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pvt limited, Recruitment forms first stage in the process, which continues with selection and ceases with the placement of the candidate. It is the next step in the procurement function, the first being the manpower planning. Recruitment makes it possible to acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the organization. Recruiting is the discovering of potential applicants for actual or anticipated organization vacancies. In other words, it is a ‘linking activity’ bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. DEFINITION OF RECRUITMENT Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. It is often termed positive in that it stimulates people to apply for jobs to increase the selection ratio. Selection on the other hand tends to be negative because it rejects a good number of those, who apply, leaving only the best to be hired.” - EDWIN B FLIPPO Companies are now looking out for new ways of giving themselves a competitive advantage. New product, new image& new marketing idea are some of the ways this can be achieved but enlightened and successful companies look towards their people to provide the leading edge.
Here in lies the important of recruitment and staffing- “placing the right people for right job”. People are the biggest assets in any organization and it becomes vitally important that this asset is properly selected and placed in the right place at the right time. There assets must be properly nurtured and their efforts to be harnessed so as to obtain maximum productivity. Recruitment is an important aspect in their regard. Thus, in this context it becomes important to make an empirical study on the effectiveness of the recruitment process. Henceforth the process of recruitment is viewed with utmost attention and a study in this aspect is carried out.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Recruitment involves the utilization of organizational practices to influence the number and types of individuals who are willing to apply for job vacancies (Rynes, 1991; Rynes & Cable, 2003). Recruitment can focus on the internal labor market (i.e., pursuing staff already employed by the organization) or the external labor market (i.e., pursuing applicants from outside the organization). Internal candidates can be recruited through internal job postings, word-of-mouth, or internship programs." (Casper) According to Edwin B. Flippo, recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization”. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. A few definitions of recruitment are: According to Jane Clarke “Recruitment is very important of the work of community and voluntary organizations. It is the responsibility of management to recruit and select the best candidate for the position. The staff are one of the key resources in a community group and having the right staff is vital to achieving your aims and objectives. Selecting the right person for the job is not easy to do. It is essential to put time, care, planning and preparation into the recruitment process. Fair and effective recruitment procedures help: Build an effective staff team Reduce staff turnover Promote high standards and trust. Achieve the aims of the organization.
According to F.W. Taylor (1911) recruitment is the process of attracting people who might make a contribution to the particular organization. Recruitment is often stimulated when an existing employee leaves. Frequently, however, this situation is seen as a tight problem, that is, one with a fixed solution(like 2+2=4). The organization response is to try and replace the individual with a replica of that person. However, a more systematic response many to be review thoroughly the particular requirements, putting this into the wider context of both the organization and its environment. Perhaps, for example, the employee had supervisory responsibilities. For example, automation may preclude the need to recruit additional staff. A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applications from which new employees are selected. It is the process to discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of staffing schedule and to employ effective. Recruitment forms the first stage in the process, which continuous with selection and ends with the placement of the candidate. It follows the HR planning function. Recruiting makes it possible to acquire the number and type of people necessary to ensure the continued operation of an organization. Recruitment is the art of discovering and procuring potential applicants for actual and anticipated organizational vacancies. Accordingly, the purpose of recruitment is to locate sources of manpower to meet job requirements and job specifications. Recruitment is considered as one of the most important function in an organization. Unless the appropriate people are hired, even the best plans, organizational charts, and control systems would not yield good results. Decisions regarding testing, work policies, programmers, compensation, and corporate image all have an impact on recruiting.
Factors Affecting Recruitment:
All organizations, large are small, have to engage in recruitment. Some of them delegate the job to HR Managers, while others involve the HR Managers directly on the job. The element conditions in the community where the organization is located may be a factor for attracting potential job applicants. Here, certain geographic factors and location advantages play an important role. The effect of past recruiting efforts, which show the organizations ability to locate and keep good people, is another criterion. For example, if an organization follows the promotional policy of recruiting from within, the employees will be motivated to continue in such an organization. Also, the compensation and benefits package offered by an organization influence and attract employees. Organizations that are growing and expanding will always find it necessary to recruit and organizations that are growing may not need any recruitment.
