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7, No3, September 2007 © AUTEX
MICROFIBRES, MICROFILAMENTS & THEIR APPLICATIONS
Sandip V. Purane, Narsingh R. Panigrahi Department of Textile Technology, SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technology, Nanded-431606. Maharashtra, India.
This article is a review which concerns microfibres, their classification, manufacturing methods, different fibre forms, general properties, as well as their various applications. A brief attitude related to economical problems and future prospects is presented.
microfibre, microfilament, manufacturing methods, fiber cross-section.
The growing demand to increase the fibre properties hitherto known, and to create new sophistical application fields for textile materials have been the causes of the rapid growth of microfibre technology and the rising potential for the textile industry. Microfibres are half the diameter of a fine silk fibre, one-third the diameter of cotton, one-quarter the diameter of fine wool, and one hundred times finer than human hair. In order to be classified as a microfibre, the fibre must be less than 1 dtex in width. Fabrics made from microfibres are generally lightweight, resist wrinkling, have a luxurious drape and body, retain shape, and resist pilling. They are also relatively strong and durable in relation to other fabrics of similar weight, and they are more breathable and more comfortable to wear. A microfibre is defined as a fibre (including staple fibres and filaments) of linear density approximately 1 dtex or less, and above 0.3 dtex . Even finer fibres are produced, of 0.3 dtex or less, but these are commonly referred to as super-microfibres.
Table 1. shows the relationship between fibre linear density and classification.  Fibre count, dtex/f > 7.0 7.0-2.4 2.4-1.0 1.0-0.3 < 0.3 Fibre classification coarse medium fine fine micro super-microfibres including nanofibres when their cross-sectional dimmentions are within a range of nm, that is of <0.1dtex or <1µm
History of microfibres Japanese fibre manufacturing companies introduced the first ‘micro-denier’ products during the 1970s . Then followed the developments in Europe during the 1980s, and since the 1990s American fibre manufacturers have been following suit. At present, polyester and nylon are generally used for manufacturing microfibres. However, ‘micro-denier’ versions of rayon and acrylic products are on the horizon. For as long as microfibre technology has been around, ultra-microfibre technology has existed as well. These are fibres that are less than 0.3dtex, and especially within the range of 0.1dtex. Several different processes can be used to make these fibres, all involving the splitting of a larger fibre into many smaller ones.
and the other component remains as the microfibre. and acrylic microfibres may be manufactured by this method.autexrj.  There are various methods of producing microfibres. Commercial production has been reported to use 20/80% ratios of soluble/insoluble polymers to produce a bi-component filament of up to 2 dtex fineness. the use of ‘off-quality’ chips should be avoided. Although the technology for microfibre production has been available for many years now. including modified conventional spinning. As microfibres are a high-value product. When the fabric is treated chemically with solvent. the polyester composition has to be consistent and it should not contain foreign matter. http://www. Detailed aspects of the various manufacturing methods are presented in the following chapter. Toray was the first company in the world to introduce microfibres.50 dtex. Microfibres are delicate yarns that require great care in handling during textile mill processing. Thus specifying the precise moisture level in the dried chips is essential for trouble-free production of microfibres. Polyester.pdf 149 .org/No3-2007/0240. and others. Recently Toray has introduced an ultra-fine polyester microfibre with a linear density of filament of about 0.  The molecular weight distribution should also be narrow and short-term viscosity must be kept as consistent as possible. followed by Teijin. It is also important to maintain the quality of the product in all subsequent steps. 