I. SELECT A LEARNING GOAL......................................................................................................3 II. WHY HAS THIS LEARNING GOAL BEEN SELECTED?.........................................................3 III.

IDENTIFY STRATEGY YOU WILL USE IN LITERATURE REVIEW...................................3 IV. DEVELOP A SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW...........................................................4 a. DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION..............................................................................................4 b. OVERVIEW OF MOTIVATION THEORIES...........................................................................4 i. NEED THEORIES...................................................................................................................5 ii. PROCESS THEORIES..........................................................................................................11 c. Application of employee motivation theory to the workplace...................................................12 1. Empowering employees.........................................................................................................12 ii. Providing an effective reward system....................................................................................12 iii. Redesigning jobs...................................................................................................................13 iv. Creating flexibility................................................................................................................14 V. REFLECT ON WHAT YOU HAVE READ................................................................................15 A. Introduction...............................................................................................................................15 b. Opportunities..............................................................................................................................15 c. Motivation .................................................................................................................................15 1. Hierarchy of needs.................................................................................................................16 ii. Satisfiers/dissatisfiers............................................................................................................17 d. Conclusion.................................................................................................................................18 VI. INDENTIFY ACTIONS YOU PLAN.........................................................................................18

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it can be the difference between success and failure of a business. Each manager understand that it is a necessary factor for obtaining company’s goals and achieving higher profits. The synthetic method bases on the sources of information from text book. II. Each company must enhance employees’ fulfillment by several motivational techniques: offering cash rewards. executive recognition or good work environment. SELECT A LEARNING GOAL Motivation is the key to improve performance. internet and journal articles Analyzing the information . then they should have ability to motivate employees. IDENTIFY STRATEGY YOU WILL USE IN LITERATURE REVIEW Collecting the information The observing method is implemented by learning about practical situations from real life. It could help me for future career in human resource field III. An appropriate employee motivation strategy would lead to an effective management and leadership within the workplace. So I choose MOTIVATION as my learning goal. WHY HAS THIS LEARNING GOAL BEEN SELECTED? Employee motivation nowadays is one of the major issues faced by every organization. Managers have to get things done through their employees.I. It will also help the company more effective and increase our country’s economies in the future.

Educational Psychology Interactive. DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION Numerous psychologists and theorists have formed their own concepts of the term “motive”. 1963. 2001). Retrieved 2/23/2005. The manager is able to achieve his goals when he can satisfy both the employees’ needs and those of the organization (Gabriel 224). B. 1968. W. McClelland. b. This is the willingness to drive high levels of effort toward company’s goals.. that it is something highly subjective (e. Herzberg.edu/whuitt/col/motivation/motivate. OVERVIEW OF MOTIVATION THEORIES This part will give a detailed review of the literature of motivation theories. Vroom. Motivation to Learn: An Overview. 1946. Zuroff. 1957. McGregor. the importance and placement of those needs is different for everyone. The personal needs of employees are satisfied when they are motivated to perform the assigned tasks. Motivation can be defined as an “internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction”. Different personalities lead to different behaviors of each individual in various situations.. 1935.. . Was Gordon Allport a Trait Theorist? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. In a simple way. D.g.valdosta. 1969. DEVELOP A SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW a.g. It is the process that initiates. 2004). It can also be defined as a basic human desire or need that influences behavior (Huitt. 51. directs and sustains behavior while simultaneously satisfying physiological or psychological needs (Leal. it is the internal purpose or reason for making a choice or completing an action (Balliet. Skinner.1995). (2001). Huitt. Maslow. employee motivation is a good way to increase productivity in an organization. Process theories are centered around the rational cognitive process and say that while most people may have similar needs. (1986). from http://chiron. Alderfer. Adams. 993-1000. A cursory view of the literature will show that there are two central categories of motivation theories: content theories and process theories Content theories are centered around the assumption that individuals all share a similar set of human needs and that we are all motivated to satisfy those needs (e. Valdosta State University. with the ability of effort to satisfy individual needs.html.IV. When employees are motivated they will have a reason to focus more effort on what they are doing (Greenberg. 1988). 2005). 1967).