RECRUITMENT DEFINITION:Recruitment is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in an organization. It is often termed positive in that it stimulates people to apply for jobs to increase the selection ratio. Selection on the other hand tends to be negative because it rejects a good number of those, who apply, leaving only the best to be hired.” - EDWIN B FLIPPO Recruiting is the process by which organizations locate and attract individuals to fill job vacancies. Most organizations have a continuing need to recruit new employees to replace those who leave or are promoted, to acquire new skills, and to permit organizational growth. Recruiting is an even more important activity when unemployment rates are low and economic growth is strong, as firms compete to attract the qualified employees they need to succeed. Therefore, the job of recruitment is based on the mating theory, where the success of both the parties is critically dependant on timing. Unless the two searches synchronize, conditions are not ripe for recruitment to succeed.
Purpose And Importance:
The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job candidates. Specifically, the purposes are to: Determine the present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with personnel- planning and job- analysis activities. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organization only after a short period of time.
Meet the organization’s legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. Evaluate the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants. qualifications and interests, and generate enthusiasm among the best candidates so that they will apply for the vacant positions. Recruitment lends itself as a potential source of competitive advantage to a firm. An effective approach to recruitment can help a company successfully compete for limited human resources. The firm must choose a recruiting approach that produces the best pool of candidates quickly and cost effectively. A recruiting programme helps the firm in at least four ways: The negative consequences of poor recruitment process speak volumes about its role in an organization. The failure to generate an adequate number or reasonably qualified applicants can prove costly in several ways. It can greatly complicate the selection process and may result in lowering of selection standards. The poor quality of selection means extra cost on training and supervision. Furthermore, when recruitment fails to meet organizational needs for talent, a typical response is to raise entry-level pay scales. This can distort traditional wage and salary relationships in the organization, resulting in unavoidable consequences. Thus, the effectiveness of the recruitment process can play a major role in determining the must be expended on other HR activities and their ultimate success. Advertisement:A common method of recruitment is advertising, advertising media can range from the typical classified newspaper and to very complex and glitzy campaign on radio or television, major approaches to advertising include newspapers, radio, television, direct mail, magazines and directories.
Compilation of the advertisement:The advertisement should be designed to ensure that, It attracts suitable candidates only, It enhances the public image of the organization. It reaches appropriate candidates as economically as possible.
It must be based on the facts detailed in the job description and the person specification. A poor advertisement may attract the wrong type of candidate and distort the number of applications received ie, either too few or too many. The advertisement should be non- discriminatory and should avoid any gender or culturally specific language. There are certain exceptions to this where the legislation allows an employer of confine a job to a man, or a woman, where sex is a genuine occupational qualification, the organization should include in the advertisement its statement of commitment to equal opportunities, the actual advertisement should be brief and written using a minimalist style as the cost of advertising is extremely high. The detail about the job should be included in the further particular about the post issued to all potential applicants. Human resources will provide advice on the content of the advertisement, the collection of copy, the placement of the advertisement and the associated administration. Campus recruitment:Campus recruitment becomes a critical source, because it provides the management personnel that will shape the future direction of the organization. These graduates will be malleable and can be shaped to fit in with the company culture more easily than more experienced people from organizations. Some guidelines for improving campus recruitment process are given below: Identify those institutions from where student who are suited to the organization’s needs can be found and improve the relationship with such institutions.
Recruiters needs to be carefully trained in planning and conducting effective interviews for gauging the potential of the students rather than only judging mark based performance. Use resume databases to aid in the search for viable candidates, candidates can be short- listed on the basis of these data base and then called for further interview. Provide clear and detailed information about the job and organization so that the students get a realistic expect ion about the job. Consultants:This is good source but it is more expensive option especially for a company that is into mass recruitment stage and this gives the HR department of the company more free time to concentrate on other important matters, A disadvantage is that if the company has a contract with many agencies, the there is more possibility of duplication.