7. wet spinning. tailless and identical in shape/size. so that the cost of solvent and soluble polymer is affordable. but have much lower property differences than the standard fibres. stability at extrusion temperature. The extrusion spinnerets should contain many holes of very fine diameter. a continuous drying process is better than batch drying. The drying process should be as consistent as possible. For this method. All three conventional spinning methods. polymer spinning and drawing conditions are required. This may be called the finest synthetic fibre so far produced commercially. and the fabric is made using them.05 dtex. Methods of manufacturing microfibres a) Dissolved type  Microfibres of this type are manufactured from bi-component fibres with different types of polymers. Comparatively thick bi-component filaments containing different types of incompatible polymers are spun. and chips must have an even residence time. it should be recoverable for use. and a final dissolved filament with linear density of about 0. September 2007 © AUTEX Production of microfibres Microfibres are generally considered to be fibres with a linear density of less than 1. ICI. Quality of the chips for microfibre Demands on polymer quality during the production of microfibres are very stringent. DuPont. in spite of complex thermal and rheological changes. namely melt spinning. carefully selected polymerisation. the polymers’ rheological properties should be compatible at extrusion temperature. nylon.AUTEX Research Journal. one component is dissolved and removed. Polymer chips need to be smooth. The main considerations for selection of suitable polymer component are: high solubility. It is advisable to use chips of the best available quality for the production of microfibres. as they would otherwise cause undue problems in processing. strong demand for these fibres did not begin until the 1980s. The currently available microfibres are different from ordinary fibres mainly in their dimensions. and dry spinning can be employed to manufacture microfibres. Polyester and nylon microfibres can be made by this method. The moisture regained of the dried chips should be less than 0.005%. Manufacturing of microfibres The technology involved in the extrusion of microfibres is more sophisticated and costly than that of conventional deniers. For drying quality chips. No3. to minimise the hydrolytic degradation in molten stage. Hoechst. each of which will make one uninterrupted filament. For example. Vol.0 dtex .
http://www. It is easier to split the segment in filament from itself than in the fabrics. September 2007 © AUTEX it should be non-toxic. the quenching air must not stress the filament. Cross-sectional photomicrograph of a 16-segment splittable fibre . Special melt spinning dynamics should be considered for the production of low linear density polyester by the direct extrusion method. b) Split type  The microfibres of this type are obtained by physically or chemically treating the bi-component filaments containing two types of polymers and splitting them into different types of filaments. processing all filaments equally in order to obtain evenness in density. In the solidification phase. For this method. which must be kept low in order to obtain finer fibres. highly selected polymerisation. Vol. Due to the large number of fine capillaries which form a microfilament yarn. c) Direct spun type This microfibre is directly manufactured by melt spinning. the hole distance and the arrangement of the spinneret holes must allow the turbulence-free quenching air stream to penetrate the whole filament bundle. This result has been attributed to the lower spin-line tension generated when spinning polymers with lower dynamic viscosity. and non-polluting. spinning conditions. The main considerations for selecting the polymer combinations are as follows: the polymers must be incompatible. Therefore. Suitable polymer combinations for splittable bi-component filament spinning are polyamides/polyester and polyester/polyolefines. the polymers should have weak adhesivity.autexrj. The various combinations of soluble/insoluble polymers reported to form fibres successfully are polystyrene/polyamide and polystyrene/polyester. When polymers have similar dynamic viscosities at the given temperature. the individual capillaries should be guided side by side in one layer.pdf 150 . Figure 1. An example of a splittable fibre is presented in Figure 1. After solidification. the polymer with the lower dynamic viscosity permits the spinning of finer fibres. No3. non-corrosive. The increase in takeup velocity. and by limitation of the horizontal component of the elastic melt expansion spinnerets’ exit. and therefore the minimum fineness attainable increases. and drawing conditions are required . the polymer should have reasonably similar melt viscosities at common extruder temperature. It is postulated that the important parameter in the production of finer PET fibre is the spin-line tension level. the stationary guides become problematic. polymer. 7.org/No3-2007/0240. and crossing of capillaries may result in deviations in linear density and drawing failures. and the fibre line length beetwen the spinnered and the take-up device increase the spinline stress level. There are the following areas where microfilament spinning requires care: The die-swell formation must be minimised by using the lowest possible melt viscosity at the capillary entrance.AUTEX Research Journal.
