You are on page 1of 96

ESD.

290

Special Topics in Supply Chain


Management

Brian Subirana & Sanjay Sarma, MIT

History

z 1998: DISC founded


z 1999: Auto-ID Center founded Auto-ID Field Trial
started 2000
z 2001: First standards presented
z 2002: Gillette orders 500,000,000 tags from Alien
z 2003: Wal-Mart, DoD Mandates
EPCglobal launched, Center retired
z 2004: More mandates
Outline

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z An in-depth look at some issues
Outline, Part I

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z What and why of RFID
z The cost issue
z Manufacturing low-cost RFID
z Handling the data
z Current status
z An in-depth look at some issues

Outline, Part I

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z What and why of RFID
z The cost issue
z Manufacturing low-cost RFID
z Handling the data
z Current status
z An in-depth look at some issues

Magnitude of Challenges

z Inventory Management:
z Inventory uncertainty:
z 65 % of 370,000 records inaccurate (HBS study of one major retailer)
z Transportation uncertainty: Perfect delivery is dismal
z Stock-outs:

z Average 9% out of stock in retailers world-wide

z Lost sales due to stock-outs: 4%

z Overstock: Huge channel inventories

z CPG average 11 weeks inventory

z Retailers average 7 weeks inventory

z Locked up capital, industry-wide

z Brand Management:
z Counterfeit:
z $500B pharmaceuticals business, $50B counterfeit
z Diversion:
z Market size difficult to estimate
The problems are everywhere
OOS Averages by Category
Overall OOS Extent (Averages)
World Avg (18 categories ) 8.3

Wor ldw ide 8.3 Salty Snacks 5.3

Toilet Tissue 6.6


Other Regions 8.2
Fem Hygiene 6.8
Europe 8.6
Diapers 7.0
USA 7.9 Laundry 7.7

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 Hair Care 9.8

Percent OOS 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0


Percent

Across geographies Across product lines

OOS by Day of Week Other Cause


(Average of 13 studies) 4% Store Forecasting
Retail HQ or 13%
Mon 10.9 Manufacturer
Tues 10.0
14%
Wed 9.8 Distribution Center
Thur 9.1 10%
Fri 8.7 Store Ordering
Sat 7.3 34%
Sun 10.9

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0


Store Shelving

25%

Percent

Across time Across the supply chain


The Vicious Cycle
Upstream In-store Demand
causes causes variations
28% 59% 13%
14%
Upstream
problems
50% Store
Problems at ordering
manufacturer’s DC
Shelf
35% Replenishment
Problems
at retailer’s DC

8%
Manufacturer Manufacturer’s DC Retailer’s DC Retailer
World
11 weeks inventory Wide

6 weeks inventory
Consider stock-outs
RFID System

RFID
Low cost rfid

Silicon: 4c/mm2

20

handling cost

die size/cost, cents

15

10

time

Why is RFID expensive today?

reduce functionality
(Networking & software)

greater functionality increased chip size

reduce chip size


(handle small chips)
Cheap protocol

100
90
80
70
60
Noise

50
Gaussian Fit 0.8
40 912 100
30 2 Meters, 4 KHz,
20 SQW, 1 dBm
10
0
905 910 915 920

Frequency (MHz)
the hypothesis or bet

01. 203D2A. 916E8B. 8719BAE03C


z Place unique number on tag
Header 8 bits Serial Number 40 bits
z Electronic Product Code, EPC
Product 24 bits
z 64 bit, 96 bit, and upwards
Manufacturer 24 bits

z Develop manufacturing technology


for small chips and tags

context-aware
context-aware router
context-aware

Move data on the network


router
context-awarerouter
z context-aware
router
context-aware
context-aware
router router
Network service for resolving EPC
router
context-aware
z router
context-awarecontext-aware context-aware
z Network architecture for gathering router router router

and routing data sensor sensor sensor sensor


Outline, Part I

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z What and why of RFID
z The cost issue
z Manufacturing low-cost RFID
z Handling the data
z Current status
z An in-depth look at some issues

Low cost RFID

IC IC IC Antenna Antenna/IC Conversion End


Design
Design Manufacture Manufacture Assembly to Package users

$X Million 20¢ 5¢ 5¢ 20¢


Billions Number of tags

1-2¢ 1¢ 1¢ 1¢
Challenges of IC minimalism

z 0.25 mm2: does it make life tougher?


z ……..
z Street width will dominate

z Still have to test the IC’s (?)

z Die handling costs are high

z Die-attach/wire-bonding techniques do not scale

z Street width will dominate

z Still have to test the IC’s (?)

