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1.1 Introduction [2]

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research, however, yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation coming in flight tests.

1.1.1 Background and history

Fig. 1.1 A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around theSpace Shuttle during re entry.

Fig 1.2A simulation of the Hyper-X scramjet vehicle in operation at Mach-7

The fundamental basis of almost all CFDproblems are the Navier±Stokes equations, which define any single-phase fluid flow. These equations can be simplified by removing terms describing viscosity to yield the Euler equations. Further simplification,

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by removing terms describing vorticity yields the full potential equations. Finally, these equations can be linearized to yield the linearized potential equations. Historically, methods were first developed to solve the Linearized Potential equations. Two-dimensional methods, using conformal transformations of the flow about a cylinder to the flow about an airfoil were developed in the 1930s. The computer power available paced development of threedimensional methods. The first paper on a practical three-dimensional method to solve the linearized potential equations was published by John Hess and A.M.O. Smith of Douglas Aircraft in 1967.

**1.2 Basic equation used for determining the fluid flow [1] 1.2.1 Navier±Stokes equations
**

In physics the Navier±Stokes equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of fluid substances. These equations arise from applying Newton's second law to fluid motion, together with the assumption that the fluid stress is the sum of a diffusingviscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity), plus a pressure term. The equations are useful because they describe the physics of many things of academic and economic interest. They may be used to model the weather, ocean currents, water flow in a pipe and air flow around a wing. The Navier±Stokes equations in their full and simplified forms help with the design of aircraft and cars, the study of blood flow, the design of power stations, the analysis of pollution, and many other things. Coupled with Maxwell's equations they can be used to model and study magneto hydrodynamics. The Navier±Stokes equations dictate not position but rather velocity. A solution of the Navier±Stokes equations is called a velocity field or flow field, which is a description of the velocity of the fluid at a given point in space and time. Once the velocity field is solved for, other quantities of interest (such as flow rate or drag force) may be found. This is different from what one normally sees in classical mechanics, where solutions are typically trajectories of position of a particle or deflection of a continuum. Studying velocity instead of position makes more sense for a fluid; however for visualization purposes one can compute various trajectories

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1.2.1.1 Properties A. Nonlinearity

The Navier±Stokes equations are nonlinearpartial differential equations in almost every real situation. In some cases, such as one-dimensional flow and Stokes flow (or creeping flow), the equations can be simplified to linear equations. The nonlinearity makes most problems difficult or impossible to solve and is the main contributor to the turbulence that the equations model. The nonlinearity is due to convective acceleration, which is an acceleration associated with the change in velocity over position. Hence, any convective flow, whether turbulent or not, will involve nonlinearity. An example of convective but laminar (nonturbulent) flow would be the passage of a viscous fluid (for example, oil) through a small converging nozzle. Such flows, whether exactly solvable or not, can often be thoroughly studied and understood.

B. Turbulence

Turbulence is the time dependent chaotic behavior seen in many fluid flows. It is generally believed that it is due to the inertia of the fluid as a whole: the culmination of time dependent and convective acceleration; hence flows where inertial effects are small tend to be laminar (the Reynolds number quantifies how much the flow is affected by inertia). It is believed, though not known with certainty, that the Navier±Stokes equations describe turbulence properly

C. Applicability

Together with supplemental equations (for example, conservation of mass) and well formulated boundary conditions, the Navier±Stokes equations seem to model fluid motion accurately; even turbulent flows seem (on average) to agree with real world observations. The Navier±Stokes equations assume that the fluid being studied is a continuum not moving at relativistic velocities. At very small scales or under extreme conditions, real fluids made out of discrete molecules will produce results different from the

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continuous flui s modeled by t e Navier±Stokes equations. Depending on t e Knudsen number of t e problem, statistical mechanics or possibly even molecular dynamics may be a more appropriate approach.

1.2.1.2 Deri

i

and descri i n

The derivation of the Navier±Stokes equations begins with an application of Newton's second law: conservation of momentum (often alongside mass and energy conservation) being written for an arbitrary portion of the fluid. In an inertial frame of reference, the general form of the equations of fluid motion is:

where

is the flow velocity,

is the fluid density, p is the pressure,

is the

(deviatoric) stress tensor, and represents body forces (per unit volume) acting on the fluid and is the del operator. This is a statement of the conservation of momentum in a

fluid and it is an application of Newton's second law to a continuum; in fact this equation is applicable to any non-relativistic continuum and is known as the Cauchy momentum equation. This equation is often written using the material derivativeDv/Dt, making it more apparent that this is a statement of Newton's second law:

The left side of the equation describes acceleration, and may be composed of time dependent or convective effects (also the effects of non -inertial coordinates if present). The right side of the equation is in effect a summation of body forces (such as gra vity) and divergence of stress (pressure and shear stress).

A. Convective acceleration

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Fig. 1.3An example of convection. Though the flow may be steady (time independent), the fluid decelerates as it moves down the diverging duct (assuming incompressible flow), hence there is an acceleration happening over position.

A very significant feature of the Navier±Stokes equations is the presence of convective acceleration: the effect of time independent acceleration of a fluid with respect to space. While individual fluid particles are indeed experiencing time dependent acceleration, the convective acceleration of the flow field is a spatial effect, one example being fluid speeding up in a nozzle. Convective acceleration is represented by the nonlinear quantity:

which may be interpreted either as of the velocity vector

or as

with

the tensor derivative

Both interpretations give the same result, independent of the is interpreted as the covariant derivative.

coordinate system provided

(i

nterpretation as (v· )v

The convection term is often written as

where the advection operator

is used. Usually this representation is preferred

because it is simpler than the one in terms of the tensor derivative

(ii)

nterpretation as v·( v)

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but its dynamic effect is disregarded in creeping flow (also called Stokes flow). Newton's second law. for incompressible flow. The effect of the pressure gradient is that fluid flows from high pressure to low pressure. not the pressure itself. these are is called the pressure gradient and arises from the isotropic part of the stress tensor. so the general form of the equations of motion is not usable to solve problems. Regardless of what kind of fluid is being dealt with. be expressed without a tensor derivative: The form has use in irrotational flow. Thus. by a vector calculus identity. this is only a shear effect. B. which conventionally describes viscous forces. The stress terms p and are yet unknown. a force model is needed relating the stresses to the fluid motion. dynamic or not.Here is the tensor derivative of the velocity vector. assumptions on the specific behavior of a fluid are made (based on natural observations) 6 . equal in Cartesian coordinates to the component by component gradient. For this reason. This part is given by normal stresses that turn up in almost all situations. is the deviatoric stress tensor. convective acceleration is a nonlinear effect. where the curl of the velocity (called vorticity) is equal to zero. only the gradient of pressure matters. Stresses The effect of stress in the fluid is represented by the gradients of surface forces. Convective acceleration is present in most flows (exceptions include one-dimensional incompressible flow). Besides the equations of motion. and the stress tensor is equal to: where is the 3×3 identity matrix. Interestingly. The anisotropic part of the stress tensor gives rise to . The convection term may. and terms. analogous to stresses in a solid.

as valid for gases and simple liquids. i. furthermore. and consequently is an isotropic tensor. in the Navier±Stokes equations the deviatoric stress tensor has the following form: with the quantity between brackets the non-isotropic part of the rate-of-strain tensor The dynamic viscosity does not need to be constant ± in general it depends on conditions like temperature and pressure.and applied in order to specify the stresses in terms of the other flow variables. and ± by Galilean invariance ± also does not depend directly on the flow velocity itself. but only on spatial derivatives of the flow velocity y in the Navier±Stokes equations. the pressure constrains the flow in such a way that the volume of fluid elements is constant: isochoric flow resulting in a solenoidal velocity field with 7 . the deviatoric stress is expressed as the product of the tensor gradient of the flow velocity with a viscosity tensor . such as velocity and density. For the special case of an incompressible flow.e. The Navier±Stokes equations result from the following assumptions on the de viatoric stress tensor y : the deviatoric stress vanishes for a fluid at rest. : y the fluid is assumed to be isotropic. since the deviatoric stress tensor is symmetric. The pressure p is modeled by use of an equation of state. so for a three-dimensional flow 2 +3 ´=0 As a result. and in turbulence modelling the concept of eddy viscosity is used to approximate the average deviatoric stress. it turns out that it can be expressed in terms of two scalar dynamic viscosities and ´: rate-of-strain tensor and y where is the rate of expansion of the flow is the the deviatoric stress tensor has zero trace.

