Morse code | Wireless | Telecommunications Engineering

Morse code

Chart of the Morse code letters and numerals

Morse code is a method of transmitting textual information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment. The International Morse Code encodes the Roman alphabet, the Arabic numerals and a small set of punctuation and procedural signals as standardized sequences of short and long signals called "dots" and "dashes" respectively, or "dits" and "dahs". Because many non-English natural languages use more than the 26 Roman letters, extensions to the Morse alphabet exist for those languages. Each character (letter or numeral) is represented by a unique sequence of dots and dashes. The duration of a dash is three times the duration of a dot. Each dot or dash is followed by a short silence, equal to the dot duration. The dot duration is the basic unit of time measurement in code transmission. Morse code speed is measured in words per minute (wpm). Characters have differing lengths because they contain differing numbers of dots and dashes. Consequently words also have different lengths in terms of dot duration, even when they contain the same number of characters. For this reason licencing bodies, such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the US, pick a standard word to measure operator transmission speed. "PARIS" and "CODEX" are two such standard words. An important feature of Morse code is coding efficiency. The length of each character in Morse is approximately inversely proportional to its frequency of occurrence in English. Thus, the most common letter in English has the shortest code, a single dot. A related but different code was originally created for Samuel F. B. Morse's electric telegraph by Alfred Vail in the early 1840s. This code was the forerunner on which modern International Morse code is based. In the 1890s it began to be extensively used for early radio communication before it was possible to transmit voice. In the early part of the twentieth century, most high-speed international communication used Morse code on telegraph lines, undersea cables and radio circuits. However, on-off keying, variable character lengths, the limited character set and the lack offorward error correction are inefficient and poorly suited to computer reception, so machine-to-machine communication generally uses frequency shift keying (FSK) or phase shift keying (PSK) and encodes text in the Baudot, ASCII and Unicode character sets. Morse code is most popular among amateur radio operators although it is no longer required for licensing in most countries, including the US.Pilots and air traffic controllers are usually familiar with Morse code and require a basic understanding. Aeronautical navigational aids, such as VORs and NDBs, constantly identify in Morse code. Because it can be read by humans without a decoding device, Morse is sometimes a useful alternative to synthesized speech for sending automated digital data to skilled listeners on voice channels.

Many amateur radio repeaters, for example, identify with Morse even though they are used for voice communications. For emergency signals, Morse code can be sent by way of improvised sources that can be easily "keyed" on and off, making it one of the simplest and most versatile methods of telecommunication.

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1 Development and history 2 International Morse Code

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2.1 Aviation 2.2 Amateur radio 2.3 Speed records 2.4 Other uses 2.5 Applications for the general public 2.6 Morse code as an assistive technology

3 Representation, timing and speeds 4 Learning Morse Code 5 Letters, numbers, punctuation

○ ○ ○ • • • •

5.1 Prosigns 5.2 Non-English extensions to the Morse code 5.3 Non-Latin extensions to Morse code

6 Alternative display of more common characters in International Morse code 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

edit]Development and history

known as the J-38. and that portion of the moving tape remained unmarked. This machine was based on their 1840 telegraph and worked well. and the longer ones "dashes". the American physicist Joseph Henry." This U. and Alfred Vail developed an electrical telegraphsystem. in contrast with any system of making sounds of clicks. The Morse code was developed so that operators could translate the indentations marked on the paper tape into text messages. and the letters most commonly used were assigned the shorter sequences of dots and dashes. In 1837. the electromagnet retracted the stylus. This system sent pulses of electric current along wires which controlled an electromagnet that was located at the receiving end of the telegraph system. however. and remains in widespread use today. Morse had planned to only transmit numerals. In his earliest code. so it could be used more generally. was manufactured in huge quantities during World War II. B. William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone in England began using an electrical telegraph that also used electromagnets in its receivers. Morse's original telegraph receiver used a mechanical clockwork to move a paper tape. Morse. was designed to make indentations on a paper tape when electric currents were received. their system used pointing needles that rotated above alphabetical charts to indicate the letters that were being sent. an electromagnet engaged an armature that pushed a stylus onto the moving paper tape. which was first used in about 1844.[1] On the other hand.A typical "straight key. the American artist Samuel F. the code was soon expanded by Alfred Vail to include letters and special characters. However. the three Americans' system for telegraphy. When the current was interrupted. In a straight key. and use a dictionary to look up each word according to the number which had been sent. the signal is "on" when the knob is pressed. Cooke and Wheatstone in 1841 built a telegraph that printed the letters from a wheel of typefaces struck by a hammer. When an electrical current was received. model. and "off" when it is released. making an indentation on the tape.[2] The shorter marks were called "dots". Length and timing of the dots and dashes are entirely controlled by the operator. . Vail determined the frequency of use of letters in the English language by counting the movable type he found in the type-cases of a local newspaper in Morristown. they failed to find customers for this system and only two examples were ever built. Beginning in 1836. However.S.

