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. the district should publish annually a matrix of schools and honor those schools that have performed at high levels. mathematics. The targeted schools learn how to align their program of professional development to the weaknesses identified by the data.82 At mid-twentieth century. curriculum specialists/instructional coaches. 1953). Assuming the state disaggregates its data by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. for example. it was not evident which schools needed help. care. skills of interpretation. The School and Society. liberty. The second factor is the public nature of the measurement system. in Dewey’s words. and state).84 Others concur. Internal school development is necessary from principals. The third factor is the specifically targeted assistance provided to schools that are performing at low levels. the new framework for school improvement that we have described here provides a powerful and useful model for achieving school success. performance of each subgroup of students on state-mandated tests makes the school community aware of which students are well served and which students are not well served by the school district’s curriculum and instruction. in whole or in part. including leadership from the superintendent and school board as well as leadership from the state. Julie Webber. and compromise. and resources outside the school. p. 104 (2002): 842–866. They learn how to develop an improvement plan to guide their activities and monitor the outcomes of the activities. all of which are designed to raise student performance levels. candid 80 John Dewey.80 For example. “Why Can’t We Be Dewey on Citizens?” Educational Theory. 83 84 George H. of “individualism and socialism” 81 — a place that could prepare people to live within and to maintain a healthy. 1992). debate. Much of the current work is grounded in Dewey’s ideas promulgated more than 100 years ago. teachers need access to longitudinal data on each student in their classroom. 1900). 103 (2001): 267–302. scanned. However. The fi rst step is to target the schools in need of help based on student performance data. science. 51 (2001): 178–189. school district. Before the advent of state accountability systems. James B. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. May not be copied. and equality. informality. but school improvement cannot occur unless each school is supported by a strong external infrastructure. teachers are able to develop individual and small-group education plans to ensure mastery of areas of weakness from previous years while also moving students forward in the state-mandated curriculum.” Teachers College Record. At the school and classroom levels. Wood. Democratic Community The concept of democratic community is not new. Contant. Carol Rogers.Licensed to: iChapters User 16 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts Also. Dewey’s vision was relatively uninfluential throughout much of the twentieth century. See. Schools That Work: America’s Most Innovative Public Education Programs (New York: Dutton. along with language. democratic society. teachers. discuss student performance data with the staff. Hargreaves suggests that the cultivation of “openness. With such data. These include traits such as commitment to community and a desire to participate. It also provides role models for other schools to emulate. Education and Liberty: The Role of the Schools in a Modern Democracy (New York: Vintage Books. “Defi ning Reflection: Another Look at John Dewey and Reflective Thinking. Each targeted school is paired with a team of principals. “John Dewey’s Conundrum: Can Democratic Schools Empower?” Teachers College Record. values such as justice. . In sum. and habits of study and reflection. and parents. and researchers to observe current practices. Assuming the school district has a system of rating schools. attentiveness. Aaron Schutz. Sustained districtwide school improvement is not possible without a strong connection across levels of organization (school. reciprocal collaboration. Inc. John Dewey argued that schools should embody the kind of community that combined the best aspects of classic liberalism and communitarianism or.
Linda J. “Leadership for Democratic Community in Schools. 88 87 86 85 tied to the idea of the nation-state and the American version of democracy. Carolyn M. professional community. Furman. learning community. and transnationalism. 2002). Shields. 105–133. And a number of publications have addressed the various meanings of community.89 National boundaries are permeated by regional and global alliances. All Rights Reserved. But the model requires some modifications in a contemporary. democratic community cannot be limited to such a narrow view of democracy in a world characterized by diversity. Furman and Starratt advocate the definition of community of difference as more compatible with contemporary postmodernism.86 Community is referred to as “professional community” among educators. and Steven L. 89 Katheryne Mitchell. Oberg. and the willingness to face uncertainty together” 85 is a central purpose of schooling. 2. “learning community” among students. Starratt. Furman and Starratt discuss the nature and character of democratic community and how it might be enacted in schools. According to Shields. and policies.91 The central tenets of democratic schools include the following: 1. “school–community” addressing school–community relations. Carolyn M.” Harvard Educational Review. pp. “Thinking about Community from a Student Perspective. “Leadership for Democratic Community in Schools. laid much of the groundwork for the concept of democratic community. Its most common meaning is usually Andy Hargreaves. Children should be educated within an increasingly global context. “Students’ Need for Belonging in the School Community. Calderwood. “A Dialogue about Race and Ethnicity in Education: Struggling to Understand Issues in Cross-Cultural Leadership. beliefs. 90 Furman and Starratt. Furman (ed. and values. And Furman and Starratt’s model places democratic community in a context of postmodernism.” Furman and Starratt. Larocque. problems. and community of difference. 22. in whole or in part. “a community of difference begins. Multiculturalism.” 91 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Osterman.” 88 Educational leaders who want to move toward a community of difference will be informed by research on race and ethnicity. “Rethinking Educational Change: Going Deeper and Wider in the Quest for Success. 2003). fragmentation. Democratic community involves the use of critical reflection and analysis to evaluate ideas. interdependence. 71 (2001): 51–78. Inc. Gail C. “Leadership for Democratic Community in Schools. and the Limits of Liberalism.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 17 and vibrant dialogue. .” Review of Educational Research. Democratic community is based on the open flow of ideas that enables people to be as fully informed as possible. democracy is subject to many interpretations in education. Shields. The Educational Leadership Challenge: Redefi ning Leadership for the 21st Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. and the American version of democracy. Similarly.” Journal of School Leadership. postmodern context of diversity.” in J. 1997). 2003). Critiques concerning the meaning of democracy in our time have proliferated over the last two decades. In their view and ours. 2000). Patricia E. Hargreaves (ed. p.). Murphy (ed. collective choices. Democratic community places responsibility on individuals to participate in open inquiry. and globalization. and “community of difference” in multicultural settings. and actions in the interest of the common good. and globalization. fragmentation. not merely the production of employable workers. According to Mitchell. 70 (2001): 323–367. Rethinking Educational Change with Heart and Mind (Alexandria. Some common themes are beginning to emerge regarding the concept of democratic community derived from Dewey’s progressivism and its more contemporary. School as Community: From Promise to Practice (Albany: State University of New York Press. or duplicated. and understanding. 12 (2002): 132. Gail C. Furman and Robert J. Karen F. not with an assumption of shared norms. School as Community: From Promise to Practice (Albany: State University of New York Press. May not be copied.). characterized by inclusiveness.90 They extend the emerging work on democratic community through a deeper analysis of the linkages between democratic community and leadership in schools. along with Dewey’s progressivism. Our version of democratic community resembles more the ideas promulgated by Gail Furman and Robert Starratt. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. community is described in multiple ways in the education literature.). Learning Community: Finding Common Ground in Difference (New York: Teachers College Press. scanned.87 Thinking about a community of difference requires a reconceptualization of the concept of community itself. school–community. dialogue. For example. moving away from homogeneity toward a new center in which diverse groups negotiate a commitment to the common good. 3.” in A. but with the need for respect. “Education for Democratic Citizenship: Transnationalism. postmodern interpretations.” in G.
The programs emphasize family and community support processes. They provide the school’s faculty with strategies for increasing parent involvement. can increase parent and community involvement even among families traditionally considered hard to reach. (eds. NJ: Rutgers University. Rallying the Whole Village (New York: Teachers College Press. minority. The reauthorization of Title I mandated that school-level family involvement policies include parent-school agreements designed to clarify the goals. expectations. This research has been supplemented by studies that have shown that well-planned activities. Democratic community is based on the acceptance and celebration of difference. 96 Linked to Goals 2000 was the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) of 1994. and shared responsibilities of schools and parents as partners in students’ education. family. and responsible citizens in a democratic society. recently. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. One Million Children: Success for All (Mahwah. Democratic community involves acting for others as well as with others in the interest of the common good.ed. Creating democratic community in schools involves systematic attention to structure. especially poor and minority students. Such agreements were intended to be helpful frameworks for discussions between schools and parents about how to encourage better student performance in school. higher rates of homework completion. 102 (www . May not be copied. Madden (eds. and single-parent families. scanned. All Rights Reserved.). integrat92 ing social and health services. 6. Family and Community Involvement Schools alone cannot adequately provide children and youth with the necessary resources and support they need to become successful students.gov/legislation/GOALS2000/TheAct/). Educating At-Risk Students (Chicago: Univeristy of Chicago Press. (New Brunswick. productive workers. improving classroom management. including low-income. 2001).). curriculum. Sec.Licensed to: iChapters User 18 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts 4. for example. and Comer’s School Development Program have been shown to result in student success in school. emotional. 1987).98 Mavis G. in whole or in part. Henry M. School Power: Implications for an Intervention Project (New York: Free Press. 5. better attendance and behavior in school. Epstein. Levin’s Accelerated Schools.). identified eight national goals for public schools. Epstein. The Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994. preventing behavior problems. and better achievement in academic subjects. NJ: Erlbaum. 1996). CO: Westview Press. “Involving Families and Communities in Educating Children and Youth. Center for Policy Research in Education. and Community Partnerships: Preparing Educators and Improving Schools (Boulder. “Title V: Promoting Informed Parental Choice and Innovative Programs” of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 contains numerous provisions for school. this reauthorization strengthened the family involvement component of Title I. which seeks to improve the educational opportunities for and outcomes of poor children. pp.97 National and State Education Policies Research on the benefits of family and community involvement has had a positive effect on national policies during the past decade. School. 93 Joyce L. raising attendance rates. The programs structure the school in ways that fundamentally change the notion of school as merely an academic institution. such as Epsein’s parent involvement strategies. Family and community involvement in schools is viewed as so critical for the success of students. including positive attitudes toward school.94 Robert Slavin’s Success for All schools. Family. . Slavin’s Success for All schools. Glenda L. Stringfield and D. 94 95 Robert E. Allen-Jones.” in S. 1980). Levin. and the larger global community.95 and James Comer’s School Development Program96 are grounded in developing inclusive and democratic connections with families and communities. that many reform programs include a family and community involvement component in their school improvement strategies. Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994. a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. And. Land (eds. 97 98 James Comer. and community involvement in students’ learning. Among other things. Goal 8 states: Every school will promote partnerships that will increase parental involvement and participation in promoting the social. Slavin and Nancy A. 2001). Sanders. and Community Partnerships. and instruction. and solving other nonacademic problems. or duplicated.93 Henry Levin’s Accelerated Schools. Accelerated Schools for At-Risk Students (CPRHE Research Report RR-010).92 Epstein’s parent involvement strategies. and focuses on the integral linkages between the school. and Yolanda Abel. School. and academic growth of children. 2002). Family. the surrounding community. process. James Comer et al. 171–188. Inc.
