HULT INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL STRATEGY: TEAM PAPER

Strategy Project: “Cruise Line Industry”
Mt. Tamalpais Team Three
Ramil Ablaev Emily Bonnell Lingfang Chen Antonio Modestini Tadashi Soga Sanchit Talwar D Due : Wednesday, April 13th, 2011
1

.... Michael Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.........12 4....6 2.2 Industry Growth Prospect……………………………………………….........................p..4 Threat of Substitutes.................................p...p.p.........12 4.p............8 2.3 Recommendations……………….......................2 Buyer Power………………………………………………………………..................Table of Contents 1..p..........1 Target Market……………………………………………………………...............1 Supplier Power……………………………………………………………..................... Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….........................p................5 2.............p.................2 SWOT analysis of Carnival Corporations…………………………….........p...................18 2 ..............p..............4 1....p.………………………………………………...16 5.......4 2..5 Rivalry among Established Competitors……………………………….. Leading Company.5 2.......3 Industry Profitability…………………………………………………….. Industry Overview……………………………………………………………...1 Industry Size………………………………………………………………..14 4.....3 Threat of New Entries.......p.17 References………………………..................…………………………….10 4......6 Significant Industry Structural Changes......... Company Analysis..p..........................7 2........3 1.......................3 1....p......................8 2.........................……..p..p....10 3.........p......p...

the direct spending by cruise lines and passengers on U.S. economy amounting to $35.46 billion with the remaining $11. providing a strong momentum for the continuous development of the industry. As the industry develops and with proper marketing strategies.9% of Americans have cruised and the current target market penetration rate is only 45%.34 billion in 2011. according to Cruise Line International Association (CLIA) the cruise industry created nearly 314. With an annual passenger growth rate of 7. The prospect of industry growth is very strong based on the following factors: • • Relatively low market penetration: only 19. combined with sound marketing strategies on the other hand creates the demand itself and will further encourage the industry into flourish.916 2.000 jobs in 2009. The following chart provides a detailed breakdown of the market size of the world cruise industry. goods and services are in billions.S. June 2009 Industry Growth Prospect As the fastest growing segment of the travel industry.809 1. the potential customer base could well increase and the penetration rate has the potential to grow towards the range of 70%-80%.527 2. the cruise market has achieved more than 2.506 1. Direct Economic Impacts of the Cruise Industry in the United States – 2009 Sector Core Cruise Travel Passenger & Crew Spending Port Services & Cruise Lines Transportation Services Air Transportation Direct Spending $ Millions 8.S. with its total economic benefit to the U.34 billion market. Out of the $29. Source: Datamonitor As an important part of the U. The industry capacity growth. the North American cruise market accounts for $17.Industry Overview Industry Size With an average of 9. Existence of strong market demand: nearly 51 million Americans have expressed their interest in cruising within the next three years. economy. the world cruise industry is projected to worth $29.100 percent growth since 1970.859 Source: Business Research and Economic Advisors.67%.6 million passengers worldwide in year 2014. Page 29. As can been seen from the following chart. 3 .5% annual growth rate.1 billion.88 billion generated from the rest of the world. cruise industry will reach 21.

including internet cafes. the industry has been expanding its capacity on a remarkable basis. while on the other hand enhance the company’s profit-making capability. health and fitness facilities. surfing pools. representing a new area of profitable growth. This imbalance reduces the chances of price competition. the international market represents a huge potential that has yet to be explored. Moreover. new ship designs. particularly during peak seasons. Those facilities and activities have enhanced the customer satisfaction. and diverse recreational activities. which brings additional revenues to the company and enhances the industry profitability. The economies of scale that are achieved by building mega-ships lowers the cost of sailing per passenger. cruise lines have expanded to include a plethora of onboard amenities and facilities. the online potential of the cruise industry has remained mainly untapped. multi-room villas. The number of new and larger ships that are built has been increasing on a yearly basis.• • Exploration of new areas for growth: with over 50% of its revenues coming from the North American market (see Chart 1). The fact that supply falls short of demand reduces the chances of price competition: despite the efforts to increase the industry capacities. 4 . Extended value chains include more diversified value-adding activities: over the years. Diversification of products and services: Over the past ten years. the projected demand still exceeds the supply. rockclimbing walls. the cruise industry has been enjoying relatively high levels of profitability in the past few decades. to better accommodate the increasing customer demand. thus increasing the industry profitability. theme restaurants. the industry has responded to a renewed consumer demand by providing value-added services such as more destinations. Chart 1: Share of North American Cruise Revenue in the Worldwide Cruise Industry Source: Datamonitor Industry Profitability With few leading players in the cruise industry and strong market demand. The industry’s profitability is expected to remain strong for the next ten years due to the following reasons: • • • Economies of scale drives costs down: fueled by the robust industry growth prospect.

