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Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 1424–1431

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Resistance to wear of fast-track Portland cement concrete
Nader Ghafoori *, Matthew W. Tays
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454015, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4015, USA

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The selected fast-track Type I Portland cement concretes were studied for resistance to wear at both
Received 2 September 2009 opening and maturity (28 days) times. The effect of four cements contents, namely: 386, 445, 505, and
Received in revised form 13 January 2010 564 kg/m3 (with and without an accelerating admixture) is also ascertained. The trial matrices were
Accepted 15 January 2010
examined for plastic and bulk properties, and wear resistance. Depth of wear and rate of deterioration
Available online 7 February 2010
as functions of matrix proportions and constituents, opening-time categories, and testing duration were
determined. The influence of variables such as cement content, curing age, and accelerating admixture on
compressive strength and abrasion resistance of the selected matrices were studied. The coefficient of
Fast-track concrete
Abrasion resistance
variation and abrasion index for the abrasion test of the trials concrete were also examined. Lastly, the
Wear relationship between the abrasion resistance (depth of wear) and compressive strength at both opening
Strength and maturity ages were investigated.
Curing Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Fast-track concrete mixtures can be successively produced
using ASTM C 150 [2] Types I, II, or III Portland cements provided
Over the years, Portland cement concrete has continually adequate chemical admixtures are used [3]. The utilization of fly
gained acceptance as one of the most commonly used civil engi- ash, as a secondary cementitious material, in fast-track concrete
neering materials. Today, many miles of the interstate highways, applications has been limited and currently there is no record of
secondary/county roads, city streets, and airports consist of Port- ground blast-furnace slag ever employed in fast-track concrete
land cement concrete pavements. [4]. Air-entraining admixtures have been used extensively in
When concrete road pavements were constructed years ago, the fast-track concrete applications, ranging from 136 to 1018 ml/m3
rapid increase in traffic volume and high levels of heavy truck [3,4]. Water-reducing admixtures have also been implemented
traffic, which pavements must now carry, were not anticipated. on numerous applications as well. For fast-track concrete mixtures,
Taking into account that many of these pavements have had little water-reducing admixtures Types A, E, and F were found appropri-
or no maintenance or resurfacing, their design life and rideability ate. While accelerator admixtures have not been used to the extent
have now been reached or exceeded. Conventional improvement as water-reducers and air-entrainment admixtures, the most fre-
methods incur high replacement costs and cause several days of quently used accelerating admixture is calcium chloride (CaCl2).
traffic interruption especially in heavy-traffic areas, such as major It has been used for full-depth and partial depth concrete pave-
intersections, and on toll ways, where congestion/delay is most ment patching for quick curing and opening-to-traffic. In addition
prevalent. to increasing early strength gain, it has been found that calcium
In order to maintain minimal traffic interruption, new technol- chloride positively affects concrete’s resistance to abrasion and
ogies have been developed that enable concrete contractors to erosion, thus creating a higher quality product [5]. Aggregates sat-
rehabilitate and resurface pavements more efficiently. One of these isfying ASTM C 33 [5] have been used in fast-track concrete mix-
methods is fast-track concrete pavement technology where higher tures and are providing good service [6].
proportions of the standard Type I cement or high-early-strength Fast-track paving typically does not require any special equip-
cement, (Type III cement), is used to allow roadways to open more ment or newly developed technique. Yet, fast-track paving does re-
rapidly. In almost all cases, roadway opening strengths can be met quire well-planned and organized construction sequencing due to
within 12 h or less by means of combining these cement types and shorter time available for placement [4]. Either conventional slip-
varying amounts of matrix constituents [1]. form pavers or hand placement may be used to place fast-track
concrete. Successful projects have been known to use both.