The process can be separated into three components: • The process starts with job planning, which among other things involves analysis
of the present and future needs for personnel with different kinds of competence and for different tasks. This first component of the process may result in a decision to prepare for new jobs and announce job opportunities. • In the second step of the search process after a vacancy has been defined on the
basis of job planning, the employer has to make his choice between alternate ways to spread and formulate information about the vacant position. He can, for example choose between different ways to formulate the information about what experience and personal abilities of the potential employee, etc.,
The third and final search decision confronting the employer is to determine
which one of the applicants to hire for the job opening. Basically, employers’ decisions regarding the use of different search channels and judgments regarding the suitability of job applicant relate to the problems of asymmetric information; job applicants have more knowledge of their capabilities than the prospective employers do. The interaction of productivity difference among job applicants and employers’ uncertainty as regards the productive capabilities of individuals may explain decisions taken by the employers both in steps two and three of the recruitment process. Hiring is a decision under uncertainty in the sense that the productivity of job applicants in not directly observable. Therefore the employers are interested in obtaining information that can serve as good statistic for applicant’s job capabilities. The probably that a job seeker and employer shall find each other and that an agreement about employment shall be reached, depends on the behavior of both agent and on their characteristics. In the traditional search theory regarding value of his/her lifetime income, the reservation wage is important for the probability that a person shall get a job within a given period of time and thereby for the expected length of the unemployment spell.
The HR planning is the preliminary step of recruitment process. It is the process by which an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. It may be viewed as for seeing the human resource requirements of an organization an its feature supply making necessary adjustments between the two organizational plans and also foreseeing the possibility of developing the supply of human resources in order to match it with the requirements by introducing necessary changes in the functions of HR.
Recruitment has always been a never-ending process in the organization scenario. Significant transitions have been brought in the long run of recruitment but the major concentration has always been engaging persons in employment and the initial setup for this. Recruitment is followed in the all-different sector, be it manufacturing concern or a service sector. Recruitment is not just confined to its sense it covers the aspects from selection to training. Despite the usage of various terminologies describing each step of the recruitment process, it is a chain link where the start is not distinct. Recruitment involves seeking and attracting a pool of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies can be chosen. Recruitment system can be subdivided into 4 major sub systems. • • • • Finding out and developing sources Developing techniques to attract candidates Employing the techniques Stimulating the candidates and making for apply for jobs
OVERVIEW OF THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS The Figure presents an overview of the recruitment process from the perspectives of the organization and the candidate. When a vacancy occurs and the recruiter receives authorization to fill it, the next step is a careful examination of the job and an enumeration of the skills, abilities, and experience needed to perform the job successfully. Existing job analysis documents can be very helpful in this regard. In addition, the recruitment planner must consider other aspects of the job environmentfor example, the supervisor's management style, the opportunities for advancement, pay, and geographic location-in deciding what type of candidate to search for and what search methods to use. After carefully planning the recruiting effort, the recruiter uses one or more methods to produce a pool of potentially qualified candidates.