The threat of forward integration by those suppliers relative to the threat of backward integration by firms is low. the cruise liners still have to incur the cost of time and efforts involved in the design process to accommodate its specific needs. which decreases the supplier power to a certain extent. • • • • High switching cost: a cruise liner has to bear a significant cost if it switches its ship manufacturer because the shipbuilder typically owns the right over the ship design. The cost of creating a new ship design is in the millions of dollars. Chart 2: Major Cruise Industry Suppliers and Direct Spending Cruise Industry Suppliers Food & Beverages Apparel & Textiles Chemicals & Plastics Petroleum Refining Fabricated Metal Products Industrial Machinery Ship Maintenance & Repair Computers & Electronic Equipment Other Manufacturing Information Services 5 Direct Spending $ Millions 893 121 240 973 185 357 600 272 421 253 . High input differentiation: though the majority of supply components have alternative vendors. the high differentiation of inputs increases the dependence of cruise firms on their respective suppliers. thus increasing the supplier power. mainly three types of costs (highlighted items) affecting industry players: cost of cruise ships and their maintenance costs. Low threat of forward integration of suppliers: Chart 2 illustrates that there are. the following analysis will be conducted primarily from these two perspectives. Major cruise companies rely on a limited number of ship manufacturers for their cruise liners. governmental fees and professional assistance (navigation and scientific).Michael Porter’s Five Forces of Rivalry Supplier Power As the key factors in analyzing the supplier power are the switching costs of the firms and the relative bargaining power of each party. despite the huge cost of the ship itself. If a cruise liner selects a different shipbuilder. High supplier power: The concentration ratio of cruise ship suppliers is very high. port and transportation services (mostly fuel and embarkation costs). High concentration of suppliers increases the supplier power though the massive purchase value decreases the supplier’s power to a certain extent.

Entertainment& Recreation Other Services &Government Total 2009 1. a typical cruise line customer is characterized to be a relatively affluent middle-class aged at 46 with $93. The concentration of buyers relative to that of the suppliers is quite low. the competition between buyers. Low concentration of buyers: Thousands of people cruise yearly. the supplier power in the cruise line industry is STRONG. in 2008. yet they are spread across different locations and don’t share a common platform where they could exert a collective voice. Buyer Power An analysis of the power of the buyers in the cruise industry leads us to the following findings: • • • • • Low price sensitivity of buyers: on one hand. thus further reducing the buyers power. On the other hand. 6 . Page 29. Lodging & Travel Services) 2. Though the percentage has been on a declining trend in the recent years. are relatively high. especially during peak seasons. Close relationship with travel agencies: as can been seen from the chart below. Scientific & Technical Services Administrative & Waste Management Services Arts. Real Estate & Leasing 914 Services & Government (ex. which is $1155.Finance. high bargaining power of the cruise ship manufacturers. therefore reducing the bargaining power of buyers. because of the high switching cost. and high input differentiation. June 2009 In summary. The volume purchase made with the involvement of travel agency gives buyers a greater influence over the ticket price. the average cost of a cruise line ticket. Relatively high competition between buyers: As the demand of cruise services exceeds the capacity building of the industry. 74% of all cruise vacations are booked through travel agents. Therefore.000 annual household income. though cruise lines cater to a diverse demographic population. Insurance. making the backward integration by consumers extremely low. it remains around three quarters of the total sales.470 Professional.148 Source: Business Research and Economic Advisors. is low relative to the customers’ annual income. Low threat of backward integration: consumers do not have the ability to create a cruise line experience without the necessary resources and services provided by a cruise line company.307 39 176 947 17. the price sensitivity of the customers is low.