z Die handling costs are high

z Street width will dominate

z Still have to test the IC’s (?)

z Die handling costs are high

z Street width will dominate

z Still have to test the IC’s (?)

z Die handling costs are high

z Street width will dominate

z Still have to test the IC’s (?)

z Die handling costs are high

z Street width will dominate

z Still have to test the IC’s (?)

z Die handling costs are high

low cost rfid challenges

IC Antenna Antenna/IC Conversion


Manufacture Manufacture Assembly to Package

20¢ 5¢ 5¢ 20¢

1-2¢ 1¢ 1¢ 1¢

Testing

z Economics today:
z $500 - $1000 per wafer
z But minimal functionality means
z High reliability
z Don’t test on wafer
z Test wirelessly at conversion
Slicing and Dicing

z
Standard saw-dicing wasteful
z Instead, use separation
by thinning

C. Landesberger, S. Scherbaum, G. Schwinn, H. Spöhrle: “New Process Scheme for Wafer Thinning and Stress-free Separation of Ultra Thin
IC’s,” Proceedings of Microsystems Technologies 2001, Mesago, Stuttgart, pp. 431-436, 2001.
Low cost RFID challenges

IC Antenna Antenna/IC Conversion


Manufacture Manufacture Assembly to Package

20¢ 5¢ 5¢ 20¢

1-2¢ 1¢ 1¢ 1¢

Antenna

z Screen printing
z Etching
z Forming
Low cost RFID challenges

IC Antenna Antenna/IC Conversion


Manufacture Manufacture Assembly to Package

20¢ 5¢ 5¢ 20¢

1-2¢ 1¢ 1¢ 1¢
Assembly

z Fluidic Self Assembly


z Vibratory Assembly
z Pick and place
Vibratory Assembly

Chip
Assembly
Chip Wafer Antenna Label / Tag End User
Design Treatment Manufacturing Manufacturing
Silicon Inlet Label
Manufacturing Assembly Converting
Low cost RFID challenges

IC Antenna Antenna/IC Conversion


Manufacture Manufacture Assembly to Package

20¢ 5¢ 5¢ 20¢

1-2¢ 1¢ 1¢ 1¢

Conversion

z Paper/package/label industry expertise


z Scales well with mass production
z Capital equipment expenditure

software

hardware paper
Outline, Part I

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z What and why of RFID
z The cost issue
z Manufacturing low-cost RFID
z Handling the data
z Current status
z An in-depth look at some issues

Architecture: Local

Middleware Local network

Data
Reader Reader
Processing

01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C
Local database
Tag

Architecture: Global

ONS PML Server

<PML> 18.72.100.100
Internet <TIME=2000.4.28:10:05.05HRS>
<EPC= 01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C >
<TEMPERATURE=15 DEG C>
</EPC>
</TIME>
XQL PML
</PML>
Local system
18.72.100.100
Middleware <PML>
01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C
Local network …
???? …
Data ...
Reader Reader Processing <MaximumTempearture>
40 DEG C
</MaximumTempearture>
01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C <MinimumTemperature>
Local database 5 DEG C
</MinimumTempearture>
Quality
</PML>
control specialist
Inference
Temperature OK
ONS PML Server
<PML> 18.72.100.100
Internet <TIME=2000.4.28:10:05.05HRS>
<EPC= 01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C >
<TEMPERATURE=15 DEG C>
</EPC>
</TIME>
XQL PML
</PML>
Local system
18.72.100.100
Middleware <PML>
01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C
Local network …
???? …
Data ...
Reader Reader Processing <MaximumTempearture>
40 DEG C
</MaximumTempearture>
23AB.36C2.AB21.6733
01.203D2A.916E8B.8719BAE03C <MinimumTemperature>
Local database 5 DEG C
Tag Quality control specialist
</MinimumTempearture>
</PML>
Three Layers of an EPC
Architecture
Existing Systems / EAI ONS
TradingPart
Trading Partners
ners
Trading Partners
EPC
Enterprise •EPC Enterprise data store
Business IDs
+ •Data migration from Edge
•Standard API
•Enterprise systems
•Trading partners
Enterprise
Edge
•RF Abstraction layer
Edge 3 •Device mgmt
EPC Edge Edge 2 •Event mgmt
object Edge 1
•EPC Edge data store
time
loc •Standard API
•Data migration to Enterprise