* Corresponding author. The most commonly used curing methods in fast-track concrete
E-mail address: (N. Ghafoori). projects are the application of curing compounds and placement of

0950-0618/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Na2O equivalent = 0. chemical admixtures (high.350. bleeding properties at opening and maturity times.45  105 h m2 °C/joule and for the ture (CaCl2).46 1.64.62 0. Mixture proportions and design times should not be determined arbitrarily on the elapsed time Dry quantities of the matrix constituents used for each mixture are presented in after placement but rather on the strength of the concrete [8].3.1. For was determined based on physical characteristics and size distribution of the coarse thin slab that will carry trucks. setting times (ASTM C 403) [16]. cement (ASTM C 1064) [17]) and bulk characteristics (demoulded unit weight (ASTM C 138) [18] and compressive strength (ASTM C 39) [19]).35 627 1059 2. (3) compare surface and bulk properties (slump (ASTM C 143) [13]. was used at a con- blankets to remain in place until the required strength is reached stant dosage rate in selected fast-track concretes. a wide range of placement 3. This amount ing automobiles requires 1. A uniform volume of 0. and it continues to provide moisture retention for the slab in accordance to ASTM C 33 [5] classified the aggregate as grade 57. used.21 0. Kansas. N.58%. b Air entraining admixture. crete in early-opening-to-traffic pavements. and FM = 2. air content (ASTM C 173) [14]. Test specimens were initially cured in insulation boxes constructed of Styrofoam consin [4].6%. SGSSD = 2. concretes are shown in Table 2. to the temperature of 49 ± 1 °C was used throughout the investigation. produced 6 ± 1% air con- tent in nearly all of the trial fresh concretes. The resistance to wear content. and testing procedures methods. along with the actual water and water-to-cement ratio. Research objectives the test cylinders were monitored with a temperature-monitoring device that downloaded information to a computer at designated intervals. within 24 h and provide a flexural strength of 2. and Wis. C3S = 50. The temperatures of 2.96 1 kg/m3 = 1. Tays / Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 1424–1431 1425 insulating blankets. 3. and dry rodded unit weight = 1567 kg/m3.4%.0%. Insulating blankets are characteristics of the coarse aggregate were as follows: SGOD = 2. air-entraining. (2) ascertain parame.017 m3 was used for all matrices. Fresh properties The raw materials included ASTM C 150 [2] Type I Portland cement.14 I-445 445 154 0. 445. compressive strength. crushed limestone coarse aggregate. The air-entraining admixture. The quantities of the water-reducing admixture fast-track concrete technology in 1986 [10]. 505. and curing age. coarse aggregate remained constant at 1060 kg/m3 for all mixtures. The amount of the Iowa.1. The batches were used to cast 102  102  355 mm beams or 102  204 mm cylindrical specimens.10%. Michigan.0%.56. Results and discussion 3. mixer.4 1.325 458 1059 1.67. Test results relevant to the fresh properties of the trial fast-track range water reducing. The eight matrices selected for this investigation were examined for plastic ters influencing abrasion resistance. A slump value of 127 ± 6 mm was ASTM C 150 [2] Type I Portland cement had the following chemical constituents and percentages: SiO2 = 21. Crushed limestone tain moisture until it has set properly and curing blankets can be coarse aggregate had nominal maximum size of 19 mm.7%. Tap water. mixture proportions. (ASTM C 232) [15]. was measured using ASTM C 779 [20] Procedure C. and Insol. Since the Iowa DOT experience with the fast-track concrete application. and accelerating admixtures).45  105 h m2 °C/joule. Most projects recommend a thermal resis- workability and air content of the freshly mixed concretes. curing. absorption = 1. In order to compare The research investigation presented herein was intended to: the performance of the samples at opening-time with that of the matured concrete. A constant amount of an accelerating mixture satisfied the 24 h requirement and met the specified admixture (2% by weight of Portland cement) was used for the selected matrices. Fe2O3 = 3. increased dosage rates of the Table 1 Mixture constituents and proportions of fast-track concretes. was used to quantify the dosage rate of the water-reducing admix- uble residue = 0.2. preheated and reduce the effect of ambient air temperature and solar radia. properties: SGOD = 2. The physical once the curing blankets are removed [6]. The weight of the The recommended opening flexural strength for pavements carry.4 MPa. Ball Bearings.325 458 1059 4. The fine aggregate satisfied ASTM C 33 [5] gradation requirements. opening.685 lb/yd3. batches until a satisfactory slump of 127 ± 6 mm was attained. and (4) provide relation. Experimental program 4.0%. and tap water. With the exception of two mixtures. and lined with an insulation blanket having thermal resistant ‘‘R” value of 2. Mixture designation Cement content Actual Designed W/C Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate Chemical admixtures (kg/m3) (kg/m3) water (kg/m3) (kg/m3) HRWRAa AEAb I-386 386 133 0.34 1. it is recommended a flexural aggregate.76 I-564 564 181 0. According to the Federal Highway Administration.35 525 1059 1. 3. as well as the gradation of the fine aggregate expressed in terms of fine- ness modulus.35 627 1059 4. a group of test specimens was then moist-cured for 28 days in a lime-saturated tank (1) evaluate the resistance to wear of Portland cement Type I con- containing tap water at a temperature of 23 ± 2 °C. Montana.35 525 1059 3. Ghafoori.62 I-505 505 175 0. and 564 kg/m3 were strength of 4. The goal of the project were determined by observing the consistency of the concrete using different trial was to place a bonded concrete overlay on US-71 near Stormlake. Raw materials 4.24%. strength in less than 12 h [11]. Table 1. The natural siliceous fine aggregate had the following physical ture as shown in Table 1. Loss on Ignition = 1. An accelerating admix- tance (R) rating of at least 2. [7].8%. M. a High-range water reducing admixture. all selected matrices had a uniform Iowa DOT (IDOT) brought about the first major application of water-to-cement ratio of 0. and curing methods have been pro- posed and utilized.46 0.35 729 1059 3.11 I-445AA 445 153 0. braska.W. . SGSSD = 2. MgO = 4. Gradation tests conducted placed. meeting the requirements of the ASTM D 98 [12]. Al2O3 = 4. which varied for each mixture. Other states experiencing fast-track concrete Concrete components were mixed using a rotating electric counter-current pan highway projects were Colorado. and adiabatic temperature ships among abrasion resistance. kept constant for all trial matrices. The pre-designated slump value C3A = 6.76 I-564AA 564 179 0.62 I-505AA 505 173 0. In general. SO3 = 2.05 0.50%. Four cement contents.63. Both high- range water reducing and air-entraining admixtures were used to attain the desired tion on the pavement. Mixing.5 MPa be obtained prior to opening-to-traffic [8]. siliceous fine aggregate. Pennsylvania. North Carolina.99 1.20%.6. Virginia.96 I-386AA 386 131 0. Wyoming.35 729 1059 7. The time that the specimen remained in the insulation boxes varied depending on its opening-time classification.0 MPa in third point loading [9]. Ne. The curing compound enables the slab to re. sampling. namely: 386. commonly used on fast-track pavements to minimize heat loss absorption = 1.