In order to fully describe fluid flow. using the substantive derivative: 1. is the gradient of í gz. this implies that solving a problem without any such body force can be mended to include the body force by modifying pressure.). for example. Regardless of the flow assumptions.2. Typically these consist of only gravity forces.1. Other equations The Navier±Stokes equations are strictly a statement of the conservation of momentum. and/or an equation of state. Since pressure shows up only as a gradient. D. Other forces The vector field represents body forces. but may include other types(such as electromagnetic forces).C. The assumption of incompressibility rules out the possibility of sound or shock waves to occur. This is achieved through the mass continuity equation. given in its most general form as: or. the conservation of mass.3 Incompressi le flow of Newtonian fluids A simplification of the resulting flow equations is obtained when considering an incompressible flow of a Newtonian fluid. this may include boundary data no-slip. so this simplification is invalid if these 8 . a statement of the conservation of mass is generally necessary. the conservation of energy. more information is needed (how much depends on the assumptions made). these forces may be represented as the gradient of some scalar quantity. In a noninertial coordinate system. Gravity in the z direction. other "forces" such as that associated with rotating coordinates may be inserted. etc. capillary ( surface. Often.

The incompressible flow assumption typically holds well even when dealing with a "compressible" fluid ² such as air at room temperature ² at low Mach numbers (even when flowing up to about Mach 0.3). where is the (constant) dynamic viscosity. It's well worth observing the meaning of each term (compare to the Cauchy momentum equation): Note that only the convective terms are nonlinear for incompressible Newtonian flow. the flow field (a velocity distribution) will not necessarily be time dependent. The convective acceleration is an acceleration caused by a (possibly steady) change in velocity over position. Another important observation is that the viscosity is represented by the vector Laplacian of the velocity field (interpreted here as the difference between the velocity at a point and the mean velocity in a small volume around). this works in much the same way as the diffusion of heat seen in the heat equation (which also involves the Laplacian). Taking the incompressible flow assumption into account and assuming constant viscosity. Though individual fluid particles are being accelerated and thus are under unsteady motion. The shear stress term becomes the useful quantity ( is the vector Laplacian) when the fluid is assumed incompressible. This implies that Newtonian viscosity is diffusion of momentum.phenomena are important. in vector form: Here f represents "other" body forces (forces per unit volume). 9 . homogeneous and Newtonian. the Navier±Stokes equations will read. for example the speeding up of fluid entering a converging nozzle. such as gravity or centrifugal force.

The continuity equation is reduced to: does not change with respect to time. 10 . Under the incompressible assumption. density is a constant and it follows that the equation will simplify to: These equations are commonly used in 3 coordinates systems: Cartesian. Note that gravity has been accounted for as a body force. While the Cartesian equations seem to follow directly from the vector equation above. The continuity equation reads: When the flow is at steady-state. and the values ofgx. the vector form of the Navier ±Stokes equation involves some tensor calculus which means that writing it in other coordinate systems is not as simple as doing so for scalar equations (such as the heat equation). (i) Cartesian coordinates Writing the vector equation explicitly.gy.gz will depend on the orientation of gravity with respect to the chosen set of coordinates. the only "other" equation (apart fr m o initial/boundary conditions) needed is the mass continuity equation.If temperature effects are also neglected. and spherical. cylindrical.

and the remaining quantities are independent of : 11 . this is still a nonlinear system of partial differential equations for which solutions are difficult to obtain. so that a veloc component can disappear. and z: The gravity components will generally not be constants. The continuity equation is: This cylindrical representation of the incompressible Navier ±Stokes equations is the second most commonly seen (the first being Cartesian above). v. Cylindrical coordinates are chosen to take advantage of symmetry. w. . (ii) Cylindrical coordinates A change of variables on the Cartesian equations will yield the following momentum equations for r. This system of four equations comprises the most commonly used and studied form. Though comparatively more compact than other representations.When the flow is incompressible. is constant and does not change with respect to space. flow in horizontal pipe is treated normally without gravity and without a vertical pressure gradient). A ity very common case is axisymmetric flow with the assumption of no tangential velocity ( u = 0). The continuity equation is reduced to: The velocity components (the dependent variables to be solved for) are typically named u. however for most applications either the coordinates are chosen so that the gravity components are constant or else it is assumed that gravity is counteracted by a pressure field (for example.

(iii) Spherical coordinates momentum equations are (note the convention In spherical coordinates. 0 ): Mass continuity will read: These equations could be (slightly) compacted by. . the r. (iv) Stream function formulation 12 . However. or colatitude. doing so would undesirably alter the structure of the Laplacian and other quantities. and used: is polar angle. for example. factoring 1 /r2 from the viscous terms.

taking only kinematic viscosity as a parameter.2. where the equations reduce to: Differentiating the first with respect to y. Description of such phenomena requires more general 13 .4 Compressi le flow of Newtonian fluids There are some phenomena that are closely linked with fluid compressibility.1. 1. Defining the stream function through results in mass continuity being unconditionally satisfied (given the stream function is continuous). We can also express this compactly using the Jacobian determinant: This single equation together with appropriate boundary conditions describes 2D fluid flow. Note that the equation for creeping flow results when the left side is assumed zero. One of the obvious examples is sound.Taking the curl of the Navier±Stokes equation results in the elimination of pressure. the second with respect to x and subtracting the resulting equations will eliminate pressure and any conservative force. and then incompressible Newtonian 2D momentum and mass conservation degrade into one equation: where is the (2D) biharmonic operator and is the kinematic viscosity. This is especially easy to see if 2D Cartesian flow is assumed (w = 0 and no dependence of anything on z). .

the equations are: where y y y is the fluid mass density. They were among the first partial differential equations to be written down. 14 . and y p is the pressure.2. E= e + ½ ( u2 + v2 + w2 ) is the total energy per unit volume. with e being the internal energy per unit mass for the fluid. 1.1 History The Euler equations first appeared in published form in Eulers article ³Principe¶s généraux du movement des fluids.2.2. one additional term appears.´ published in Memories de l'Academie des Sciences de Berlin in 1757. with components u.2. If viscosity is assumed a constant. as shown here: Where v is the volume viscositycoefficient. and w. u is the fluid velocityvector.2. 1.2 Euler¶sequations[2] 1. v.2 Conservation and component form In differential form. This additional term disappears for an incompressible fluid.presentation of the Navier±Stokes equation that takes into account fluid compressibility. when the divergence of the flow equals zero. also known as second viscositycoefficient or bulk viscosity.

w ). and may be clearer in subscript notation.2. for each j from 1 to 3 one has: where the i and j subscripts label the three Cartesian components: ( x1 . u3 ) = ( u . as this format emphasizes their physical origins (and is often the most convenient form for computational fluid dynamics simulations). u2 . which represents momentum conservation. y .2.3 Conservation and vector form In vector and conservation form. v . z ) and ( u1 . x2 . The second equation. 1.The second equation includes the divergence of a dyadic product. the Euler equations become: where 15 . Note that the above equations are expressed in conservation form. x3 ) = ( x . can also be expressed in non-conservation form as: but this form obscures the direct connection between the Euler equations and Newton's second law of motion.