nourishment. McCoy. they want to feel safe. another desire will take its place. water. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to bodily functioning. NEED THEORIES Need theories base on some of the earliest research in human relations. the theory identified a set of needs that prioritized into a hierarchy based on two conclusions (Daft. 1985): • • Human needs are either of an attraction/desire nature or of an avoidance nature. food … According to Maslow's theory. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is shown in the following diagram  Physiological Needs: The basic physical comfort or needs: air.  Safety Needs: People want to feel safe. If managers can understand the needs that can motivate their employee. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs The hierarchy of needs theory was developed by Abraham Maslow. when one desire is satisfied. Quick. and free from fear.i. secure. 1992. if these needs are not satisfied then one's motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. a professor at Brandeis University and a practicing psychologist. Because humans are "wanting" beings. then a reward systems can be implemented to fulfill those needs and reinforce the appropriate behavior 1. sleep. 1997. Once the physiological needs are met. secure and free from the threat of .

as new opportunities continue to grow when they grows psychologically. reputation. and intimacy—the social acceptance and affection from others  Esteem Needs: Once a person feels a sense of "belonging". etc.physical and emotional harm. Unlike other level needs. meaning. and worthless. achievement. Clayton Alderfer redefined it in his own terms and His rework is called “ERG theory of motivation”. wisdom  Implications for Management According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. recognition. and compensation packages. managers have many opportunities to motivate employees through management style: job design.These include need for basic material necessities. then they feels valuable and self- confident as a person in the world. Internal esteem needs related to self-esteem such as self respect and achievement.  Belonging/ Love Needs : Once a person has met the level of physiological and safety needs. ERG Theory Expanding on the “Maslow's hierarchy of needs”. family. These needs are: attention. External esteem needs are social status and recognition. the first are social needs. they feels helpless. selfrespect. and use these needs as levers of motivation. not all employees are driven by same needs . Self-actualized people have needs such as: justice. If thay feels that they are in harm's way. it includes an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs. it involves people striving to accomplish their full potential to become more of what they are capable of being. truth. When these needs are satisfied. Then it becomes important to understand each employee’s need being pursued by. company events.  Self-Actualization Needs: This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. weak. Esteem needs can be classified as internal or external.different people can be motivated at any time by an entirely different factors. In short. the managers must be able to acknowledge the needs level where the employees atr operating. then the need to feel important arises. Social needs are needs that related to interaction with other people This is a need for friends. They strive after self-fulfillment. He recategorized Maslow’s hierarchy of needs into three simpler and broader classes of needs: Existence needs. 2. inferior. this need is never fully satisfied. To motivate an employee. then higher needs will not receive much attention. If these needs are not satisfied.… However. then higher level needs become important. .

Relatedness needs. However. These opportunities are not provided to employees. The absence of these factors will not necessarily demotivate or cause dissatisfaction. status. recognition. 3. Maslow’s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need. job security. and for achievement because of the happiness and meaning it provides. managers must recognize that employee has various needs that must be satisfied simultaneously. they may regress to relatedness needs. positive working conditions. Implications of the ERG Theory Unlike Maslow's theory.These include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. Herzberg also identified the concept of job enrichment. then steps can be taken to concentrate on relatedness needs until the subordinate is able to pursue growth again. whereby the responsibilities of a job are changed to provide greater growth and challenge (McCoy.Herzberg's research found that positive job attitudes were associated with a feeling of psychological growth. Hygiene factors include willingness to supervise. 1992. a professor of psychology at Case Western Reserve University. 10-12)] 1985. Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Two Factor Theory) Frederick Herzberg. If the manager is able to recognize this situation. Growth needs. The presence of factors such as responsibility. 1985 p. getting public fame and recognition. His motivation-hygiene theory includes two types of factors: Motivation is based on the positive satisfaction that psychological growth provides. Quick. achievement.These include the aspiration individual’s have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family. and . and superiors. interpersonal relations with peers. this motivation does not provide positive satisfaction because it does not provide a sense of growth. Hygiene is based on an individual's desire to avoid deprivation and the resulting physical and emotional discomfort. subordinates. Maslow’s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need. studied the attitudes of workers toward their jobs. and possibility for growth or advancement will motivate and satisfy people. Herzberg proposed that an individual will be moved to action based on the desire to avoid deprivation. He thought that people work for two reasons: for financial reasons to avoid physical deprivation. peers or superiors).

