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1.1 Introduction [2]

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research, however, yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in flight tests.

1.1.1 Background and history

Fig. 1.1 A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around theSpace Shuttle during re entry.

Fig 1.2A simulation of the Hyper-X scramjet vehicle in operation at Mach-7

The fundamental basis of almost all CFDproblems are the Navier±Stokes equations, which define any single-phase fluid flow. These equations can be simplified by removing terms describing viscosity to yield the Euler equations. Further simplification,

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by removing terms describing vorticity yields the full potential equations. Finally, these equations can be linearized to yield the linearized potential equations. Historically, methods were first developed to solve the Linearized Potential equations. Two-dimensional methods, using conformal transformations of the flow about a cylinder to the flow about an airfoil were developed in the 1930s. The computer power available paced development of threedimensional methods. The first paper on a practical three-dimensional method to solve the linearized potential equations was published by John Hess and A.M.O. Smith of Douglas Aircraft in 1967.

**1.2 Basic equation used for determining the fluid flow [1] 1.2.1 Navier±Stokes equations
**

In physics the Navier±Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of fluid substances. These equations arise from applying Newton's second law to fluid motion, together with the assumption that the fluid stress is the sum of a diffusingviscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity), plus a pressure term. The equations are useful because they describe the physics of many things of academic and economic interest. They may be used to model the weather, ocean currents, water flow in a pipe and air flow around a wing. The Navier±Stokes equations in their full and simplified forms help with the design of aircraft and cars, the study of blood flow, the design of power stations, the analysis of pollution, and many other things. Coupled with Maxwell's equations they can be used to model and study magneto hydrodynamics. The Navier±Stokes equations dictate not position but rather velocity. A solution of the Navier±Stokes equations is called a velocity field or flow field, which is a description of the velocity of the fluid at a given point in space and time. Once the velocity field is solved for, other quantities of interest (such as flow rate or drag force) may be found. This is different from what one normally sees in classical mechanics, where solutions are typically trajectories of position of a particle or deflection of a continuum. Studying velocity instead of position makes more sense for a fluid; however for visualization purposes one can compute various trajectories

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1.2.1.1 Properties A. Nonlinearity

The Navier±Stokes equations are nonlinearpartial differential equations in almost every real situation. In some cases, such as one-dimensional flow and Stokes flow (or creeping flow), the equations can be simplified to linear equations. The nonlinearity makes most problems difficult or impossible to solve and is the main contributor to the turbulence that the equations model. The nonlinearity is due to convective acceleration, which is an acceleration associated with the change in velocity over position. Hence, any convective flow, whether turbulent or not, will involve nonlinearity. An example of convective but laminar (nonturbulent) flow would be the passage of a viscous fluid (for example, oil) through a small converging nozzle. Such flows, whether exactly solvable or not, can often be thoroughly studied and understood.

B. Turbulence

Turbulence is the time dependent chaotic behavior seen in many fluid flows. It is generally believed that it is due to the inertia of the fluid as a whole: the culmination of time dependent and convective acceleration; hence flows where inertial effects are small tend to be laminar (the Reynolds number quantifies how much the flow is affected by inertia). It is believed, though not known with certainty, that the Navier±Stokes equations describe turbulence properly

C. Applicability

Together with supplemental equations (for example, conservation of mass) and well formulated boundary conditions, the Navier±Stokes equations seem to model fluid motion accurately; even turbulent flows seem (on average) to agree with real world observations. The Navier±Stokes equations assume that the fluid being studied is a continuum not moving at relativistic velocities. At very small scales or under extreme conditions, real fluids made out of discrete molecules will produce results different from the

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continuous flui s modeled by t e Navier±Stokes equations. Depending on t e Knudsen number of t e problem, statistical mechanics or possibly even molecular dynamics may be a more appropriate approach.

1.2.1.2 Deri

i

and descri i n

The derivation of the Navier±Stokes equations begins with an application of Newton's second law: conservation of momentum (often alongside mass and energy conservation) being written for an arbitrary portion of the fluid. In an inertial frame of reference, the general form of the equations of fluid motion is:

where

is the flow velocity,

is the fluid density, p is the pressure,

is the

(deviatoric) stress tensor, and represents body forces (per unit volume) acting on the fluid and is the del operator. This is a statement of the conservation of momentum in a

fluid and it is an application of Newton's second law to a continuum; in fact this equation is applicable to any non-relativistic continuum and is known as the Cauchy momentum equation. This equation is often written using the material derivativeDv/Dt, making it more apparent that this is a statement of Newton's second law:

The left side of the equation describes acceleration, and may be composed of time dependent or convective effects (also the effects of non -inertial coordinates if present). The right side of the equation is in effect a summation of body forces (such as gra vity) and divergence of stress (pressure and shear stress).

A. Convective acceleration

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Fig. 1.3An example of convection. Though the flow may be steady (time independent), the fluid decelerates as it moves down the diverging duct (assuming incompressible flow), hence there is an acceleration happening over position.

A very significant feature of the Navier±Stokes equations is the presence of convective acceleration: the effect of time independent acceleration of a fluid with respect to space. While individual fluid particles are indeed experiencing time dependent acceleration, the convective acceleration of the flow field is a spatial effect, one example being fluid speeding up in a nozzle. Convective acceleration is represented by the nonlinear quantity:

which may be interpreted either as of the velocity vector

or as

with

the tensor derivative

Both interpretations give the same result, independent of the is interpreted as the covariant derivative.

coordinate system provided

(i

nterpretation as (v· )v

The convection term is often written as

where the advection operator

is used. Usually this representation is preferred

because it is simpler than the one in terms of the tensor derivative

(ii)

nterpretation as v·( v)

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dynamic or not. Thus. a force model is needed relating the stresses to the fluid motion. this is only a shear effect. Stresses The effect of stress in the fluid is represented by the gradients of surface forces. be expressed without a tensor derivative: The form has use in irrotational flow. Newton's second law.Here is the tensor derivative of the velocity vector. and the stress tensor is equal to: where is the 3×3 identity matrix. analogous to stresses in a solid. is the deviatoric stress tensor. Besides the equations of motion. The stress terms p and are yet unknown. Interestingly. The anisotropic part of the stress tensor gives rise to . assumptions on the specific behavior of a fluid are made (based on natural observations) 6 . convective acceleration is a nonlinear effect. The convection term may. and terms. where the curl of the velocity (called vorticity) is equal to zero. This part is given by normal stresses that turn up in almost all situations. for incompressible flow. not the pressure itself. but its dynamic effect is disregarded in creeping flow (also called Stokes flow). Convective acceleration is present in most flows (exceptions include one-dimensional incompressible flow). by a vector calculus identity. these are is called the pressure gradient and arises from the isotropic part of the stress tensor. equal in Cartesian coordinates to the component by component gradient. For this reason. B. so the general form of the equations of motion is not usable to solve problems. Regardless of what kind of fluid is being dealt with. The effect of the pressure gradient is that fluid flows from high pressure to low pressure. which conventionally describes viscous forces. only the gradient of pressure matters.