(See Navier±Stokes equations) 1.2. in real flows. is the adiabatic index. Much like the familiar oceanic waves. where is the density. The well-known Bernoulli's equation can be derived by integrating Euler's equation along a streamline. Physically this represents a breakdown of the assumptions that led to the formulation of the differential equations.2. 1. and to extract further information from the equations we must go back to the more fundamental integral form. and e the internal energy). and energy. Physical quantities are rarely discontinuous. Closing the system requires an equation of state. Generally. the most commonly used is the ideal gas law (i. this is a nonlinear effect and represents the solution becoming multi-valued. the Euler equations are solved by Riemann'smethod of characteristics. p = ( í1) e. This involves finding curves in plane of independent 16 .This form makes it clear that fx. these discontinuities are smoothed out by viscosity. Note the odd form for the energy equation. There are thus five equations and six unknowns. especially when used to analyze compressible flow in a duct or in case the flow is cylindrically or spherically symmetric. waves described by the Euler Equations 'break' and so-called shock waves are formed. The equations above thus represent conservation of mass.e. the one-dimensional Euler equations are a useful first approximation. The extra terms involving p may be interpreted as the mechanical work done on a fluid element by its neighbor fluid elements. velocity. pressure. fy and fz are fluxes. weak solutions are formulated by working in 'jumps' (discontinuities) into the flow quantities ± density. under the assumption of constant density and a sufficiently stiff equation of state. entropy ± using the Rankine±Hugoniot shock conditions. three components of momentum. Then. These terms sum to zero in an incompressible fluid.2.5 The equations in one spatial dimension For certain problems.4 Shock waves The Euler equations are nonlinearhyperbolic equations and their general solutions are waves.2. see Rankine±Hugoniot equation.

a potential flow is described by means of a velocity potential . In the case of an incompressible flow the velocity potential satisfies Laplace's equation. water waves. 1. of the velocity potential : 17 . The flow velocityv is a vector field equal to the gradient. 1. For flows (or parts thereof) with strong vorticity effects.e. and groundwater flow.. 1.3 Potential flow[2] In fluid dynamics. and potential theory is applicable. 1.variables (i. Numerical solutions of the Euler equations rely heavily on the method of characteristics. being a function of space and time. The irrotationality of a potential flow is due to the curl of a gradient always being equal to zero. potential flows also have been used to describe compressible flows.1 Description and characteristics In fluid dynamics. which is a valid approximation for several applications.1.3.1 Characteristics and applications Fig. x and t) along which partial differential equations (PDE's) degenerate into ordinary differential equations (ODE's). the potential flow approximation is not applicable. As a result. Applications of potential flow are for instance: the outer flow field for aerofoils. potential flow describes the velocity field as the gradient of a scalar function: the velocity potential. electroosmotic flow. .4 Streamlines for the incompressible potential flow around a circular cylinder in a uniform onflow. The potential flow approach occurs in the modeling of both stationary as well as nonstationary flows. However.3. a potential flow is characterized by an irrotational velocity field.

or a gas at low Mach numbers. A. water waves. potential flow theory is not able to provide reasonable predictions of the flow. the curl of the velocity field v. also the definition v = í . 18 . which is why potential flow is used for various applications. and electroosmotic flow. But here we will use the definition above. there are often large regions of a flow where the assumption of irrotationality is valid. Incompressi le flow In case of an incompressible flow ² for instance of a liquid. Dynamics only have to be applied afterwards. is used. In this case the flow can be determined completely from its kinematics: the assumptions of irrotationality and zero divergence of the flow. As a result. In flow re gions where vorticity is known to be important. if one is interested in computing pressures: for instance for flow around airfoils through theuse of Bernoulli's principle. but not for sound waves ² the velocity v has zero divergence: with the dot denoting the inner product. Fortunately. such as wakes and boundary layers. that the curl of a gradient is equal to zero: and consequently the vorticity. is zero: This implies that a potential flow is an irrotational flow. This has direct consequences for the applicability of potential flow. the velocity potential Laplace's equation has to satisfy Where is the Laplace operator (sometimes also written ). For instance in: flow around aircraft. groundwater flow. From vector calculus it is known.Sometimes. without the minus sign. with a minus sign. acoustics.

The flow velocity v is again equal to . at small angles of attack and thin bodies. as long as the assumption of irrotationality is applicable. describing a steady flow. The full potential equation. The full potential equation is valid for sub-. In case of either subsonic or supersonic (but not transsonic or hypersonic) flow. So: In that case. the linearized small-perturbation potential equation ² an approximation to the full potential equation ² can be used: with M = V / a the Mach number of the incoming free stream.3.1. 1. Sound waves 19 .and supersonic flow at arbitrary angle of attack.B. trans. Steady flow Potential flow theory can also be used to model irrotational compressible flow.2 Derivation of full potential equation A. with the velocity potential. an additional assumption can be made: the velocity potential is split into an undisturbed onflow velocity V in the x-direction. and small a perturbation velocity thereof. This linear equation is much easier to solve than the full potential equation: it may be recast into Laplace's equation by a simple coordinate stretching in the x-direction. is given by: with Mach number components and where a is the local speed of sound.

and .3 Applicability and limitations Potential flow does not include all the characteristics of flows that are encountered in the real world. while as before is the average speed of sound in the homogeneous each medium.1. Again the oscillatory part of the velocity vector v is related to the velocity potential by v = is the Laplace operator.Richard Feynman considered potential flow to be so unphysical that the only fluid to obey the assumptions was "dry water". Potential flow finds many applications in fields such as aircraft design. Also. For instance. one technique is to couple a potential flow solution outside the boundary layer to a solution of the boundary layer equations inside the boundary layer. understanding potential flow is important in many branches of fluid mechanics.Small-amplitude sound waves can be approximated with the following potentialflow model: which is a linear wave equation for the velocity potential . potential flow excludes turbulence. which is commonly encountered in nature. For example.3. in this approximation. Note that also the oscillatory parts of the pressurep and density individually satisfy the wave equation. 1. potential flow cannot account for the behavior of flows that include a boundary layer. More precisely. in computational fluid dynamics. Nevertheless. 20 . potential flow theory cannot be applied for viscousinternal flows.

Special care must also be taken to ensure that the discretization handles discontinuous solutions gracefully. y Finally a postprocessor is used for the analysis and visualization of the resulting solution. 1999]. For transient problems. Discretization methods The stability of the chosen discretization is generally established numerically rather than analytically as with simple linear problems.Chapter 2 Discretization methods[5] Methodology In all of these approaches the same basic procedure is followed. 2002. The volume occupied by the fluid is divided into discrete cells (the mesh). the initial conditions are also defined. Some of the discretization methods being used are: 2. o The physical modeling is defined ± for example. y During preprocessing o o The geometry (physical bounds) of the problem is defined. and contact surfaces. This involves specifying the fluid behaviour and properties at the boundaries of the problem. The mesh may be uniform or non-uniform.1 Finite volume method [5] The finite volume method is a method for representing and evaluating partial differential equations in the form of algebraic equations [LeVeque. y The simulation is started and the equations are solved iteratively as a steady-state or transient. the equations of motions + enthalpy + radiation + species conservation o Boundary conditions are defined. 21 . The Euler equations and Navier±Stokes equations both admit shocks. Toro.