McClelland's Theory of Needs In his acquired-needs theory. achievers see the outcome as one of chance rather than one's own effort. and develop their skills and careers. 4. however. ideally a 50% chance. High nAff individuals prefer work that provides significant personal interaction. Achievers avoid low-risk situations because the easily attained success is not a genuine achievement. Need for Affiliation Those with a high need for affiliation (nAff) need harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by other people. They perform well in customer service and client interaction situations. nor will their presence cause job satisfaction. but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. managers must focus on changing the intrinsic nature and content of jobs themselves by "enriching" them to increase employees' autonomy and their opportunities to take on additional responsibility. gain recognition. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group. In high-risk projects. Need for Achievement People with a high need for achievement (nAch) seek to excel and thus tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations. will cause dissatisfaction. They prefer either to work alone or with other high achievers. David McClelland proposed that an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Achievers need regular feedback in order to monitor the progress of their acheivements. High nAch individuals prefer work that has a moderate probability of success. Implications for Management Management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction. Need for Power . To motivate workers. according to the theory. These factors do not motivate.salary. Their absence.

Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals. Theory Y . 5. Beyond this point. Managers with a high need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power. managers should attempt to develop an understanding of whether and to what degree their employees have one or more of these needs. wants no responsibility.A person's need for power (nPow) can be one of two types . it has the potential to motivate behavior that leads to its satisfaction. including people. Has no ambition. Theory X assumes that people work only for money and security. Implications for Management People with different needs are motivated differently. Those who need personal power want to direct others. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y. Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation. and this need often is perceived as undesirable. The Human Side of Enterprise. and the extent to which their jobs can be structured to satisfy them. for the economic benefit of the firm.personal and institutional. the two theories of management diverge. Theory X and Theory Y In his 1960 book. Resists change. Essentially. Thus. When one of these needs is strong in a person. Theory X Theory X assumes that the average person: Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it. Persons who need institutional power (also known as social power) want to organize the efforts of others to further the goals of the organization. Is gullible and not particularly intelligent. and would rather follow than lead. Both of these theories begin with the premise that management's role is to assemble the factors of production.

The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. McGregor recognized that some people may not have reached the level of maturity assumed by Theory Y and therefore may need tighter controls that can be relaxed as the employee develops. there is an opportunity to align personal goals with organizational goals by using the employee's own quest for fulfillment as the motivator. Theory Y leadership should increase communication flow. it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. should lead to cooperative objectives designed with input from both employees and managers. Theory Y assumptions. In contrast. Communication flow is more likely to be downward from manager to the subordinates. Theory Y may foster leadership styles that are more participative. Theory Y makes the following general assumptions: Work can be as natural as play and rest. . Under these conditions. managers' leadership styles are likely to be autocratic. conversely. which may create resistance on the part of subordinates. Theory Y Management Implications Theory X assumptions might lead to the superior setting of objectives with little or no participation from subordinates. resulting in a higher commitment by subordinates to accomplish these shared objectives. people will seek responsibility. Under these assumptions. which would empower subordinates to seek responsibility and be more committed to goal achievement. People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them. People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment. Under Theory X. Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population. As such. especially in the upward direction.

But believing that increased effort will lead to increased performance is mainly influenced by factors such as having the right amount of resources available. instrumentality is also influenced by factors such as having a clear understanding of the relationship between performance and outcome and trusting the people who will basically decide on the who gets what outcome.  Expectancy is the believe that increased effort will basically lead to increased performance. Theory Y should lead to control processes based on subordinates' self-control. The major process theories of motivation are expectancy theory. the more the performance will be.  Instrumentality is the believe that if you perform well in a task then the outcome is going to be good. ii. the focus is generally on the past. The manager is more likely to act as a coach rather than a judge. For example. an employee assumes that if he works harder the better the performance will be. Conversely. the more the effort put in. focusing on how performance can be improved in the future rather than on who was responsible for past performance. and maintained in the specifically willed and self-directed human cognitive processes. At the same time. equity theory. Unlike the other content theories which focuses on the needs of the individuals in order to motivate human/employees. What Vroom explained in his theory is that fact that in order to motivate employees/ people the effort put in by the employees. the performance generated and motivation must be linked to one another. The process theories are concerned with determining how individual behavior is energized. a valued outcome is received the more you perform the task well. . Theory X is likely to result in external control. it is unlikely that expectancy could be achieved. this theory basically concentrates on the outcomes. goal-setting theory. and reinforcement theory. which posit that behavior is the result of conscious decision-making processes.In regard to control. In other words. Expectancy Theory The Expectancy theory is a process theory developed by Victor Vroom. They are basically. Process theories of motivation are based on early cognitive theories. In other words. In other words Vroom basically proposed three variables which in turn was vital to motivate employees. PROCESS THEORIES Process(or cognitive) theories of motivation focus on conscious human decision processes as an explanation of motivation. having the right skills to carry out the job and the necessary support of the supervisor etc. directed. with the manager acting as a performance judge. Without these. a.