Typical microfibres with special cross-section shape [10. including the temperature range and the type of heating the fibre.5 dtex can be produced with high drawing ratios.pdf 151 . a) sheath/core b) eccentric sheath/core c) side-by-side d) pie wedge e) hollow pie wedge f) islands/sea g) three islands Figure 2. Staple fibre with linear density less than 0. melted. Typical bi-component fibre type. More detailed schemes of the fibre cross-sections shown in Figure 2 and 3 with http://www. a) hollow b) trilobal c) ribbon d) 4DG™ Figure 3. many application find especially the hollow fibres (Figure 3a). much beyond their conventional draw ratios (3-6 times) if the drawing is carried out at a minimum crystallising temperature and at special selected drawing conditions. two different polymers are mixed. filament and microfibre forms. Complex microfibres’ cross-sections commonly representing the bi-component fibre form are presented in Figure 4. are presented in Figure 3. (e) Sheath-core spinning method  In this method. Vol. September 2007 © AUTEX (d) Super-drawing technique  In this technique. and microfibre forms. No3. Specialty Cross-Sections  A modified cross-section can provide added functionality.18]. Bi-component fibres are available in staple. These cross-sections are available in staple. and in most cases.autexrj. such as unique lustre or moisture transport.AUTEX Research Journal. Typical bi-component fibre types are presented in Figure 2. filament. and the sheath portion is removed to form ultra-fine fibres. 7. Typical microfibres with special cross-section shape. are also available as bi-component fibres. This technique is based on the principle that yarn can be stretched as much as 10-75 times. and mix-annealed under specified conditions.org/No3-2007/0240. The conjugate fibre comprising of a concentric circular sheath and a core is manufactured. and vastly expands the array of possible fibre performance characteristics. no molecular orientation is involved. (f) Some other methods  Flash-spinning method Solution flash-spinning Emulsion-spinning method Jet-spinning method Centrifugal-spinning method Turbulent forming method Conjugate-spinning method Bi-component Fibres  Bi-component fibres are co-extruded with two different polymers in the cross-section. This allows the fibre to use the properties of both materials.17. commonly used.
No3. c) pie wedge with different polymer ratios (Figure 2d).org/No3-2007/0240.autexrj. d) three islands and three islands modified (Figure 2g). Vol. The types presented in Figure 2 and 3 are given in brackets: a) standard pie wedge (Figure 2d). September 2007 © AUTEX identification of the polymer used are presented in Figure 5. etc PLA 4DG Figure 5. a) b) c) PET PET Standard pie wedge fiber d) Hollow pie wedge e) Nylon P PL High Tm Low Tm f) g) Nylon. Complex microfibres cross-section. http://www. f) islands/sea (Figure 2f). taken by a scanning electron microscope are presented in Figure 6. Scanning electron microscope images of microfiber cloth . The views of microfibres and its crosssections in a microfibre cloth. e) sheat/core and TM eccentric sheat/core (Figure 2a and 2b). b) hollow pie wedge (Figure 2e). g) 4DG (Figure 3d). 7. PP. a) b) c) d) Segmented ribbon Segmented cross Tipped trilobal Segmented circle Figure 4.AUTEX Research Journal. a) top view of microfibers b) cross-section of microfibers Figure 6. Schemes of fibre cross-sections with identification of the polymer used.pdf 152 .