e. : y the fluid is assumed to be isotropic. and in turbulence modelling the concept of eddy viscosity is used to approximate the average deviatoric stress.and applied in order to specify the stresses in terms of the other flow variables. such as velocity and density. The Navier±Stokes equations result from the following assumptions on the de viatoric stress tensor y : the deviatoric stress vanishes for a fluid at rest. i. The pressure p is modeled by use of an equation of state. furthermore. since the deviatoric stress tensor is symmetric. and ± by Galilean invariance ± also does not depend directly on the flow velocity itself. but only on spatial derivatives of the flow velocity y in the Navier±Stokes equations. and consequently is an isotropic tensor. in the Navier±Stokes equations the deviatoric stress tensor has the following form: with the quantity between brackets the non-isotropic part of the rate-of-strain tensor The dynamic viscosity does not need to be constant ± in general it depends on conditions like temperature and pressure. so for a three-dimensional flow 2 +3 ´=0 As a result. For the special case of an incompressible flow. the pressure constrains the flow in such a way that the volume of fluid elements is constant: isochoric flow resulting in a solenoidal velocity field with 7 . the deviatoric stress is expressed as the product of the tensor gradient of the flow velocity with a viscosity tensor . it turns out that it can be expressed in terms of two scalar dynamic viscosities and ´: rate-of-strain tensor and y where is the rate of expansion of the flow is the the deviatoric stress tensor has zero trace. as valid for gases and simple liquids.

more information is needed (how much depends on the assumptions made). Gravity in the z direction. Other equations The Navier±Stokes equations are strictly a statement of the conservation of momentum. Since pressure shows up only as a gradient.C. D. In order to fully describe fluid flow. but may include other types(such as electromagnetic forces). the conservation of energy. these forces may be represented as the gradient of some scalar quantity. Typically these consist of only gravity forces. etc. this implies that solving a problem without any such body force can be mended to include the body force by modifying pressure. capillary ( surface.). given in its most general form as: or. The assumption of incompressibility rules out the possibility of sound or shock waves to occur. a statement of the conservation of mass is generally necessary. In a noninertial coordinate system. using the substantive derivative: 1. this may include boundary data no-slip. other "forces" such as that associated with rotating coordinates may be inserted. is the gradient of í gz. Regardless of the flow assumptions. so this simplification is invalid if these 8 .3 Incompressi le flow of Newtonian fluids A simplification of the resulting flow equations is obtained when considering an incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid. Other forces The vector field represents body forces. for example.2.1. the conservation of mass. This is achieved through the mass continuity equation. Often. and/or an equation of state.

phenomena are important. This implies that Newtonian viscosity is diffusion of momentum. such as gravity or centrifugal force. It's well worth observing the meaning of each term (compare to the Cauchy momentum equation): Note that only the convective terms are nonlinear for incompressible Newtonian flow. The incompressible flow assumption typically holds well even when dealing with a "compressible" fluid ² such as air at room temperature ² at low Mach numbers (even when flowing up to about Mach 0. Though individual fluid particles are being accelerated and thus are under unsteady motion. Taking the incompressible flow assumption into account and assuming constant viscosity. homogeneous and Newtonian.3). the Navier±Stokes equations will read. this works in much the same way as the diffusion of heat seen in the heat equation (which also involves the Laplacian). in vector form: Here f represents "other" body forces (forces per unit volume). The shear stress term becomes the useful quantity ( is the vector Laplacian) when the fluid is assumed incompressible. where is the (constant) dynamic viscosity. the flow field (a velocity distribution) will not necessarily be time dependent. Another important observation is that the viscosity is represented by the vector Laplacian of the velocity field (interpreted here as the difference between the velocity at a point and the mean velocity in a small volume around). for example the speeding up of fluid entering a converging nozzle. 9 . The convective acceleration is an acceleration caused by a (possibly steady) change in velocity over position.

While the Cartesian equations seem to follow directly from the vector equation above. The continuity equation reads: When the flow is at steady-state. the vector form of the Navier ±Stokes equation involves some tensor calculus which means that writing it in other coordinate systems is not as simple as doing so for scalar equations (such as the heat equation). and the values ofgx. density is a constant and it follows that the equation will simplify to: These equations are commonly used in 3 coordinates systems: Cartesian.If temperature effects are also neglected. and spherical. The continuity equation is reduced to: does not change with respect to time.gz will depend on the orientation of gravity with respect to the chosen set of coordinates. Note that gravity has been accounted for as a body force. Under the incompressible assumption. 10 . cylindrical.gy. (i) Cartesian coordinates Writing the vector equation explicitly. the only "other" equation (apart fr m o initial/boundary conditions) needed is the mass continuity equation.

flow in horizontal pipe is treated normally without gravity and without a vertical pressure gradient). so that a veloc component can disappear.When the flow is incompressible. is constant and does not change with respect to space. however for most applications either the coordinates are chosen so that the gravity components are constant or else it is assumed that gravity is counteracted by a pressure field (for example. The continuity equation is reduced to: The velocity components (the dependent variables to be solved for) are typically named u. . and the remaining quantities are independent of : 11 . This system of four equations comprises the most commonly used and studied form. The continuity equation is: This cylindrical representation of the incompressible Navier ±Stokes equations is the second most commonly seen (the first being Cartesian above). this is still a nonlinear system of partial differential equations for which solutions are difficult to obtain. A ity very common case is axisymmetric flow with the assumption of no tangential velocity ( u = 0). (ii) Cylindrical coordinates A change of variables on the Cartesian equations will yield the following momentum equations for r. v. and z: The gravity components will generally not be constants. Cylindrical coordinates are chosen to take advantage of symmetry. w. Though comparatively more compact than other representations.

(iv) Stream function formulation 12 . . doing so would undesirably alter the structure of the Laplacian and other quantities. the r.(iii) Spherical coordinates momentum equations are (note the convention In spherical coordinates. 0 ): Mass continuity will read: These equations could be (slightly) compacted by. for example. or colatitude. factoring 1 /r2 from the viscous terms. However. and used: is polar angle.

Note that the equation for creeping flow results when the left side is assumed zero. . the second with respect to x and subtracting the resulting equations will eliminate pressure and any conservative force. One of the obvious examples is sound.1. taking only kinematic viscosity as a parameter.Taking the curl of the Navier±Stokes equation results in the elimination of pressure. This is especially easy to see if 2D Cartesian flow is assumed (w = 0 and no dependence of anything on z).4 Compressi le flow of Newtonian fluids There are some phenomena that are closely linked with fluid compressibility. and then incompressible Newtonian 2D momentum and mass conservation degrade into one equation: where is the (2D) biharmonic operator and is the kinematic viscosity.2. 1. Defining the stream function through results in mass continuity being unconditionally satisfied (given the stream function is continuous). where the equations reduce to: Differentiating the first with respect to y. Description of such phenomena requires more general 13 . We can also express this compactly using the Jacobian determinant: This single equation together with appropriate boundary conditions describes 2D fluid flow.