The telegraph operators soon learned that they could translate the clicks directly into dots and dashes. For example.[3] To reflect the sounds of Morse code receivers. thus making it unnecessary to use a paper tape. 3. 1. and write these down by hand. the operators began to vocalise a dot as "dit". Morse code in radio systems started to be used on a regular basis in the 1920s.Comparison of historical versions of Morse code with the current standard. The modified and rationalised version used by Gerke on German railways.[7] However. the letter "c" was then vocalised as "dah-di-dah-dit". the dots and dashes were sent as short and long pulses. instead of one read from a page. It was later found that people became more proficient at receiving Morse code when it is taught as a language that is heard. and in the 1920s there was no . there was no aeronautical radio in use during World War I. there had been some earlier attempts. When Morse code was adapted to radio communication. American Morse code as originally defined. Although previous transmitters were bulky and the spark gap system of transmission was difficult to use. In 1910 the U. The current ITU standard. 2. In the original Morse telegraphs.S. Dots which are not the final element of a character became vocalised as "di". Navy experimented with sending Morse from an airplane. and a dash as "dah".[4][5] In aviation. the receiver's armature made a clicking noise as it moved in and out of position to mark the paper tape. [6] That same year a radio on the Airship America had been instrumental in coordinating the rescue of its crew.

and in North Africa. when the first airplane flight was made from California to Australia in the 1930s on the Southern Cross (airplane).S. was created by Friedrich Clemens Gerke in 1848 and initially used for telegraphy between Hamburg and Cuxhaven in Germany. Gerke changed nearly half of the alphabet and all of the numerals resulting in substantially the modern form of the code. Lindbergh was truly alone and incommunicado. when it was replaced by the Global Maritime Distress Safety System. the final message transmitted was "Calling all. This is our last cry before our eternal silence. Once he and the Spirit of St.or three-letter identifiers in Morse code. both for use with early communications systems and identification of navigational beacons which transmitted continuous two. and troop ships. and the U. the Royal Canadian Navy. Radio telegraphy was also extensively used by system used by such important flights as that of Charles Lindbergh from New York to Paris in 1927. because the voice radio systems on ships then were quite limited in both their range. Italy. andHolland. and no longer monitors any radio frequencies for Morse code transmissions. What is called Morse code today is actually somewhat different from what was originally developed by Vail and Morse. On the other hand. and later International Morse Code made the standard by . both civilian and military pilots were required to be able to use Morse Code. the Imperial Japanese Navy. and in southern Germany in 1945. because they moved more rapidly than telegraph and telephone lines could be erected. the Royal Australian Navy. the U. France (in 1940). Louis were off the ground. Belgium. When the French Navy ceased using Morse code on January 31. by the British Army in North Africa. In addition. International Morse Code was standardized at the International Telegraphy Congress in 1865 in Paris. especially by long-range patrol planes that were sent out by these navies to scout for enemy warships.[citation needed] [ edit]International Morse Code Morse code has been in use for more than 160 years — longer than any other electrical coding system. Army in France and Belgium (in 1944). Beginning in the 1930s. cargo ships. 1997. the Kriegsmarine. or continental code.S. and their security. including the international CW medium frequency (MF) distress frequency of 500 kHz. rapidly-moving armies in the field could not have fought effectively without radio telegraphy. using encrypted messages. This was seen especially in the blitzkrieg offensives of the Nazi GermanWehrmacht in Poland. The Modern International Morse code. Navy. Morse code was used as an international standard for maritime communication until 1999. After some minor changes."[8] The United States Coast Guard has ceased all use of Morse code on the radio. and by the U. especially in carrying messages between the warships and the naval bases of the Royal Navy. Aeronautical charts show the identifier of each navigational aid next to its location on the map. Coast Guard. the Soviet Union. Longrange ship-to-ship communications was by radio telegraphy. one of its four crewmen was its radio operator who communicated with ground stations via radio telegraph. Radio telegraphy using Morse code was vital during World War II.S.