and access to channels of distribution. The adoption of discount ticket proves to be an impotent tactic to compensate the lack of brand recognition. The high cost of purchasing a fleet of liners. low buyer concentration. the power of buyers in the cruise line market is MODERATE. In summary. acquisitions. the low price sensitivity. therefore creating an oligopoly market dominated by a few giants. the threat of new entrants in the cruise industry is LOW. 7 . employing hotel staff. It would take years for a newly introduced cruise company to develop a well-recognized identity. The threat of M&A: The easiest way to enter the cruise industry appears to be via mergers. world class chefs. thus limiting the number of potential entrants. economies of scale. training and maintaining employees for the casinos and entertainment. rather than a “freshman” in the industry. Threat of New Entries The threat of new entries is dependent on factors such as capital requirement. The analysis of the threat of new entries in the cruise industry reveals the following points: • • • Huge capital requirement: given the average cost of $400M of a cruise ship and the millions required to train employees.Source: Datamonitor • Other considerations: factors that increase buyer power in the cruise line industry include low buyers’ switching costs and the instant access to price and specification information from cruise companies. The capital requirement in the cruise line industry is so large that it discourages all but the biggest companies. and the maritime staff requires a mother company with vast financial resource. it would be quite difficult for new entrants with low brand equity to compete successfully with established companies in the industry. and takeovers. with the huge capital requirement and the constraint of brand equity. and high competition among buyers on one hand enhances the buyer power while a high degree of involvement of travel agency and the low switching cost on the other reduces their bargaining power. In summary. Therefore. Constraint of brand equity: most cruisers are inclined to choose a well-established cruise line. the start-up of a cruise line company require a capital layout of at least $1B.

the cruise lines face competition from traveling by air or land. Distinctiveness of the cruise experience: despite the availability of various traveling options. A high concentration ratio increases the collaboration among those leading firms and reduces the possibility and intensity of price competition in the industry. and the use of a second house or apartments. 1Hotels. As the intermediate between the company and the customer. occupies more than 50% of both the North American and international market. the distinctiveness of the cruise experience renders the threat of substitutes to be MODERATE. though diverse substitutes exist in the industry and customers exhibit relatively high propensity to substitutes during times of economic downturn. the experience that a cruise liners offers is so distinctive that quite a lot of people would stick to the cruise line experiences even though the alternatives might be more economically feasible. Cruise lines must offer competitive price to secure sales during economic downturns when customer’s propensity to switch to lower-cost substitutes are higher. global hotels and resorts. The leading player. Rivalry among Established Competitors The competition of established firms in the cruise line industry exhibits the following characteristics: • High concentration ratio: as can been seen from the following chart that the cruise line industry is an oligopoly market where several major cruise liners make up more than 90% of the market shares. The following characteristics of the cruise line industry substitutes are identified: • • • Diversity of available substitutes: within the leisure industry. Hotels. Resorts & Cruise Lines Industry Profile. P. Resorts & Cruise Lines Industry Profile: Global. Buyer propensity to substitutes: travel agencies play a big part in the purchasing decisions of consumers in the leisure industry. The availability of diverse substitutes adds to the competitiveness of the cruise industry. 13 8 .Threat of Substitutes The threat of substitutes has a significant impact on the attractiveness and profitability of the cruise line industry. In summary. “alternative forms of leisure and usually cheaper accommodation”1such as informal accommodation at friends and family. Carnival. travel agencies have at hand endless supplies of vacation packages.

2011 North American Cruise Market Share 2011 Rest-of-World Cruise Market Share Source: Anything Research. meaning that rivalry is reduced somewhat in most 9 . The leading companies operate “on a large geographical scale and have diversified operations. 2011 • Relatively high product differentiation: The cruise line industry has been diversifying in terms of services and options.