1 History The Euler equations first appeared in published form in Eulers article ³Principe¶s généraux du movement des fluids.2.´ published in Memories de l'Academie des Sciences de Berlin in 1757.2. and y p is the pressure. 14 . when the divergence of the flow equals zero. also known as second viscositycoefficient or bulk viscosity. If viscosity is assumed a constant. one additional term appears. 1. as shown here: Where v is the volume viscositycoefficient. with e being the internal energy per unit mass for the fluid.2 Conservation and component form In differential form. the equations are: where y y y is the fluid mass density. with components u.2. They were among the first partial differential equations to be written down.presentation of the Navier±Stokes equation that takes into account fluid compressibility.2 Euler¶sequations[2] 1. u is the fluid velocityvector.2. 1. This additional term disappears for an incompressible fluid. E= e + ½ ( u2 + v2 + w2 ) is the total energy per unit volume.2. v. and w.

y . x2 . the Euler equations become: where 15 .2. as this format emphasizes their physical origins (and is often the most convenient form for computational fluid dynamics simulations). can also be expressed in non-conservation form as: but this form obscures the direct connection between the Euler equations and Newton's second law of motion. The second equation. for each j from 1 to 3 one has: where the i and j subscripts label the three Cartesian components: ( x1 . and may be clearer in subscript notation. which represents momentum conservation. x3 ) = ( x .The second equation includes the divergence of a dyadic product.2. u3 ) = ( u . v . 1. z ) and ( u1 . Note that the above equations are expressed in conservation form. u2 .3 Conservation and vector form In vector and conservation form. w ).

especially when used to analyze compressible flow in a duct or in case the flow is cylindrically or spherically symmetric. The well-known Bernoulli's equation can be derived by integrating Euler's equation along a streamline. entropy ± using the Rankine±Hugoniot shock conditions. see Rankine±Hugoniot equation. where is the density. Generally. weak solutions are formulated by working in 'jumps' (discontinuities) into the flow quantities ± density. these discontinuities are smoothed out by viscosity.2. the Euler equations are solved by Riemann'smethod of characteristics. p = ( í1) e.2. Note the odd form for the energy equation. The equations above thus represent conservation of mass.e. Then. Physically this represents a breakdown of the assumptions that led to the formulation of the differential equations. fy and fz are fluxes. is the adiabatic index. This involves finding curves in plane of independent 16 .4 Shock waves The Euler equations are nonlinearhyperbolic equations and their general solutions are waves.2. waves described by the Euler Equations 'break' and so-called shock waves are formed. and e the internal energy).2. There are thus five equations and six unknowns. in real flows. velocity. the most commonly used is the ideal gas law (i. Much like the familiar oceanic waves. and energy. three components of momentum. 1. Physical quantities are rarely discontinuous. pressure. (See Navier±Stokes equations) 1. The extra terms involving p may be interpreted as the mechanical work done on a fluid element by its neighbor fluid elements. under the assumption of constant density and a sufficiently stiff equation of state. These terms sum to zero in an incompressible fluid. Closing the system requires an equation of state. this is a nonlinear effect and represents the solution becoming multi-valued. and to extract further information from the equations we must go back to the more fundamental integral form.This form makes it clear that fx. the one-dimensional Euler equations are a useful first approximation.5 The equations in one spatial dimension For certain problems.

potential flows also have been used to describe compressible flows. and groundwater flow. 1.. which is a valid approximation for several applications.3. of the velocity potential : 17 . a potential flow is characterized by an irrotational velocity field. The flow velocityv is a vector field equal to the gradient. As a result. .variables (i.1. For flows (or parts thereof) with strong vorticity effects. water waves. The irrotationality of a potential flow is due to the curl of a gradient always being equal to zero.3 Potential flow[2] In fluid dynamics.3. potential flow describes the velocity field as the gradient of a scalar function: the velocity potential.1 Characteristics and applications Fig. electroosmotic flow.4 Streamlines for the incompressible potential flow around a circular cylinder in a uniform onflow. The potential flow approach occurs in the modeling of both stationary as well as nonstationary flows. Numerical solutions of the Euler equations rely heavily on the method of characteristics. However. 1. 1. Applications of potential flow are for instance: the outer flow field for aerofoils.e. In the case of an incompressible flow the velocity potential satisfies Laplace's equation. x and t) along which partial differential equations (PDE's) degenerate into ordinary differential equations (ODE's). a potential flow is described by means of a velocity potential . being a function of space and time. 1.1 Description and characteristics In fluid dynamics. and potential theory is applicable. the potential flow approximation is not applicable.

From vector calculus it is known. Fortunately. which is why potential flow is used for various applications. potential flow theory is not able to provide reasonable predictions of the flow. For instance in: flow around aircraft. that the curl of a gradient is equal to zero: and consequently the vorticity. is used. In flow re gions where vorticity is known to be important. water waves. such as wakes and boundary layers. A.Sometimes. but not for sound waves ² the velocity v has zero divergence: with the dot denoting the inner product. 18 . As a result. groundwater flow. with a minus sign. is zero: This implies that a potential flow is an irrotational flow. Incompressi le flow In case of an incompressible flow ² for instance of a liquid. Dynamics only have to be applied afterwards. This has direct consequences for the applicability of potential flow. there are often large regions of a flow where the assumption of irrotationality is valid. if one is interested in computing pressures: for instance for flow around airfoils through theuse of Bernoulli's principle. and electroosmotic flow. or a gas at low Mach numbers. also the definition v = í . In this case the flow can be determined completely from its kinematics: the assumptions of irrotationality and zero divergence of the flow. the curl of the velocity field v. without the minus sign. acoustics. the velocity potential Laplace's equation has to satisfy Where is the Laplace operator (sometimes also written ). But here we will use the definition above.

Steady flow Potential flow theory can also be used to model irrotational compressible flow. The flow velocity v is again equal to . trans. the linearized small-perturbation potential equation ² an approximation to the full potential equation ² can be used: with M = V / a the Mach number of the incoming free stream. is given by: with Mach number components and where a is the local speed of sound. with the velocity potential.1. an additional assumption can be made: the velocity potential is split into an undisturbed onflow velocity V in the x-direction. The full potential equation. Sound waves 19 . and small a perturbation velocity thereof. at small angles of attack and thin bodies. In case of either subsonic or supersonic (but not transsonic or hypersonic) flow. 1. describing a steady flow. as long as the assumption of irrotationality is applicable.2 Derivation of full potential equation A. This linear equation is much easier to solve than the full potential equation: it may be recast into Laplace's equation by a simple coordinate stretching in the x-direction. So: In that case.3.B. The full potential equation is valid for sub-.and supersonic flow at arbitrary angle of attack.

while as before is the average speed of sound in the homogeneous each medium. in computational fluid dynamics. Note that also the oscillatory parts of the pressurep and density individually satisfy the wave equation. Again the oscillatory part of the velocity vector v is related to the velocity potential by v = is the Laplace operator. For instance. 20 .Small-amplitude sound waves can be approximated with the following potentialflow model: which is a linear wave equation for the velocity potential . More precisely.3. which is commonly encountered in nature. potential flow theory cannot be applied for viscousinternal flows.1. For example.Richard Feynman considered potential flow to be so unphysical that the only fluid to obey the assumptions was "dry water".3 Applicability and limitations Potential flow does not include all the characteristics of flows that are encountered in the real world. Nevertheless. 1. potential flow cannot account for the behavior of flows that include a boundary layer. understanding potential flow is important in many branches of fluid mechanics. Potential flow finds many applications in fields such as aircraft design. potential flow excludes turbulence. and . one technique is to couple a potential flow solution outside the boundary layer to a solution of the boundary layer equations inside the boundary layer. Also. in this approximation.

y The simulation is started and the equations are solved iteratively as a steady-state or transient.1 Finite volume method [5] The finite volume method is a method for representing and evaluating partial differential equations in the form of algebraic equations [LeVeque. Discretization methods The stability of the chosen discretization is generally established numerically rather than analytically as with simple linear problems. The Euler equations and Navier±Stokes equations both admit shocks. Special care must also be taken to ensure that the discretization handles discontinuous solutions gracefully. 1999]. The volume occupied by the fluid is divided into discrete cells (the mesh). 21 . y Finally a postprocessor is used for the analysis and visualization of the resulting solution. The mesh may be uniform or non-uniform. Toro. and contact surfaces. Some of the discretization methods being used are: 2. 2002. the equations of motions + enthalpy + radiation + species conservation o Boundary conditions are defined. y During preprocessing o o The geometry (physical bounds) of the problem is defined. o The physical modeling is defined ± for example. For transient problems. This involves specifying the fluid behaviour and properties at the boundaries of the problem.Chapter 2 Discretization methods[5] Methodology In all of these approaches the same basic procedure is followed. the initial conditions are also defined.