The paddle. American Morse code is now seldom used except in historical re-enactments. such asfrequency shift keying. which tells pilots and navigators that the station is unreliable. since voice-capable radio transmitters did not become commonly available until around 1920. they all emit a short set of identification letters (usually a two-to-five-letter version of the station name) in Morse code. International Morse code today is most popular among amateur radio operators. generates a series of dits. [edit]Amateur radio Vibroplex semiautomatic key (also called a "bug"). The original amateur radio operators used Morse code exclusively. Morse's original code specification. [edit]Aviation In aviation. For example.the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Other keying methods are available in radio telegraphy. However. If a VOR station begins malfunctioning it broadcasts "TST" (for "TEST"). Station identification letters are shown on air navigation charts. To ensure that the stations they are using are serviceable. when pressed to the right by the thumb.[10] . Until 2003 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) mandated Morse code proficiency as part of the amateur radio licensing procedure worldwide. Like many Morse code abbreviations. instrument pilots use radio navigation aids. and MCT in Morse code is transmitted on its radio frequency.[9] Many countries subsequently removed the Morse requirement from their licence requirements. the World Radiocommunication Conference of 2003 (WRC-03) made the Morse code requirement for amateur radio licensing optional. where it is used as the pattern to key a transmitter on and off in the radio communications mode commonly referred to as "continuous wave" or "CW". the paddle generates a dah. the length and timing of which are controlled by a sliding weight toward the rear of the unit. When pressed to the left by the knuckle of the index finger. the VOR based at Manchester Airport in England is abbreviated as "MCT". TST has a particularly noticeable sound—dah di-di-dit dah. the length of which is controlled by the operator. Left-handed operators use a key built as a mirror image of this one. largely limited to use in the United States and Canada. Multiple dahs require multiple presses. became known as American Morse code or railroad code.

the FCC reduced the Extra Class requirement to five WPM. Morse code is usually received as a high-pitched audio tone. The American Radio Relay League offers a code proficiency certification program that starts at 10 WPM. 2000. as well as for low-power transmissions (commonly called "QRP operation". a demonstration of the ability to send and receive Morse code at five words per minute (WPM) based upon the PARIS standard word was required to receive an amateur radio license for use in the United States from the Federal Communications Commission. The fact that the transmitted power is concentrated into a very limited bandwidth makes it possible to use narrow receiver filters. so transmissions are easier to copy than voice through the noise on congested frequencies. with one notable exception being the 60 meter band in North America. While voice and data transmissions are limited to specific amateur radio bands under U. Although the traditional telegraph key (straight key) is still used by many amateurs. Until 2000. Computer software is also frequently employed to produce and decode Morse code radio signals. and VHF. The relatively limited speed at which Morse code can be sent led to the development of an extensive number of abbreviations to speed communication. In some countries. it requires less complex transmission equipment than other forms of radio communication. Morse code also requires less signal bandwidth than voice communication. XYL or OM is used by an operator when referring to his or her spouse. Because Morse code transmissions employ an on-off keyed radio signal. proficiency at the 20 WPM level based upon the PARIS standard word was required to receive the highest level of amateur license (Extra Class). the highest of these has a standard of 60 WPM. The narrow signal bandwidth also takes advantage of the natural aural selectivity of the human brain. from the Qcode for "reduce power").wife) are common pronouns. typically 100–150 Hz. These include prosigns and Q codes. plus a restricted standardized format for typical messages.[11] Finally. Demonstration of this ability was still required for the privilege to use the HF bands. This use of abbreviations for common terms permits conversation even when the operators speak different languages. HF. For example. YL (young lady) and XYL ("ex YL" . UHF. and it can be used in very high noise / low signal environments. compared to the roughly 2400 Hz used by single-sideband voice. OM (old man). MF. the use of mechanical semi-automatic keyers (known as "bugs") and of fully-automatic electronic keyers is prevalent today. effective on February 23.Until 1991. although at a lower data rate. rules. There are several amateur clubs that require solid high speed copy. 2007. the FCC eliminated the Morse code proficiency requirements from all amateur radio licenses. This efficiency makes CW extremely useful for DX (distance) transmissions. further enhancing weak signal readability. which suppress or eliminate interference on nearby frequencies. certain portions of the amateur radio bands are reserved for transmission of Morse code signals only. CW is permitted on all amateur bands—LF. effective April 15. CQ is broadcast to be interpreted as "seek you" (I'd like to converse with anyone who can hear my signal). [edit]Speed records . YL or OM is used by an operator when referring to the other operator.S.