little is learned in the long term. The Paideia Proposal: An Educational Manifesto (New York: Macmillan. when properly learned. All Rights Reserved. p. According to Principle 10. evaluates. analyzes. parents. And because students only rarely process content deeply when they play the role of passive listeners in lecture-centered instruction. Currently. scanned. Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium: Standards for School Leaders (Washington. Interstate School Offi cers. 2003). and community agencies to support students’ learning. 101 100 In 1992. the consortium adopted ISLLC Standards for School Leaders. Curriculum and Instruction A resurgence of inter- est in democratic community in recent years has implications for schools and schooling. Horace’s School: Redesigning the American High School (Boston: Houghton Miffl in. May not be copied. teachers are expected to foster relationships with school colleagues. Horace’s Compromise: The Dilemma of the American High School (Boston: Houghton Miffl in. 1996). Created in 1994. . synthesizes. Hence. 16. particularly as it relates to curriculum and instruction. Key educational reform groups. Furthermore. and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). existing in textbooks only to be regenerated in the minds of students. CA: Center for Critical Thinking. Horace’s Hope (Boston: Houghton Miffl in. responding to diverse community interests and needs. thirty-eight states have either adopted or adapted the ISLLC Standards and are in different stages of implementing the standards in reforming educational leadership within their state. 1992). Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. 1984). ISLLC is a consortium of thirty-two education agencies and thirteen educational administration associations that have established an education policy framework for school leadership. abandoning any attempt to grasp the logic of what they are committing to memory. the enactment of democratic community in schools would require changes in curriculum and instruction. and mobilizing community resources. Standard 4 of the six standards states: A school administrator is an educational leader who promotes the success of all students by collaborating with families and community members. But to understand its implications. Those who teach critically emphasize that only those who can think through content truly learn it. in whole or in part.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 19 States have developed standards to encourage greater family and community involvement in schools.101 More specifically. Inc. The problem with didactic teaching is that content is inadvertently treated as static. The Center for Critical Thinking provides an excellent treatise on critical thinking applied to instruction. In 1996. is to understand its implications.99 Schools (CES)100 and Mortimer Adler’s Paideia Proposal (PP). or duplicated. 1982). as virtually dead. we recognize that content cannot in principle ever be “completed” because thinking is never completed. one must understand that those implications in turn have further implications. 1997). DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Critical Thinking Theodore R. Sizer. have developed standards pertaining to parent and community involvement in schools. and transforms it. To understand content. INTASC (a consortium of state education agencies. because students are taught content in a way that renders them unlikely to think it through. two powerful strategies that are grounded in the tenets of democratic community and found in Sizer’s CES and Adler’s PP are critical thinking and constructivism. modes of thinking driven by questions. higher education institutions. family. Critical teaching views content as something alive only in minds. Critical Thinking and the Redesign of Instruction (Santa Rosa. they retreat into rote memorization. Content is treated as something to be mimicked. organizes. and community partnerships to support students’ learning. The NCATE emphasized in its standard for content knowledge that teacher candidates should understand principles and strategies for school. therefore.102 Critical thinking shifts classroom design from a model that largely ignores thinking to one that renders it pervasive and necessary. Adler. and hence must be thoughtfully explored. to be parroted. To be sure. such as the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). These modifications would be compatible with some components found in Theodore Sizer’s Coalition of Essential 99 Council of Chief State School Officers. the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC). Mortimer J. transforms the way they think. Content “dies” when one tries to learn it mechanically. 102 Center for Critical Thinking. and national education organizations) developed ten principles that all teachers should master. Once we understand content as inseparable from the thinking that generates. Content has to take root in the thinking of students and.
They study literature and begin to notice the way in which all humans tend to define their lives in the stories they tell. Each learner has a repertoire of conceptions and skills with which she or he must construct knowledge to solve problems presented by the environment. understandings. modeling behavior. As a result of being taught to think critically. Inc. world visits. 103 Jean Piaget. and video. In constructivist theory. which assert that “people are not recorders of information. pursue relevant information. the World Wide Web (WWW) is important to instructional design. and think empathetically within different points of view. which bring to life world events. students are ultimately responsible for their own learning within a learning atmosphere in which teachers value student thinking. and facilitate authentic assessment of student understanding. They study economics and begin to notice how much of their behavior is intertwined with economic forces and needs. Their thinking. In this cooperative learning setting. Jean Piaget proposed that children make sense in ways very different from adults. Furthermore. provide opportunities for students to be exposed to interdisciplinary curriculum. define contexts and purposes. Because students lack the experience of experts in the field. students study biology and become biological thinkers. so internalized. now driven by a set of new questions. pose the challenges. I (New York: Wiley. 1970). . and up-to-date weather maps. These values are operant and alive in the classroom through such applications as graphics.104 Thus. generate good reasons. Constructivism emphasizes the processes by which children create and develop their ideas. and taboos of the groups in which they participate. they take possession of a new mode of thinking that. Geography texts are internalized as geographical thinking. Vol. a stimulus to historical thinking. and providing examples that will transform student group discussions into meaningful communication about subject matter. initiate lessons that foster cooperative learning. more than thirty years ago. Mathematical content is transformed into mathematical thinking. For example. the delivery of multimedia. The role of the teacher and other learners is to provide the setting. but builders of knowledge structures.” in P. They study sociology and begin to notice the permissions. in whole or in part. scanned. teachers bear a great responsibility for guiding student activity. in the minds of students thinking critically. they share the process of constructing their ideas with others. injunctions. analyze key concepts. The WWW enables learners and teachers in each area by providing information for good reasoners to figure things out. and beliefs. it can also be used for lowerlevel drill and practice. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. it contains three keys to educational value: hypertext. such as problem solving and increased learner control. when children collaborate in cooperative learning groups. Applications lie in creating curricula that not only match but also challenge children’s understanding. trace important implications. indeed almost an unlimited number. and offer the support that will encourage cognitive construction.Licensed to: iChapters User 20 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts when students study a subject in a critical way. generates new thoughts. Critical Thinking and the Redesign of Instruction. or duplicated. trying to manipulate their environment. and that they learn through the process of trying to make things happen. Theories such as these. There are ways. The WWW becomes a necessary tool for student-centered discovery and research. rather than simply absorbing ideas spoken to them by teachers. it is assumed that learners have to construct their own knowledge — individually and collectively. History texts become. students need to learn how to ask questions precisely. Critical thinking may be a key organizing concept for curriculum reform and for improving teaching and learning. children view their peers as resources rather 104 Center for Critical Thinking. When considering technology for this stimulation. the children’s cooperative classroom becomes the world. recognize questionable assumptions. Mussen (ed. Of course. pp. audio. fostering further growth and development of the mind. All Rights Reserved. 703–732. One foundational premise of constructivism is that children actively construct their knowledge. This collective effort provides the opportunity for children to reflect on and elaborate not only their own ideas but also those of their peers.103 Constructivism Constructivism may be the most sig- nificant recent trend in education relative to the dynamic relationship between how teachers teach and how children learn.” have been grouped under the heading of constructivism. and true interactivity. museum tours.). becomes an instrument of insight and a new point of view. derive sound inferences. Through these WWW mechanisms. Carmichael’s Manual of Child Psychology. With improvement of and access to the WWW. library visits. May not be copied. At every level and in all subjects. a constructivist instructional model advances higher-level instruction. “Piaget’s Theory. to stimulate critical thinking at every educational level and in every teaching setting. structure learning around primary concepts.