1 1D example Consider a simple 1D advection problem defined by the following partial differential equation Here. these methods are conservative. flux or flow of represents the state variable and represents the . For a particular cell.Similar to the finite difference method or finite element method. Conventionally. positive represents flow to the right whilst negative represents flow to the left. Because the flux entering a given volume is identical to that leaving the adjacent volume. values are calculated at discrete places on a meshed geometry. using the divergence theorem. . In the finite volume method. If we assume that equation (1) represents a flowing medium of constant area. as and at time as. .1. respectively of the 22 . The method is used in many computational fluid dynamics packages. into finite volumes or cells with cell centres indexed as . These terms are then evaluated as fluxes at the surfaces of each finite volume. volume integrals in a partial differential equation that contain a divergence term are converted to surface integrals. we can sub-divide the spatial domain. where and represent locations of the upstream and downstream faces or edges cell. 2. we can define the volume average value of at time and . "Finite volume" refers to the small volume surrounding each node point on a mesh. Another advantage of the finite volume method is that it is easily formulated to allow for unstructured meshes.

we integrate . To obtain the volume average of at time . i. and substitute evaluated at the cell Where . recall that flow is normal to the unit area of the cell. we have: Where . since in one dimension . by differentiating where values for the edge fluxes. i. We can therefore derive a semi-discrete numerical scheme for the above problem with cell centers indexed as . Also. and divide the result by We assume that is well behaved and that we can reverse the order of integration. 23 . Equation (7) is exact for the volume averages. and with cell edge fluxes indexed as (6) with respect to time to obtain: . can be reconstructed by interpolation or extrapolation of the cell averages. for the volume integral of the divergence with the values of surface (edges and ) of the finite volume as follows: .. no approximations have been made during its derivation.e. over the cell volume. i. . Now.Integrating equation (1) in time.e.e. we can apply the divergence theorem.

Here. The actual numerical scheme will depend upon problem geometry and mesh construction. represented by the following PDE. which On integrating the first term to get the volume average and applying the divergence theorem to the second. In other words. Again.1.2. we are able to present the general result equivalent to (7). this yields where represents the total surface area of the cell and is a unit vector normal to the surface and pointing outward.2 General conservation law We can also consider the general conservation law problem. one cell's loss is another cell's gain! 24 . Finite volume schemes are conservative as cell averages change through the edge fluxes. . finally.e. values for the edge fluxes can be reconstructed by inter polation or extrapolation of the cell averages. Again we can sub-divide the spatial domain into finite volumes or cells. gives. we take the volume integral over the total volume of the cell. represents a vector of states and represents the corresponding flux tensor. For a particular cell. So. . i.

2. Runge-Kutta.1 Application A variety of specializations under the umbrella of the mechanical engineering discipline (such as aeronautical. which are then numerically integrated using standard techniques such as Euler's method.2 Finite element method[2] Fig. or rendering the PDE into an approximating system of ordinary differential equations. 2. biomechanical.2.2 2D mesh for the image above (mesh is denser around the object of interest) The finite element method (FEM) (its practical application often known as finite element analysis (FEA)) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as of integral equations. Several 25 . etc. 2.1 2D FEM solution for a magnetostatic configuration (lines denote the direction and colour the magnitude of calculated flux density) Fig. 2. The solution approach is based either on eliminating the differential equation completely (steady state problems). and automotive industries) commonly use integrated FEM in design and development of their products.

and optimized before the design is manufactured. and structural working environments. In a structural simulation. and uxx and uyy denote the second derivatives with respect to x and y. Similarly. FEM helps tremendously in producing stiffness and strength visualizations and also n minimizing i weight. the desired level of accuracy required and associated computational time requirements can be managed simultaneously to address most engineering applications. P1 is a one-dimensional problem where f is given. 26 . and costs. u is an unknown function of x. It is assumed that the reader is famiiar l with calculus and linear algebra. FEM allows entire designs to be constructed.. 2. refined. materials.2 Technical discussion We will illustrate the finite element method using two sample problems from which the general method can be extrapolated. electromagnetic. The two-dimensional sample problem is the Dirichlet problem where is a connected open region in the (x.modern FEM packages include specific components such as thermal. and indicates the distribution of stresses and displacements. and u'' is the second derivative of u with respect to x. respectively. fluid.2. FEM allows detailed visualization of where structures bend or twist. a smooth manifold or a polygon). FEM software provides a wide range of simulation options for controlling the complexity of both modeling and analysis of a system.y) plane whose boundary is "nice" (e.g.

After this second step. this method of solving the boundary value problem works only when there is only one spatial dimension and does not generalize to higher-dimensional problems or to problems like u + u'' = f. y In the first step. we will develop the finite element method for P1 and outline its generalization to P2. If u solves P1. where the weak form is discretized in a finite dimensional space. By using integration by parts on the right-hand-side of (1). we have concrete formulae for a large but finite dimensional linear problem whose solution will approximately solve the original BVP. one rephrases the original BVP in its weak form.we have (1) Conversely. but may be proved in a distributional sense as well. The transformation is done by hand on paper. we obtain 27 .e.The problem P1 can be solved "directly" by computing antiderivatives.2. Little to no computation is usually required for this step.3 Weak formulation The first step is to convert P1 and P2 into their equivalents weak formulation. i. However. This finite dimensional problem is then implemented on a computer. Our explanation will proceed in two steps. if u with u(0) = u(1) = 0 satisfies (1) for every smooth function v(x) then one may show that this u will solve P1. 2. y The second step is the discretization. v = 0 at x = 0 and x = 1. then for any smooth function v that satisfies the displacement boundary conditions. For this reason. The proof is easier for twice continuously differentiable u (mean value theorem). which mirror two essential steps one must take to solve a boundary value problem (BVP) using the FEM.

the left-hand-side 2 is also an inner product. will be smooth if f is. this time on the Lp spaceL (0. 2.) On the other hand. This solution is a-priori only a member of .2.4 A proof outline of existence and uniqueness of the solution We can loosely think of to be the absolutely continuous functions of (0. Such function are (weakly) "once differentiable" and it turns out that the symmetric bilinear map then defines an inner product which turns into a Hilbert space (a detailed proof is nontrivial. 2. 2. An application of the Riesz representation theorem for Hilbert spaces shows that there is a unique u solving (2) and therefore P1.2.5 The weak form of P2 If we integrate by parts using a form of Green's identities.1). then for any v.6 Matrix form of the problem 28 . Once more differentiable" functions of .2.1) that are 0 at x = 0 and x = 1 (see Sobolev spaces). we see that if u solves P2. but using elliptic regularity. Existence and uniqueness of the solution can also be shown. where denotes the gradient and denotes the dot product in the two-dimensional can be turned into an inner product on a suitable space that are zero on of "once plane. We have also assumed that (see Sobolev spaces).(2) Where we have used the assumption that v(0) = v(1) = 0.