2 WPM. NC in the United States Ted R. Certificates of Code Proficiency are issued by several amateur radio societies. including the American Radio Relay League. William Pierpont N0HFF notes some operators may have passed 100 WPM.[12] In his online book on high speed sending. the timing of which is controlled by the electronic keyer. International contests in code copying are still occasionally held.[13] Also. For example speeds run with the CODEX standard word and the PARIS standard may differ by up to 20%. whose awards start at 10 WPM and are available to anyone who can copy the transmitted text. The fastest speed ever sent by a straight key was achieved in 1942 by Harry Turner W9YZE (d. but pressing the right paddle generates a series of dahs. [edit]Other uses . and squeezing the paddles produces dit-dah-ditdah sequence. Manipulation of dual-lever paddles is similar to the Vibroplex. Army base. In July 1939 at a contest in Asheville.A commercially manufactured iambic paddle used in conjunction with an electronic keyer to generate high-speed Morse code. By this time they are "hearing" phrases and sentences rather than words. Today among amateur operators there are several high speed code organizations. Operators skilled in Morse code can often understand ("copy") code in their heads at rates in excess of 40 WPM. To accurately compare code copying speed records of different eras it is useful to keep in mind that different standard words (50 dot durations versus 60 dot durations) and different interword gaps (5 dot durations versus 7 dot durations) may have been used when determining such speed records. 1992) who reached 35 WPM in a demonstration at a U. The actions are reversed for left-handed operators.S. one going as high as 60 WPM. 75. McElroy set a still-standing record for Morse copying.

Codes were sung by users. as a way to communicate while maintaining radio silence. "· · · — — — · · ·".A U.S. As of 2010 commercial radiotelegraph licenses using code tests based upon the CODEX standard word are still being issued in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission. including those of the U. see the voice . Navy. flashing a mirror. [edit]Morse code as an assistive technology Morse code has been employed as an assistive technology. Navy seaman sends Morse code signals in 2005. as long as they have some minimal motor control. An original solution to the problem that care takers have to learn to decode has been an electronic typewriter with the codes written on the keys. Modern use continues. though many VOR stations now also provide voice identification. toggling a flashlight and similar methods. However. Morse can be sent by persons with severe motion disabilities. in part. have long used signal lamps to exchange messages in Morse code. Radio navigation aids such as VORs and NDBs for aeronautical use broadcast identifying information in the form of Morse Code. since 1999 the use of satellite and very high frequency maritime communications systems (GMDSS) have essentially made them obsolete.[14] Warships. Designed for shipboard and coast station operators. helping people with a variety of disabilities to communicate. An important application is signalling for help through SOS.S. they are awarded to applicants who pass written examinations on advanced radio theory and show 20 WPM code proficiency [this requirement is currently waived for "old" (20 WPM) Amateur Extra Class licensees]. [edit]Applications for the general public Representation of SOS-Morse code. This can be sent many ways: keying a radio on and off.