Some trial in cement content.8 32 58 12. increased by an average of 7% in peak temperature accelerating admixture) experienced improvement of 2%.2 28.54 6. However.3.3 33.. A similar pattern was obtained of setting dropped by an overall average of 33% (I-386 not with the use of the accelerating admixture. In general.5 –a –a 57.3 27.4 –a –a 46. On the whole.25 I-564AA 121 4. As the cement content increased by attaining a minimum compressive strength of 20.01 26 47 14.7 24.9 36. a Not available. Ghafoori.7 –a –a 56.5 –a –a 51. was used to achieve an average m3. the addition of the accelerating admixture did not have any impact 4.8 29. water-reducing admixtures were required with the use of the and reduced by roughly 9% in time-to-reach peak temperatures accelerating admixture. The addition of the accelerating admixture did not have as air content of 6 ± 1%.5 I-505AA 8 2368 16.34 5. 1 MPa = 145 psi. 4.4 4.9 –a –a 55. When the cement content in- was 7% while the time-to-reach the peak temperature decreased creased from 386–445 to 505–564 kg/m3 the compressive by 6%. the initial and final times with increases in cement content. ing an accelerating admixture displayed a decrease in initial and fi- nal times of settings by approximately 42%. 4.7 MPa is obtained [21].1 I-445 12 2333 –a 10.81 3. 1 °C = (5/9)(°F32). included). Consequently.21 28 48 12. the average increase in peak temperature both opening-time and 28 days. Various dosage rates of the air-entraining as the cement content increased from 386–445 to 505–564 kg/ admixture. The same mixtures. for the purpose Both initial and final setting times showed similar reductions of this investigation.03 3.0394 in.4 36.00 1 mm = 0.2 I-505 12 2335 –a 11. . that were not practical and.2.5 MPa and the equation pro- bleeding was observed from any of the mixtures used in this vided by ACI committee 363. a compressive strength of approxi- investigation. Mixture designation Opening time (h) One day demolded Compressive strength (MPa) unit weightb (kg/m3) Curing age 6h 8h 12 h 3 days 7 days 28 days I-386 12 2332 –a 6. with the addition of the accelerating strengths at the opening-time of 12 h (for the mixtures without admixture.2 21. Tays / Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 1424–1431 Table 2 Fresh properties of fast-track concretes.9 2.W.685 lb/yd3. the unit weight of the selected concretes When comparing mixtures without an accelerating admixture to obtained at the pre-assigned opening-time marginally increased those with an accelerating admixture. As shown in Table 3. The freshly The test results of the selected trial matrices as related to the mixed concrete temperatures were at the higher end of the typical compressive strength at different curing ages are presented in Ta- range 10–32 °C and varied from 26 to 32 °C partly due to the used ble 3.3 21.75 27 51 13. without an accelerating admixture. b At corresponding opening-time.4 –a –a 46. With increases in cement content.5 1 kg/m3 = 1. Irrespective of the matrix constituents and proportions. no Using the set flexural strength of 4.5 5. Mixture Slump Measured air Initial time of Final time of Freshly mixed concrete Peak concrete Time to designation (mm) content (%) setting (h) setting (h) temperatures (°C) temperatures (°C) peak (h) I-386 133 6.4 22. 8%. the accelerating admixture had effect matrices with high cement content demanded extreme dosages on time to peak. respectively.52 31 55 9.58 3. for the matrices tures with and without the accelerating admixture.47 6.19 5.13 I-505 127 5. as the cement content increased by the same amount.2 4.00 I-445AA 127 5. Bulk characteristics on the dosage rate of the air-entraining admixture. Compressive strength were measured and the results are shown in Table 2.2.1 I-386AA 8 2364 –a 17. The re- from 386–445 to 505–564 kg/m3 the initial and final times of set.38 I-505AA 127 4.00 I-386AA 121 6. As the cement content increased from 386– marginally improved with an increase in the cement content at 445 to 505–564 kg/m3.82 29 52 9. respectively. thus. and 12%. M.66 4.5 3. all opening-time categories were determined with increases in cement content. 4%.7 MPa.4 I-445AA 8 2366 –a 21.25 I-445 133 6. The same matrices incorporat. mately 20.3 –a –a 63. The bleeding of the selected fast-track concretes was investi.6 I-564AA 8 2377 22. The adiabatic temperatures of the selected fast-track concretes 4.1. higher dos.63 I-564 121 3. 2%. and it generated an average reduction of 24%.8 3.44 29 55 12. the compressive strengths of the trial matrices heated mixing water.9 2. One day demolded unit weight respectively. the maximum dosage rate was when compared to concrete without accelerating admixture.1426 N.2. limited to 326 ml per 100 kg of Portland cement. as shown in Table 1.9 46. sults of the study revealed 8 and 12 h opening-times for the mix- ting decreased by 4%.0 4.13 32 59 9. and 10%. much as an effect on the peak temperatures as did the increase age rates of the air-entraining admixture were needed.2.2. Opening-to-traffic time gated. as shown in Table 3.3 I-564 12 2366 –a 13.0 27.1 22. and Table 3 Bulk properties of fast-track concretes.