trust. That person feels good because she has a feeling of competency. If so the case. an employee may be motivated by recognition. Empowerment is designed to unshackle the worker and to make a job the worker's responsibility. In other words. the . because old structures and processes are turned upside down. promotions. Empowering employees Empowerment occurs when individuals in an organization are given autonomy. In all cases. Valence on the other hand is basically the importance that the individuals place on the expected outcome. In contrast to extrinsic rewards. In an attempt to empower and to change some of the old bureaucratic ideas. they may even go to reduce the effort they put in according to how they value the outcomes received. the motivational stimulus of extrinsic rewards originates outside the individual. verbal praise. and so on. Obviously. Equity theory 3. For example. Providing an effective reward system Managers often use rewards to reinforce employee behavior that they want to continue. then the employee may not value a rise in pay because it is not the most important to him. meaning to say that how do the employees take the outcomes offered to them for their task performance. managers are promoting corporate intrapreneurships. Think of the “natural high” a person may experience after completing a job. Organizations are rich in rewards for people whose performance accomplishments help meet organizational objectives. Common workplace examples are pay bonuses. awards. A reward is a work outcome of positive value to the individual. time off. Application of employee motivation theory to the workplace 1. special assignments. authority. People receive rewards in one of the following two ways:  Extrinsic rewards are externally administered. They are valued outcomes given to someone by another person. 2. Intrapreneurship encourages employees to pursue new ideas and gives them the authority to promote those ideas. typically a supervisor or higher level manager. and self-control over her work.  Intrinsic rewards are self-administered. ii. and encouragement to accomplish a task. personal development. entrepreneurship is not for the timid. Reinforcement theories c. office fixtures. At times.

designed by employee design teams. managers look at both job scope and job depth. and empowerment. which requires a knowledge of and concern for the human qualities people bring with them to the organization. This last point is worth noting. customer satisfaction. unenthusiastic actions to perform their jobs. not the contributions they make. managers should provide several different ways to earn these rewards. Rewards need to be included in the system and be comparable to ones offered by a competitive organization in the same area. Because all people are different. many employees and employers are beginning to view traditional pay systems as inadequate. With the widely developing trend toward empowerment in American industry. Redesign attempts may include the following: . Rewards demonstrate to employees that their behavior is appropriate and should be repeated.  The overall reward system needs to be multifaceted. To motivate behavior. These individuals often refer to this condition as burnout. time off.  Rewards need to be available to people in the same positions and be distributed fairly and equitably. Many companies have already responded by designing numerous pay plans. Redesigning jobs Many people go to work every day and go through the same. In a traditional system. If employees don't feel that their work is valued.motivational stimulus of intrinsic rewards is internal and doesn't depend on the actions of other people. recognition. the organization needs to provide an effective reward system. An effective reward system has four elements:   Rewards need to satisfy the basic needs of all employees. The concept of job redesign. workers need to be paid differently. applies motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction When redesigning jobs. people are paid according to the positions they hold. managers must provide a range of rewards—pay. or promotion. which base rewards on skill levels. As organizations adopt approaches built upon teams. But smart managers can do something to improve this condition before an employee becomes bored and loses motivation. In addition. their motivation will decline. iii.