and the TandemMaster. Morse-blinked the word TORTURE. . And several interesting books on Morse Code in rehabilitation were written by Thomas King. available from www. People with severe motion disabilities in addition to sensory disabilities (e. An important advantage of Morse code over row column scanning is that. (Reference needed). Newell and Nabarro. it appears faster than scanning." sent as Morse code at 13 WPM. timing and speeds A sample Morse code transmission The text "Welcome to Wikipedia. Morse code A through Z It says "A B C D E F G H I J KLMNOPQRSTUVW X Y Z" in Morse code at 8 WPM Problems listening to this file? See media help. In these two cases interpreters were available to understand those series of eye-blinks.g. once brought on television by his North Vietnamese captors. Several electronic interfaces are commercially available that translate Morse code into character codes and thereby replace all of a traditional QWERTY keyboard. Special codes are available to move the mouse too.WestestEngineering. Another example occurred in 1966 when prisoner of war Jeremiah Denton. the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit.tandemmaster. In some cases this means alternately blowing into and sucking on a plastic tube ("puff and sip" interface).com. Those interfaces are the Darci2. [ edit]Representation. it does not require to look at a display. Also.typewriter employing morse or votem. Morse code can also be translated by computer and used in a speaking communication aid. 1968. people who are also deaf or blind) can receive Morse through a skin buzzer. In one case reported in the radio amateur magazine QST. available from www. an old shipboard radio operator who had a stroke and lost the ability to speak or write was able to communicate with his physician (a radio amateur) by blinking his eyes in Morse. Problems listening to this file? See media help.

This is called their "fist". a flashing light) using devices like an Aldis lamp or a heliograph. as there are five fundamental elements (see quinary). short mark. However. short mark. short gap (between letters) — three units long 5. for example using slightly longer or shorter dashes or gaps. Morse code is transmitted using just two states (on and off) so it was an early form of a digital code. perhaps only for particular characters.g. In addition. but also as an audio tone. or as a mechanical or visual signal (e. individual operators differ slightly. dash or 'dah' (–) — three units long inter-element gap between the dots and dashes within a character — one dot duration or one unit long 4. . 2. dot or 'dit' (·) — 'dot duration' is one unit long longer mark.This section includes inline links to audio files. see Wikipedia Media help. Strictly speaking it is not binary. 2. A "poor fist" is a characteristic of sloppy or hard to copy Morse code. 3. short gap (between letters) — 000 medium gap (between words) — 0000000 Note that this method assumes that dits and dahs are always separated by dot duration gaps. medium gap (between words) — seven units long[15] Morse code can be transmitted in a number of ways: originally as electrical pulses along a telegraph wire. dash or 'dah' (–) — 111 intra-character gap (between the dots and dashes within a character) —0 4. Morse messages are generally transmitted by a hand-operated device such as a telegraph key. this is the function that telegraph operators perform when transmitting messages. In an abstract sense. a radio signal with short and long tones. and that gaps are always separated by dits and dahs. International Morse code is composed of five elements: 1. Working from the above definitions and further defining a 'unit' as a bit. so there are variations introduced by the skill of the sender and receiver — more experienced operators can send and receive at faster speeds. and receivers can recognize specific individuals by it alone. If you have trouble playing the files. A good operator who sends clearly and is easy to copy is said to have a "good fist". 5. this does not mean Morse code cannot be represented as a binary code. we can visualize any Morse code sequence as a combination of the following five elements: 1. dot or 'dit' (·) — 1 longer mark. 3.