71 I-445 0.14 1. the test samples without an accelerat- with and without accelerating admixture. In fact. Influence of curing age mate depth of wear at 4. respectively. m3.5.38 0. and 7% for the specimens made with an accelerating admixture.42 1. up to the designated opening-time increased by roughly 29%. 4.28 2.24 0.46 1.35 0. enhanced the surface property of the fast- in compressive strength for the mixtures without and with the track concretes. The cor. for the specimens incorpo- were 3%. and 50%. in turn. Ghafoori. rating an accelerating admixture. it can tured concretes (at ages of 28 days and beyond).18 1. Influence of cement content (2) None of the samples tested at their selected opening-time As the cement content increased from 386–445 to 505–564 kg/ were able to complete the 20 min testing period.39 1. and 64%.09 I-445AA 0.80 2.55 0. significant. The influence of the cement content. Moreover. .08 0.21 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20 Depth of wear at opening-time (mm) I-386 0. At the maturity age (28 days).64 2.10 0. For the same 0.49 0.15 0.3. It should be noted that the mixtures made with test samples made without an accelerating admixture and cured 564 kg/m3 of cement had a slightly lower water-to-cement con.48 1. making the influence of the cement content less terminal depth of (3 mm). The coefficient of variation for the abrasion test Moreover.2%.3. The corresponding strength gains at the 89%. the completion of the maximum 20 min testing time. 20%.59 2.07 1. to 564 kg/m3 indicated that the opening-time of the mixtures I.W.41 0.28 0.91 2. 57%.5.27 0. of moist-curing.39 0.31 1. tent.21 2. all the selected matrices reached the ultimate depth of wear before ments in the 28-day moist-curing compressive strength of 0.98 1. for the mixtures increase in cement content. As a result.39 2.23 0. the times to reach the ultimate abrasion depth (3 mm) of the all samples were able to be abraded for the full 20 min with- Table 4 Depth of wear of test specimens at different time intervals. M. they were sensitive ces at the designated opening-times and 28-days moist-curing age to increases in cement content. Resistance to wear ing. 4. with increases in cement con- to 28 days had a significant influence on the compressive strength.37 0. at the designated opening-time. 505. The test specimens cured up to the pre-selected opening-age had insufficient time needed to adequately hydrate and develop The test results of the abrasion resistance for the selected matri. 1 displays a typical trend for the effect of curing age on responding times for the test samples without an accelerating resistance to wear of the selected fast-track Portland cement con- admixture were 3. the abil. and 13 min. and (1) Significant improvements in wear resistance were observed accelerating admixture on abrasion wear is discussed in the fol. and 22%. in curing age were far more affected by the addition of the accelerator than increases in cement content.42 2.06 2.30 0. tively.32 0. ignated opening-times than at the maturity age. From Table 4 and Fig.2%.49 1. respectively.97 1. and 8% after 5 and 20 min. Tays / Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 1424–1431 1427 9%. 8. 445.16 0. experienced abrasion strength recorded when the cement content increased from 505 resistance improvement of nearly 23%.59 1.17 0. the appropriate surface property.74 0. with increases in cement content were more dominant at the des- ing-time to maturity. cretes at opening and maturity ages. curing age.40 0.31 0.29 I-564 0. after 28 days are shown in Table 4. lowing sections.78 2.5. a Indicates that testing was terminated before 20 min as a depth of wear of 3 mm was reached.40 0.59 0.19 0.94 1.28 0. and 13%.96 –a I-564AA 0. can be attributed to the formation of a binder-rich and denser The trial matrices showed average improvements of 10% and 37% matrix which.06 0.17 2.68 0.03 2. and 53%. and 10%. and 10%. and 5%.48 1. 7. the cement paste was nearly fully hydrated and ity to resist wear was measured as a function of time-to-reach the matured. respectively. 3%.44 –a I-564 0.88 1.20 0. between designated opening-times and 28-days curing.11 2.13 0. 2%.79 0.1. 35%.41 0.87 2. tent than other matrices. 1 mm = 0.27 0.10 1.83 2.34 0.47 0. ment content. the resistance to be observed that: wear was measured as a function of depth of wear after 20 min of testing.49 0.99 2.77 0.21 2. The corresponding times augmentation opening-time of 8 h (for the mixtures with accelerating admixture) were 56%. 