Software
Hardware
Readers
•Physical data capture

Tags
Outline, Part I

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z What and why of RFID
z The cost issue
z Manufacturing low-cost RFID
z Handling the data
z Current status
z An in-depth look at some issues

Field Trial

COCA COLA BOTTLER P & G FACTORY


CLEVELAND, TN CAPE GIRADEAU , MO

JOHNSON & JOHNSON KRAFT FOODS UNILIVER DIST. CENTER GILLETTE DIST. CENTER P & G DC
OLIVE BRANCH, TN FORTH WORTH, TX BALTIMORE, MD CHICAGO IL IOWA CITY, IO

PILOT TEST FACILITY WAL-M ART DEPOT SAM'S DEPOT


BENTONV ILLE, AR BENTONV ILLE, AR. KANSAS CITY, M O

WAL M ART STORE WAL-MART STORE SAM'S STORE


CLEVELAND, TN BROKEN ARROW, OK TULSA
Warehouse Retail Floor Staging Area Retail Floor

Pilot facility is being used


as a mini warehouse
The Commercialization of EPC

z Landmark Event: EPCglobal is formed


z Many companies have significant tests and pilots underway
z Mandates:
z DoD

z Marks & Spencer

z Tesco

z Wal-Mart

z Metro Group

z Target

z Albertsons

z Best Buy

z Other major retailers are continuing to announce their strategies


RFID Status

z 3 protocols
z Class 0 UHF
z Class I UHF
z Class I HF
z Tens of manufacturers
z Tags: Alien, Matrics, Philips, ST Micro, Rafsec, ….
z Readers: Alien, Matrics, AWID, ThingMagic, Tyco, Symbol,
Samsys,…
z New versions being designed
z Gen 2 taking off
z Intermec patent still issue
Key philosophy #1:
interoperability

Sensors

Open tag

Agile reader

Software

Internet
Key philosophy #2: Layers

Class V tags
Readers. Can power other Class I, II and III tags;
Communicate with Classes IV and V.
Class IV tags:
Upward compatibility

Active tags with

Downward failsafe
broad-band peer-to-peer communication
Class III tags:
semi-passive RFID tags

Class II tags:
passive tags with additional
functionality
Class 0/Class I:
read-only passive tags
Vendors

z Chips: Alien, Matrics, Philips, ST Micro

z Readers: Alien, Matrics, Philips, Tagsys, Samsys,


ThingMagic, Tyco, Symbol, Markem, AWID
z Software: Sun, Oat Systems, Manhattan, Globe
Ranger, Conecterra, SAP, Tibco, Verisign, Vizional,
..
z Systems: Accenture, PWC/IBM, GEA, …
z End-Users: Gillette, Wal*Mart, P&G, TESCO, Metro,

Target, Wegmans, ….

Research Issues

z Tag anti-collision
z Reader anti-collision
z Security and privacy
z Advanced sensor networks
z Data routing and handling
z IC Design
z IC manufacturing
z Silicon processing
z Chip assembly
z Polymers
z Controls/automation
z Manufacturing systems
z System Synthesis
z Supply chain issues
Outline, Part I

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z What and why of RFID
z The cost issue
z Manufacturing low-cost RFID
z Handling the data
z Current status
z An in-depth look at some issues

Outline, Part II

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z An in-depth look at some issues
z A peek at the protocol
z Security and Privacy Issues
z Software
z Vibration analysis
z Silicon manufacturing
Components

z Signaling
z Anti-collision
z Functions
reader to tag: modulation
Reader to Tag Modulation
UHF
Envelope
Low Time

10% 45%
100%

45%

On Off Keying (OOK), Min 90% Modulation Depth


Modulation: reader to tag

16
us

62.5 Khz

Clk Low interval for Clk Low interva l for


data = 0 data = 1
tag to reader

1 Bit Cell
••Bit
BitCell
CellTime:
Time:~8
~8µsµsTag
Tag
0 to
toReader
Reader(128
(128kbs)
kbs)
••22Transitions
Transitions==00
••44Transitions
Transitions==11
••Always
AlwaysTransitions
Transitions
1 Within
WithinaaBit
Bit
Anti-collision

z A Reader Talks First (RTF) System


z Commands Issued from Reader

z Tags Reply at a Later Time While Reader


Listens

z Transactions are Self-Contained Operations


(Minimal Persistent State Information
Required)
Contention Detection
Anti-Collision Algorithm Relies on Detecting
Contention (When More than One Tag is
Responding to a Reader Command).