organizations can benefit by employing talented people who would otherwise be unable to work full-time. Often referred to as horizontal job loading. Because of family needs. Of course. his or her work quality generally increases. This schedule benefits the individual through more leisure time and lower commuting costs. job enrichment may improve morale and performance. sometimes called flexi place. but also provides an employee with more responsibility and authority. this application includes not only an increased variety of tasks. Its most common form is the 4/40 schedule. iv. The idea is to add variety and to expose people to the dependence that one job has on other jobs.  Job rotation. Creating flexibility Today's employees value personal time.  Job enrichment.  Telecommuting. but it can also be done on weekly or monthly sharing arrangements. Therefore. the danger in this type of scheduling is the possibility of increased fatigue. Here are some other options organizations are trying as well:  A compressed workweek is a form of flextime that allows a full-time job to be completed in less than the standard 40-hour. job enlargement increases the variety of tasks a job includes. The organization should benefit through lower absenteeism and improved performance. Job enlargement. If the skills required to do the job are skills that match the jobholder's abilities. Job rotation can encourage higher levels of contributions and renew interest and enthusiasm. with work-at-home . is a work arrangement that allows at least a portion of scheduled work hours to be completed outside of the office. five-day workweek. This practice assigns people to different jobs or tasks to different people on a temporary basis. Although adjustment problems sometimes occur. the arrangement can be good for all concerned.  Job sharing or twinning occurs when one full-time job is split between two or more persons. which permits employees to set and control their own work hours. which gives employees three days off each week. Job sharing often involves each person working one-half day. job enlargement may reduce some of the monotony. flextime. is one way that organizations are accommodating their employees' needs. Although it doesn't increase the quality or the challenge of those tasks. a traditional nine-to-five workday may not work for many people. When jobs can be split and shared. Also called vertical job loading. and as an employee's boredom decreases. The organization benefits from a cross-trained workforce. The qualified employee who is also a parent may not want to be in the office for a full day but may be willing to work a half-day.

supports and maintains the BBC’s website and developed the BBC iPlayer. wind generators. enduring the normal constraints of commuting. b. Well-motivated employees likely to be more productive and feel fulfilled and happy in the workplace. Motivation Motivation stimulates and encourages people to put more effort into working. For example. wearing special work attire. Home workers often demonstrate increased productivity. superconducting magnets in medical scanners. It generates about 40% of the UK’s wind energy and it hosts. Siemens also recruits undergraduates and graduates into professional engineering jobs. report fewer distractions. many employees feel that the lack of visibility at the office may result in the loss of promotions. enjoy the freedom to be their own boss. Opportunities Siemens provides opportunities for young people at all levels to enter the world of engineering. and appreciate the benefit of having more time for themselves. Introduction Siemens designed and manufactured products and services for people in their daily lives. The list includes traffic lights. There are programmes for individuals with A-levels that provide work experience alongside the opportunity to study for a degree. Telecommuting frees the jobholder from needing to work fixed hours. This approach has led to Siemens becoming an open culture with opportunities for employees at all levels. It goes beyond the standard approaches to attracting good people because its employees enable it to be competitive. . Siemens case-study focuses on three different theories of motivation to illustrate how employees are motivated within Siemens ‘s engineering environment. REFLECT ON WHAT YOU HAVE READ A. automated factories as well as domestic appliances like kettles and fridges. Siemens has been operating in the UK since 1843 and had more than 427. and having direct contact with supervisors. when there are positives. c. gas turbines. In addition to the feelings of isolation.  Of course. It recruits at a number of different levels. V. it offers apprenticeships for those entering the company with GCSEs. there are also negatives.as one of the options. Many home workers feel that they work too much and are isolated from their family and friends.000 employees all over the world.