4.58 1.80 –a Depth of wear at 28 days moist-curing (mm) I-386 0.3.60 0.68 I-564AA 0.97 –a I-445AA 0. the resistances to wear improvements accelerator.17 0.2. and 564 kg/m3 and incorporating an accelerating admixture reached their ulti.65 2. 1.15 2. Mixture designation Time interval (min) 0.27 0.53 3.95 2. The corresponding 564 and I-564AA could be less than the reported 8 and 12 h for gains in wear resistance were 44%.88 1. 13%.70 –a I-505AA 0. and 2%.80 1. respectively. However.70 0.685 pcy.35 I-505 0.84 1.10 I-386AA 0. N.93 –a I-445 0.09 2. 11 and 18 min. respectively. respec.20 2.55 0.70 1. respectively.84 0.31 0.71 0.84 2. the matrices with cement contents of 386.01 –a I-505 0. the matrices with and without accelerating admixtures. Fig. respectively.0394 in.21 1.05 I-505AA 0.12 0. the selected matrices experienced average improve.55 1. The perceptible gain in ing admixture and moist-cured for 28 days. This finding can be explained through the quality of cement paste at the time of test- 4.44 0.30 0. The length of curing time from the designated opening-time The improvement in depth of wear. For the ma.49 0.65 1.56 0.94 1. respectively.85 1.87 –a I-386AA 0. the wear resistance improvements with increases of the trials concrete is also examined and presented.25 0.52 0.63 1 kg/m3 = 1. On the other hand.55 1. as the curing age increased from open. For the opening-time abrasion tests. For the same increase in ce. respectively.5. and 18%. 33%.

a Not available.73 7. The coefficients of variations of the trial of 3 mm and comparing all others at the same time period.82 I-386-OT I-445-OT 0.49 4. The appropriateness of the testing apparatus was The mixtures containing the accelerating admixture dis- examined by visually inspecting the tested specimens and evaluat. 1.54 34. respectively.13 10.77 18.18 7.67 8.0787 I-505 11. with the addition of the accelerating admixture.78 26.3. 4.5.53 18.5 (for P in mm) for public roadways and industrial hard- hydration of the cement paste at early age and.25 –a –a –a 1. Pedestrian applications.35 –a –a –a 2 0.56 6.29 0 0.0984 Opening-time interval (min) Depth of Wear (mm) I-386 10.91 8.8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 I-445AA 32. played the highest resistance to wear both at the designated .5 0. 445. (4) When viewed in isolation.86 5.59 17.67 –a I-386AA 7. 505. 26%.56 24. The same mixtures with the accelerator made face at initial testing.43 40.98 5. 69%. and 16%. These findings can be attributed to the fact 62%.99 17.W. 4.5 7.58 17.09 44.3.69 12. with increases in curing time. in as testing progressed. 10%.91 11. 4. the time the weakest mixture reached the terminal depth the result was discarded. their abrasion resistance between the abrasion test.) I-445 15.89 24.2 34.39 21. and test accuracy with time.14 9.27 37.5 0. At the times to reach the ultimate depth of wear.48 17. a more uniform path developed for which abrasion resistance at the 5 min testing period as the curing the ball bearings followed. (3) For the mixtures without an accelerating admixture.02 11. A number of observations can be made: 20%. Vehicular applications.22 I-386-28D I-445-28D I-505 16. 4. indicating an improvement in the 564 kg/m3 showed improvements of 64%. Ghafoori. R = the recom- accelerator increased in wear resistance by 3%.5 I-505-OT I-564-OT 0.26 51.5.99 9.5 1 2 5 10 15 20 2. 2722 kg. 26%. Coefficient of variation (2) The abrasion indices increased with increases in cement The reproducibility of test results is an important factor in any content and with the addition of the accelerating admixture.3. the abrasion path of the test specimen was carefully opening-time and 28-days curing were measured by taking observed and when the abrasion path was not completely uniform.2 (for P in mm) for footpaths in other areas.81 24. IA = 2.4.85 5.3.0000 I-386AA 30. This is due to the fact that the accelerator enhances the rate of IA = 1.18 10. and 564 kg/m3 and accelerating The results obtained at both opening and 28 days ages are admixture experienced improvements in depth of wear of 12%. concretes at different curing periods are documented in Table 5. the wear resistance improved depending on curing age.2 7. Abrasion resistance of fast-track concretes at opening-time and 28 days.28 17.53 21. This indicates an improvement in wear resistance with increases in curing time. The following guidelines for the abrasion ing admixture performed better than those without an indices of vehicular applications were used [21]: accelerator by exhibiting wear resistance gains of 32%. Following each reached full maturity. 