hypotheses.S. and models. political. All Rights Reserved. 1996). in Sizer’s Coalition of Essential Schools and Adler’s Paideia Proposal. 4 (2001): 237–260. many students do not. which are critical for entry into many of the more competitive colleges. investigations. economic. or duplicated. VA: Author. 1989). compared with the overall student population. which calls for science education reform based on experimentation and learner-generated inquiry. Koschoreck. James J. and James W. Differential levels of success in school distributed along race and social-class lines continues to be the most pernicious and prevailing dilemma of schooling. and computers are few and obsolete. and dialogue. 107 to question whether they have an obligation to create a nation whose words are supported by the experiences of its citizens. Scheurich. Tracking systems block minority students’ access to the more rigorous and challenging classes. powerful and powerless. These processes have resulted in substantial advances in student learning. . a nation in which every citizen is to be treated equally in social. Joseph F. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. particularly the open flow of ideas.106 The National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment similarly issued National Science Education Standards. Furthermore.” The mandate that people receive equal protection extends to equal educational opportunity.105 Constructivism is serving as the basis for many of the current reforms in several subject matter disciplines.S. critical thinking and constructivism are compatible with the principles of democratic community. Although it has been a stated goal in the United States that all youngsters. The United States prides itself on being a fair and just democracy. DC: National Academy Press. and educational institutions continue to exist in American society. These schools generally offer few (if any) Advanced Placement courses. which calls for mathematics classrooms where problem solving. In Search of Understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms (Baltimore: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. inequities in the major social. which retain these students in non-college-bound destinations. Inequities in schooling are among the social injustices with which educational leaders need to be most concerned.108 Many children of color find themselves marginalized in toxic schools that offer inferior education. According to its Constitution. regardless of family background. should benefit from their education. 106 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. While this fundamental affi rmation of equal opportunity has been part of American discourse since the inception of this nation and is found in the Declaration of Independence and other documents. Now in the first decade of the twenty-first century. economic. Linda Skrla. and educational arenas. Many of the teachers do not have credentials in the subjects they teach. there is considerable empirical evidence that children of color experience negative and inequitable treatment in typical public schools. educational leaders must continue 105 Jacqueline Grennon Brooks and Martin G.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 21 than as competitors. Furthermore. National Science Education Standards (Washington. African American students are overrepresented in special education programs. concept development. Inc. The U. These schools affect the opportunities and experiences of students of color in several immediate ways: They tend to have limited resources. Most schools do not teach all students at the same academic level. “Accountability for Equity: Can State Policy Leverage Social Justice?” International Journal of Leadership in Education.” In spite of these goals. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics published Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. the United States seeks to establish “liberty and justice for all. Constitution addressed the question of equal opportunity. May not be copied. Brooks. in whole or in part. U. 2003). Social Justice A concern for social justice is at the core of democracy. educational system to this day is beset with inequities that exacerbate racial and class-based challenges. Johnson. political. textbooks and curricula are outdated. and the construction of learner-generated solutions and algorithms are stressed rather than drill and practice on correct procedures and facts to get the “right” answer. educated and illiterate. A feeling of teamwork ensues. Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (Reston. Interdisciplinary curricula is the theme of social studies reform being advocated by the National Council of Social Studies. society is composed of many inequities: rich and poor.S. In sum. declaring that “no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. The Fourteenth Amendment to the U. critical reflection and analysis to evaluate ideas. scanned. More than a third of African 108 National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment.107 The National Council of Teachers of English has called for emergent literacy as an important thrust in language arts reform.
112 Harold Hodgkinson. National Center for Education Statistics. 2001).S. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2000–2001 (Washington.S. 111 110 Skrla. McLean Donaldson. policies and procedures. . In 1990. the teaching force remains predominantly white. and Complexity. Nevertheless. the persistent and disproportionate academic underachievement of children of color and their injurious treatment in our schools. more than 98 million Americans. 117 116 113 Karen B. and achievement of children of color continues to lag significantly behind their white counterparts. every day more than 17 million African American.1 million were Asian or Pacific Islanders.S. described the inferior education received by minority students (particularly African Americans and Hispanic Americans) — fewer resources. interethnic and intraethnic hostility. Native American. 2000). tracking systems. Demographic projections indicate that the nation’s population will grow to 294 million by the year 2020. and institutional racism have devastating effects on students and society at large. four-fifths of the white students (as compared with two-thirds of the African American students) in special education are much more likely to be labeled “learning disabled” or “speech impaired. School Enrollment (Washington. At that time. one-third of the nation. Shattering the Denial: Protocols for the Classroom and Beyond (Westport. and structures of schooling. The disproportionate academic underachievement by children of color has been the driving force behind the current accountability policy in the United States.3 million were Hispanic American. Racial prejudice. All Rights Reserved. 51 (2001): 432–449. Demographics of Education: Kindergarten through Graduate School (Washington.” African American males are more than twice as likely as white males to be suspended or expelled from school or to receive corporal punishment.7 million people. “Thinking Through a Pedagogy of Whiteness. individual bigotry. DC: Institute for Educational Leadership. practices. United States Department of Commerce.” Educational Theory. 115 Jonathan Kozol. The student population grows increasingly diverse.117 114 Carola Suárez-Orozco and Marcelo M. Native American. 2004). racial prejudice. an increase of 32.113 African American. the targets of racism in our schools 109 and in society are people of color through both institutional and individual racism. 1991).4 million in 2000. inadequate facilities. in whole or in part.S. segregated schools. Children of Immigration (Cambridge. or duplicated.114 Demographic trends indicate that growth in the nation’s minority population will have significant implications for public schools. and 2. white racism. DC: Author. Hispanic American. a shift in U. low expectations. and Koschoreck. Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools (New York: Crown.” Educational Researcher. CT: Greenwood. and Asian American children experience the effects of systemic racism in U. “Accountability. Johnson.S. 8 million were African American. students of color are the fastest-growing segment of the school population and have been the least well served by the schools. MA: Harvard University Press. U. the total population of the United States was 248.115 A significant proportion of individuals making up this increase are people of color. Hispanic American. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. scanned. 30 (2001): 15–21. it is institutional racism that is systemically embedded in assumptions.112 Systemic Racism in Schools Racism in the United States includes a broad spectrum (individual. Equity. 2000).116 Moreover. However.109 Jonathan Kozol. inequities in funding. “Accountability for Equity: Can State Policy Leverage Social Justice?” Linda Skrla. Census Bureau. May not be copied. and mixed racial categories all play a part within these subtle racist systems. European American. and hostile learning environments. will be nonwhite. 7.110 These related inequities.” Conversely. 38 million were white. Inc. Suárez-Orozco.7 million and increased to 281. public schools. Census Bureau. and cultural racism to name a few). DC: U. Scheurich. are compelling evidence that the United States public education system remains systemically racist. institutional. in Savage Inequalities. The U. However. demographics would seem to exacerbate the problem of achieving educational equity and its attendant impact on social justice.Licensed to: iChapters User 22 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts American students (as compared with fewer than a fi fth of white students) in special education are labeled with the more stigmatizing labels of “mentally retarded” and “emotionally disturbed. Asian American. Census in 2000 reported that of the nation’s 49 million elementary and secondary school students. Kathy Hytten and Amee Adkins. Experts project that the percentage of students of color in elementary and secondary schools will increase steadily during the coming decades from 30 percent in 1990 to 36 percent in 2000 and will reach 50 percent of the public school population in the twenty-five major cities in the United States. 2001).111 This is not to suggest that racism is consciously intended or even recognized by educators.