Resorts & Cruise Lines Industry Profile: Global.7%.S. economic downturn affects most cruise firms. most of which are variable cost such as fuel. To cut costs and survive. The instability of the fuel prices put the industry at danger where an unexpected hike in fuel price might put business profitability and viability into question. Reduced weight of fixed cost decreases the company’s business leverage. on one hand. premium. the prolonged U. Major cruise firms. Cruise liners will have to face the challenge of continue attracting customers during times of higher unemployment and the decreased availability of disposable income. the costs of the cruise liners have also been on a steady increase with an average annual rate of 9. making the industry even more consolidated. Hotels. cruise liners that are able to afford aggressive pricing to retain the customers stands a better chance of survival than firms that have less capital. will likely weather the recession better than smaller cruise liners. High exit barriers: The exit barrier for a cruise company is high as it is difficult for a cruise liner to sell their assets. Hiking and fluctuating fuel prices: as one of the biggest expenditure item of the cruise industry. 2Hotels. and labor. The increased price sensitivity of customer might well increase the probability of reduced ticket prices to retain the customer base. despite the relatively high exit barriers. Relatively high competitor diversity: There are three cruise market segments. This trend renders a cost structure where the percentage of fixed costs is lowered relative to the variable costs.S. • • • To conclude. and thus reduces its operational risks. services. small cruise companies are likely to be bought up by bigger firms through mergers and acquisitions. Significant Industry Structural Changes Trends that are bringing significant structural changes to the cruise industry and further impact the industry competitiveness are identified as follows: • Prolonged U. the U. the rising fuel costs strained the resources of many cruise liners. the trend of further consolidation among competitors and higher percentage of variable costs against fixed costs impacts the industry structures and reduces the industry’s profitability. P.• • countries2”. namely contemporary. such as Carnival and Royal Caribbean. In summary. a high product differentiation and high competitor diversity lead us to the conclusion that the overall rivalry within the cruise line sector is RELATIVELY LOW. New on-board and off-board menus have been developed to enhance the level of customization. Altered cost structure: though the gross revenues of the cruise line industry have been growing for the most of its history. Companies in different market segments cater to different customers by offering varying levels of service and expertise with different strategies. Resorts & Cruise Lines Industry Profile. economic downturn and hiking and fluctuating fuel prices alters the industry structure in a way that enhances the attractiveness of the cruise line industry. Further consolidation through mergers and acquisitions: during the economic downturn. A high exit barrier increases the intensity of competition in the industry as companies are inclined to undercut their prices to boost sales when demand declines due to the inflexibility of capacity adjustment. thus reducing the extent of competitiveness among the existing firms. while on the other hand. and luxury. 13 10 . economic downturn: as the dominant market for the cruise line industry.S.

4) Ibero Cruises is the product of a joint venture with Orizonia Corporation. the ships move to warmer waters which include: the Caribbean. The cruises last from two to sixteen days and offer a modern style of cruising. As a consequence of Carnival’s breadth. Spanish. 7) AIDA Cruises operates four ships with a seasonal pattern.Leading Company Carnival Corporation has emerged as the leading company within the cruise line industry as a result of their multiple fleets and expansive global reach. South America. the company might be rerouting the Trans-Suez routes. Ibero cruises tailor their services including menus. 2) Princess Cruises has a fleet of 17 ships and offers various itineraries in 270 destinations throughout North America. Australia. Carnival mainly offers cruises in North American locations. it provides a fun and casual style of cruising. The operations of their three vessels are sourced to Carnival Corporation.000 berths. the Arabian Gulf. Queen Victoria. The company operates 12 ships that offer an international environment with an Italian touch. Carnival is considered an international cruise line that possesses the largest revenue in terms of overall sales. The company consists of 11 cruise brands: 1) Carnival Cruise Lines 2) Princess Cruises 3) Holland America Line 4) Ibero Cruises 5) Costa Cruises 6) P&O Cruises 7) AIDA Cruises 8) Cunard Line 9) P&O Cruises Australia 10) Ocean Village 11) The Yachts of Seabourn 1) Carnival Cruises is the largest of the 11 companies under the Carnival Corporation umbrella. Carnival Corporation operated 88 cruise ships with passenger capacity exceeding 160. passengers typically consist of Italians. it is recognized as a foreign-based company due to its dual stock structure. Cunard offers several 90 day around the world trips. 5) Costa Cruises is one of the leading cruise line brands in the EU. and crew towards Spanish speaking customers. and through its 23 ships. French. This UK brand offers more than 235 destinations in 80+ countries. The majority of cruises offered ranges from three to seven days at sea. amenities. The German customer base travels throughout the Scandinavian and the Mediterranean seas during the summer. Europe. As of January 2009. Although customers hail from 160 countries. as well as transatlantic routes. The Miami based company operates within the U. as well as the Mexican Coast. and the Trans-Suez Canal passages. Due to the recent turmoil in Egypt. while in the winter. and Panama. Caribbean. 11 . and Germans.S. the Western Mediterranean.. and the South Pacific. 6) P&O Cruises is an operator with seven ships. including Antarctica. Bahamas. 3) Holland America Line has 15 ships and customers may choose in an array of more than 320 destinations. and Queen Mary 2 (the largest ocean liner). 8) Cunard Line operates three ships sail to destinations throughout the world: Queen Elizabeth. and Canada.