66%.8 21.66 37.59 31.3 12.79 –a –a –a I-505AA 15.5.77 33. age increased from opening-time to 28 days.48 12. 83%.2 I-505-28D I-564-28D I-564 22 18.2.31 16.0 (for P in mm) busy shopping footpaths and malls with heavy pedestrian traffic. respectively.51 –a –a –a I-564 13. As it can be seen in Table 4.58 15.18 I-564AA 58.99 18. and 70% at the designated opening-time and after 28 days of moist-curing.49 1 0. M.48 33.85 11.18 30.36 17. 445. respectively.64 32. Tays / Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 1424–1431 3.1181 Mixture Time interval (min) designation 0.06 20.2 (for P in mm) for car-parks with vehicular traffic under and surface characteristic.75 8.0590 I-445AA 16.62 4.92 23. Identical mixtures with the accelerat- etration (in in. in abrasion resistance at the 4 min testing that: (1) although the test specimen was accurately leveled.5 0.14 25.26 13. and decreased as testing progressed.45 32.23 13. Influence of accelerating admixture IA = 1.65 16.1378 Table 5 Coefficient of variation for abrasion test at opening-time and 28 days ages.1428 N.28 Fig. out reaching the depth limit of 3 mm after 28 days of moist- curing.3. Abrasion index attained at the opening-time was compared to the corre- Abrasion indices of the trial matrices were evaluated using the sponding result at 28 days.57 9.91 5.0197 I-445 35.79 10.24 8. the same matrices without an equation: IA = (R1/2)/P. shown in Table 6.91 15.2 11.37 –a –a –a –a Depth of Wear (in.06 23. respectively. where: IA = abrasion index. respectively.42 5. 70%.0394 28-day time interval (min) I-386 19. 78%. Since the samples tested at the opening-time had not ing the repeatability or accuracy of the test results. for the same curing periods. and 81%.or mm). and 80%. as the ultimate depth of wear 4. 66%.01 55. 80%.7 Time (minutes) I-505AA 26.45 37.96 14.6 10. results in an increased paste quality IA = 1. and 32%.3. the test spec- imens made with 386. thus contributing to higher variations and (2) improvements of 70%. when (1) The abrasion indices increased as the selected fast-track con- compared to the mixtures without accelerating admixture. 3 0. 505.1.53 17. mended ball race revolution (in thousands). cretes matured. and P = depth of pen- and 32%.48 23. in combination settings.44 25. test method.26 –a –a I-564AA 19. 56%. the trial It was observed that the initial coefficients of variations gradually concretes made with cement content of 386.1 36. the period as the curing age increased from the opening-time to abrasion apparatus was never perfectly seated on the concrete sur- 28 days.

when the fast-track concretes predictive equations.4. fect of the cement factor was less significant as the cement paste Mixture Maximum abrasion index Abrasion index of 28-day samples was given the time required for proper hydration.5 It was found that the length of curing from the opening-time to I-445 0.6.1 In the first method.4. The value of the abrasion index for the selected fast-track con.1.2.W. and accelerating admixture influenced dence level of 95%. The same mixtures at 28-days moist-cur. the 4.9 3. This indicates that the abrasion resistance in wear resistance and compressive strength were both 140%. between the time-to-reach the maximum the resistance to wear more than they did the compressive allowable abrasion depth and the compressive strength in one strength.1 4. respectively.6 evaluated by taking the time increment the weakest mixture I-564AA 1. remained constant once the surface skin was worn away and the body of the concrete specimen was reached.9 1.1 2.4. it was found the abrasion index of the trial matrices. (5) With the exception of the mixtures without an accelerator and containing cement content of 386 and 445 kg/m3.0 (for P in sive strength. Statistical analyses 4. The influence of cement content.9 28 days also influenced the resistance to wear more than it did the I-505 0.4 1. However.3 I-505AA 1 7. The rapid hydra- the corresponding increases in abrasion resistance was 190%. at a confi- ment content. tionship among the dependable variables (compressive strength.7 7. The predictive equations were tested for accuracy using rienced overall average improvements in times to reach the ulti. resistance to wear. designation of opening-age samples at various testing times (min) 1 5 10 15 20 4.1 age was examined using two different assessment methods.1 2.9 1. The 4. M. (6)–(9) of the section below. resistance to wear and compressive strength improvements follows: with increase in cement content were higher at the pre-selected