A firm can generate candidates internally, from among its present employees who desire promotion or transfer, or externally, from the labor market. The organization then screens the candidates, evaluates some of them more thoroughly, and offers the best the position. Throughout the recruitment process, the organization attempts to "sell" itself to the more promising candidates-that is, to convince them that the organization is a good place to work and that it offers what they want in the way of both tangible and intangible rewards. In the recruitment and selection process, the organization's and the individual's objectives may conflict. The organization is trying to evaluate the candidate's strengths and weaknesses, but the candidate is trying to present only strengths. Conversely, although the candidate is trying to ferret out both the good and the bad aspects of the prospective job and employer, the organization may prefer to reveal only positive aspects. In addition, each party's own objectives may conflict. The organization wants to treat the candidate well to increase the probability of job-offer acceptance, yet the need to evaluate the candidate may dictate the use of methods that may alienate the prospect, such as background investigations or stress interviews. Analogously, the applicant wants to appear polite and enthusiastic about the organization to improve the probability of receiving an offer, but he or she may also want to ask penetrating questions about compensation, advancement, and the company's financial health and future. STEPS ON RECRUITMENT PROCESS: Planning, Strategy development Searching, Screening Evaluation and control
STRATEGIC ISSUES IN RECRUITING: The nature of a firm's recruiting activities should be matched to its strategy and values as well as to other important features such as the state of the external labor market and the firm's ability to pay or otherwise induce new employees to join. Recruitment Goals: A good recruiting program needs to serve many and sometimes conflicting goals. A commonly mentioned goal is to attract a large pool of applicants, but applicant pools can be too large and thus costly to process. Recruiting must also attract a high proportion of well-qualified candidates who are seriously interested in accepting a job offer. Post- hiring goals also must be considered-the recruiting process must yield workers who are good performers and who will stay with the organization for a reasonable length of time. Further, all the preceding goals should be reached with the greatest speed and at the least possible cost to the organization. Balancing these varied goals against one another should be done with reference to the organization's overall strategy and values. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
Some Internal Sources Of Recruitments are given below: 1. TRANSFERS The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and experience. 2. PROMOTIONS The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater responsibility based on efficiency and experience. 3. Others are Upgrading and Demotion of present employees according to their performance. 4. Retired and Retrenched employees may also be recruited once again in case of shortage of qualified personnel or increase in load of work. recruitment such people save time and costs of the organizations as the people are already aware of the organizational culture and the policies and procedures. 5. The dependents and relatives of Deceased employees and Disabled employees are also done by many companies so that the members of the family do not become dependent on the mercy of others.
EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RECURITMENT 1.Press advertisements:Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach. 2. Educational Institutes:various management institutes, engineering colleges, medical Colleges etc. are a good source of recruiting well qualified executives, engineers, medical staff etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus Recruitment. 3.PLACE MENTAGENCIES Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for
recruitment of executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing) 4. EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES Government establishes public employment exchanges throughout the country. These exchanges provide job information to job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates. 5. LABOUR CONTRACTORS Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the sources of such workers. This source is used to recruit labour for construction jobs. 6. UNSOLICITED PPLICANTS Many job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organization. 7. EMPLOYEE REFERRALS / RECOMMENDATIONS Many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the organization can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their organization. Also, the office bearers of trade unions are often aware of the suitability of candidates. Recruitment Management can inquire these leaders for suitable jobs. In some organizations these are formal agreements to give priority in recruitment to the candidates recommended by the trade union. 8. RUITMENT AT FACTORY GATE Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies.
The purpose of the research methodology is to describe the research procedure. This includes over all research design and the data collective method. This selection is important because it is hard to discuss methodology without using technical terms yet, most of the readers for the report will not understand the technical languages. The investigator collects the request information personally through questionnaire and personal interviews. The investigator is solely responsible for collective of data this method; his training, skill & knowledge play an important role on the quality of primary data. A slight variation of the procedure is indirect and investigations where data are collected through resources persons who are likely to have information about the problem are integrated and on the basis of their answers, primary date becomes available. This accuracy of the primary data collected by his method depends largely upon the type of persons. Interviewed and hence. These persons have to be selected very carefully. Research Design:A research design is the specification of measures and procedure for the information needed to structure to solve problems it the overall operational pattern of framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which sources, and by what procedure. A research design there for defined as plan, structure and strategy of investigation on conceived so as to obtain answer to search question and control variance. ‘Research’ means a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Research is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting,
organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. ‘Methodology’ is defined a “the study of methods by which we gain knowledge, it deals with cognitive processes imposed on research b the problems rising from the nature of its subject matter” TYPE OF RESEARCH: Descriptive research has been used; it involves surveys and fact-findings enquirer of different kinds the major purpose of descriptive research is the description of the state of affairs, as it exists at present. The main characteristics of this method are that the researcher has no control over the variable; can only report what had happened or what is happening. The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of all kinds, including comparative and correlation methods.