Vol. a low bulk (due to low twist) and very poor unwinding performance. 7. due to very low flexural rigidity of microfilaments. and giving the yarn a hairy look. Textured microfilaments [11. Textured microfilament yarns show light spots of tension variations while texturising. rayon. such as: soft touch and softness. finer than the most delicate silk. (c) an increase in elongation. luxurious hand with a silken or suede touch.12] When processing filament yarns. curtains and industrial textile products. A solid ceramic disc with a surface finish of 0. which will result in: (a) a reduction in broken filaments. and (d) a better twist level resulting in higher and better bulk. http://www.1 dtex/f). Better results can be obtained by using polyurethane discs which allow less abrasion and a higher twist level. The size pick up on microfibre yarn is higher and it is also more desirable.. the microfilaments are being subjected to powerful twisting forces that may result in filament breakages. Microfilaments. Sizing Warp sizing of microfibres should ideally be done on single-end sizing machines to minimise filament breakage at splitting rods. impart special characteristics to the fabric.org/No3-2007/0240. and so the cost per unit weight of production is much greater. Therefore microfilament draw-texturising will require a draw ratio setting lower than the theoretical draw ratio. light weight and high bulk.5 µm is most suitable to avoid roughness. a high level of broken filaments. special surface characteristics and silk-like appearance. which were textured. good drapeability and suppleness. In carding it is necessary to have a greater density of carding wire points.autexrj. If single-end sizing is not available. Very soft. Weaving Generally the tensions should be kept as low as possible. The size recipe should be decided by trial and error determining. Winding and warping All guide surfaces must be very smooth and in the best mechanical condition. then a pre-dryer is essential. novel applications in furniture and upholstery materials. as microfilaments are likely to break more easily than regular filament. Extremely drapeable.AUTEX Research Journal. September 2007 © AUTEX Processing of microfibres  Carding It has so far proved impossible to card microfibres at production rates which are comparable with conventional type of fibres. wool etc. The frictionless rotating discs type of tension devices are desired to minimise the drug. drapes.  General properties of microfibres  Ultra-fine linear density (less than 0. easy pliability/compatibility with cotton. thereby damaging the loss of reflecting surfaces. No3. good wear properties covering from lightweight dress material and lingerie to wind and waterproof sportswear. (b) a reduction in tenacity. Weft yarn for air jet or water jet looms will need some finish to perform at maximum efficiency.pdf 153 .
16]. cN/dtex Elongation at break.3 32 3. Microfibre is non-electrostatic.5 32 2. Synthetic game leather and imitation leather  When it was proved that natural game leather collagen fibres have diameters within the range of 4 micrometers. rain and cold. Comparison between fibres of standard linear density & microfibres Tenacity  • The tenacity value of fine dpf POY spun is higher than that of normal dpf POY. Elongation at break • The elongation at breake value of fine dpf POY spun is lower than that of normal dpf POY. dtex Length. bulk and outstanding surface properties. Microfibres are super-absorbent.8 30 Applications of microfibres and micro-filaments  Microfibres are characterised by advantageous properties such as pleasant softness of handle. These products offer outstanding advantages compared to natural leather and game leather in terms of uniformity. Synthetic game leather and leather products are today produced industrially in Japan by impregnating nonwovens produced from PET.AUTEX Research Journal. Microfibre is hypoallergenic. Anti-microbial agents help to protect both family members and work staff from the dangers of the bacteria that cause odour and mildew.5 1. September 2007 © AUTEX Washable and dry-cleanable.32 19. Microfibre dries in one-third of the time of ordinary fibres. lustre.5 0. No3.5 40 4. and low mass. Table 2.9 Acrylic 0.org/No3-2007/0240. mm Tenacity. Uster • The Uster value of fine dpf yarn is slightly higher than that of normal dpf yarn.15. PA or PAN microfibres with polyurethane (UP). At the start of development. ease of care. % Type of fibre Polyester 1. Vol. http://www.92 24. dimensional stability. imitation game leather and artificial leather could be developed with great success. absorbing over 7 times their weight in water. Draw force • The draw force value of fine dpf yarn is higher than that of normal dpf yarn.8 20-30 0. since they had properties which had not yet existed in previous clothing and technical textile concepts. and so does not create problems for those suffering from allergies. good draping qualities. colour fastness. A comparison of the properties o polyester and acrilic microfibres with different linear densites are presented in Table 2.8 32 5. High strength.8 40 3. since the new microfibres equated with this level in dimensional terms. the researchers searched for suitable fields of application for their microfibres. Microfibres are environmentally friendly. Property Linear density. 7.53 19. Shrink resistance.3 38 6. • The tenacity value of fine dpf acrylic spun is higher than that of normal dpf Acrylic.9.pdf 154 .autexrj.6 32 0. Insulates well against wind. Physical properties of polyester & acrylic microfibres with different linear densities [8.