(6) where and for j = 1.. and if we let L = (Lij) and M = (Mij) be matrices whose entries are Lij = (vi. . Matlab's backslash operator (which uses 29 ... As we have discussed before. Such matrices are known as sparse matrices. So we now have to solve a linear system in the unknown where most of the entries of the matrix L..L is symmetric and positive definite.. in fact.) In addition.. since no matrix M is used. For problems that are not too large. so a technique such as the conjugate gradient method is favored.. taking for j = 1. which we need to invert. (4) If we denote by and the column vectors (u1.If we write v(x) = vj(x) for j = 1...n becomes actually simpler.... sparse LU decompositions and Cholesky decompositions still work well. and there are efficient solvers for such problems (much more efficient than actually inverting the matrix.fn)t... are zero.. becomes and then problem (3)..n. For instance.. most of the entries of L and M are zero because the basis functions vk have small support..n.....n.vj) and Then we may rephrase (4) as . For a general function f(x). (5) It is not.un)t and (f1. necessary to assume .. problem (3) with v(x) = vj(x) for j = 1..

sparse Cholesky. an example of which is the space of piecewise linear functions over the mesh which are continuous at each edge midpoint. y Then. y One chooses a grid for . but it is also common to use piecewise polynomial basis functions.7 General form of the finite element method In general. For instance. the grid consisted of triangles. In our discussion. one has an h-method (h is customarily the diameter of the largest element in the mesh.. one has an algorithm for taking a given mesh and subdividing it. 2.) In this manner.sparse LU. we obtain a nonconforming element method.) For higher order partial differential equations. Another consideration is the relation of the finite dimensional space V to its infinite dimensional counterpart. The example above is such a method. then one 30 . If this condition is not satisfied. for a fourth order problem such as uxxxx + uyyyy = f. If the main method for increasing precision is to subdivide the mesh. if one shows that the error with a grid h is bounded above by Chp.e. this finite dimensional space is not a subspace of the original . A separate consideration is the smoothness of the basis functions. Since these functions are in general discontinuous along the edges. the derivatives are discontinuous. The matrix L is usually referred to as the stiffness matrix. piecewise polynomial basis function that are merely continuous suffice (i. A conforming element method is one in which the space V is a subspace of the element space for the continuous problem. while the matrix M is dubbed the mass matrix. Typically. one may use piecewise quadratic basis functions that are C1. one chooses basis functions. in the examples above . and other factorization methods) can be sufficient for meshes with a hundred thousand vertices. the finite element method is characterized by the following process. for some and p> 0. In the preceding treatment. For second order elliptic boundary value problems. but one can also use squares or curvilinear polygons. we used piecewise linear basis functions. one must use smoother basis functions.2.

For vector partial differential equations. Under certain hypotheses (for instance. one has a p-method. finite-difference methods are numerical methods for approximating the solutions to differential equations using finite difference equations to approximate derivatives. If instead of making h smaller. the polynomial degrees can vary from element to element.2. by definition.1 Intuitive derivation Finite-difference methods approximate the solutions to differential equations by replacing derivative expressions with approximately equivalent difference quotients. If one combines these two refinement types.8 Various types of finite element methods y y y y y y y Generalized finite element method hp-FEM hpk-FEM XFEM Spectral methods Meshfree methods Discontinuous Galerkin methods 2.3. one obtains an hp-method (hp-FEM). the basis functions may take values in . the first name of finite element method. That is. 2. 2. In mathematics. because the first derivative of a function f is. if the domain is convex). a piecewise polynomial of order d method will have an error of order p = d + 1.has an order p method. High order methods with large uniform p are called spectral finite element methods (SFEM). These are not to be confused with spectral methods. 31 . In the hp-FEM.3 Finite difference method[3] Not to be confused with "finite difference method based on variation principle" . one increases the degree of the polynomials used in the basis function.

then a reasonable approximation for that derivative would be to take for some small value of h. 2.2 Derivation from Taylor's polynomial Assuming the function whose derivatives are to be approximated is properly behaved. this is the forward difference equation for the first derivative. \which. 2. and Rn(x) is a remainder term.3 Accuracy and order The error in a method's solution is defined as the difference between its approximation and the exact analytical solution. by Taylor's theorem.3. f(x0 + h) = f(x0) + f'(x0)h + R1(x).3. Again using the first derivative of the function f as an example. denoting the difference between the Taylor polynomial of degree n and the original function. The two sources of error in finite 32 . one can approximate their solutions without the need for calculus. In fact. where n! denotes the factorial of n. by Taylor's theorem. Using this and similar formulae to replace derivative expressions in differential equations. with some minor algebraic manipulation. is equivalent to so that for R1(x) sufficiently small.

assuming no round-off). This is usually done by dividing the domain into a uniform grid (see image to the right. where x0< <x0 + h. the loss of precision due to computer rounding of decimal quantities. Using the Lagrange form of the remainder from the Taylor polynomial for f(x0 + h). Typically expressed using Big-O notation. For example. local truncation error refers to the error from a single application of a method. 33 . and truncation error or discretization error. The remainder term of a Taylor polynomial is convenient for analyzing the local truncation error.difference methods are round-off error. the dominant term of the local truncation error can be discovered. An expression of general interest is the local truncation error of a method. the difference between the exact solution of the finite difference equation and the exact quantity assuming perfect arithmetic (that is. 2. more generally. which is . often in a "time-stepping" manner. approximate the solution to) a problem.3 The finite difference method relies on discretizing a function on a grid. again using the forward-difference formula for the first derivative. To use a finite difference method to attempt to solve (or. That is. Fig. one must first discretize the problem's domain. it is the quantity f'(xi) í f'i if f'(xi) refers to the exact value and f'i to the numerical approximation. ) Note that this means that finite-difference methods produce sets of discrete numerical approximations to the derivative. knowing that f(xi) = f(x0 + ih).

4 E ample: ordinary differential equation For example. consider the ordinary differential equation The Euler method for solving this equation uses the finite difference quotient to approximate the differential equation by first substituting in for u'(x) and applying a little algebra to get The last equation is a finite-difference equation.3. in this case.3. 2.5 E ample: The heat equation 34 . 2.and with some algebraic manipulation. this leads to and further noting that the quantity on the left is the approximation from the finite difference method and that the quantity on the right is the exact quantity of interest plus a remainder. A final expression of this example and its order is: This means that. and solving this equation gives an approximate solution to the differential equation. clearly that remainder is the local truncation error. the local truncation error is proportional to the step size.

2. 2.. The points will represent the numerical approximation of u(xj...xJ and in time using a mesh t0. We partition the domain in space using a mesh x0. We assume a uniform partition both in space and in time.6 Explicit method Fig. with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions (boundary condition) (initial condition) One way to numerically solve this equation is to approximate all the derivatives by finite differences.. so the difference between two consecutive space points will be h and between two consecutive time points will be k.... We can obtain from the other values this way: 35 .tN... Using a forward differenceat time tn and a second-order central difference for the space derivative at position xj ("FTCS") we get the recurrence equation: This is an explicit method for solving the one-dimensional heat equation.4 The stencil for the most common explicit method for the heat equation.tn).3.Consider the normalized heat equation in one dimension.

and knowing the values at time n. in this example they are both 0.where r = k / h2. This explicit method is known to be numerically stable and convergent whenever . The numerical errors are proportional to the time step and the square of the space step: and must be replaced by the boundary 2.3. conditions. 2. If we use the backward differenceat time tn + 1 and a second-order central difference for the space derivative at position xj ("BTCS") we get the recurrence equation: This is an implicit method for solving the one-dimensional heat equation.5 The implicit method stencil. one can obtain the corresponding values at time n+1. We can obtain from solving a system of linear equations: The scheme is always numerically stable and convergent but usually more numerically intensive than the explicit method as it requires solving a system of 36 . So. with this recurrence relation.7 Implicit method Fig.