opening-times than at maturity (28 days).3 2. and acceler. N. admixture) for the experimental program of this study are as lier.6. As the curing age in- (3) The abrasion indices decreased with time and then gradually creased from the opening-time to 28 days.4 4.1.8 5. the overall average in- crease in compressive strength for all mixtures was 110% whereas opening-time and 28-days moist-curing. as noted earlier. This Portland cement concrete is usually considered abrasion resis- demonstrated their suitability for all pedestrian and vehicu.1 2. Compressive strength samples cured up to the designated opening-times were more sen- sitive to increase in cement factor because they lacked enough CS ¼ 47:7 þ 0:000016CC2 þ 0:000057CCAA2 þ 48:0CA0:1 ð1Þ . in the other hand are given in Eqs. Correlations mate depth or wear of nearly 59% and 57%.4 7.1 2. tance to wear) properties are discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. However.4 6.7 3.1 6. for the compressive increased in cement content from 386–445 to 505–564 kg/m3. 4. As noted before. The most suitable relationships.5 2. Comparison of surface and bulk characteristics relationship between the abrasion resistance and compressive strength of the fast-track concretes at both opening and maturity The test results reported in Tables 3 and 4 indicate that the ce. at the designated opening-time and thus did not meet mately 100% in wear resistance while a 6% increase in the IA requirements. This approach was em- ployed for both opening and 28-day times. As the curing period increased from the opening-time to 28 days. all 4. tant when it possesses a minimum compressive strength of lar applications upon maturity. I-386AA 0. Effect of accelerating admixture cretes remained fairly unchanged after 5 min of testing. ating admixture on bulk (compressive strength) and surface (resis. Effect of cement content A statistical program [25] was used to determine the best-fit At the designated opening-times. ages were examined.7 2.4. The rela- 17% and 5%.5 2. curing age. improvements in resistance to wear was I-445AA 0. whereas between the data predicted from the regression equations and the compressive strength of the same matrices improved by only the actual test results were evaluated using F and T tests.8 (for P in in.7 2.5 6. other factors such as cur- ing conditions and age and finishing techniques may affect the abrasion resistance more than the compressive strength [24]. and accelerating by 5% and 4%.4 1. after 28-days curing.7 6. while the compressive strength improved only pendent variables (curing age.6 MPa [23]. the ef- Abrasion index of fast-track concretes at opening-age and 28 days.) equivalent to 2. R2 (the coefficient of multiple determinations). hand.7 3.0 (for P in mm) after 28 days of moist-curing. 27. 4. the strength.1 2 2 compressive strength. Relationship between depth of wear and compressive strength Type I cement mixtures produced abrasion indices higher than the 2.2 reached the terminal depth of 3 mm at the opening-time and com- paring all others at the same time period.3. and abrasion index of the trial con- matrices made with and without an accelerating admixture expe. ing displayed an average abrasion resistance increase of 31% and depth of wear. respectively. that. from the 28-day moist-cured specimens.2 2. As alluded to earlier.5 7.1 4 4. time-to-reach the ultimate depth of wear) and inde- 11%.9 7.1 4. cement content. Tays / Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 1424–1431 1429 Table 6 time to hydrate sufficiently. Similarly to the results presented ear.4 9. tion brought about by the accelerator at early ages increased The second evaluation method compared the ultimate depth of the quality of the cement paste and the resultant surface wear (3 mm) obtained at the opening-time with that obtained property. the addition of the accelerating admixture (4) All selected mixtures did not produce abrasion indices influenced the abrasion resistance more than it did the compres- higher than the 50. on the whole.6 1.2 2 1. cretes. the average increases leveled out. respectively.5. at 95% confidence level. The eight different concretes increased approxi- mm). compressive strength was detected. Effect of curing age I-386 0. curing age. respectively. Ghafoori. Although accelerating admixtures are used to accelerate the meaning that the duration of testing was sufficient to obtain strength development of concrete at an early age [22].4 1. and between the depth of wear and compressive strength. the influence of curing I-564 1.6 2.