lower pressures drop-filter materials that will last longer before plugging in both air and liquid applications. High-performance filter fabrics [6. in relation to the other fibre diameters currently being incorporated into the filter medium.pdf 155 . microfibre textiles offer excellent filtration effects for both air and fluid filtration. and has no opportunity of expelling his body moisture to the outside of the garment.24] Owing to their fine. compact structure. in combination with a high electrical voltage.org/No3-2007/0240. microfibres actually ‘scrape’ the dirt or stain from the http://www.1 dtex UFF hollow microfibre combined with a single hollow staple fibre. The characteristics of microfibre liquid filters are as follows: high water passage speed. These filtration mechanisms. Woven fabrics for protection against the weather were previously coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in most cases. The PVC coating guarantees absolute waterproofness. Independently on common microfibres. Today. and ease of cleaning micro-particles from the filter. No3. Many potential applications exist where synthetic splittable fibres can be used to add value. Microfibres for cleaning  Microfibre products are suitable for cleaning anything.autexrj. there is a wealth of alternative coatings and methods to replace PVC.and water-repellent. Microfibre textiles can produce excellent filtration effects in the process of filtering solid or liquid materials. may be able to create a higher efficiency. The addition of a small amount of splittable fibre should increase the dust spot efficiency of filter materials significantly due to its low fibre diameter. In pulsing applications where the filter medium is continuously flexed but also requires stiffness. such as microporous fluorocarbon coatings. dry handle. high extraction performance (retention of particles up to micrometers dimensions). which will provide permanent polarisation to the nonwoven. also ultra-fine microfibre products. The micrometer-sized fibre segments add mechanical filtration properties to the filter medium.22. This coating is equivalent to an airproof package. Protection against the weather  Woven sportswear fabrics are also used for protection against wind and weather. yet can breathe. Unlike ordinary cleaning fabrics that move or push dirt and dust from one place to another. attract and absorb charged dust particles. bulk.AUTEX Research Journal. when combined properly. and is used nowadays only for heavy duty rainproof clothing (the so-called oil-cloth). a sense of warmth. Thanks to ever finer yarns. which guarantee some breathing activity on the part of the fabric. the wearer perspires after only a few minutes. and create marketing advantages and a head start onto the market for innovative filter suppliers. 7. They are wind. such as 0. The two polymers may also be electrostatically chargeable to enhance first-step filtration properties. Vol. September 2007 © AUTEX Fashion clothing textiles  Woven fabric was produced from even a 0. and also for insulation purposes. fabrics can now be produced to meet practically all functional sportswear requirements without additional coating or membranes. It allows no passage of air. and is lightweight. splittable synthetic fibres add a high degree of reinforcement to the filter medium because there are number is at least 16 times the number of fibres available for reinforcement when they are spilt for segmented fibres or more than 33 times for the islands-in-the-sea type fibres. but has a serious disadvantage.05 dtex PP microfibre nonwovens. good recovery. two different dissimilar polymers can be selected that will generate turboelectric properties under flow conditions. Also. This product offers softness.