1. Collective of Data :The research approached the employees individually. Interviewed the employees and information was collected. Questions were explained so as to avoid ambiguity. The employees were found co- operative. Source of data collective:The data used for this study are both primary and secondary data. The source of primary data is the field where the researcher has collected a data from the employees of HR Planman consulting pvt limited. Egmore PRIMARY DATA :The primary data are those that are collected through questionnaire and direct personal interview. The questionnaire was framed in such a manner to obtain correct information, graded suitably for the study.
SECONDARY DATA :The secondary data has been collected through oral communication. Secondary data about the company profile and collecting information of the industrial consulting side. 2. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT: The research instrument used in this study “structured questionnaire”. Structured questionnaire are those questionnaire in which there are predetermined question relating to the aspect for which the researcher collects data. The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all the respondents. 4. SAMPLING PROCEDURE:Convenience sampling has been used in this study. Convenience It refers to candidates selection a sample of study. It is a non-probability sampling. Thus research study may include study objects, which are conveniently located. Research findings based on convenient sampling however, cannot be generalized. 6. SAMPLING SIZE:Due to time and resource constraint the sample size has been taken as 100 employees. In consultation with the company guide and the project guide.
7. TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS:After the collection of primary data the information obtained was processed and tabulated on data sheets, statistical techniques were used in analysis the data.
Statistical Technique:The chi- square test among the several tests of significance developed by statisticians. Chi- square symbolically written, as χ2 is a statistical measure used in the contest of sampling analysis for comparing variance to theoretical values. As a non- parametric test, “it can be used to determine whether categorical data shows dependency or the two classification are independent. It can also be used to make comparisons between theoretical population and actual data when categories are used.” The formula used to computing chi-square test is:
Observed value – Expected Value
Degree of freedom = (r-1)x(c-1) Where R = No. of rows C = No. of columns If the calculate value < tabulated value, null hypothesis will be accepted.
Weighted Average Method:Weighted average method is used to give rank for different factors by having the collections of data from the respondent. Total score is calculated from the data and it is divided by no. of respondent and finally the weighted average is found.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The study backed by a structured questionnaire, initially the study required relying more on secondary data. The study also covers the tools to improve the recruitment strategy. The aims of the recruitment and selection process should be to:1. Recruit high quality staff with the right skills on the appropriate contracts to deliver the key objectives of the position and organization; 2. Ensure that equality of opportunity is considered as an integral part of recruitment practice, thus encouraging diversity; 3. Ensure that recruitment is effective as a key public relations exercise for all involved; 4. Ensure that recruitment is fair, efficient and cost-effective.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to HR Planman consulting pvt limited. Egmore. Only. The data collected from the responded through questionnaire during (DEC 20th to APRIL 10th 2010 to 2011). Due to lake of adequate time. Since the project is of qualitative nature there was the participant’s bias in some cases. Some information cannot be accessed due to its confidential nature.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To study about the recruitment process in HR Planman consulting pvt limited, Egmore. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: To study the basis of recruitment process. To study the sources of recruitment candidate, which level of step used in HR Planman consulting pvt limited, Egmore. To identify the sources of recruitment preferred by the company. To develop and maintain procedures which will assist in ensuring the appointment of most suitable candidate. To identify the source through which candidates are successfully recruited.
NEED FOR THE STUDY
• To know effectiveness of the company’s present recruitment strategy. Manpower is the main resource of the company. Therefore the company need to know the critical areas where they can implement improvement so as to get the right candidates at the right time at the right time at right place. • To identify the best source through which the company can recruit good candidates at free cost.
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