Because the flux entering a given volume is identical to that leaving the adjacent volume. These terms are then evaluated as fluxes at the surfaces of each finite volume. values are calculated at discrete places on a meshed geometry.1. flux or flow of represents the state variable and represents the . 2. In the finite volume method. where and represent locations of the upstream and downstream faces or edges cell. volume integrals in a partial differential equation that contain a divergence term are converted to surface integrals. into finite volumes or cells with cell centres indexed as . these methods are conservative. The method is used in many computational fluid dynamics packages. If we assume that equation (1) represents a flowing medium of constant area. "Finite volume" refers to the small volume surrounding each node point on a mesh. positive represents flow to the right whilst negative represents flow to the left. Conventionally.1 1D example Consider a simple 1D advection problem defined by the following partial differential equation Here.Similar to the finite difference method or finite element method. respectively of the 22 . . as and at time as. Another advantage of the finite volume method is that it is easily formulated to allow for unstructured meshes. For a particular cell. . using the divergence theorem. we can sub-divide the spatial domain. we can define the volume average value of at time and .

since in one dimension . we have: Where . Equation (7) is exact for the volume averages. recall that flow is normal to the unit area of the cell. i. over the cell volume.e. To obtain the volume average of at time . can be reconstructed by interpolation or extrapolation of the cell averages. Also. no approximations have been made during its derivation.Integrating equation (1) in time.e. .. by differentiating where values for the edge fluxes.e. for the volume integral of the divergence with the values of surface (edges and ) of the finite volume as follows: . and substitute evaluated at the cell Where . Now. i. we integrate . i. 23 . and divide the result by We assume that is well behaved and that we can reverse the order of integration. and with cell edge fluxes indexed as (6) with respect to time to obtain: . We can therefore derive a semi-discrete numerical scheme for the above problem with cell centers indexed as . we can apply the divergence theorem.

i. The actual numerical scheme will depend upon problem geometry and mesh construction. values for the edge fluxes can be reconstructed by inter polation or extrapolation of the cell averages.2 General conservation law We can also consider the general conservation law problem. represented by the following PDE. we are able to present the general result equivalent to (7). Finite volume schemes are conservative as cell averages change through the edge fluxes. Again we can sub-divide the spatial domain into finite volumes or cells. gives. So. In other words. represents a vector of states and represents the corresponding flux tensor. one cell's loss is another cell's gain! 24 . which On integrating the first term to get the volume average and applying the divergence theorem to the second. . finally. this yields where represents the total surface area of the cell and is a unit vector normal to the surface and pointing outward. For a particular cell. Again.1.e.2. . we take the volume integral over the total volume of the cell. Here.

Runge-Kutta. Several 25 .2.2 Finite element method[2] Fig. biomechanical.2. 2. The solution approach is based either on eliminating the differential equation completely (steady state problems).2 2D mesh for the image above (mesh is denser around the object of interest) The finite element method (FEM) (its practical application often known as finite element analysis (FEA)) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as of integral equations.1 2D FEM solution for a magnetostatic configuration (lines denote the direction and colour the magnitude of calculated flux density) Fig.1 Application A variety of specializations under the umbrella of the mechanical engineering discipline (such as aeronautical. or rendering the PDE into an approximating system of ordinary differential equations. which are then numerically integrated using standard techniques such as Euler's method. 2. and automotive industries) commonly use integrated FEM in design and development of their products. etc. 2.

It is assumed that the reader is famiiar l with calculus and linear algebra. a smooth manifold or a polygon).y) plane whose boundary is "nice" (e. 26 ..2. In a structural simulation. refined. respectively. the desired level of accuracy required and associated computational time requirements can be managed simultaneously to address most engineering applications. fluid. 2. and u'' is the second derivative of u with respect to x. u is an unknown function of x. and uxx and uyy denote the second derivatives with respect to x and y. FEM helps tremendously in producing stiffness and strength visualizations and also n minimizing i weight. Similarly. and indicates the distribution of stresses and displacements. FEM allows entire designs to be constructed. and costs. and structural working environments. FEM allows detailed visualization of where structures bend or twist. electromagnetic. materials. and optimized before the design is manufactured.modern FEM packages include specific components such as thermal.2 Technical discussion We will illustrate the finite element method using two sample problems from which the general method can be extrapolated. The two-dimensional sample problem is the Dirichlet problem where is a connected open region in the (x. FEM software provides a wide range of simulation options for controlling the complexity of both modeling and analysis of a system. P1 is a one-dimensional problem where f is given.g.

The transformation is done by hand on paper. i. After this second step. which mirror two essential steps one must take to solve a boundary value problem (BVP) using the FEM. 2. if u with u(0) = u(1) = 0 satisfies (1) for every smooth function v(x) then one may show that this u will solve P1. y The second step is the discretization. Our explanation will proceed in two steps. but may be proved in a distributional sense as well. Little to no computation is usually required for this step. this method of solving the boundary value problem works only when there is only one spatial dimension and does not generalize to higher-dimensional problems or to problems like u + u'' = f. where the weak form is discretized in a finite dimensional space. If u solves P1.3 Weak formulation The first step is to convert P1 and P2 into their equivalents weak formulation. By using integration by parts on the right-hand-side of (1). v = 0 at x = 0 and x = 1. we obtain 27 .The problem P1 can be solved "directly" by computing antiderivatives.2. This finite dimensional problem is then implemented on a computer. For this reason. we have concrete formulae for a large but finite dimensional linear problem whose solution will approximately solve the original BVP.e. we will develop the finite element method for P1 and outline its generalization to P2. However.we have (1) Conversely. The proof is easier for twice continuously differentiable u (mean value theorem). one rephrases the original BVP in its weak form. then for any smooth function v that satisfies the displacement boundary conditions. y In the first step.

5 The weak form of P2 If we integrate by parts using a form of Green's identities. 2. 2.2. Once more differentiable" functions of .(2) Where we have used the assumption that v(0) = v(1) = 0. then for any v.4 A proof outline of existence and uniqueness of the solution We can loosely think of to be the absolutely continuous functions of (0. we see that if u solves P2.2. An application of the Riesz representation theorem for Hilbert spaces shows that there is a unique u solving (2) and therefore P1. will be smooth if f is. the left-hand-side 2 is also an inner product.1).2. but using elliptic regularity. where denotes the gradient and denotes the dot product in the two-dimensional can be turned into an inner product on a suitable space that are zero on of "once plane. 2.1) that are 0 at x = 0 and x = 1 (see Sobolev spaces).) On the other hand.6 Matrix form of the problem 28 . Such function are (weakly) "once differentiable" and it turns out that the symmetric bilinear map then defines an inner product which turns into a Hilbert space (a detailed proof is nontrivial. Existence and uniqueness of the solution can also be shown. this time on the Lp spaceL (0. This solution is a-priori only a member of . We have also assumed that (see Sobolev spaces).