Thus commercial operators are tested at a wpm speed 20% faster than amateur radio operators were tested at the same 'nominal' wpm speeds. Commercial radiotelegraph candidates are tested on their ability to copy five character randomized code groups by ear while simultaneously recording the characters on paper with 100% accuracy by either. the number of dot durations in the standard word PARIS is 43. Typically in the United States the word "CODEX" is still used by the FCC for determining the wpm speed of Morse code for commercial radio telegraph operator tests. The word PARIS was used because it was felt to be representative of a typical text in the English language. Amateur radio Morse test candidates were tested based upon their ability to simply listen to English plain language messages in code and to later answer multiple choice questions about the content of the message. Although many amateur Morse operators exhibit superb code copying abilities.The measure of the speed of Morse code is wpm. Stated in words. by manually typing on a standard typewriter. which defines the speed of Morse transmission as the timing needed to send either the word "PARIS" or the word "CODEX" a given number of times per minute. i. for the FCC T3. Adding the current standard interword gap of 7 dot durations to each of these numbers results in a total word length of 50 dot durations (43+7) for PARIS and a total word length of 60 dot durations (53+7) for CODEX. CODEX based nominal wpm speeds are 20% (6/5 times) faster than PARIS based nominal wpm speeds. and certain so-called 'prosigns'. according to either the PARIS standard or alternatively the CODEX standard. 100% accurate copy and recording on paper of the actual characters being sent was not required to pass amateur radio operator Morse tests. Consequently the ratio of the same wpm code speeds using the two different standard words is 6/5 = 1. manually writing on paper with pencil. the word PARIS was used to determine the speed of International Morse for amateur radio operator code tests by the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or the FCC Volunteer Examiners.e. Unlike the amateur code tests. Generally in Morse code measurements 'characters' is meant to include all of the alphabetic 'letters' plus 'numbers' plus 'punctuation marks'. For example the 20 wpm speed test for the FCC T2 commercial operator test was actually 24 wpm as compared to the FCC Amateur Extra Class 20 wpm test speed. or alternatively. while the amateur test candidates.e. i. and the choice was also influenced by the fact that the decision was taken at the International Telegraph Conference in Paris 1865. while the number of dot durations in the standard word CODEX is 53. perfect recording on paper of all characters sent by code is required by commercial operator Morse code tests. Commercial test candidates are required to record 100% accurate copy on paper for at least 1 minute of 5 minutes sent. [citation needed] The word CODEX was chosen because it was thought to be typical of randomly selected five character code groups. were only required to understand 3 minutes of plain English without the requirement for 100% accurate recording of the characters copied. copying at a speed 20% slower than commercial operators. Measured in dot periods or dot durations. In the past. as might be expected from the test requirement differences between commercial and . T2 and T1 Radiotelegraph operator licenses.2.

[citation needed] making the total length of the reference word only 48 units. W is the speed in wpm.--.-·· · C O D E Next is the exact conventional timing for this phrase.·-· ··· · M O R S E -·-· --. each for the time length of exactly one dit: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 123456789012345678901234567890123456789012 345678901234567890123456789012345678901234 56789 M-----O---------R-----S---E C---------O---------D-----E .amateur code tests. The 40 % difference of the two inter word spacing lengths does have an impact on the evaluation of the results of receiving speed competitions performed at various occasions. Today the length of the reference word PARIS is 50 units (including 7 units of word spacing). Below is an illustration of timing conventions. At the Paris Conference the standard word spacing was specified to be only 5 units. The phrase "MORSE CODE".represents dahs and · represents dits: -. X WPM at 5 units word spacing is more difficult to copy than the same text sent at the same nominal speed with 7 units word spacing. where . Based upon a 50 dot duration standard word such as PARIS. there is a substantially more difficult level of code copying ability required of commercial operator test candidates than amateur operator test candidates. the time for one dot duration or one unit can be computed by the formula: T = 1200 / W or T = 6000 / C Where: T is the unit time or dot duration in milliseconds. and . representing "signal off". and C is the speed in cpm. in Morse code format. which may be seen in older literature. would normally be written something like this. with = representing "signal on". In the past the interword gap was not always standardized.

. named after German psychologist Ludwig Koch.===.=... the sounds of all of the letters and symbols need to be learned. are taught to send and receive letters and other symbols at their full target speed.=. named for Donald R. and so on until the full character set is .=.=.===..===. The spacing can then be reduced with practice and familiarity..===.. rather.===.--. but begins with just two characters..===..===.===. "dit" for dots located at the end of a character. also known by his call sign. an additional character is added. =.. Thus.===...=.===. Another popular teaching method is theKoch method.= ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ | dah dit | | symbol space letter space word space Morse code is often spoken or written with "dah" for dashes. Once strings containing those two characters can be copied with 90% accuracy.=. initially exaggerated spaces between symbols and words are used.. dashes and spaces within each symbol for that speed. the following Morse code sequence: M O R S E C O D E -. for both sending and receiving.·-· ··· · (space) -·-· --..=.-·· · is verbally: Dah-dah dah-dah-dah di-dah-dit di-di-dit dit.. W6TTB.===. which uses the full target speed from the outset..=. "Russ" Farnsworth. [ edit]Learning Morse Code People learning Morse code using the Farnsworth method. Note that there is little point in learning to read written Morse as above. to give "thinking time" to make the sound "shape" of the letters and symbols easier to learn.. However.. =. Dah-di-dah-dit dahdah-dah dah-di-dit dit. and "di" for dots located at the beginning or internally within the character.===.... that is with normal relative timing of the dots.