Engineering work allows employees to do this by enabling them to get involved and take responsibility for their own jobs. Hierarchy of needs Siemens provides the opportunity for employees to fulfill their higher-order needs. Siemens provides the opportunity for employees to fulfill their higher-order needs. like engineers. Recognition of an employee’s achievements by the employer also helps to meet esteem needs. For skilled. like engineers. An engineering environment generates excitement and challenges. It is also possible to use technology to identify new ways of working and new processes. either individually or as part of a team. It is also possible to use technology to identify new ways of working and new processes. these are likely to be of great importance. or in terms of peer or management recognition of their achievements. Feeling that one’s work is making a difference can improve self-esteem. For skilled. Siemens runs schemes in which suggestions and projects for improvements are rewarded. Training and development also helps individuals to meet the changing demands of the business’ global markets. For example. Esteem is about having self-respect and the respect of others. these are likely to be of great importance. This links with self-actualization as it helps engineers to extend their capabilities which may lead to a progression up the career ladder. For example. Self-actualization is concerned with workers fulfilling their potential. Original solutions and ideas are required to solve problems on a regular basis. Siemens offers engineering staff training and development opportunities. Feeling that one’s work is making a difference can improve self-esteem. This could be financially. or in terms of peer or management recognition of their achievements. Recognition of an employee’s achievements by the employer also helps to meet esteem needs. An engineering environment generates excitement and challenges. creative workers. Engineering work allows employees to do this by enabling them to get involved and take responsibility for their own jobs. These appeal to the higher needs of employees. Siemens runs schemes in which suggestions and projects for improvements are rewarded. This could be financially. Esteem is about having self-respect and the respect of others. Siemens offers engineering staff training and development opportunities.1. Individuals can seek to make improvements and changes. These appeal to the higher needs of employees. Self-actualization is concerned with workers fulfilling their potential. This links with self-actualization as it helps engineers to extend their . either individually or as part of a team. Original solutions and ideas are required to solve problems on a regular basis. creative workers. Individuals can seek to make improvements and changes.

Hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) Hygiene factors are things that can upset employees in the workplace. For example: • company policy may frustrate some employees and be viewed to some as a hindrance • bureaucracy or needless paperwork may be considered to be a barrier to getting a job completed • sometimes working conditions are not thought to be suitable • other factors may be poor salary or staff feeling they are not valued nor consulted. Satisfiers/dissatisfiers Frederick Herzberg also believed that people have needs that should be satisfied within the workplace. He felt that if people had their needs satisfied they would be productive employees. Herzberg theorised that there were two influences that affected how people felt about their job. It resulted in his twofactor theory.capabilities which may lead to a progression up the career ladder. 1. The nature of the work itself is very important. They are outside the control of the individual but have a huge influence on the roles of each worker. Motivators (or satisfiers) There are a number of aspects of any workplace that give individuals job satisfaction. Things that satisfy people in the workplace and make them happy are: • the opportunity for personal development • achievement • recognition • promotion • levels of responsibility 2. . Training and development also helps individuals to meet the changing demands of the business’ global markets. Herzberg’s research focused upon the activities of engineers and accountants. Some individuals just love what they do. ii.

Higher order needs are also provided for its engineers through training and development. This has helped Siemens to manage change programmes. Siemens managers have to balance dissatisfiers against motivators. They also need to ensure that hygiene factors are met or managed in order to avoid dissatisfaction in the workplace. In the past. They have higher order needs. This case study illustrates how the work of Maslow and Herzberg applies in a modern engineering environment like Siemens more than Taylor’s. Motivators at Siemens are the factors that stimulate engineers to work in the best way possible. They then understand and recognise the need for change. Whether individuals enter the organisation after they have taken their A-levels. as the work of Frederick Taylor illustrated. d. as apprentices or as graduates. Siemens employees are motivated by being recognised for their achievements and by having opportunities for progression. regardless of the level at which they started working for Siemens. Lower order needs are met by the organization providing good pay and a safe working environment. Frederick Herzberg discovered there are also elements within the workplace that both satisfy and dissatisfy employees. Individuals now need to be motivated in a completely different way. They enjoy the characteristics of their roles. The creative nature of engineering appeals to people who like a challenge and who enjoy solving problems within a creative environment. Conclusion Motivating employees is an important role for managers. Siemens believes the best method is to raise awareness of issues with employees and encourage their involvement. the work they undertake is stimulating. To reduce dissatisfaction. Being empowered helps them to manage their roles and enables them to use this power to change things. motivation theory linked very closely to pay and output. VI. Policies and procedures that may cause dissatisfaction have to be managed. This was illustrated through the work of Abraham Maslow. as well as the opportunity to undertake creative and challenging work.Herzberg’s thory showed that managers need to attend to the motivating factors and personal development aspects to improve employee performance. INDENTIFY ACTIONS YOU PLAN .