Contention- Two 100%


Tags, Same Clock
Rate, 1-Bit Difference
0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
1
Anti-Collision
[CMD] = 00001000 (Ping)
Query 1 [PTR] = 00000000
0 1
[LEN] = 00000000 (0)
00 01 10 11 [VALUE] = 0
000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111

Query 2 [CMD] = 00001000 (Ping)


0110 0111
[PTR] = 00000000
01100 01101 01110 01111
[LEN] = 00000011 (3)
[VALUE] = 011
011000 011001 011010 011011 011100 011101 011110 011111

000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111


Functions

z Write address
z Lock address
z Preload address mask
z Read ID (anti-collision)
z Read payload
z Write payload
z Sleep
z Wake
z Destroy
Outline, Part II

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z An in-depth look at some issues
z A peek at the protocol
z Security and Privacy Issues
z Software
z Vibration analysis
z Silicon manufacturing
Does protocol compromise
privacy?

Not necessarily. Your choice.

z You can destroy the tag and opt out

z or

z You can keep tag for later use


z (physics is your friend)
Mass hijack of tags

z Could happen in destroy or re-programming

z Physics our friend


z Bandwidth limited: 100’s of tags a second anti­
collision

z Destroy must be individually addressed

z So it takes time to kill

z Surveillance

Issues

z Tags are light-weight

z Anyone can read the tags (promiscuity)


z The same number shows up all the time
z Channel is open and shared
01. 203D2A. 916E8B. 8719BAE03C

Header 8 bits Serial Number 40 bits


Product 24 bits

Manufacturer 24 bits

Problem: unique and


promiscuous
Kill Serial number?

z Product still readable

z Person can be tracked by constellation

Personalize the number?

z Repeated reads yield same number

z You could still be tracked by constellation

Check out EPCglobal

Public policy

www.epcglobalinc.org/public_policy/
public_policy_guidelines.html
Outline, Part II

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z An in-depth look at some issues
z A peek at the protocol
z Security and Privacy Issues
z Software
z Vibration analysis
z Silicon manufacturing
Outline, Part II

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z An in-depth look at some issues
z A peek at the protocol
z Security and Privacy Issues
z Software
z Vibration analysis
z Silicon manufacturing
Outline

z Introduction

z Kinematics
z In-plane surface motion
z Out-of-plane motion
z Adhesion and fluid effects
z Experiments
z Conclusions
Introduction

Motivation

z Need methods for handling of small


microscopic parts in tag production
processes

z A traditional technique to solve scaling


problems is parallelization
Topics

Basic kinematics of vibratory part


transport

Effects of fluid, and


surface/adhesion forces
Outline

z Introduction
z Kinematics
z In-plane surface motion
z Out-of-plane motion
z Adhesion and fluid effects
z Conclusions
Vibration Kinematics

z Want relative motion


z Approaches:
z Surface micro-features
z MEMS cilia, rollers, etc.
z Gas flow nozzle arrays
z Electrical/magnetic fields
z Moving Fluid medium flowing over surface
z Fluidic Self Assembly (FSA Alien Tech’s)
z Vibrating surfaces
z Time asymmetric in-plane vibrations
z Out-of-plane vibrations (such as in Bowl Feeders)
Vibrating Surfaces

In-plane vibrations of a surface if time-

asymmetric

z Part moves if surface acceleration is more than


friction
z Forward-backward motion?
z Much literature
Example: Stick Slip

x
Surface
accelerating
Gravity
faster than
friction cone
friction can
sustain
Out-of-plane vibrations

z Vertical vibration: extra degree of


freedom
z Create hop, move platen back
z Small-scale forces
z Increased accelerations may be
needed to compensate
Hopping example
Possible return path

Part in collision Gravity friction


with surface cone

Part in flight

Surface accelerating faster


than gravity downwards
Outline

z Introduction
z Kinematics
z In-plane surface motion
z Out-of-plane motion
z Adhesion and fluid effects
z Conclusions
Adhesion

z Adhesion effects become important at small


scales
z Van der Waals forces
z Due to static and quantum mechanically induced dipoles
z Strong role in inter-molecular and surface phenomena
z Become important at < 100nm surface separation
z Adhesion surface energies of ~100mJ/m2
z Clean atomically smooth surfaces in contact may have
adhesion pressures of the order of thousands of
atmospheres
Adhesion effect on vibratory
transport
z Larger accelerations are needed

z Too contaminated or too clean are bad

z Can be alleviated by: Roughening or Surfactants

z Strong secondary excitation can “levitate” the parts


z If done for fractions of the cycle, “creeping” transport can
be achieved, where the part moves when vibrations are
on and sticks when they are off
Example: hopping with
adhesion