Mi — · · ··— n mark [!] — nus [-] — —· F (info) · · O (info) — X (info) — · 6 (info) — · · Slash [/]. the American Radio Relay League's headquarters station.dit.di . many thousands of individuals have increased their code recognition speed (after initial memorization of the characters) by listening to the regularly scheduled code practice transmissions broadcast by W1AW. In North America. For instance "Q" in Morse is dah . and the Morse for "F" is di .dah. numbers.dah .] ·— ·— ·— Colon [:] —— —·· · B (info) —· ·· K (info) —· — T (info) — 2 (info) ··— — — Comma [.] —· — C (info) —· —· L (info) ·— ·· U (info) ·· — 3 (info) ··· — — Question mark [?] ·· — —· · Double dash [=] —·· ·— D (info) —· · M (info) — — V (info) ··· — 4 (info) ·— · · · · Apostrophe — — — ['] —· Plus [+] ·—· —· E (info) · N (info) — · W (info) ·— — 5 (info) ···· · Exclamatio — · Hyphen. Fr — · Underscore · · — — ·— —· .di ." [ edit]Letters.] — —· — · Semicolon [ —· · — . punctuation Character Co de Character Code Chara Co Chara Co Chara Co Chara Cod cter de cter de cter de cter e A (info) · — J (info) ·— — — S (info) · · · 1 (info) ·— — — — Period [. which can be memorized as "Did she like it. In the United Kingdom many people learned the Morse code by means of a series of words or phrases that have the same rhythm as a Morse character.mastered.dah . which can be memorized by the phrase "God save the Queen".

[16] The new character facilitates sending electronic mail addresses by Morse code and is notable since it is the first official addition to the Morse set of characters since World War I. On May 24. although the KW digraph (— · — · — —) was proposed in the 1980s by the Heathkit Company (a vendor of assembly kits for amateur radio equipment). While Morse code translation software prefers this version. a huge collection of abbreviations used on land line telegraphy. The $ sign code was represented in the Phillips Code. Wait —· There is no standard representation for the exclamation mark (!). $ and the _ signs are not defined inside the ITU recommendation on Morse code. The representation of the &-sign given above is also the Morse prosign for wait. on-air use is not yet universal as some amateur radio operators in Canada and the USA continue to prefer the older MNdigraph (— — — ·) carried over from American landline telegraphy code. This sequence was reportedly chosen to represent "A[T] C[OMMERCIAL]" or a letter "a" inside a swirl represented by a "C". 2004—the 160th anniversary of the first public Morse telegraph transmission—the Radiocommunication Bureau of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) formally added the @ ("commercial at" or "commat") character to the official Morse character set. using the sequence denoted by the AC digraph (· — — · — ·). as SX. The &.—· — ·— ·· action bar · [_] — — ·— G (info) — · P (info) — · Y (info) — — —· — —· Quotation 7 (info) — · · Parenthesis — open [(] · — · mark ["] ·—· ·—· H (info) ··· · Q (info) — —· — Z (info) — —· · 8 (info) — Parenthesis — closed [)] —·· —· — —· — Dollar sign [$] ··· —·· — I (info) ·· R (info) ·— · 0 (info) — — — — — 9 (info) — — — —· ·— Ampersand · — At sign [@] — · ··· [&]. .