nanofibres help stimulate living tissues to repair themselves in various parts of the human body. They are perfect for asthma and allergy sufferers. Pressure drops increase with the number of microfibres. computer monitors. They are also excellent at removing fingerprints from any surface. it is no wonder that microfibre nonwovens are found in hospital surgical drapes and gowns. Vol.org/No3-2007/0240. The user can clean the cloths with water alone. and bedding & linens. blood vessels. In another words. surgical packs. microfibre nonwovens are exactly what the doctor ordered. By using the metal-coated microfibres inside the tubes of heat exchangers. Construction applications  Composites are multilayer materials consisting of different layers with distinct properties in each layer. tar. September 2007 © AUTEX surface. Polypropylene and bi-component microfibres can be very important components of fibre-reinforced composites. as they remove dust and dust mites without chemicals. The composite is constructed in order better to utilise a combination of properties from different layers. They changes the static charge on the surface so it will stay cleaner longer which is important for TV screens. splattered bugs come off with the cleaning cloth. custodians and car retailers. Medical applications  When it comes to the medical market. more versatile. The findings of the above experiments are as follows: Heat transfer increases with the number of metal-coated microfibres. Microfibres are the well-kept secret of professional housekeepers. speeding up the healing process. Grease. Nanofibres have a large surface area in comparison to their size. In this case. heat transfer enhancement can be achieved. but also as a binder fibre between the individual layers. 7. they are lower in cost. such as cartilage. easier to use. Both manufacturers and consumers are already aware of the many benefits microfibre nonwovens offer to the medical market. Scheme of cleaning dirt by common microfibres.AUTEX Research Journal. Nanofibres are about 10. Energy conservation Experiments have shown the drastic savings in the energy consumption in heat exchanges which are brought about by using metal-coated microfibres. and features of better disposability. Smaller than usual fibres. On the other hand. With this in mind. which is of the order of one micrometer depending of the type of cell. and then store the dirt particles in the fabric until it is washed. as they function not only as a reinforcing element. and mirrors. bones and so forth. and do not spread dust or dirt around.autexrj. gloves. Another advantage of using nanofibres to grow tissues stems from the fact that natural scaffolds themselves are of fibres in the nanometre-size range. safer. Polypropylene and bi-component microfibres are used in many different composite http://www.000 times smaller in diameter than the width of a human hair. they allow cells to adhere to them better. but of greater dimentions than a typical cell. due to diseases or wear and tear. Figure 7. nanofibres are closer replicas of the natural environment of the cells than micron-range fibres. protective face masks. The scheme of cleaning dirt by common fibres and microfibres are shown in Figure 7. Microfibre cleaning clothes trap dirt and dust inside the cloth. When compared the commonly textiles to microfibre nonwovens. the microfibre shows its heat conveying properties. no chemicals are needed.pdf 156 . No3.
The question is what ratio of microfibres is required in blends to qualify the product for the microfibre level. This is likely to inhibit the development of microfibres in many textile and industrial applications. Vol. perfect for asthma and allergy sufferers. the size of the luxury market is not very large. 7.AUTEX Research Journal. removing dust mites without chemicals. PA. and how the proportion of microfibres will cause to pay a premium on price. ‘Micro denier’ yarns have a wider horizon of applications in India due to the traditional dress material designed and made by using natural fibres like cotton and silk. ability to add bulkiness and softness to the composite. In the use of microfibre. especially silk. multifunctional liquid transport media (acquisition and distribution layers). In addition to the common raw materials.org/No3-2007/0240. insulation material (to avoid the use of chemical binders).autexrj. mildew. woven fabrics (as a dimensional stability network). No3. obliterating those that are unable to compete effectively. along which the mouse can slide easily. sports materials. The cost of producing microfibre is high in relation in common fibres. PES. as well as outside