3 percent is African American. schools at all grade levels: (1) hostile and insensitive acts. These behaviors defi ne a pattern of diminished expectations for at-risk students’ ability to learn. and perhaps a lower regard for their personal worth as learners.” Journal of School Leadership. as a result of racist treatment.122 These subtle forms of racism that exist in schools threaten the academic success of students of color. For example. what some theorists refer to as deficit thinking. (9) seat at-risk students farther away from the teacher. Karen B. denial of racist actions and attitudes. and (17) evidence less acceptance and use of ideas given by at-risk students.0 percent is classified as “other. and ESL in the Secondary School (New York: Teachers College Press.123 Thomas Good reviewed the research on teachers’ differential treatment of high-achieving students and at-risk students. She cites how teacher preparation programs rarely train teacher candidates in strategies for teaching culturally diverse students. Valencia. and communication patterns translates into teachers holding negative expectations for students. nor do they comprehend the ways in which they are perpetuating white racism in their schools. are present in schools at all levels and adversely affect students’ success in school. (3) reward inappropriate behavior or incorrect answers by at-risk students. or ask them only easier. (4) bias in the selection of curriculum materials. 2000–2001 (Washington. (3) inequalities in the amount of teacher attention given to students. and guilt and embarrassment at seeing other students victimized. (7) failure to hire educators and other personnel of color. and assessments are used with these students. 119 Michelle Young and Julie Laible. in whole or in part. For example. 10 (2000): 374–415. (4) criticize at-risk students more often for failure. or duplicated.119 Short further summarizes the consequences of this mismatch between white middle-class teachers and students of color. The Evolution of Defi cit Thinking: Educational Thought and Practice (London: Falmer. learning styles. and hiring practices. and School Leadership Preparation. 118 National Education Association. Despite the changing racial makeup of public school students in the United States. According to Good. instructional materials. The lack of familiarity with their students’ cultures. (12) grade tests or assignments in a differential manner. Through Students’ Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools (London: Praeger. (7) pay less attention to at-risk students or interact with them less frequently. (2) give at-risk students the answer or call on someone else rather than try to improve their responses by giving clues or using other teaching techniques. (6) fail to give feedback to the public responses of at-risk students. “Targets of Racism. 1996). nonanalytical questions. M.7 percent of the teaching force is white.121 Murray and Clark found eight forms of racism operating in U. so that high-achieving but not at-risk students are given the benefit of the doubt in borderline cases. Bilingualism. scanned.120 And often. J. (2) bias in the use of harsh sanctions.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 23 In general.” in C. DC: Author. 87. Carolyn Murray and Reginald Clark. similar demographic shifts have not occurred in the teaching ranks. (15) provide less eye contact and other nonverbal communication of attention and responsiveness when interacting with at-risk students. (16) make less use of effective but time-consuming instructional methods with at-risk students when time is limited. 1997). 177 (1990): 22–24. inappropriate curricula. 122 121 120 policies. Short. academic achievement is highly correlated with race and social class. Inc. “Integrating Language and Content for Effective Sheltered Instruction Programs. and biased education. Donaldson. . students felt low self-esteem. 123 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.” 118 This often results in considerable cultural and social distance between middle-class white teachers and students of color. (5) inequalities in the amount of instructional time provided. So Much to Say: Adolescents.S. Donna J. The teaching practices are as follows: (1) wait less time for at-risk students to answer questions. causing diminished interest in school. Wolfe (eds. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied. Donaldson found that racist treatments affect the learning and development of students of color.). Young and Laible suggest that white educators and educational leaders do not have a thorough enough understanding of racism in its many manifestations. (5) praise at-risk students less frequently than high-achieving students for success.” American School Board Journal. (8) call on at-risk students less often to respond to questions. Antiracism. Richard R. (11) interact with at-risk students more privately than publicly and monitor and structure their activities more closely. and (8) denial of racist actions. 2004). a perceived need to overachieve academically. 1999). He identified seventeen teaching behaviors that are used with different frequencies with the two groups of students. Status of the American Public School Teacher. (13) have less friendly interaction with at-risk students including less smiling and less warm or more anxious voice tones. (14) provide briefer and less informative feedback to the questions of at-risk students. Faltis and P. (6) biased attitudes toward students. 9. “White Racism. (10) demand less from at-risk students. and 3. The study confi rmed that.
38 (1987): 32–47. a reau128 125 Education Trust. access. Gordon.” 125 Darling-Hammond confi rmed this data. Good. The application of these four principles of social justice to education would mean that more resources should be allocated to improve circumstances of those historically least served by the system rather than treating all individuals equally. but also to actively redress inequality of opportunity in education. that is. scanned. A Theory of Justice (London: Oxford University Press. and outcomes for children from oppressed groups. “The Special Education Paradox: Equity as a Way to Excellence. self-respect. Rawls argues that all education stakeholders are obligated not only to safeguard individuals’ rights. Doing What Matters Most: Investing in Quality Teaching (New York: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. Thomas M. or duplicated. Education Watch: The 2001 Education Trust State and National Data Book (Washington. 1971). Rather. excellence and equity for all children. Being poor. And teachers are the most important educational resource available to students. would mean equal treatment. CO: Love. May not be copied. opportunities. “Two Decades of Research on Teacher Expectations: Findings and Future Directions. DC: Author. being of color. “We take students who have less to begin with and give them less in school too. liberties. It would mean closing the achievement gap between children from low-income communities and communities of color and their mainstream peers so they are successful in school so that school success would be equitable across such differences as race and socioeconomic status. XII. Social justice in schooling. Low status ethnic-minority groups continue to be overrepresented in the low achievement groups in our schools and are correspondingly underrepresented in high academic achievement groups. The notion of social justice suggests that treating all people equally may be inherently unequal. whereas high-achieving students are likely to come from advantaged home backgrounds.127 The fi rst is based on equality of treatment of all members of society (equal rights and liberties). The fourth involves giving the greatest social and economic benefits to those least advantaged. Failure to do so will hamper specific groups from attaining the fundamental. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. the lack of resources put into the education of some students and the inequitable treatment of children of color and low-income children are the major causes of difference and social injustice. 130 127 Edmund W. the differential teaching behaviors found by Good suggest a pattern of discrimination based on students’ race and social class as well as their achievement level. 199. The third involves giving everyone a fair chance (equal opportunity). Behind Special Education: A Critical Analysis of Professional Culture and School Organization (Denver. Education and Justice: A View from the Back of the Bus (New York: Teachers College Press.” 129 Gordon linked social justice to excellence and equity by arguing: The failure to achieve universally effective education in our society is known to be a correlate of our failure to achieve social justice. p. Rawls argues that social justice is defi ned by four principles. then. income. social justice is linked to redressing institutionalized inequality and systemic racism. power. The Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994. By almost any measure. 129 Thomas M. being an inner-city resident do not cause differences in educational achievement. and an understanding that schooling is not democratic “unless its practices are excellent and equitable. Excellence and Equity Educational leadership for so- cial justice is founded on the belief that schooling must be democratic. in whole or in part. and from ethnic-majority or from some ethnic-minority group families. the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) of 1994. We must achieve equal educational results for all children.” 128 Skrtic asserts that educational equity “is a precondition for excellence.130 Thomas L. This notion posits that educational leaders are obligated to examine the circumstances in which children of color and poverty 124 are educated. and wealth. Skrtic. making explicit reference to teachers in the schools.” Harvard Educational Review. All Rights Reserved. Education policy in the United States is dominated by accountability concerns. Therefore.124 A recent Education Trust document concluded. 1991). there continue to be serious differences between the level and quality of educational achievement for children coming from rich or from poor families. The second is based on all people being regarded as individuals. 1999).” Journal of Teacher Education. p. Inc. It would mean working toward such a vision of social justice in school by engaging the powerful force of accountability policy. Education is a social institution. 1997).126 In its simplest form.Licensed to: iChapters User 24 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts which means that at-risk students are more likely to come from disadvantaged home backgrounds. Public education issues are a top priority of national and state political agendas. . 126 Linda Darling-Hammond. 2002). 61 (1991): 181. primary goods and services distributed by society — rights. controlling access to important opportunities and resources. Skrtic. James Rawls.
“Accountability for Equity: Can State Policy Leverage Social Justice?” 133 Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Transformation Leadership (Mahwah. 17 (1999): 24.” 132 Within the past ten years a few examples of sustained districtwide academic success of children have begun to emerge in the research literature. There are numerous reports that demonstrate that it is possible to fi nd effective public schools where administrators. and the educational community have begun to look at state accountability systems to realize the vision that “equity and excellence need not be mutually exclusive goals. and they focused more energy and resources on content-specific professional development. New York. Learning Places.135 Leaders who reject deficit thinking about students and their parents engage in what many theorists call capacity building. they built 131 132 district accountability systems that complemented their own state’s system. Incentive structures in these districts focused on the performance of all students. And there is little research on organizational design and practice in exceptionally high-performing school districts. North Carolina. and Oberg.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 25 thorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Larocque. But these successes occur in only a small number of schools. Valencia. These examples have appeared in states that have highly developed. but the knowledge base on which to offer advice to school districts and administrators on the design of sustained districtwide improvement processes is limited. Government officials. In his examination of the concept of transformational leadership. and outcomes for all children. . and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 call for equal treatment. “A Dialogue about Race and Ethnicity in Education: Struggling to Understand Issues in Cross-Cultural Leadership. classify those require134 135 136 137 Elmore.136 DarlingHammond underscores the fundamental importance of capacity-building skills on the part of educators when she states that the capacity to “achieve associations beyond those of any narrow group — to live and learn heterogeneously together” 137 undergirds our ability to live in a diverse democratic society. School Reform from the Inside Out. academic scholars. Darling-Hammond. and Texas. A few deserve brief mention here for their contributions to the post–behavioral science era.131 The available documentation does point to some common themes that high-performing school districts possess. helping people to acquire skills and dispositions to learn new ways of thinking and acting. “Setting the Bar: How High?” Education Week. we mention briefly here attempts by some scholars to expand the traditional knowledge domains that define educational leadership. There is evidence from these states and others that their accountability systems driven by state policy initiatives have improved student performance for all students (as measured by state achievement tests. transactional leaders determine what subordinates need to do to achieve their own and organizational goals.139 According to Bass. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Superintendents realigned district offices in these school districts to focus on direct relationships with schools around instructional issues. and ACT and SAT tests. Richard R. Elmore. Bernard Bass contrasts two types of leadership behavior: transactional and transformational. teachers. stable accountability systems. not just on average school performance. such as Connecticut. along with a much greater willingness to exercise tighter controls over evidence of performance. We still cannot account for the fact that some students master academic content and many others do not. Scheurich. scanned.133 Preliminary research in some of these districts found evidence of common strategic elements in the way these districts managed themselves. In addition. Superintendents in high-performing districts exhibited a much greater clarity of purpose. May not be copied. access.134 The success of these school districts confirms the fi ndings of Valencia that it is critically important for school leaders to reject assumptions of deficit thinking. and they forged strong relationships with their school boards around improvement goals. in whole or in part. In addition. or duplicated.. All Rights Reserved. Kentucky. School Reform from the Inside Out. Advanced Placement (AP) exams. there is evidence of narrowing of the achievement gap between the performance of children of color and lowincome children and that of their white and more economically advantaged counterparts. 2005). Doing What Matters Most. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Debra Viadero. Shields.138 Leadership in Schools We will examine several leadership frameworks in Chapter 5. business leaders. Bass et al. and parents collaborate to produce high achievement for all students. 139 138 Skrla.” Bernard M. Johnson. Fullan. Inc. and Koschoreck. The Evolution of Defi cit Thinking. They created a climate in which teachers and principals were collectively responsible for student learning and in which the improvement of instruction was the central task. They used data on student performance to focus attention on problems and successes.