nearly a 190% reduction in depth of wear was obtained.45%. Conclusions þ 5:79  104 CC  T þ 1:54  103 T3 þ 2:1  108 CC3  2:91  107 T  CC2 The following conclusions are based on the experimental results þ 4:39  107 T2  CC ð2Þ presented in this paper: (1) ASTM C 779 [20]. The calculated values of the regres. On the other hand. Procedure C.1430 N. TimeðAbrÞAAOTmax ¼ 36:5342  the reduction in depth of wear. The overall average wear resistance   24717:5128 improvement at opening-time was nearly 42% when the ðDOWÞAA28-day ¼ exp 2084:3339 þ þ 408:2373 logðCSÞ accelerator was used.W. and Prob(t) and than bulk characteristic. Ball Bearings. Time(Abr)OTmax = time. cretes satisfied the required abrasion index at the time of ing-time or 28-day cured concrete (min). At the opening-time. CCAA = cement content with accelerating admixture (kg/m3). Time(Abr)AAOT. when the test results were 13448:4769 compared at the two aforementioned curing ages.2. remained nearly unaffected by the increases in þ 347912189:3615 expðCSÞ ð7Þ cement content. Ghafoori. Resistance to wear sion variables R2. and The predictive equations yielded coefficients of multiples deter. to-reach maximum allowable abrasion depth for concrete without However. produced abrasion indices suitable for all pedestrian and max = time-to-reach maximum allowable abrasion depth for vehicular application concrete with accelerating admixtures at opening-time (min) (6) Test results showed that the cement content. Moreover.  3:147  109 CCAA3  6:031  107 T  CCAA2 (2) Increases in cement content resulted in improved wear þ 3:71  105 T2 CCAA ð3Þ resistance. When the time-to-reach the maximum  4:36  103 CCAA  T þ 1:54  104 T3 allowable depth (3 mm) of the opening-time specimens þ 8:21  109 CCAA3  3:78  106 T  CCAA2 was employed to ascertain the abrasion depth of the equiv- þ 1:93  105 T2 CCAA ð5Þ alent 28-days specimens. Tays / Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 1424–1431 4.36% to 99. (DOW)AA28-day = depth of ative of an increase in the resistance to wear. At maturity. ðDOWÞOT ¼ 6:63  103 þ 0:54T þ 1:2  102 CC  6:07  102 T2  3:44  105 CC2 5. the same mixtures CS ð9Þ resulted in a significant overall average improvement of 163% in resistance to wear with the addition of the where CC = cement content without accelerating admixture (kg/m3). Prob(t) and Prob(F) were indicative of strong rela- tionship between the dependent and independent variables. accelerating admixture influenced surface property more mination. after 28 days of moist-curing. An increase in the abrasion index is indic- of wear for opening-time concrete (mm). at a rate of nearly 400%. Identical mixtures ðDOWÞ28-day ¼ 7:78  103 þ 0:95T þ 4:89  103 CC at maturity (28-days cured) exhibited an overall average  1:74  102 T2  1:85  105 CC2 improvement of 14% in abrasion resistance for every 60 kg/ m3 increases in cement content. (4) With the addition of the accelerator. T = Age of testing for the open. The testing procedure was relatively quick and easy to perform and produced reli- þ 1:84  104 CCAA  T þ 1:18  103 T3 able and repeatable results. nearly all mixtures accelerating admixtures at opening-time (min). with the addition of the CS2 accelerator. Depth of wear versus compression strength imum allowable depth of wear (3 mm) at the opening-time. respectively. R2. The average wear resistance þ 2:49  103 CC  T þ 1:71  103 T3 improvements with the same increases in cement content of þ 1:76  108 CC3  2:07  106 T  CC2 the Type I Portland cement concretes were 60% and 54% at þ 1:68  105 T2  CC ð4Þ time of opening and 28 days. (DOW)AAOT = depth of wear for the opening-time concrete nearly 5 min of testing. increases in abrasion ðDOWÞ28-day ¼ 2:098 þ 2:640  1019 expðCSÞ ð8Þ resistance were experienced at both opening-time and 28 days of moist-curing.3. None of the selected fast-track con- with accelerating admixture (mm). (DOW)28-day = content and curing time. opening even though the strength requirement was met. curing age. CS = (5) The abrasion indices increased with increases in cement compressive strength (MPa). and with the addition of the accel- depth of wear for the 28-day cured concrete (mm). accelerator.6. M. CA = curing age (h). when the abrasion results of the matured concretes were compared to the max- 4. proved to be ðDOWÞAAOT ¼ 4:494  103 þ 0:685T þ 5:402  103 CCAA successful in measuring the relative performance of the  6:55  102 T2  8:728  106 CCAA2 fast-track Portland cement concretes. only a 30% reduction in wear depth was attained. improvements of the selected fast-track concrete mixtures . (3) Significant improvements in resistance to wear with ðDOWÞAA28-day ¼ 5:77  103 þ 1:33T þ 2:26  103 CCAA increases in curing age was observed using two distinct  1:59  102 T2  8:53  106 CC2 methods aimed to compare the test results at opening and maturity times. (DOW)OT = Depth erating admixture. with increasing cement content increment of 60 kg/m3 was 60%. the overall average improvement in resistance to wear. Test 0:0279 results also revealed that the utilization of the accelerating TimeðAbrÞOTmax ¼ ð6Þ 1  0:0847CS þ 1:7962  103 CS2 admixture had a significant impact in improving resistance to wear.01. ranging from 95. The abrasion wear for the 28-day cured concrete with accelerating admixture indices marginally decreased and then leveled off after (mm). Averaging the abrasion resistance Prob(F) values less than 0.6. when the acceler- ator was added.

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