service amenities. However it is important to denote though. Royal Caribbean further narrows their target audience to the business professionals that have an active lifestyle and are in their late twenties to early forties. Target Market Carnival Cruises offers a wide variety of cruises options targeted towards a multitude of demographics. 12 . Carnival’s reach extends to a large scope of customers as their goal is to meet the needs of every customer demographic. has been picking up afterwards. The three 200 guest yachts cruise in several international destinations. therefore they have been flagged as a target customer segment. South Pacific. which took a hit in 2009 financial crisis. and the Americas. therefore. Company Analysis The cruise industry has the opportunity for considerable growth. and language requirements. Young professionals are generating more disposable personal income that increases their purchasing power. the data illustrates that the financial performance of the two companies has been embracing a similar trend. Europe. Asia. they are able to meet the needs of several markets by offering a variety of vacation options. that while Royal Caribbean has had a decrease in profitability. Sales have been increasing slowly but steadily during the past four years while the net income. The major concern is the plummeting profit margin. 10) Ocean Village is a company that targets young customers. the strategy of targeting young professionals reaches a wider customer base by meeting the needs of the older audiences. such as. Due to the breadth of Carnival’s fleet. Royal Caribbean suggests that activities that are targeted toward the young customers also have a strong appeal towards people in their fifties as these activities that make them feel young.9) P&O Cruises Australia own two ships that operate in Oceania. Therefore. Carnival Corporation: Revenues & Profitability Source: Public Financial data Royal Caribbean: Revenues & Profitability Source: Public Financial data Upon comparison of the two graphs. 11) The Yachts of Seabourn provide luxury vacations in vessels (rather than cruise ships). The cruises offered range from seven to fourteen day vacations and target consumers within the Australian and New Zealand markets. The one-two week cruises operate from Palma de Majorca in the summer and from Barbados in the winter. we decided to focus on the two major players who have the capacity for expansion: Carnival Corporation and its biggest competitor: Royal Caribbean. It is difficult to determine the targeted Carnival customer because they truly offer a different experience for each target market. Royal Caribbean’ target market is comprised of families and couples or singles between 24 and 55 years in age.

SWOT analysis of Carnival Corporations Strengths • • • • A capacity of ships 1. 13 . have a net income almost three times high as the other competitors. with just above two times the sales of Royal Caribbean. Another evident factor suggests that the profit margin for Royal Caribbean is lower than Carnival Corporation (at times even more than half).Carnival Corporation managed to react to the market faster (costs are decreased due to the economies of scale). Higher diversification of customers and operations also decreased the risks. Carnival Corp. The sales for both Carnival Corporation and Royal Caribbean reveal a recent increase in both revenue and profitability.4 times the closest competitor Diverse brands that cater to varying lifestyles and budgets Robust profitability in a seasonal industry with low profit generation capacity Strong marketing strategy to effectively communicate value proposition to the target audience Weaknesses • • Reliance on North America can affect revenue growth Future commitments of ship purchases could burden financials in a slowing economy Opportunities • • • Threats • New tax regulations could erode Capacity to further penetrate the special the European cruise market tax break enjoyed by carnival as China: Rising GDP and per capita an income overseas company increase disposable income • Environmental legislations and Changing demographics in major regulations cruise could affect operating costs markets • Economic slowdown in the US Source: Data monitor An analysis of the internal and external factors suggests that Carnival has positioned itself well and their market position is relatively stable. Also.