Korean Morse code uses the SKATS mapping.· - Defined in the ITU recommendation.· · · Error · · · · · · · · Understood ···-· Invitation to transmit . Chinese telegraph code is used to map Chinese characters to four-digit codes and send these digits out using standard Morse code.[edit]Prosigns Main article: Prosigns for Morse code Character(s) Code Character(s) Code Character(s) Code Wait · .· - Starting Signal .· - End of work · · · .· . [edit]Non-English extensions to the Morse code Character(s) Code Character(s) Code Character(s) Code ä (also æ and ą) · — · — è (also ł) ·—··– ñ (also ń) ——·— — à (also å) ·——·— é (also đ and ę · · — · · ) ö (also ø and ó) — — — · ç (also ĉ and ć) — · — · · ĝ ——·—· ŝ ···—· ch (also š) ——— — ĥ — · — — · (Obsolete ) — — — — (New) þ ("Thorn") ·——·· ð ("Eth") ś ··——· ĵ ź ·———· ü (also ŭ) ż ··—— ···—··· ——··—· ——··— [edit]Non-Latin extensions to Morse code Main article: Other alphabets in Morse code For Chinese. originally developed to allow Korean to be .

A graphical representation of the dichotomic search table: the user branches left at every dot and right at every dash until the character is finished. [ edit]Alternative display of more common characters in International Morse code See also: Huffman coding Some methods of teaching or learning Morse code use the dichotomic search table below. SKATS maps hangul characters to arbitrary letters of the Roman alphabet and has no relationship to pronunciation in Korean.typed on western typewriters. O — — — M — — G — — · T — K — · — N — · D — · · W · — — A · — R · — · E · U · · — I · · S · · · CH Ö Q Z Y C X B J P Ä L Ü F V H — — — — — — — — · · · · · · · · — — — — · · · · — — — — · · · · — — · · — — · · — — · · — — · · — · — · — · — · — · — · — · — · [ edit]See also ACP-131 Chinese telegraph code The CW Operators' Club    .

2005. 2. 3. The Economist. 2005. ^ "1998 Biennial Regulatory Review — Amendment of Part 97 of the Commission's Amateur Service Rules. 2002. Archived from the original on October 31. ^ "An obituary for Morse code". ^ R. issue 69. 12. January 23. 9. April 20. 1999. Peter Carron. p. p. . "Morse code-the essential language". ^ ARRLWeb: Italy Joins No-Code Ranks as FCC Revives Morse Debate in the US 11. ^ IARUWeb: The International Amateur Radio Union 10. American Radio Relay League. J.         [ Guglielmo Marconi High Speed Telegraphy Instructograph List of international common standards Morse code abbreviations Morse code mnemonics NATO phonetic alphabet Russian Morse code Wabun Code edit]References 1.84.79. ^ L. Radio Society of Great Britain. ^ 100 Years ago this airship sailed from Atlantic City 8." (PDF). ^ "The Art & Skill of Radio Telegraphy". ^ ARRLWeb: ARRLWeb: Learning Morse Code (CW)! 4. 1985 ISBN 090061269X. Radio amateur's library. Amateur radio operating manual. 5. 1986 ISBN 0872590356. Retrieved December 4. Eckersley. ^ History of Communications-Electronics in the United States Navy 7. ^ Burns. ^ Burns. Retrieved 2006-04-21. 6.

[ edit]External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Morse code   Morse code at the Open Directory Project http://www. New Character". ^ "Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)". 2007. Retrieved February 27. 2007. Institution of Electrical Engineers. 2004 ISBN 0863413277. Archived from the original on September 30. ^ "International Morse Code Gets a New ITU Home. Communications: an international history of the formative years. Retrieved 200712-10. 2004. Retrieved 2008-01-02 16. Burns. ITU-R M.justlearnmorsecode. 15. ^ Extremely High Speed Club official web page 14.  R. W. Free Morse Code Trainer [show]v · d · eInternational Mor [show]v · d · eCharacter enco [show]v · d · eTypes of writing s Categories: Morse code | History of radio | Amateur radio | Assistive technology | Survival skills | History of telecommunications | Latin-alphabet representations • • • • • • Log in / create account Article Discussion Read Edit View history Top of Form Bottom of Form • • • Main page Contents Featured content .13. ^ International Morse Code.

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