the clothing industry. Microfibres as swing threads. processing and use of this type of fibre. Polypropylene and bi-component (PP/PE) microfibres have the ability to add structural performance and functionality to the composite materials. which works to conceal thinning hair. However. Conclusion Microfibres are a completely new generation of ultra-fine synthetic yarns. which have not yet reached their peak of development. this specialty range will in future include other raw materials such as cellulose. toughness and impact strength. good mechanical properties. the target concept has so far been ‘luxury’ rather than ‘utility’. There is also an emphasis on blends. reduction in twist by 5-10%. an inevitable price war may bring down the prices of new fibres. and microfibres cannot substitute conventional products without significant changes and adjustments to processing methods. stability in rigid environments (resistant to deterioration from chemicals. The industry will have to do the policy in this case. Polypropylene and bicomponent (PP/PE) microfibres provide the following advantages in fibre-reinforced composites: they enable lightweight constructions (PP fibres have the lowest specific gravity of all fibres).pdf 157 . allowing improved engine performance and extended life.2] automotive application to improve air oil filtration. high performance sound absorption panels and concert hall seat covers. production. Microfibres are extensively used as a luxurious apparel wear. perspiration. etc. and with so many companies rushing into the field of microfibre manufacturing. which may have advantages. We can foresee a brighter future in the Indian market due to the aesthetic properties of the fabrics made out of the yarns. and 2% net increase in yarn cost The microfibres command high prices. Microfibres are also used in sports applications such as sports wear. Some examples of general and spectacular applications of microfibres [6. Use in the technical textile sector. pushing up yarn prices by 4%. There are still a wide range of possibilities to be explored in the design. used extensively for hair transplantation. and PAC. and so the question of costs is perhaps of lesser importance. However. Computer mouse pads. keeping the mouse ball clean at the same time. rot and weather). the industry has to gear up http://www. among other products. easy to process and environmentally friendly thermoplastics. September 2007 © AUTEX products: Micro-fibre-reinforced concrete (to reinforce and prevent cracks). Microfibres for production of synthetic leather. Polishing cloths for wafers and hard disks. acoustic insulation. ‘Micro denier’ yarns have varied simulations of natural fibres. Economics aspects of microfibre processing and future prospects for microfibres  The microfibre processing results in: 5-10% higher price than conventional fibres. and laminated products (lamination between textiles and boards).
23. Vishwanath & H. No. 7. 1994.Magiccleaning. by Prof.A. April 2003.103 12.autexrj. July 1998. 53-58.J. Properties & Application.J.I. 9-16. 1992.T..T. Microfibres.pdf 158 . Teli. A. Polyester microfibre fabri. 25.com 22. 37. 2. 16. 295-299. 213-216. 35-37. March 1994.c by Prof.Technicaltextile. Feb. 17.D. 7. S. www. Microfibre – Production. (4th Issue) April 2000. Vol.F. by B. March 1994. www.T. Micro Denier Yarns.AUTEX Research Journal. 1992. M. Microfibres – J.com 24. by S .T. 50 14. Sept.Hotrodworks. D. by Dr. I.com ∇∆ http://www. M. “Comparative Study On Spinning Of POY For Normal & Micro-Denier Polyester Yarn”. September 2007 © AUTEX to handle these delicate yarns in the downstream processes.com 18. 293-296 9.M. by H. Mar-April 1999. and finishing. www. Production of Microfibres.B.org/No3-2007/0240. Paper by Arindam Basu. L. (Ms.com 20. Nov. www. NCM.. Jan-Feb 1997.M. (Dr. Vol. 11. 54 15. Bhonde. Microfibres. by Jurg Rupp & Akira Yonenaga. Pal. 327-337. www.de 23. March 1997.Vol. 24.T. weaving. 43-53. 3. Mishra.A.Fitfibres. “Microfibre Producers Still See Growth Ahead As Smaller Fibres Open New Markets”. Feb. www. ATJ April 1995.327-328. 12-24.T. Jan 1993. Vol. Ajgaonkar. Miller. 62-70 10.com 19. dyeing. Vol. Paper by Dr. Thiel J.iPFdd.Findfast.K. Textile ASIA. Vol.googlesearch. Textile ASIA. 8. MMTI. www. sizing.T.) S.T. 83.com 21.T.. such as twisting. by K. by Dr.. “Production & Properties Of Microfibres & Micro Filaments”. Vol. Vol. The New Man-Made Fibre Image.B. Vidur. Textile ASIA.Reliance.. warping.46. 23-29. References: 1. 4. 1991. 1992. 5. MMTI.3. I. Bela Von Falkai. 37. www. V.) M. P. 6.63 13.I. No3. I. from SITRA in ATJ April 2001.
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