. So we now have to solve a linear system in the unknown where most of the entries of the matrix L. (5) It is not. As we have discussed before. (6) where and for j = 1. in fact.n.. since no matrix M is used..n.. . and if we let L = (Lij) and M = (Mij) be matrices whose entries are Lij = (vi.... most of the entries of L and M are zero because the basis functions vk have small support. necessary to assume .. which we need to invert. so a technique such as the conjugate gradient method is favored.vj) and Then we may rephrase (4) as .... Such matrices are known as sparse matrices.. becomes and then problem (3)..... For problems that are not too large.fn)t.. Matlab's backslash operator (which uses 29 .. For a general function f(x). (4) If we denote by and the column vectors (u1. For instance. taking for j = 1. sparse LU decompositions and Cholesky decompositions still work well..) In addition. problem (3) with v(x) = vj(x) for j = 1... and there are efficient solvers for such problems (much more efficient than actually inverting the matrix..L is symmetric and positive definite.If we write v(x) = vj(x) for j = 1..n..un)t and (f1. are zero.n becomes actually simpler.

but one can also use squares or curvilinear polygons. one may use piecewise quadratic basis functions that are C1. If the main method for increasing precision is to subdivide the mesh. For instance. one must use smoother basis functions. we obtain a nonconforming element method. A separate consideration is the smoothness of the basis functions. Since these functions are in general discontinuous along the edges. 2..7 General form of the finite element method In general. In the preceding treatment. then one 30 . we used piecewise linear basis functions. y Then.sparse LU. an example of which is the space of piecewise linear functions over the mesh which are continuous at each edge midpoint. in the examples above . For second order elliptic boundary value problems. the grid consisted of triangles.e. for some and p> 0. Another consideration is the relation of the finite dimensional space V to its infinite dimensional counterpart. this finite dimensional space is not a subspace of the original .) For higher order partial differential equations. one has an h-method (h is customarily the diameter of the largest element in the mesh. but it is also common to use piecewise polynomial basis functions. the finite element method is characterized by the following process. one chooses basis functions. In our discussion. if one shows that the error with a grid h is bounded above by Chp. A conforming element method is one in which the space V is a subspace of the element space for the continuous problem. sparse Cholesky. The matrix L is usually referred to as the stiffness matrix. The example above is such a method. the derivatives are discontinuous. y One chooses a grid for .2. If this condition is not satisfied. while the matrix M is dubbed the mass matrix.) In this manner. for a fourth order problem such as uxxxx + uyyyy = f. and other factorization methods) can be sufficient for meshes with a hundred thousand vertices. one has an algorithm for taking a given mesh and subdividing it. Typically. piecewise polynomial basis function that are merely continuous suffice (i.

has an order p method.8 Various types of finite element methods y y y y y y y Generalized finite element method hp-FEM hpk-FEM XFEM Spectral methods Meshfree methods Discontinuous Galerkin methods 2.3 Finite difference method[3] Not to be confused with "finite difference method based on variation principle" . These are not to be confused with spectral methods. one has a p-method. finite-difference methods are numerical methods for approximating the solutions to differential equations using finite difference equations to approximate derivatives. one obtains an hp-method (hp-FEM). For vector partial differential equations.2. if the domain is convex). In mathematics. 2. 31 . If one combines these two refinement types. Under certain hypotheses (for instance. 2. because the first derivative of a function f is. the basis functions may take values in . If instead of making h smaller.1 Intuitive derivation Finite-difference methods approximate the solutions to differential equations by replacing derivative expressions with approximately equivalent difference quotients. High order methods with large uniform p are called spectral finite element methods (SFEM).3. a piecewise polynomial of order d method will have an error of order p = d + 1. That is. In the hp-FEM. the polynomial degrees can vary from element to element. by definition. the first name of finite element method. one increases the degree of the polynomials used in the basis function.

\which. 2. The two sources of error in finite 32 . with some minor algebraic manipulation. In fact.3. is equivalent to so that for R1(x) sufficiently small. by Taylor's theorem. denoting the difference between the Taylor polynomial of degree n and the original function. where n! denotes the factorial of n. Using this and similar formulae to replace derivative expressions in differential equations. and Rn(x) is a remainder term. 2.3 Accuracy and order The error in a method's solution is defined as the difference between its approximation and the exact analytical solution. f(x0 + h) = f(x0) + f'(x0)h + R1(x). this is the forward difference equation for the first derivative.3. one can approximate their solutions without the need for calculus.then a reasonable approximation for that derivative would be to take for some small value of h. by Taylor's theorem. Again using the first derivative of the function f as an example.2 Derivation from Taylor's polynomial Assuming the function whose derivatives are to be approximated is properly behaved.

2. the dominant term of the local truncation error can be discovered. often in a "time-stepping" manner. 33 . knowing that f(xi) = f(x0 + ih). one must first discretize the problem's domain. the difference between the exact solution of the finite difference equation and the exact quantity assuming perfect arithmetic (that is. Typically expressed using Big-O notation. again using the forward-difference formula for the first derivative. assuming no round-off). This is usually done by dividing the domain into a uniform grid (see image to the right. Fig. To use a finite difference method to attempt to solve (or. more generally. For example. which is . approximate the solution to) a problem. local truncation error refers to the error from a single application of a method. ) Note that this means that finite-difference methods produce sets of discrete numerical approximations to the derivative.difference methods are round-off error. An expression of general interest is the local truncation error of a method. The remainder term of a Taylor polynomial is convenient for analyzing the local truncation error. the loss of precision due to computer rounding of decimal quantities. and truncation error or discretization error. Using the Lagrange form of the remainder from the Taylor polynomial for f(x0 + h). That is. where x0< <x0 + h.3 The finite difference method relies on discretizing a function on a grid. it is the quantity f'(xi) í f'i if f'(xi) refers to the exact value and f'i to the numerical approximation.

consider the ordinary differential equation The Euler method for solving this equation uses the finite difference quotient to approximate the differential equation by first substituting in for u'(x) and applying a little algebra to get The last equation is a finite-difference equation. in this case.3.3.5 E ample: The heat equation 34 .4 E ample: ordinary differential equation For example. the local truncation error is proportional to the step size. A final expression of this example and its order is: This means that. clearly that remainder is the local truncation error. and solving this equation gives an approximate solution to the differential equation. 2. 2.and with some algebraic manipulation. this leads to and further noting that the quantity on the left is the approximation from the finite difference method and that the quantity on the right is the exact quantity of interest plus a remainder.

We partition the domain in space using a mesh x0... so the difference between two consecutive space points will be h and between two consecutive time points will be k.3..Consider the normalized heat equation in one dimension. We can obtain from the other values this way: 35 .xJ and in time using a mesh t0..tN.4 The stencil for the most common explicit method for the heat equation.. 2.tn)..6 Explicit method Fig. with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions (boundary condition) (initial condition) One way to numerically solve this equation is to approximate all the derivatives by finite differences.... The points will represent the numerical approximation of u(xj. We assume a uniform partition both in space and in time. Using a forward differenceat time tn and a second-order central difference for the space derivative at position xj ("FTCS") we get the recurrence equation: This is an explicit method for solving the one-dimensional heat equation. 2.

This explicit method is known to be numerically stable and convergent whenever . in this example they are both 0. The numerical errors are proportional to the time step and the square of the space step: and must be replaced by the boundary 2. one can obtain the corresponding values at time n+1. If we use the backward differenceat time tn + 1 and a second-order central difference for the space derivative at position xj ("BTCS") we get the recurrence equation: This is an implicit method for solving the one-dimensional heat equation. So. 2.5 The implicit method stencil. We can obtain from solving a system of linear equations: The scheme is always numerically stable and convergent but usually more numerically intensive than the explicit method as it requires solving a system of 36 . with this recurrence relation.7 Implicit method Fig.3. conditions. and knowing the values at time n.where r = k / h2.