Transformational leaders. Richard Bates. Four factors are key to the relational and interactive nature of the theory.” Journal of Educational Administration. Six aspects par140 Kenneth Leithwood. or by expanding their portfolio of needs. Michael Dantley. Linda Skrla. Development of Administrative Thought We have attempted to place the development of administrative thought into a loose historical framework. Henry Giroux. beliefs. and reward them according to their accomplishments.Licensed to: iChapters User 26 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts ments. modeling best practices and important educational values. Gail Furman. four models emerge: classical organizational theory. and class by scholars such as Carol Gilligan. Greenfield. Reframing Organizations: Artistry. Joseph F. May not be copied.140 Peter Senge provides important insight into how educators can transform schools into “learning organizations” that renew themselves. Lisa Delpit. or larger polity. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. including leadership behavior. and Diane Trautman. One of the most comprehensive models of transformational leadership in schools has been provided by Leithwood. They accomplish this in three ways: by raising followers’ levels of consciousness about the importance and value of designated outcomes and ways of reaching them. 35 (1994): 498–518. 1988). Inc. universities. motivate their subordinates to do more than they originally expected to do. service organizations. and elementary and secondary schools. Genevieve Brown. organizational structure. The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization (New York: Doubleday. Lynn Beck. Kofi Lomotey. Spencer Maxcy. in contrast. Michelle Young.144 Subjectivist and interpretivist approaches to the study of educational administration (variously labeled neo-Marxist/critical theory and post-modernism) emerged in the late 1970s and have continued to the present. W. Diana Pounder. “Leadership for School Restructuring. providing intellectual stimulation. scanned. Edwards Deming. William Foster. Johnson. Out of the Crisis (Cambridge. 3rd ed. Choice. the theory uses four factors. In general. offering individualized support. nontraditional perspectives have spawned scholarship on ethics and values by researchers such as Christopher Hodgkinson. Sonia Nieto. Cryss Brunner. Cornel West. Cynthia Dillard. Genevieve Brown. and the post–behavioral science ap144 Beverly J. Marilyn Tallerico. JoAnn Duffy. in whole or in part. Bolman and Deal. MA: MIT Press. All Rights Reserved. Flora Ida Ortiz.141 A number of observers have suggested that the increasing complexity of modern organizations puts a greater premium on leaders’ possession of a repertoire of styles and strategies. gender. such as self-actualization. creating a productive school culture. Colleen Larson.” Educational Administration Quarterly. 143 142 141 W. organization. help subordinates become confident that they can reach their goals by expending the necessary efforts. or duplicated. the theory has been validated qualitatively and quantitatively nationwide and is currently being validated internationally. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. establishing school goals. 40 (2002): 304–322. demonstrating high performance expectations. Bolman and Terrence E. Charol Shakeshaft. and Jerry Starratt. the behavioral science approach. and values to demonstrate aspects not only of leadership but its effects on various institutions and positions. Colleen Capper. Norma Mertz. Joan Shapiro. B. Jackie Stefkovich. James Scheurich. Lee G. and Gretchen Rossman. argue that the ability to reframe — to reconceptualize the same situation using multiple perspectives — is a central capacity for leaders of the twenty-fi rst century. These alternative. Peter Senge. and attitudes. 2003). and by raising followers’ need levels to the higher-order needs. external forces. and developing structures to foster participation in school decisions. and Paulo Freire. Barbara Jackson. Catherine Marshall. Deal. which provides a useful framework for building and understanding the interdependent relationships. In a tetrahedron model. Fenwick English. Beverly Irby. Margaret Grogan. Patti Lather. by getting followers to transcend their own self-interest for the sake of the team. and Leadership. Edwards Deming’s Total Quality Management (TQM) principles are revitalizing businesses.143 Irby and her colleagues have developed a new theory of leadership sensitive to the feminine perspective called the synergistic leadership theory.142 for example. Developed through a qualitative approach. and critical theory and postmodernism by analysts such as T. Irby. The model conceptualizes transformational leadership along eight dimensions: building school vision. “The Synergistic Leadership Theory. 1990. race/ethnicity. . 2006). Gary Anderson. ticular to the synergistic leadership theory influence the ideas and include issues concerning diversity and the inclusion of the female voice in the theory. Peter McLaren. the human relations approach. The scholars in this tradition have attempted to expand the traditional knowledge domains that define educational administration. Carolyn Shields.
critical theory and postmodernism (T. and social justice. Tallerico. open–closed climates (Halpin and Croft). Rossman). situational leadership (Hersey and Blanchard). transformational leadership. sociometric technique (Moreno). five basic functions. synergistic leadership theory (Irby. reflective/craft leadership (Leithwood and Duke). Bates. Anderson. Mertz. Shakeshaft. Johnson. Theory X and Y (McGregor). . fourteen principles of management (Fayol). Systems 1–4 (Likert). Table 1–2 briefly summarizes the major differences among the four approaches to administrative thought. Furman. Lomotey. Roethlisberger. expectancy theory (Vroom). Dillard. need hierarchy (Maslow). The classical “rational” model evolved around the ideas of scientific and administrative management. Lather. Ortiz. Capper. Grogan. All Rights Reserved. intellectual undercurrents: group dynamics leadership studies (Lewin. Foster. Irby. tranformational leadership. and Starratt). gender. moral leadership. optimal actualization — organization and individual (Argyris). Maxcy. and systems theory Interrelated concepts of school improvement. Derrida. fusion process (Bakke). clientcentered therapy (Rogers). West. Williams. B. Shields. including the study of administrative processes and managerial functions. democratic community. democratic community. Brown. or duplicated. leadership–unconscious conspiracy (Bennis) School improvement. social systems theory — nomothetic and idiographic (Getzels and Guba). Lyotard. and Murtadha) Post–behavioral science approach Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 27 proach. transformational leadership (Bass. democratic community. learning organization (Senge). and Dickson). The human relations “social” model was spurred by some early seminal social science research. Leithwood). culture. May not be copied. Lippitt. participative leadership. Habermas. Dantley. instructional leadership. piece rate (Taylor). Skrla. Delpit. Beck. and social justice (Murphy). and class (Gilligan. including experimentation and analysis of the social and psychological aspects of people in the workplace and the study of group behavior. Brunner. Larson. Stefkovich. 3–D leadership (Reddin). Foucault. Greenfield. TQM (Deming). ideal bureaucracy (Weber) Hawthorne studies (Mayo. Giroux. small groups (Homans) Cooperative systems (Barnard). Jackson. and White). compliance theory (Etzioni). as well as postmodernism. Young. English. coercive Leader separate Economic Formal All directions Organism Group Unanticipated consequences Group norms Participative Social and psychological Informal Contributors and Basic Concepts Time-and-motion study. The more recent post– behavioral science approach includes the interrelated concepts of school improvement. Duffy. Nieto. reframing organizations (Bolman and Deal). race/ethnicity. and social justice with heavy emphasis on leadership. hygiene–motivation (Herzberg). functional supervisor. structure of organizations (Mintzberg). Inc. The be- havioral science approach was an attempt to reconcile the basic incongruency between the rational-economic model and the social model. contingency theory (Fiedler). Brown. McLaren. and Trautman). and emergent nontraditional perspectives Period Classical organizational theory Procedures Top to bottom Machine Individual Anticipated consequences Rules. Freire. values and ethics (Hodgkinson. Scheurich. Table 1–2 Overview of the Four Major Developments in Administrative Thought Management Elements Leadership Organization Production Process Authority Administration Reward Structure Human relations approach Leadership Organization Production Process Authority Administration Reward Structure Behavioral science approach Consideration of all major elements with heavy emphasis on contingency leadership. scanned. POSDCoRB (Gulick). Marshall. managerial grid (Blake and Mouton). human relations in the restaurant industry (Whyte). Pounder. Shapiro. managerial leadership. in whole or in part.