4 Boundary element method[5] 37 .3. 2. The explicit scheme is the least accurate and can be unstable. near the boundaries. the error is often O(h2) instead of O(h4). Usually the Crank±Nicolson scheme is the most accurate scheme for small time steps.8 Crank±Nicolson method Finally if we use the central difference at time tn + 1 / 2 and a second-order central difference for the space derivative at position xj ("CTCS") we get the recurrence equation: This formula is known as the Crank±Nicolson method. 2. The errors are linear over the time step and quadratic over the space step. The errors are quadratic over the time step and formally are of the fourth d egree regarding the space step: However.6 The Crank±Nicolson stencil. The implicit scheme works the best for large time steps. Fig.numerical equations on each time step. but is also the easiest to implement and the least numerically intensive. We can obtain from solving a system of linear equations: The scheme is always numerically stable and convergent but usually more numerically intensive as it requires solving a system of numerical equations on each time step. 2.

rather than values throughout the space defined by a partial differential equation.1 Mathematical basis The integral equation may be regarded as an exact solution of the governing partial differential equation. A particularly successful high-resolution scheme is the MUSCL scheme which uses state extrapolation and limiters to achieve good accuracy. in the post-processing stage. the integral equation can then be used again to calculate numerically the solution directly at any desired point in the interior of the solution domain. and fracture mechanics.) 2. synonymous with "boundary element method".5 High-resolution scheme [2] High-resolution schemes are used in the numerical solution of partial differential equations where high accuracy is required in the presence of shocks or discontinuities. electromagnetics. 38 . It can be applied in many areas of engineering and science including fluid mechanics. (In electromagnetics. though not always. y y y Solutions are free from spurious oscillations or wiggles. They have the following properties: y Second or higher order spatial accuracy is obtained in smooth parts of the solution.e. in boundary integral form).The boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations (i. The boundary element method attempts to use the given boundary conditions to fit boundary values into the integral equation. High-resolution schemes often use flux/slope limiters to limit the gradient around shocks or discontinuities. Once this is done. The number of mesh points containing the wave is small compared with a firstorder scheme with similar accuracy. High accuracy is obtained around shocks and discontinuities. 2. acoustics. the more traditional term "method of moments" is often.4.

The primary approach in this case is to create numerical models to calculate the properties of interest. from the smallest dissipative scales (Kolmogorov microscales). 3.) y Add the One-dimensional turbulence model (and its predecessor Linear eddy model). alphabetically.. As a result. turbulence models can be classified based on the range of these length and time scales that are modeled and the range of length and time scales that are resolved. the computational cost is very low. but the tradeoff comes in the form of decreased accuracy. This means that the whole range of spatial and temporal scales of the turbulence must be resolved. the range of length scales and complexity of phenomena make most approaches impossible. The more turbulent scales that are resolved. increasing accuracy. 39 . the objective is to obtain a theory or a model that can yield quantities of interest.1 Direct numerical simulation [4] A direct numerical simulation (DNS) is a simulation in computational fluid dynamics in which the Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved without any turbulence model. In studying turbulent flows. and therefore the higher the computational cost. the finer the resolution of the simulation. For turbulent flow. such as velocities.Chapter 3 Turbulence models[2] This section requires expansion with: y Models should be listed in some order (increasing cost.. The chief difficulty in modeling turbulent flows comes from the wide range of length and time scales associated with turbulent flow. All the spatial scales of the turbulence must be resolved in the computational mesh. A selection of some commonly-used computational models for turbulent flows are presented in this section. If a majority or all of the turbulent scales are modeled.

the memory storage requirement in a DNS grows very fast with the Reynolds number. This means that in order to be 40 . So that the Kolmogorov scale can be resolved. Since . The Kolmogorov scale. the integration of the solution in time must be done by an explicit method. So that the integral scale is contained within the computational domain. given the very large memory necessary.up to the integral scale L. the number N of points along a given mesh direction with increments h. must be . In addition. To satisfy these resolution requirements. the previous relations imply that a three-dimensional DNS requires a number of mesh points N3 satisfying Where Re is the turbulent Reynolds number: . the integral scale depends usually on the spatial scale of the boundary conditions. is given by where is the kinematic viscosity and is the rate of kinetic energy dissipation. Where u' is the root mean square (RMS) of the velocity. On the other hand. and also . . Hence. associated with the motions containing most of the kinetic energy.

This is done by means of "a priori" tests. One can estimate that the number of floating-point operations required to complete the simulation is proportional to the number of mesh points and the number of time steps. Using DNS it is possible to perform "numerical experiments". direct numerical simulation is a useful tool in fundamental research in turbulence. t. such as sub-grid scale models for Large eddy simulation (LES) and models for methods that solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). and consequently. it follows that . the number of time steps grows also as a power law of the Reynolds number. the number of time-integration steps must be proportional to L / (C ). Combining these relations. from the definitions for Re. Also. Therefore. For the Reynolds numbers encountered in most industrial applications. in which the input data for the model is taken 41 . the number of operations grows as Re3. the computational cost of DNS is very high. That is. (C is here the Courant number). the integration must be done with a time step. and L given above. and in conclusion. and extract from them information difficult or impossible to obtain in the laboratory. even at low Reynolds numbers.accurate. and the fact that h must be of the order of . The total time interval simulated is generally proportional to the turbulence time scale given by . the computational resources required by a DNS would exceed the capacity of the most powerful computers currently available. small enough such that a fluid particle moves only a fraction of the mesh spacing h in each step. By other hand. direct numerical simulations are useful in the development of turbulence models for practical applications. allowing a better understanding of the physics of turbulence. However.

1 Large eddy simulation of a turbulent gas velocity field. including combustion. LES grew rapidly and is currently applied in a wide variety of engineering applications.from a DNS simulation. 3. acoustics.2 Large eddy simulation[2] Fig. and simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer. reducing the computational cost. LES operates on the Navier-Stokes equations to reduce the range of length scales of the solution. It was initially proposed in 1963 by Joseph Smagorinsky to simulate atmospheric air currents. It was carried out in the Japanese Earth Simulator supercomputer in 2002. This operation is applied to the Navier-Stokes equations to eliminate small scales of the solution. 3. or by "a posteriori" tests. The biggest DNS in the world. in which the results produced by the model are compared with those obtained by DNS. and the solution is a filtered velocity field. used 40963 mesh points. up to this date. The governing equations are thus transformed. 42 . The principal operation in large eddy simulation is low-pass filtering. and many of the issues unique to LES were first explored by Deardorff (1970). Large eddy simulation (LES) is a mathematical model for turbulence used in computational fluid dynamics. This reduces the computational cost of the simulation. Whi h of the "small" c length and time scales to eliminate are selected according to turbulence theory and available computational resources.