2. but is also the easiest to implement and the least numerically intensive. 2. Fig. the error is often O(h2) instead of O(h4). Usually the Crank±Nicolson scheme is the most accurate scheme for small time steps. near the boundaries. The implicit scheme works the best for large time steps. The errors are linear over the time step and quadratic over the space step. We can obtain from solving a system of linear equations: The scheme is always numerically stable and convergent but usually more numerically intensive as it requires solving a system of numerical equations on each time step.4 Boundary element method[5] 37 .numerical equations on each time step.3. The explicit scheme is the least accurate and can be unstable.6 The Crank±Nicolson stencil. The errors are quadratic over the time step and formally are of the fourth d egree regarding the space step: However.8 Crank±Nicolson method Finally if we use the central difference at time tn + 1 / 2 and a second-order central difference for the space derivative at position xj ("CTCS") we get the recurrence equation: This formula is known as the Crank±Nicolson method. 2.

The number of mesh points containing the wave is small compared with a firstorder scheme with similar accuracy. Once this is done.e. and fracture mechanics. (In electromagnetics. though not always. acoustics. 38 . in the post-processing stage. electromagnetics. in boundary integral form).The boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations (i. High-resolution schemes often use flux/slope limiters to limit the gradient around shocks or discontinuities. rather than values throughout the space defined by a partial differential equation. A particularly successful high-resolution scheme is the MUSCL scheme which uses state extrapolation and limiters to achieve good accuracy. the integral equation can then be used again to calculate numerically the solution directly at any desired point in the interior of the solution domain. synonymous with "boundary element method".4. It can be applied in many areas of engineering and science including fluid mechanics. The boundary element method attempts to use the given boundary conditions to fit boundary values into the integral equation. y y y Solutions are free from spurious oscillations or wiggles. the more traditional term "method of moments" is often. 2.) 2.1 Mathematical basis The integral equation may be regarded as an exact solution of the governing partial differential equation. They have the following properties: y Second or higher order spatial accuracy is obtained in smooth parts of the solution. High accuracy is obtained around shocks and discontinuities.5 High-resolution scheme [2] High-resolution schemes are used in the numerical solution of partial differential equations where high accuracy is required in the presence of shocks or discontinuities.

The primary approach in this case is to create numerical models to calculate the properties of interest. the objective is to obtain a theory or a model that can yield quantities of interest. The more turbulent scales that are resolved. the computational cost is very low. This means that the whole range of spatial and temporal scales of the turbulence must be resolved. All the spatial scales of the turbulence must be resolved in the computational mesh. the range of length scales and complexity of phenomena make most approaches impossible. 39 . the finer the resolution of the simulation. The chief difficulty in modeling turbulent flows comes from the wide range of length and time scales associated with turbulent flow. but the tradeoff comes in the form of decreased accuracy.) y Add the One-dimensional turbulence model (and its predecessor Linear eddy model). such as velocities. For turbulent flow..Chapter 3 Turbulence models[2] This section requires expansion with: y Models should be listed in some order (increasing cost. alphabetically. As a result.. In studying turbulent flows. increasing accuracy. If a majority or all of the turbulent scales are modeled. and therefore the higher the computational cost. from the smallest dissipative scales (Kolmogorov microscales).1 Direct numerical simulation [4] A direct numerical simulation (DNS) is a simulation in computational fluid dynamics in which the Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved without any turbulence model. A selection of some commonly-used computational models for turbulent flows are presented in this section. turbulence models can be classified based on the range of these length and time scales that are modeled and the range of length and time scales that are resolved. 3.

must be . the number N of points along a given mesh direction with increments h. So that the integral scale is contained within the computational domain. the memory storage requirement in a DNS grows very fast with the Reynolds number.up to the integral scale L. Where u' is the root mean square (RMS) of the velocity. To satisfy these resolution requirements. associated with the motions containing most of the kinetic energy. is given by where is the kinematic viscosity and is the rate of kinetic energy dissipation. Hence. the integral scale depends usually on the spatial scale of the boundary conditions. given the very large memory necessary. the integration of the solution in time must be done by an explicit method. So that the Kolmogorov scale can be resolved. The Kolmogorov scale. Since . On the other hand. This means that in order to be 40 . and also . . In addition. the previous relations imply that a three-dimensional DNS requires a number of mesh points N3 satisfying Where Re is the turbulent Reynolds number: .

This is done by means of "a priori" tests. One can estimate that the number of floating-point operations required to complete the simulation is proportional to the number of mesh points and the number of time steps. direct numerical simulation is a useful tool in fundamental research in turbulence. (C is here the Courant number). For the Reynolds numbers encountered in most industrial applications. and consequently. Using DNS it is possible to perform "numerical experiments".accurate. allowing a better understanding of the physics of turbulence. and extract from them information difficult or impossible to obtain in the laboratory. the computational cost of DNS is very high. from the definitions for Re. the number of time-integration steps must be proportional to L / (C ). and L given above. Also. the number of operations grows as Re3. By other hand. Combining these relations. That is. the computational resources required by a DNS would exceed the capacity of the most powerful computers currently available. such as sub-grid scale models for Large eddy simulation (LES) and models for methods that solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). The total time interval simulated is generally proportional to the turbulence time scale given by . Therefore. it follows that . direct numerical simulations are useful in the development of turbulence models for practical applications. t. in which the input data for the model is taken 41 . even at low Reynolds numbers. small enough such that a fluid particle moves only a fraction of the mesh spacing h in each step. However. and the fact that h must be of the order of . the number of time steps grows also as a power law of the Reynolds number. and in conclusion. the integration must be done with a time step.

Whi h of the "small" c length and time scales to eliminate are selected according to turbulence theory and available computational resources. 3. acoustics. and simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer. reducing the computational cost. in which the results produced by the model are compared with those obtained by DNS. LES operates on the Navier-Stokes equations to reduce the range of length scales of the solution.from a DNS simulation. This operation is applied to the Navier-Stokes equations to eliminate small scales of the solution. or by "a posteriori" tests. Large eddy simulation (LES) is a mathematical model for turbulence used in computational fluid dynamics. The biggest DNS in the world. This reduces the computational cost of the simulation. including combustion. It was initially proposed in 1963 by Joseph Smagorinsky to simulate atmospheric air currents. LES grew rapidly and is currently applied in a wide variety of engineering applications. It was carried out in the Japanese Earth Simulator supercomputer in 2002. 3. up to this date. used 40963 mesh points. and many of the issues unique to LES were first explored by Deardorff (1970). The principal operation in large eddy simulation is low-pass filtering.1 Large eddy simulation of a turbulent gas velocity field. 42 .2 Large eddy simulation[2] Fig. and the solution is a filtered velocity field. The governing equations are thus transformed.