Sticky
collision
adhesion
friction cone

Surface Flight after


acceleration unstick
Fluid dynamic scaling

z Sticking due to
fluids
z Alleviation
z use surfaces that
are “leaky”
z Make chip
surface bumpy
z Run in vacuum
velocity loss due to film
damping
Si disk
Frequency 400 µm dia.
effect on 200 µm thick
damping

Starting
gap effect
on
damping
Outline

z Introduction
z Kinematics
z In-plane surface motion
z Out-of-plane motion
z Adhesion and fluid effects
z Conclusions
Conclusions

z Basic physics

z Ongoing work:
z Measurements
z Effects of geometries
z Test methods

z Design:
z Chip delivery methods and roll to roll packaging
Outline, Part II

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z An in-depth look at some issues
z A peek at the protocol
z Security and Privacy Issues
z Software
z Vibration analysis
z Silicon manufacturing
RFID manufacturing simulation

Gita Swamy
Sanjay Sarma
Outline

z Components of an RFID tag


z Understanding the Experiment

z Manufacture
zSemiconductor

zTag

z Results
z Worldwide Fab Capacity
Results

z Total RFID Cost


zIC + Traditional Assembly: 4.351¢
zIC + Flip Chip Assembly: 3.311¢

z IC Cost: 1.151¢

z Antenna Cost: 11¢

z Assembly: 2.25c ~ 1.15 1¢

z At 10’s of billion tags a year

RFID Tag Components

z Antenna
z Mixed-Mode IC
z Packaging
Inputs to model

Process Steps

Equipment Benchmark

z Throughput

z Raw material & Utilities

z Labor

z Yield

Overhead
Maintenance
Depreciation
Semiconductor Processing

Process modeling

z R. Leachman, J. Plummer & N. Sato-Misawa, “Understanding


fab economics” Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing,
University of California, Berkeley, 1999.

z Leachman & Hodges, “Berkeley Semiconductor


Manufacturing” IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor
Manufacturing, May 1996.

z J. Bloomsburg, “RFID Tag Manufacturing” MIT UROP, 2002.

z R. Wright, “Cost Resource Model Detail” Economic Model


Workshop, International Sematech, 2001.
semiconductor process
modeling

z Sematech

developed

benchmark

z 250_A1_82

Process

Benchmark

z 0.25 micron

z 282 Step

z 19 Mask

z 3 Metal

z 2 Poly

Driving Variables

z Mask, Metal and Poly


Layers
z Wafer starts: 300,000 per
year
z 100,000 dies/wafer
z Wafer size: 200mm
Assembly Process

z Assembly Process Steps


z Thinning
z Dicing
z Assembly
z Traditional

z Flip Chip

z Fluidic Self Assembly

z Vibratory Assembly

z Tag Test
Flip chip
Assembly Process

z Types of Runs

z Unit Machine
z Line Maximized
Results

z Total RFID Cost


zIC + Traditional Assembly: 4.351¢
zIC + Flip Chip Assembly: 3.311¢

z IC Cost: 1.151¢

z Antenna Cost: 11¢

z Assembly: 2.25c ~ 1.15 1¢

z At 10’s of billion tags a year

Results: Die Cost


Results: Assembly Cost
Breakdown
Results: Cumulative Assembly
Cost
Assembly Costs

1.00000000
Thinning Dicing Traditional Tag Test
Assembly
0.10000000 0.032175597 0.036584412
$ Cos t Pe r Die

0.01000000 0.02922279 0.03025432

0.000650941
0.00100000 0.000342826

Assembly Costs
0.00010000
1.00000000
0.00005651
Thinning Dicing Flip Chip Tag Test
0.00001000 0.00002772
Assembly
0.10000000 0.026883013
0.024655643
Line Max imized Unit Machine
$ Cost Pe r Die

0.01000000 0.01959650
0.01857550
$0.00142614

0.00100000 0.000342826
0.00083171
0.00010000

0.00001000 0.00002772
Line Max imized Unit Machine
Worldwide Fab Capacity
z Assume 1 billion
tags a day
z 100,000 dies/wafer

z 20% of world
silicon capacity
z Fabs 15% idle
today
Outline, Part II

z RFID and the Auto-ID Center


z An in-depth look at some issues
z A peek at the protocol
z Security and Privacy Issues
z Software
z Vibration analysis
z Silicon manufacturing
Conclusions

Physics and God

The Limits

God
Parameter #2

The limits of physics

vendors
Parameter #1