Therefore the grid resolution is not as demanding as pure LES. such as turbulent jets. This makes the computational cost for practical engineering systems with complex geometry or flow configurations. 3. 3. In fact. There is nothing inherent in Reynolds averaging to preclude this. It also models the smallest (and most expensive) scales of the solution. allowing better fidelity than alternative approaches that do not resolve any scales of the solution (such as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods). Regions near solid boundaries and where the turbulent length scale is less than the maximum grid dimension are assigned the RANS mode of solution. thereby considerably cutting down the cost of the computation. pumps. which resolves every scale of the solution. direct numerical simulation. In contrast. statistically unsteady (or non-stationary) flows can equally be treated. vehicles. which introduces new apparent stresses known as Reynolds stresses. This adds a second order tensor of unknowns for which various models can provide different levels of closure.4 Reynolds-averaged Navier±Stokes[2] Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are the oldest approach to turbulence modeling. attainable using supercomputers. 2001). is prohibitively expensive for nearly all systems with complex geometry or flow configurations. the regions are solved using the LES mode. it can be implemented with other RANS models (Strelets. rather than resolving them. Though DES was initially formulated for the Spalart-Allmaras model.3 Detached eddy simulation [2] Detached eddy simulation (DES) is a modification of a RANS model in which the model switches to a subgrid scale formulation in regions fine enough for LES calculations.Large eddy simulation resolves large scales of the flow field solution. and landing gear. This is sometimes referred to as URANS. As the turbulent length scale exceeds the grid dimension. but the turbulence models used to close the equations are valid only as long as the time over 43 . It is a common misconception that the RANS equations do not apply to flows with a timevarying mean flow because these equations are 'time-averaged'. An ensemble version of the governing equations is solved. by appropriately modifying the length scale which is explicitly or implicitly involved in the RANS model.

the filtering operation is based on wavelets. the k í is a "Two Equation" model because two transport equations (one for k and one for ) are solved. and the incoherent part. and the filter can be adapted as the flow field evolves.which these changes in the mean occur is large compared to the time scales of the turbulent motion containing most of the energy. Mixing Length Model (Prandtl) and Zero Equation (Chen). Farge and Schneider tested the CVS method with two flow configurations and showed that the coherent portion of the flow exhibited the energy spectrum exhibited by the total flow. RANS models can be divided into two broad approaches: Boussinesq hypothesis This method involves using an algebraic equation for the Reynolds stresses which include determining the turbulent viscosity. but different in that it does not use a linear. which is the random background flow. low-pass filter.(Spaldin). The approach has much in common with LES. consisting of organized vortical motion. and corresponded to coherent structures (vortex tubes). Models include k. This means introduction of several transport equations for all the Reynolds stresses and hence this approach is much more costly in CPU effort. and depending on the level of sophistication of the model. 3. while the incoherent parts of the flow composed homogeneous background noise. Instead. For example. the Mixing Length model is a "Zero Equation" model because no transport equations are solved. The models available in this approach are often referred to by the number of transport equations associated with the method. Goldstein and Oleg applied the CVS model to large eddy simulation.5 Coherent vortex simulation [2] The coherent vortex simulation approach decomposes the turbulent flow field into a coherent part. but did not assume that the wavelet filter completely eliminated all coherent 44 . This decomposition is done using wavelet filtering. since it uses decomposition and resolves only the filtered portion. solving transport equations for determining the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. which exhibited no organized structures. Reynolds stress model (RSM) This approach attempts to actually solve transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.

It uses vortices as the computational elements. By employing both LES and CVS filtering. when combined with large eddy simulation. Among the significant advantages of this modern technology. To be practical. All that is required is specification of problem geometry and setting of boundary and initial conditions.7Vortex method [2] The vortex method is a grid-free technique for the simulation of turbulent flows. are based on tracking the one-point PDF of the velocity. For example. The PDF is commonly tracked by using Lagrangian particle methods. the PDF becomes the filtered PDF. thus eliminating numerous iterations associated with RANS and LES. 3. 45 . Software based on the vortex method offer a new means for solving tough fluid dynamics problems with minimal user intervention. PDF methods are unique in that they can be applied in the framework of a number of different turbulence models. This approach is analogous to the kinetic theory of gases. the main differences occur in the form of the PDF transport equation.motions from the subfilter scales. in which the macroscopic properties of a gas are described by a large number of particles. 3. first introduced by Lundgren. mimicking the physical structures in turbulence. Vortex methods were developed as a grid-free methodology that would not be limited by the fundamental smoothing effects associated with grid-based methods. which gives the probability of the velocity at point being between and . vortex methods require means for rapidly computing velocities from the vortex elements ± in other words they require the solution to a particular form of the N-body problem (in which the motion of N objects is tied to their mutual influences). y It is practically grid-free. they showed that the SFS dissipation was dominated by the SFS flow field's coherent portion. .6PDF methods[2] Probability density function (PDF) methods for turbulence. and are particularly useful for simulating chemically reacting flows because the chemical source term is closed and does not require a model. however. PDF methods can also be used to describe chemical reactions. this leads to a Langevin equation for subfiler particle evolution. in the context of large eddy simulation.

No modeling or calibration inputs are required.The Volume of fluid method has received a lot of attention lately. Solution algorithms Discretization in space produces a system of ordinary differential equations for unsteady problems and algebraic equations for steady problems. 3. so that the essential integral quantities are accurately computed. VC is similar to shock capturing methods. which are crucial for correct analysis of acoustics. a nonlinear difference equation is solved as opposed to the finite difference equation.y All problems are treated identically. producing a system of (usually) nonlinear algebraic equations. are possible. y Time-series simulations. which are used for dispersed media. viscosity and surface tension is based on the values averaged over the interface. y The small scale and large scale are accurately simulated at the same time. Applying a Newton or Picard iteration produces a system of linear equations which is nonsymmetric in the presence of advection and indefinite in the presence of incompressibility. Two-phase flow[2] The modeling of two-phase flow is still under development. where conservation laws are satisfied. for problems that do not have dispersed particles. Different methods have been proposed. Most of these methods are either good in maintaining a sharp interface or at conserving mass. are 46 . particularly in 3D. are based on solving the Lagrangian equation of motion for the dispersed phase. Implicit or semi-implicit methods are generally used to integrate the ordinary differential equations.but the Level set method and front tracking are also valuable approaches. Such systems. Lagrangian multiphase models. Within these features. VC can capture the small scale features to over as few as 2 grid cells. It uses a solitary-wave like approach to produce stable solution with no numerical spreading.8Vorticity confinement method [2] The vorticity confinement (VC) method is an Eulerian technique used in the simulation of turbulent wakes. This is crucial since the evaluation of the density.

operate by minimizing the residual over successive subspaces generated by the preconditioned operator. leading to a mesh-independent number of iterations. additive Schwarz. either stationary methods such as successive overrelaxation or Krylov subspace methods. typically used with preconditioning. but recent advances based on block LU factorization combined with multigrid for the resulting. Multigrid has the advantage of asymptotically optimal performance on many problems. and multigrid perform poorly or fail entirely. By operating on multiple scales. Krylov methods such as GMRES. so iterative methods are used. multigrid reduces all components of the residual by similar factors. Chapter 4 47 . preconditioners such as incomplete LU factorization. For indefinite systems.frequently too large for direct solvers. Traditionalsolvers and preconditioners are effective at reducing high-frequency components of the residual. so the problem structure must be used for effective preconditioning. Methods commonly used in CFD are the SIMPLE and Uzawa algorithms which exhibit mesh-dependent convergence rates. but low-frequency components typically require many iterations to reduce.

Secondly. for example weather systems or hypersonic aerospace vehicles. CFD has received extensive attention throughout the international community since the advent of the digital computer. As a developing science. the desire to be able to model physical fluid phenomena that cannot be easily simulated or measured with a physical experiment. Firstly. By use of the CFD softwares we are able to simulate the very difficult problems of fluid flow very effectively that is not possible by conventional methods of solving problem of fluid flow. Bibliography 48 . The attraction of the subject is twofold. This branch of fluid mechanics will also find the solutions and simulation techniques for two phase flow in near future which will be big achievement for all of us.Conclusion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of determining a numerical solution to the governing equations of fluid flow whilst advancing the solution through space and time to obtain a numerical description of the complete flow field of interest. the desire to be able to investigate physical fluid systems more cost effectively and more rapidly than with experimental procedures.