However. Companies who are incapable in identifying and adapting to the changing economic environment 14 . we have developed several recommendations. forward integration. Recommendations In the 21st century. it is not evident that Carnival is attempting to target the expanding Chinese customer base.47 and 3. We believe that the company may lose a profitable advantage that they would otherwise gain. the suggested action for the company is to grow and build. However. we believe Carnival should attempt to target the emerging middle class in China.The IFEM matrix analyzes the internal and external factors that affect a specific industry and through a weighting system of these factors. The resulting values of the company’s SWOT analysis gave external factors and internal factors a weighted average of 2. showing that the company’s goal is to maintain operations in the long term. Furthermore. II and IV. Our recommendations are aligned with Carnival’s vision. as they are planning to acquire four new ships in 2011. conglomerate diversification. Within the next three to five years. the companies at the greatest risk are those that fail to carefully monitor their customers and competitors and who fail to continuously improve their value offerings. Research has also shown that Carnival is focusing on increasing its presence in Europe market.17 respectively. we believe that Carnival could better exploit the resources available. Overall. thus. If the company falls into areas I. we suggest that Carnival continue concentric diversification and attempt to further penetrate the European market. if they had integrated the Chinese market as a part of their target market. V and VII. suggest maintaining the company’s current position. it provides various suggestions on the direction that a company should take. given our recommendations. we understand the company’s concern of direct entry into the Chinese market. In the past. Areas III. Carnival has been able to maintain their leadership position through the expansion of their fleets. given the political and regulatory situation in China. horizontal integration. Source: Privately owned file The matrix above reveals that Carnival should consider taking actions to expand their power and breadth within the cruise line industry. while areas VI. the size and diversification of Carnival creates a competitive advantage that we believe the company will be able to sustain in the long term. VIII and IX suggest to harvest and/or retrench. Possible growth actions include concentric diversification. In addition. and market penetration. The matrix range for both the internal and external factors is 0-4.

or easily coordinate and create travel itineraries needed for each global customers. Again. Carnival should consider collaborating or co-branding with specific agencies to allow for agents to track expressed interest in Carnival. 4) Carnival should consider developing stronger ties with travel agencies. promote the brand. receive feedback from travel experiences. their employees. supply discounted tickets. 3) Carnival primarily operates in the cruise segment of the tourism industry. Carnival could potentially bundle packages.e. Source: Anything Research. and establish positive word of mouth. and their suppliers. Carnival should consider penetrating niches within the broader tourism industry.will ultimately be unable to satisfy their stockholders. However. Planning for future challenges and constantly molding ones product or service to meet evolving customer needs is a never ending pursuit. such as resorts or low price destination vacations on land. India. Carnival should consider targeting value conscious consumers. 2) Carnival should consider collaborating with an airline/transportation company to better assist its customers. This would increase brand transparency and provide a more comprehensive service to customers. This would provide the opportunity for Carnival to build brand equity and perhaps inveigle people to consider a Carnival cruise. 2011 1) Given its dominant market share. i. therefore. 15 . incorporating value added services may attract new customers who are also price conscious. The company has already established themselves as a low-cost cruise line. and China. 5) Carnival should entertain the idea of expanding further into the international markets and tap into growing global markets such as Southeast Asia. getting more for one’s money.

Internally the role of communication is to ensure that company strategy is not forgotten or neglected. and unique on board services. The industry has been recognized as having the opportunity for robust growth and enhanced overall attractiveness. Carnival attempts to mitigate these potential challenges by offering a diversified brand portfolio and targeting a large consumer market by offering a multitude of international ports of call. Customers are no longer focused simply on how a product looks and functions. By reinforcing the company’s unitary goal. Conclusion The cruise industry is exerting a major impact on international tourism. diversified ship experiences. The sustainability of a company is increasingly associated with innovation. enhanced brand loyalty. The need to communicate is even more important in today’s market than in the past due to the wide spread climate of economic uncertainty. thus if Carnival is slow to respond to industry trends and customer demands. expanding its operations. Carnival faces the challenge to remain the industry leader and retain their customer base in an increasingly saturated market. Carnival must respond to these changing priorities and preferences by diversifying their brand portfolio and marketing initiatives in order to maintain its industry leadership status. Carnival should consider strengthening its brand by acquiring new customers. brand communication will remain consistent throughout the global marketplace and Carnival will in turn witness. Promoting the value-added experience will further assist Carnival in retaining its leadership position and increasing its market share. nurturing established relationships. differentiated days at sea. Carnival has the ability to highlight the specific characteristics of each of its exclusive experiences. 16 . As a result. Thus. positive word of mouth. but also a potential indictment of a brand’s dynamism. Carnival’s primary challenge is to continually renew creativity by generating unique customer experiences and marketing strategies. Using this strategy as a brand platform.Considering the extensive capacity for expansion in the market. as many operating companies are rapidly expanding their fleets and catering to a myriad of customers. they desire a unique international experience offered at a low cost. it could be perceived as not only a lack of commitment to understanding the evolving customer base. and overall sales generation.

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