3. It is a common misconception that the RANS equations do not apply to flows with a timevarying mean flow because these equations are 'time-averaged'. Regions near solid boundaries and where the turbulent length scale is less than the maximum grid dimension are assigned the RANS mode of solution. thereby considerably cutting down the cost of the computation. Though DES was initially formulated for the Spalart-Allmaras model. it can be implemented with other RANS models (Strelets. In fact. Therefore the grid resolution is not as demanding as pure LES. but the turbulence models used to close the equations are valid only as long as the time over 43 . In contrast. attainable using supercomputers. It also models the smallest (and most expensive) scales of the solution. is prohibitively expensive for nearly all systems with complex geometry or flow configurations. pumps. vehicles. by appropriately modifying the length scale which is explicitly or implicitly involved in the RANS model. the regions are solved using the LES mode.Large eddy simulation resolves large scales of the flow field solution. There is nothing inherent in Reynolds averaging to preclude this. 3. 2001). which resolves every scale of the solution. This adds a second order tensor of unknowns for which various models can provide different levels of closure. and landing gear.4 Reynolds-averaged Navier±Stokes[2] Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are the oldest approach to turbulence modeling. statistically unsteady (or non-stationary) flows can equally be treated. This is sometimes referred to as URANS. An ensemble version of the governing equations is solved. such as turbulent jets. direct numerical simulation. rather than resolving them. allowing better fidelity than alternative approaches that do not resolve any scales of the solution (such as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods). As the turbulent length scale exceeds the grid dimension. which introduces new apparent stresses known as Reynolds stresses. This makes the computational cost for practical engineering systems with complex geometry or flow configurations.3 Detached eddy simulation [2] Detached eddy simulation (DES) is a modification of a RANS model in which the model switches to a subgrid scale formulation in regions fine enough for LES calculations.

low-pass filter. Instead. RANS models can be divided into two broad approaches: Boussinesq hypothesis This method involves using an algebraic equation for the Reynolds stresses which include determining the turbulent viscosity. while the incoherent parts of the flow composed homogeneous background noise. the filtering operation is based on wavelets. solving transport equations for determining the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. For example. and the incoherent part. since it uses decomposition and resolves only the filtered portion. which exhibited no organized structures. but did not assume that the wavelet filter completely eliminated all coherent 44 .which these changes in the mean occur is large compared to the time scales of the turbulent motion containing most of the energy. The models available in this approach are often referred to by the number of transport equations associated with the method. Goldstein and Oleg applied the CVS model to large eddy simulation. the k í is a "Two Equation" model because two transport equations (one for k and one for ) are solved. The approach has much in common with LES. and the filter can be adapted as the flow field evolves. consisting of organized vortical motion. This decomposition is done using wavelet filtering. This means introduction of several transport equations for all the Reynolds stresses and hence this approach is much more costly in CPU effort. Farge and Schneider tested the CVS method with two flow configurations and showed that the coherent portion of the flow exhibited the energy spectrum exhibited by the total flow. 3. and depending on the level of sophistication of the model.5 Coherent vortex simulation [2] The coherent vortex simulation approach decomposes the turbulent flow field into a coherent part. Mixing Length Model (Prandtl) and Zero Equation (Chen). which is the random background flow. but different in that it does not use a linear. and corresponded to coherent structures (vortex tubes). Reynolds stress model (RSM) This approach attempts to actually solve transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. Models include k. the Mixing Length model is a "Zero Equation" model because no transport equations are solved.(Spaldin).

. the PDF becomes the filtered PDF. thus eliminating numerous iterations associated with RANS and LES. which gives the probability of the velocity at point being between and .7Vortex method [2] The vortex method is a grid-free technique for the simulation of turbulent flows. This approach is analogous to the kinetic theory of gases. 3. however. Software based on the vortex method offer a new means for solving tough fluid dynamics problems with minimal user intervention. PDF methods are unique in that they can be applied in the framework of a number of different turbulence models. 45 .motions from the subfilter scales. Among the significant advantages of this modern technology. this leads to a Langevin equation for subfiler particle evolution. By employing both LES and CVS filtering. and are particularly useful for simulating chemically reacting flows because the chemical source term is closed and does not require a model.6PDF methods[2] Probability density function (PDF) methods for turbulence. It uses vortices as the computational elements. in the context of large eddy simulation. first introduced by Lundgren. The PDF is commonly tracked by using Lagrangian particle methods. To be practical. All that is required is specification of problem geometry and setting of boundary and initial conditions. vortex methods require means for rapidly computing velocities from the vortex elements ± in other words they require the solution to a particular form of the N-body problem (in which the motion of N objects is tied to their mutual influences). are based on tracking the one-point PDF of the velocity. PDF methods can also be used to describe chemical reactions. Vortex methods were developed as a grid-free methodology that would not be limited by the fundamental smoothing effects associated with grid-based methods. in which the macroscopic properties of a gas are described by a large number of particles. mimicking the physical structures in turbulence. 3. For example. the main differences occur in the form of the PDF transport equation. when combined with large eddy simulation. they showed that the SFS dissipation was dominated by the SFS flow field's coherent portion. y It is practically grid-free.

Within these features. VC is similar to shock capturing methods. which are crucial for correct analysis of acoustics. Different methods have been proposed. Applying a Newton or Picard iteration produces a system of linear equations which is nonsymmetric in the presence of advection and indefinite in the presence of incompressibility. 3.but the Level set method and front tracking are also valuable approaches. It uses a solitary-wave like approach to produce stable solution with no numerical spreading. Such systems.The Volume of fluid method has received a lot of attention lately.y All problems are treated identically. Solution algorithms Discretization in space produces a system of ordinary differential equations for unsteady problems and algebraic equations for steady problems. where conservation laws are satisfied. are possible. Two-phase flow[2] The modeling of two-phase flow is still under development. are based on solving the Lagrangian equation of motion for the dispersed phase. No modeling or calibration inputs are required. Lagrangian multiphase models. Implicit or semi-implicit methods are generally used to integrate the ordinary differential equations. y The small scale and large scale are accurately simulated at the same time. y Time-series simulations. are 46 . viscosity and surface tension is based on the values averaged over the interface. a nonlinear difference equation is solved as opposed to the finite difference equation.8Vorticity confinement method [2] The vorticity confinement (VC) method is an Eulerian technique used in the simulation of turbulent wakes. Most of these methods are either good in maintaining a sharp interface or at conserving mass. so that the essential integral quantities are accurately computed. particularly in 3D. which are used for dispersed media. VC can capture the small scale features to over as few as 2 grid cells. This is crucial since the evaluation of the density. producing a system of (usually) nonlinear algebraic equations. for problems that do not have dispersed particles.

operate by minimizing the residual over successive subspaces generated by the preconditioned operator. Chapter 4 47 . Traditionalsolvers and preconditioners are effective at reducing high-frequency components of the residual. additive Schwarz. but low-frequency components typically require many iterations to reduce. Methods commonly used in CFD are the SIMPLE and Uzawa algorithms which exhibit mesh-dependent convergence rates.frequently too large for direct solvers. Krylov methods such as GMRES. By operating on multiple scales. Multigrid has the advantage of asymptotically optimal performance on many problems. either stationary methods such as successive overrelaxation or Krylov subspace methods. leading to a mesh-independent number of iterations. preconditioners such as incomplete LU factorization. so iterative methods are used. so the problem structure must be used for effective preconditioning. multigrid reduces all components of the residual by similar factors. and multigrid perform poorly or fail entirely. For indefinite systems. typically used with preconditioning. but recent advances based on block LU factorization combined with multigrid for the resulting.

for example weather systems or hypersonic aerospace vehicles. Secondly. CFD has received extensive attention throughout the international community since the advent of the digital computer. the desire to be able to model physical fluid phenomena that cannot be easily simulated or measured with a physical experiment. Bibliography 48 . Firstly. As a developing science. By use of the CFD softwares we are able to simulate the very difficult problems of fluid flow very effectively that is not possible by conventional methods of solving problem of fluid flow. the desire to be able to investigate physical fluid systems more cost effectively and more rapidly than with experimental procedures. The attraction of the subject is twofold. This branch of fluid mechanics will also find the solutions and simulation techniques for two phase flow in near future which will be big achievement for all of us.Conclusion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of determining a numerical solution to the governing equations of fluid flow whilst advancing the solution through space and time to obtain a numerical description of the complete flow field of interest.