Contents 49 . Applications. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow.1. Patankar. Vntus Publishing. ISBN 0070016852 4. Computational Fluid Dynamics. John D. www. Abdulnaser. (1995). 5. McGraw-Hill Science. Hemisphere Series on Computational Methods in Mechanics and Thermal Science.wikipedia. (2009).cfd-online. www. Computational Fluid Dynamics: The Basics With 2. Taylor & Francis.com Sayma. Suhas (1980). Anderson. ISBN 08911652239. ISBN 9788776814304.org 3.

STRESSES C.Chapter 1.2.2. CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS 1. CONVECTIVE ACCELERATION (i) (ii) B. 1.3.2.2.2.2. CARTESIAN COORDINATES CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES SPHERICAL COORDINATES STREAM FUNCTION FORMULATION INTERPRETATION AS (V.2. POTENTIAL FLOW 1.2. BACKGROUND AND HISTORY Page no.2.2.3.( V) COMPRESSIBLE FLOW OF NEWTONIAN FLUIDS 1. INTERPRETATION AS V. BASIC EQUATION USED TO DETERMINING THE FLUID FLOW 1. PROPERTIES A. DESCRIPTION AND CHARACTERISTICS A. TURBULENCE C.1.3.4.2. OTHER FORCES D. 1. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS 1. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS 1. EULER¶S EQUATIONS 1.3.1.2.1. APPLICABILITY 1.1.2.2.2. 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 )V 4 5 5 6 8 8 8 10 11 12 12 13 14 14 14 16 16 17 17 17 18 50 1.1.2. INTRODUCTION 1.2.5.4.1. INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW OF NEWTONIAN FLUIDS (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 1. NONLINEARITY B.1.1. HISTORY CONSERVATION AND COMPONENT FORM CONSERVATION AND VECTOR FORM SHOCK WAVES THE EQUATION OF ONE SPATIAL DIMENSION 1.2. DERIVATION AND DESCRIPTION A.2. INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW . 1.1.3.1.2. 1.1.1.1. OTHER EQUATIONS 1.

5 THE WEAK FORM OF P2 2. STEADY FLOW 1.1.2.1 APPLICATION 2.1.1 INTUITIVE DERIVATION 2.3.2.2.1 1D EXAMPLE 2.8 VARIOUS TYPE OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODS 2.1.3.2.2 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION 2.3.2.3 FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD 2.2 GENERAL CONVERSION LAW 2.1 FINITE VOLUME METHOD 21 22 24 25 25 26 27 21 21 2.3 WEAK FORMULATION 2.6 MATRIX FORM OF THE PROBLEM 2. SOUND WAVES 19 20 20 20 1.1. DERIVATION OF FULL POTENTIAL EQUATION A.2 DERIVATION OF TAYLOR¶S POLYNOMIAL 2.2.3 ACCURACY AND ORDER 31 32 32 28 28 30 31 31 28 51 .4 A PROOF OUTLINE OF EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF THESOLUTION 2.7 GENERAL FORM OF FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 2.2.2 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD 2.2.2. DISCRETIZATION METHODS METHODOLOGY DISCRETIZATION METHODS 2.B.3.3 APPLICABILITY AND LIMITATIONS 2.3.

4 RAYNOLDS.3 DETACHED EDDY SIMULATION 3.5 COHERENT VORTEX SIMULATION 3.3.4 BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD 2.7 VORTEX METHOD 3.4 EXAMPLE: ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION 2.3.6 PDF METHODS 3.8 VORTEX CONFINEMENT METHOD TWO PHASE FLOW SOLUTION ALGORITHMS 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY 46 48 49 46 46 45 45 39 42 43 43 44 LIST OF FIGURE 52 . TURBULENCE MODELS 3.7 IMPLICIT METHOD 2.4. CONCLUSION 5.3.1 DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATION 3.1 MATHEMATICAL BASIS 2.2 LARGE EDDY SIMULATION 3.5 EXAMPLE: THE HEAT EQUATION 2.AVERAGED NAVIER-STOKES 3.5 HIGH RESOLUTION SCHEME 34 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 3.8 CRANK-NICOLSON METHOD 2.6 EXPLICIT METHOD 2.3.3.2.

1. 1.1 Large eddy simulation of a turbulent gas velocity field. 2. 2.2 A simulation of the Hyper-X scramjet vehicle in operation at Mach-7 1. 2.2 2D mesh for the image above.3 An example of convection.1 2D FEM solution for a magnetostatic configuration 2. 1. 3.4 Streamlines for the incompressible potential flow around a circular cylinder in a uniform on flow.Figure Page no.4The stencil for the most common explicit method for the heat equation. 2. 22 25 25 33 35 36 37 42 1 1 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 53 .3 The finite difference method relies on discretizing a function on a grid.1 A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re entry.6 The Crank-Nicolson method stencil. 2.5 The implicit method stencil.

V K Gorana´. for kindly providing me an opportunity to present the seminar. and ³Mr. 07/391 Final Year. Last but not the least. I express my deep sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to my seminar guide. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to ³Dr.Any mission can never conclude without cooperation from surrounding. N K Gupta´. Mech. for encouraging me to deliver my seminar in the topic of my interest and also given me the constant invaluable guidance. UCE. I thank all of my colleagues and friends for motivating me throughout the completion of my seminar report. It is a great pleasure for me to make use of this opportunity to express my thanks those person who help me to bring out my seminar a successful venture. First of all. D P Sharma´. Kota. in the absence of which my seminar presentation would have been incomplete. ³Mr. Naresh Kumar. A Seminar Report 54 .

professor UCE. Kota Department of Mechanical Engineering RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY KOTA CERTIFICATE 55 .On ³Computational Fluid Dynamics´ Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement For the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology In Mechanical Engineering Submitted by Naresh Kumar Final B. D P Sharma Asst. 07/391 Under the supervision of Mr.Tech.

D P Sharma Asst. of Mechanical Engg. (Mechanical Engineering) VIIIth semester has submitted his seminar entitled³Computational Fluid Dynamics´ under my guidance..This is to certify that Mr Naresh Kumar a student of B.Tech. Kota ABSTRACT 56 .UCE. professor Deptt. Seminar Guide Mr.

breathing. combustion in automobile engines and other propulsion systems. chemical reactors etc. So we need various calculations to be performed. These problems can be solved by using the branch of fluid mechanics which use numerical methods.. drinking . . and energy. ventilation and air conditioning of buildings. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the art of replacing such PDE systems by a set of algebraic equations which can be solved using digital computers. . transport of heating.Nowdays these calculations and computation is done by CFD softwares.e. Fluid flows encountered in everyday life include meteorological phenomena (rain. qualitative predictions of fluid flow. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a qualitative (andsometimes even quantitative) prediction of fluid flows by means of mathematical modeling (partial differential equations) numerical methods (discretization and solution techniques) software tools (solvers. floods.. cars etc. environmental hazards (air pollution. computer simulations) in a µvirtual flow laboratory¶ 57 . contaminants). fires). heat exchangers. testing of flow widh the help of wind tunnel or anything simulated environment for exact solution of flow problems. interaction of various objects with the surrounding air/water. processes in human body (blood flow. complex flows in furnaces. pre. wind.and postprocessing utilities) CFD enables scientists and engineers to perform µnumerical experiments¶ (i.Fluid (gas and liquid) flows are governed by partial differential equations which represent conservation laws for the mass. momentum. hurricanes. ) and so on and so forth.

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