author of the best-selling book. p. All Rights Reserved.Licensed to: iChapters User 28 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts As shown in Table 1–2. and lifelong learning. to social systems and contingency theory. Mental models: Deeply ingrained assumptions that influence personal and organizational views and behaviors. Shared vision: Sharing an image of the future you want to realize together. Systems theory is a way of viewing schools as learning organizations. to input new knowledge through continuous learning and change. For example.S. power. to imbed this knowledge in systems and practices. we notice a correlational rather than a compensatory tendency. It does this through alignment and the collective capacity to sense and interpret a changing environment. .ed. or duplicated. has written a companion book directly fo- No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (www. to a concern for school improvement. this view of schooling is in place today with current accountability policy to assess student. ■ Systems thinking: A conceptual framework that sees all parts as interrelated and affecting each other. we have highlighted major contributors and basic concepts and primary eras in the evolution. 148 Senge. The Fifth Discipline. and the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. teacher. Each is a complex system of patterns. taking into consideration the interrelationships among its parts and its relationship with the external environment. The Fifth Discipline. studied as a whole. and postmodernism. production. and to transform this knowledge into outputs. social justice. ■ ■ ■ Systems Theory One of the more useful concepts in understanding organizations is the idea that an organization is a system. process. Personal mastery: A process of personal commitment to vision. and the organization. no attempt is made to date the eras precisely. Senge. Implicit in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001146 is the concomitant expectation that school administrators and teachers will adjust instructional strategies to yield more effective learning outcomes for all children. In fact. reward. Inc. teams. Indeed. Traces of the past coexist with modern approaches to administration. scanned. Government Printing Office. Team learning: The process of learning collectively. While we have not included all people who have made contributions in the evolution of administrative thought. 3. and structure are important distinguishing characteristics of the four approaches. Brief definitions of Senge’s principles follow.jhtml?src=pb). Senge defines the learning organization as “organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire. administration. We can see how organization and administrative theory have evolved from a concern for efficiency and the basic principles of management to an emphasis on human and psychological factors. A learning organization is a strategic commitment to capture and share learning in the organization for the benefit of individuals. if we view the sequence of developments in organizational and administrative theory. the idea that two brains are smarter than one. and finally. organization. democratic community. He identifies systems thinking as the “fifth discipline” because he believes that thinking systemically is the pivotal lever in the learning and change process. where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured. A Nation at Risk (Washington.gov/nclb/ landing. 1983). in whole or in part. May not be copied.147 Senge suggests that an organization must be 145 National Commission on Excellence in Education. A metaphor to describe this systems theory–based model would be DNA or a hologram. 147 146 Senge. where collective aspiration is set free and where people are continually learning how to learn together. A system can be defi ned as a set of interrelated elements that function as a unit for a specific purpose. now in its second edition. DC: U. ■ The five disciplines work together to create the learning organization. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. views of the school as a rationaltechnical system remain fi rmly embedded in the minds of policymakers and pervade most educational reforms proposed since the publication of A Nation at Risk in 1983 145 and the many reports that followed. excellence. and school performance. while the classical “rational” model has been modified somewhat since its emergence during the 1900s. differences in leadership.”148 Senge describes a model of five interdependent disciplines necessary for an organization to seriously pursue learning. The Fifth Discipline. Furthermore. The learning organization concept has received much attention since the initial publication of Peter Senge’s book The Fifth Discipline in 1990.
Senge makes a powerful argument regarding the need for a systems approach and learning orientation. and renewed not by fiat or command. scanned.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 29 cused on education. Inc. a transformation process. Learning helps people to create and manage knowledge that builds a system’s intellectual capital. and not by regulation. in whole or in part. and many people concluded that the U. In schools the interaction between students and teachers is part of the transformation or learning process by which students become educated citizens capable of contributing to society.151 While there was little change at the national level concerning educational reform. that everyone should learn in the same way. Biddle. and the environment. Outputs include the organization’s products and services. and that learning is primarily individualistic and competition accelerates learning. and there was concern regarding our economic competitiveness with other nations. The environment in the systems model takes on added significance today in a climate of policy accountability. Furthermore. From Senge’s perspective. and economic forces that impinge on the organization. The report nationalized the discussion concerning the well-being of public schooling in America. Such information may lead to changes in both the transformation process and future outputs. people make meaning of their experience and of information. 151 Peter Senge. financial. Karen Watkins and Victoria Marsick have developed a model of the learning organization around seven action imperatives that speak to the kind of initiatives that are implemented in learning organizations. which has five parts: inputs. made vital. Fraud and the Attack on America’s Public Schools (Reading. or duplicated. Berliner and Bruce J. the inputs undergo a transformation process.149 Senge argues that teachers. He provides a historical perspective on educational systems. at the time the report was released. if schools are to develop the learning orientation necessary for improvement. real improvement will occur only if people responsible for implementation design the change itself. material.S. Thus. that knowledge is inherently fragmented. In Schools That Learn. These economic comparisons led to corresponding educational comparisons. and in many cases directly confronted. including intrusion into the technical core of schooling (teaching and learning). political. The environment surrounding the organization includes the social. outputs. David C. May not be copied. and economic contexts in which school administrators work are marked by pressures at the local. Inputs are the human. that schools teach some kind of objective truth. public school system was underperforming.150 education has been near the top of the national political agenda. that classroom learning is distinctly different from that occurring outside of school. He argues that schools can be re. Through learning. (See Administrative Advice 1–1. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. Specifically. It linked the health of the economy to the performance of the public school system. they must develop the capacity to learn. that learning is strictly an intellectual enterprise. 1995). state. the United States was in a severe recession. The social. . but by embracing the principles of the learning organization. MA: Addison-Wesley. that is. political. Schools That Learn (New York: Doubleday. feedback. Since the publication of A Nation at Risk in 1983. Issues addressed were what should be taught. he details “industrial age” assumptions about learning: that children are deficient and schools should fi x them. or information resources used to produce a product or service. An educational organization generates and distributes knowledge. and other school stakeholders must learn how to build their own capacity. He further asserts that schools are run by specialists who maintain control. The Manufactured Crisis: Myths. how it should be taught. comparisons were made between Japanese industrial performance and that of the United States. and that some kids are smart while others are not.created. 2001). Senge suggests that these assumptions about learning and the nature and purpose of schooling reflect deeply embedded cultural beliefs that must be considered. administrators. the scope of state involvement greatly expanded. Feedback is information concerning the outputs or the process of the organization that influences the selection of inputs during the next cycle. In particular. how students should be grouped for 150 National Commission on Excellence in Education. and national levels.) Basic Systems Model Figure 1–1 depicts the basic systems theory of organizations. A Nation at Risk. school administrators today fi nd it necessary to manage and develop “internal” operations while concurrently monitoring the environment and anticipating and responding to “external” demands. All Rights Reserved. 149 Through technology and administrative functions.
and the degree to which everyone in the organization actively participates in creating and implementing the changes that follow from the vision. Leaders who model learning are key to the learning organization. Provide Strategic Leadership for Learning. are willing to put difficult issues on the table for discussion. Administrators and teachers have many opportunities to consciously look at what they are learning from new initiatives. and to focus instead on team building for intact site-based decision-making teams that include teaching everyone needed skills of dialogue. They could ask community artists to render a new vision. faculty. The relevant action imperative for this level focuses on the spirit of collaboration and the skills that undergird the effective use of teams. and experience levels. They can look at results as opportunities to learn why an initiative was not successful. Encourage Collaboration and Team Learning. and they can initiate projects to experiment with change. administrators. A step in this direction is to extend training that is commonly given to a few key people. Create Systems to Capture and Share Learning. and can seek resources to support faculty development. They think strategically about how to use learning to move the organization in new directions. Inc. They can find ways to use technology better to help faculty gain new skills. ■ ■ Empower People toward a Collective Vision. www.org. Options for sharing knowledge include keeping journals of lessons learned and processes for collaborative development of new ideas so all are involved in co-creating knowledge before using it. The primary criteria for success with this action imperative are the degree of alignment throughout the organization around the vision. Technology-based strategies that are used for this purpose focus on the use of software such as Lotus Notes or Microsoft Access to capture ideas across dispersed teams and divisions. This means that learning is ongoing. time. schools could ask task forces to identify and change elements that are inconsistent with the vision. or design programs that bring school faculty and staff members. and computerized documentation of changes in a particular area. or duplicated. in whole or in part. They could invite stakeholders to physically modify the creative product to represent their ideas. and share ideas across geographical. Copyright © 1999 National Association of Secondary School Principals. and meeting management. Schools must function at both global and local levels.” NASSP Bulletin. Celebration events can be used to bring people together. and parents). functional. They could engage people in ceremonies to mourn the passing of the old culture and skits to depict the new. money. Watkins and Victoria J. Schools can use benchmarking to see what other schools are doing to achieve excellence and to solve similar problems. negotiation. scanned. 83. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. May not be copied. They can make it attractive for faculty members to serve as mentors. consensus. and community groups together around special interests. “Sculpting the Learning Community: New Forms of Working and Organizing.Licensed to: iChapters User 30 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts Administrative Advice 1–1 The Seven Action Imperatives of a Learning Organization The seven action imperatives can be interpreted in terms of what must change to help schools become learning organizations. The key to this imperative is a culture in which people ask questions freely. Strategies to implement this action imperative include the use of dialogue and questioning in meetings and learning sessions. Schools might also find ways to provide time. and grows out of the work itself. People in schools frequently form groups. recognize accomplishments. ■ Create Continuous Learning Opportunities.principals. but they are not always encouraged to bring what they know to the table. and can scan their environment for new trends by using computer databases. no. strategically used. can make information available regarding opportunities for learning. and are open to giving and receiving feedback at all levels. Schools often initiate Internet projects whereby students and teachers from one school can communicate with other students around the globe. Technology enables people in schools to move beyond their walls. Strategies to implement this action imperative might include support for the effective functioning of teams that cross levels and groups (students. To gain acceptance of a shared vision. Reprinted with permission. . Promote Inquiry and Dialogue. students. Connect the Organization to Its Environment. Marsick. and other incentives for professional development. ■ ■ ■ ■ Source: Adapted from Karen E. All Rights Reserved. School leaders can routinely discuss development plans and opportunities with faculty and staff members. 604 (1999): 78–87.
Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 31 Figure 1–1 Basic Systems Model instruction. accountability. labor relations. in the organization’s system of operational management. For example. Inputs The school district’s environment provides it with personnel. (Many of the topics will be discussed in subsequent chapters. states began to focus their policy on standards. and it can focus the school administrator’s efforts on the key areas to introduce change in the system. that is. or duplicated. The dimensions of a school district’s operation can be grouped into the three broad categories of inputs. Prior to the A Nation at Risk report. quality education within an operating budget. May not be copied. The increased involvement of the state in the technical core of teaching and learning led to a change in policy focus. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. for example. A Systems View of School Administration It is useful to analyze the operation of an educational organization and the role of school administrators within that operation from an open systems framework. Teachers want higher salaries. state. in whole or in part. Students. Teachers are often bound by union contracts that conflict with the norms of their particular school. fi nancing. The basic systems model is expanded to focus on the role of the school administrator in operating a school or school district. Inc. more specifically. Local school administrators also face a number of challenges that are exclusively local in nature. state education policy tended to focus on inputs and processes. Statewide assessment systems were implemented nationwide. difficult school boards. and site committees resulting from School-Based Management initiatives. and job security. even though it may not be in the best interest of the student to miss school for an extended period of time. such as bond referenda. and local governments enact laws that regulate school district operations. With the rise of international economic and educational comparisons. School board members want a high return on their investment. and theory/knowledge. fringe benefits. and the improvement of student academic achievement. and how instruction should be evaluated. Superintendents are expected to respond to federal mandates even though resources are scarce. Thus was born an era of high-stakes testing complete with rewards and sanctions for low-performing schools. In addition. These local political issues can at times confound state-mandated policies. and teacher unions. federal. Figure 1–2 shows the interrelationships among the dimensions of the operational management system. scanned. hiring personnel. It contributes greatly to the quick and accurate diagnosis of problems. principals often face mandated programs that do not meet the changing demographics of their student population. helps make clear the pattern of interrelationships in operating a school district or other educational institution.) This figure. Other groups make demands on the school district as well. Zerotolerance policies may require expelling a student. And educational leaders are faced with ongoing pressures to show good school results on standardized achievement tests. not on outputs such as student academic achievement. The social. although oversimplifying the relationships. better working conditions. and economic forces that impinge on the school organization are not all state and national. however. All Rights Reserved. such as budgeting. and outputs. want relevant and useful curriculum content to prepare them for the world of work or higher education. while at the same time dealing with a growing number of management duties. political. . This framework aids in the analysis of school district operations and. transformation process.
scanned. developing curriculum. And special interest groups have a variety of agendas. the community expects the schools to provide quality education to all the district’s clients without an increase in taxes. decision making. transform them through administrative activities such as providing a structure. and their ability to cope with change. The job of the school administrator is to integrate these diverse goals into a viable plan of action. motivating. developing a culture. . Activities performed by school administrators within the organization’s structure will affect the school district’s outputs. which often conflict.Licensed to: iChapters User 32 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts External Environment ➛ Inputs ➛ ➛ • Personnel (15)* • Financing (11)* • Theory and knowledge (1)* • Federal and state (9)* • Local governments (10)* • Legal structure (12)* • Other groups ➛ Transformation Process (Feedback) ➛ ➛ • • • • Structure (2)* Culture (3)* Motivation (4)* Leadership (5)* • Decision making (6)* • Communication (7)* • Change (8)* • Curriculum (13)* • Improving teaching (14)* • Career development (16)* ➛ Outputs • • • • • • Student achievement Teacher performance Student growth Employee growth Student dropout Employee turnover • • • • • • ➛ Student absenteeism Employee absenteeism Employee-management relations School-community relations Student attitudes toward school Employee job satisfaction ➛ Figure 1–2 A Systems View of School Administration (*The numbers indicate chapters in this book. Some components of the system of operational management include the technical competence of school administrators. or duplicated.) Similarly. leading. Work of some kind is done in the system to produce output. implementing change. Each group has its own goals. administering Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. May not be copied. their plans of operation. This transformation process includes the internal operation of the organization and its system of operational management. communicating. in whole or in part. including their decision-making and communication skills. Outputs The school administrator’s job is to secure and use inputs from the external environment. All Rights Reserved. Inc. The system adds a value added to the work in process. Transformation Process Organizations convert the inputs from the external environment into some form of output.
Leadership. The Malcolm Baldrige Framework The Baldrige Framework is a systems perspective for achieving continuous education quality improvement. which in turn will have an effect on the school district’s outputs. and financing the institution to produce outputs. student attitudes toward school. 7. Figure 1–3 provides the framework connecting and integrating the seven categories. teacher performance. and Knowledge Management. cultures. The twoheaded arrows indicate the importance of feedback in an effective performance management system. and independent of other conditions such as time. These categories are placed together to emphasize the importance of a leadership focus on strategy and on students and stakeholders. Stakeholder. The environment. May not be copied. the arrow indicates the central relationship between Leadership (Category 1) and Results (Category 7). 5. Analysis. in whole or in part. and Market Focus. The horizontal arrow in the center of the framework links the leadership triad to the results triad. and knowledge management serve as a foundation for the performance management system. and Results (Category 7) represent the results triad. Positivism is a view of knowledge as objective. and Student. financial. Results. Strategic Planning. Measurement. Another tradition of positivism is empiricism. Faculty and Staff Focus. All actions point toward Results (Category 7)—a composite of student. communities. and geography. System Foundation Measurement. school–community relations. student dropout. analysis. and social responsibility results. the external environment reacts to these outputs and provides feedback to the system. key working relationships. circumstances. Inc. the framework has the following basic elements. In school organizations. scanned. Furthermore. The organization’s faculty and staff and key processes accomplish the work of the organization that yields the overall performance results. stakeholder. The core values and concepts of the framework are embodied in seven categories: 1. Measurement. Finally. adding and subtracting programs as they moved from decade to decade. market. Faculty and Staff Focus (Category 5). . From top to bottom. for example. or duplicated. 4. Leadership (Category 1). Most schools are loosely coupled systems in which the whole is often less important than its parts. Negative feedback. 2. They just evolved from earlier versions.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 33 personnel. Feedback is crucial to the success of the school district operation. governance. Positivism was the dominant orthodoxy in educational administration until the late 1970s. a linkage critical to organizational success. and Knowledge Management (Category 4) are critical to the effective management of the organization and to a fact-based. Analysis. Process Management. 6. and operational performance results including faculty and staff. and Market Focus (Category 3) represent the leadership triad. can be used to correct deficiencies in the school administrator’s operational plan of action. All Rights Reserved. which maintains that knowledge of the world can only be acquired Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. knowledge-driven system for improving performance. Stakeholder. Emergent Perspectives Organizational Proﬁle The Organizational Profile (top of figure) sets the context for the way the organization operates. student and employee absenteeism. absolutely true. Senior leaders (superintendent and associates) set the organizational direction and seek future opportunities for organizational direction and future opportunities for the organization. societies. 3. Student. Most schools were not designed in the systems approach as conceptualized by Peter Senge. budgetary. Process Management (Category 6). and employee job satisfaction (see Figure 1–2). System Operations The system operations are composed of the six Baldrige categories in the center of the figure that defi ne the operations and the results achieved. growth levels of students and employees. and strategic challenges serve as an overarching guide for the organizational performance management system. employee– management relations. employee turnover. outputs include student achievement. Strategic Planning (Category 2).
theory building. Gaithersburg. scanned. 100 Bureau Drive. through the senses and through experience. (b) the development of theories inferred from such observations and descriptions of perceptual data. From these philosophies there developed positivism— the view that any investigation in the natural or social sciences must be derived from empiricist postulates in order to be considered academically acceptable.Licensed to: iChapters User 34 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts Organizational Proﬁle: Environment. Inc. Room A600. positivism is a worldview that all knowledge of the world comes to us from sense experience and observation. and (d) the verification of hypotheses that are then used to verify the theories derived from the observation and description of perceptual data. All Rights Reserved. Relationships. May not be copied. Stop 1020. (c) the testing of hypotheses derived from the theories. and Challenges 2 Strategic Planning 5 Faculty and Staff Focus 1 Leadership 3 Student. Technology Administration. Analysis. objections began to surface regarding the dominant (positivist) orthodoxy. U. and hypothesis testing and verification.S. . The positivist approach to research consists of several functions: (a) the observation and description of perceptual data coming to us from the world through our senses. MD 20899–1020. This view of science came to be known as logical empiricism or logical positivism. These emerging nontraditional perspectives came under the general heading of subjectivist and in- Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. The positivist approach to the generation of knowledge dominated research in educational administration until the late 1970s. Alternative paradigms began to appear and continued to be refined through the 1980s. Quantitative methods using large samples with the objective of statistical inferences was the predominant tool used. or duplicated. The approach evolved from an empiricist model of science that involves observation and description. in whole or in part. Simply stated. and Market Focus 6 Process Management 7 Results 4 Measurement. and Knowledge Management Figure 1–3 Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence Framework: A Systems Perspective Source: Adapted from Baldrige National Quality Program. Department of Commerce. Stakeholder. At the time. National Institute of Standard and Technology. Administration Building.