Taylor & Francis.cfd-online. Abdulnaser. Vntus Publishing. (1995). Contents 49 . Computational Fluid Dynamics: The Basics With 2. Anderson. Suhas (1980). John D. Patankar. 5. ISBN 9788776814304.com Sayma. www. ISBN 08911652239. Hemisphere Series on Computational Methods in Mechanics and Thermal Science.wikipedia. www. Applications. ISBN 0070016852 4. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. Computational Fluid Dynamics.org 3. (2009).1. McGraw-Hill Science.

2. INTERPRETATION AS V.2.1. 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 )V 4 5 5 6 8 8 8 10 11 12 12 13 14 14 14 16 16 17 17 17 18 50 1. OTHER EQUATIONS 1.2. DERIVATION AND DESCRIPTION A.2. TURBULENCE C.1.1.3. HISTORY CONSERVATION AND COMPONENT FORM CONSERVATION AND VECTOR FORM SHOCK WAVES THE EQUATION OF ONE SPATIAL DIMENSION 1.1. POTENTIAL FLOW 1. 1. DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS A.1.1.2.2.4.2.3. INTRODUCTION 1.2.2.2. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS 1.5.1.1. EULER¶S EQUATIONS 1.2.( V) COMPRESSIBLE FLOW OF NEWTONIAN FLUIDS 1. BACKGROUND AND HISTORY Page no.1. 1.2. 1. CARTESIAN COORDINATES CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES SPHERICAL COORDINATES STREAM FUNCTION FORMULATION INTERPRETATION AS (V.2. INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW . OTHER FORCES D.3.4.2.Chapter 1. BASIC EQUATION USED TO DETERMINING THE FLUID FLOW 1.2.1.2. INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OF NEWTONIAN FLUIDS (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 1.1. NONLINEARITY B.2.2. CONVECTIVE ACCELERATION (i) (ii) B.3.1.2. PROPERTIES A. STRESSES C. 1. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS 1. CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS 1.2. APPLICABILITY 1.3.1.

3 WEAK FORMULATION 2.2. DISCRETIZATION METHODS METHODOLOGY DISCRETIZATION METHODS 2. DERIVATION OF FULL POTENTIAL EQUATION A.2.5 THE WEAK FORM OF P2 2. STEADY FLOW 1.2.1.2 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION 2.2 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 2.1.1.2. SOUND WAVES 19 20 20 20 1.3.3.2 DERIVATION OF TAYLOR¶S POLYNOMIAL 2.2.7 GENERAL FORM OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 2.3.3 APPLICABILITY AND LIMITATIONS 2.1 FINITE VOLUME METHOD 21 22 24 25 25 26 27 21 21 2.3.4 A PROOF OUTLINE OF EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF THESOLUTION 2.6 MATRIX FORM OF THE PROBLEM 2.2.2 GENERAL CONVERSION LAW 2.3 ACCURACY AND ORDER 31 32 32 28 28 30 31 31 28 51 .1 APPLICATION 2.1.2.3.3 FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD 2.2.1 INTUITIVE DERIVATION 2.1 1D EXAMPLE 2.B.2.8 VARIOUS TYPE OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODS 2.

6 PDF METHODS 3.3. TURBULENCE MODELS 3.3 DETACHED EDDY SIMULATION 3.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION 3.1 DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION 3.2.4 BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD 2.3.1 MATHEMATICAL BASIS 2.5 COHERENT VORTEX SIMULATION 3.4.8 VORTEX CONFINEMENT METHOD TWO PHASE FLOW SOLUTION ALGORITHMS 4.7 VORTEX METHOD 3.4 EXAMPLE: ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 2.7 IMPLICIT METHOD 2.AVERAGED NAVIER-STOKES 3.5 EXAMPLE: THE HEAT EQUATION 2.3. CONCLUSION 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 46 48 49 46 46 45 45 39 42 43 43 44 LIST OF FIGURE 52 .4 RAYNOLDS.3.5 HIGH RESOLUTION SCHEME 34 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 3.8 CRANK-NICOLSON METHOD 2.3.6 EXPLICIT METHOD 2.

3 An example of convection. 1. 1. 2.1 2D FEM solution for a magnetostatic configuration 2. 1.4 Streamlines for the incompressible potential flow around a circular cylinder in a uniform on flow.4The stencil for the most common explicit method for the heat equation.6 The Crank-Nicolson method stencil.5 The implicit method stencil.1 A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re entry. 2.2 2D mesh for the image above. 22 25 25 33 35 36 37 42 1 1 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 53 . 2.2 A simulation of the Hyper-X scramjet vehicle in operation at Mach-7 1. 2. 2.Figure Page no. 3.3 The finite difference method relies on discretizing a function on a grid.1 Large eddy simulation of a turbulent gas velocity field.

Last but not the least. Naresh Kumar. UCE. for kindly providing me an opportunity to present the seminar. ³Mr. and ³Mr. V K Gorana´. Mech. First of all. in the absence of which my seminar presentation would have been incomplete. for encouraging me to deliver my seminar in the topic of my interest and also given me the constant invaluable guidance. I thank all of my colleagues and friends for motivating me throughout the completion of my seminar report. It is a great pleasure for me to make use of this opportunity to express my thanks those person who help me to bring out my seminar a successful venture. 07/391 Final Year. Kota. I express my deep sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to my seminar guide. N K Gupta´. D P Sharma´.Any mission can never conclude without cooperation from surrounding. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to ³Dr. A Seminar Report 54 .

Kota Department of Mechanical Engineering RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY KOTA CERTIFICATE 55 .On ³Computational Fluid Dynamics´ Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement For the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology In Mechanical Engineering Submitted by Naresh Kumar Final B. professor UCE.Tech. 07/391 Under the supervision of Mr. D P Sharma Asst.

of Mechanical Engg. Seminar Guide Mr. professor Deptt..UCE.Tech. Kota ABSTRACT 56 . (Mechanical Engineering) VIIIth semester has submitted his seminar entitled³Computational Fluid Dynamics´ under my guidance.This is to certify that Mr Naresh Kumar a student of B. D P Sharma Asst.

processes in human body (blood flow. complex flows in furnaces. ventilation and air conditioning of buildings. .Nowdays these calculations and computation is done by CFD softwares. qualitative predictions of fluid flow.. environmental hazards (air pollution. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the art of replacing such PDE systems by a set of algebraic equations which can be solved using digital computers. floods. combustion in automobile engines and other propulsion systems. Fluid flows encountered in everyday life include meteorological phenomena (rain. fires).and postprocessing utilities) CFD enables scientists and engineers to perform µnumerical experiments¶ (i. chemical reactors etc. heat exchangers. cars etc. So we need various calculations to be performed.e. testing of flow widh the help of wind tunnel or anything simulated environment for exact solution of flow problems. wind. and energy. contaminants). hurricanes.. pre. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a qualitative (andsometimes even quantitative) prediction of fluid flows by means of mathematical modeling (partial differential equations) numerical methods (discretization and solution techniques) software tools (solvers.Fluid (gas and liquid) flows are governed by partial differential equations which represent conservation laws for the mass. ) and so on and so forth. These problems can be solved by using the branch of fluid mechanics which use numerical methods. breathing. momentum. computer simulations) in a µvirtual flow laboratory¶ 57 . . drinking . transport of heating. interaction of various objects with the surrounding air/water.

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