Business is private enterprise. The subjectivist and interpretivist perspectives led to the increased popularity of qualitative research methods under various labels: qualitative methods. gender. These approaches are attempts to understand educational processes within local situations. by the work of neo-Marxist and critical theorists such as Bates and others. and class. it will improve the collegial relationship between schools and the communities they serve. Most organizational theory taught in educational administration courses was generated by researchers in the industrial setting. and civic agencies. and by the early work of postmodernists such as Derrida. and geography serve as important analytical categories in such inquiry. they should not be co-opted by them. participant observation. it would be foolish not to take advantage of the offer. 3. Inc. race/ethnicity. It takes several years to adapt management theory into educational administrative theory. ethnography. It does not consider the social and psychological needs of the teacher as much as the profits of the organization. and critical theory and postmodernism as mentioned previously. think about the same ideas. 5. Educators’ relationship to them is important but no more important than the relationship with the leaders of other consumer groups such as parents. Many aspects of management theory do not apply in educational settings. Arguments CON 1. Subjectivist and interpretivist perspectives are illustrated by the early work of scholars such as T. and class. While educators should be open to feedback from clients. 4. communities. Subjectivist and interpretivist views refer to perspectives that look inward to the mind rather than outward to experience and that connect to philosophical idealism and. Management trainers understand organizational theory well and can teach adult learners in all types of organizations to apply theory to their settings. terpretivist approaches. Industry has invested heavily in the development of management-training programs. Foucault. Its essential concepts are applicable in all organizations. . Business and school leaders need to work more closely together. scanned. Management training is current and tested. Why not do away with intermediaries? 2. unique circumstances. in whole or in part. Management training is behaviorist and outcomedriven. Organizational theory is generic. more recently. or duplicated. 2. Societies. Greenfield in Canada. These alternate nontraditional approaches spawned scholarship on ethics and values. Industrial management thought leads the way. race. and naturalistic inquiry. The scions of industry are one consumer group for schools. If they share the same training. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. There seems to be an increasing interest in bringing together positivist and interpretive paradigms that may prove valuable to both the researcher and the practitioner. colleges. and Lyotard. All Rights Reserved. fieldwork. to phenomenology and existentialism. 5. Question: Is the management training provided by business and industry for their leaders the best source of information and skill development for principals and superintendents? Arguments PRO 1. If that resource is being offered to schools.Licensed to: iChapters User Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 35 PRO/CON Debate Training School Leaders Xerox’s CEO David Kearns said that schools “are admirably suited to the economy and culture of the 1950s and spectacularly unsuited to the high-tech future of the next century. cultures. Educational researchers play an important role in sifting and applying organizational theory.” He believes that education is big business and the same theories that guide industrial executives are the ones school leaders need to solve education’s problems. 3. schools are public service agencies. B. gender. It would be a dangerous mistake to borrow management theory wholesale. Management trainers understand profit-driven organizations but do not understand the norms and values of educators. 4. May not be copied. and speak the same language. case studies.
prediction of phenomena. What are the functions of theories in educational administration? 2. and social justice. The functions of theories include identification of relevant phenomena. To an increasing degree. the human relations approach. Systems theory is usually discussed in terms of inputs. 7. The major dimensions of leadership may be divided into two categories — task dimensions and human relations skills. Discussion Questions 1. Emergent nontraditional perspectives have spawned research in ethics and values. in whole or in part. the behavioral science approach. The author identifies the professional learning community as the center of effective school reform and offers six Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning. What is the post–behavioral science approach? How does it differ from earlier approaches to administration? 6. formulation of constructs. systems theory. Covering theory into practice. The practice of educational administration has changed in response to historical conditions and theoretical developments. and environment. summarization of phenomena. and emergent nontraditional perspectives. and revelation of needed research. 4. race/ethnicity. Three contemporary extensions of administrative perspectives are contingency theory. feedback. 3. All Rights Reserved. 5. applications that include case studies and vignettes. . and critical theory and postmodernism. Discuss the basic concepts underlying school improvement. What are the major components of systems theory? 6. a transformation process. many of which cannot be predetermined or perfectly controlled. Why is it important to understand the different approaches to administrative theory that have evolved throughout the history of organizations? 3.Licensed to: iChapters User 36 Part I ■ Fundamental Principles and Concepts Summary 1. 4. CA: Corwin Press. 2. classification of phenomena. democratic community. 2004). outputs. and the post–behavioral science approach. May not be copied. scanned. this state-of-the-art resource provides practical approaches to perplexing problems. educational administration is characterized by using theory to explain and predict phenomena in educational organizations. Alan M. What contributions do the emergent perspectives have on the study and practice of educational administration? Key Terms theory classical organizational theory management perspectives scientific management administrative management human relations approach Hawthorne studies behavioral science approach cooperative system fusion process nomothetic dimension Suggested Readings Blankstein. gender. idiographic dimension need hierarchy Theory X and Theory Y hygiene factors motivation factors Systems 1–4 managerial grid contingency theories situational leadership theory post–behavioral science approach critical thinking constructivism systems theory learning organization open systems framework positivism 5. and class. four major perspectives on administration have evolved: classical organization theory. Since the early 1900s. Inc. Failure Is Not an Option: Six Principles That Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools (Thousand Oaks. or duplicated. Contingency theories suggest that numerous factors or situations affect leadership. and techniques for addressing difficult issues.
CA: Sage Publications.. then looks forward to promising theories. The criteria do not tell you what to do—you have the leeway to chart your own course.. Russ. Bridging the gap between the theoretical and the practical.. sustainable reform. and practices that show potential for development and application. What can school leaders really do to increase student achievement. 2006). Pursue long-term sustainability without jeopardizing short-term results. or new theoreticians? This groundbreaking work defines an agenda for the new theoretician. CA: Corwin Press. Fenwick W. Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers in Action (Thousand Oaks. Provide an examination of what leaders at all levels of the educational system can do to pave the way for largescale. Marion. Firestone. Marion places organizational theory in broad historical and philosophical contexts to help students see patterns in the material. Timothy Waters. This book.). 2005). School Leadership That Works: From Research to Results (Alexandria. Inc. All major organizational theories are covered: machine theory. Marzano. 2006). Marion writes in the preface. The SAGE Handbook of Educational Leadership (Thousand Oaks. Robert J. and which leadership practices have the biggest impact on school effectiveness? This book answers these questions defi nitively and gives you a list of leadership competencies that are research based. including crucial elements of sustainability.” This idea permeates Leadership in Education. Drawing from 35 years of studies.). “Theories are little more than ivory tower artifacts if they cannot be translated into guides for actual leadership behavior. Conyers and Ewy have chosen to entitle this book Charting Your Course because the Malcolm Baldrige criteria are nonprescriptive. How you bring it about is dependent on your leadership. in whole or in part. and finally anti-positivist theories. Each major paradigm shift the field has undergone is examined in detail. Copyright 2008 Thomson Learning.Chapter 1 ■ Development of Administrative Theory 37 guiding principles for creating and sustaining highperforming schools. IL: Waveland Press. and Brian A. and Robert Ewy. open systems. Fullan. or duplicated. . the authors explain critical leadership principles that every administrator needs to know. Michael. 2005). (ed. All Rights Reserved. English. the product of the task force on research co-sponsored by the American Educational Research Association Division A and the University Council for Educational Administration. along with the background shifts that accompanied them. 2004). Conyers. John G. The Handbook reviews how leadership was redefi ned by management and organizational theory in its quest to become scientific. May not be copied. Fullan asks the question: How do you develop and sustain a greater number of system thinkers in action. McNulty. Leadership in Education: Organizational Theory for the Practitioner (Long Grove. structuralism. scanned. concepts. sets an ambitious agenda for research in educational leadership. human relations. and Carolyn Riehl (eds. Prominent scholars cover a broad range of topics. Charting Your Course: Lessons Learned during the Journey toward Performance Excellence (Milwaukee: ASQ Press. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. A landmark work with contributions from 37 internationally renowned scholars covering an extensive range of issues confronting the field of educational leadership and administration. 2005). A New Agenda for Research in Educational Leadership (New York: Teachers College Press. William A. What Baldrige does is give you a systematic framework for organizational excellence.