REPORT ON High Voltage Testing Of Transformer

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree Of

Bachelors of Technology

in

Electrical & Electronics Engineering

KIIT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING GURGAON
(Affiliated to M.D.University,Rohtak)
Submitted by:

Vivek Ambavta Roll Number-24059 EEE 8th sem

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I would also like to thank the training in charge of KIIT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, GURGAON and all the faculty members of Electrical Engineering Department for their effort of constant co- operation, which have been a significant factor in the accomplishment of my report.

Vivek Ambavta EEE-VIIIth SEM Roll Number: 24059
KIIT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Transformers range in si e from a thumbnail-si ed coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions ofpower grids. In an ideal transformer. which makes long-distance transmission economically practical. although the range of designs is wide. This effect is By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core. air-core transformers being a notable exception. or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. If a load is connected to the secondary. . All operate with the same basic principles. transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high-voltage electric power transmission. the induced voltage in the secondary winding ( s) is in V proportion to the primary voltage (Vp). While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EM called mutual induction. In the vast majority of transformers. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows: or "voltage" in the secondary winding. a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np.Introduction A transformer i a stati devi e t at t ansfers electrical energy from one circuit to anot er t rough inductively coupled conductors²the transformer's coils.

delta ± single phase. A deltawye transformer has its primary winding connected in delta and its secondary winding connected in a wye.High Voltage Transformer High voltage transformers convert votages from one level or phase configuration to another. wye (Y) ± wye (Y). For direct current secondary voltage output. wye (Y) ± delta. and ladder. 60 Hz is common in North American power. 50 Hz is common for European power. Three-phase transformers are connected in delta or wye configurations. High voltage transformers can be constructed as either a toroidal or laminated transformer. Consult manufacturer for waveform options.delta. A wye-delta transformer has its primary winding connected in a wye and its secondary winding connected in a delta. maximum power rating. 5-lead. The size and cost of a transformer increases when you move down the listing of primary windings. Primary frequencies of incoming voltage signal to primaries available for power transformers include 50 Hz. A 5-Lead primary requires more copper than a Quad (2+2) primary. dual. For Alternating Current waveform output.wye (Y). delta . Other important specifications to consider when searching for high voltage transformers include maximum secondary voltage rating. Single-phase primary configurations include single. maximum secondary current rating. power distribution. and 400 Hz. A Ladder is the least economical primary configuration. and international. voltage the values are typically given in RMS values. consult manufacturer for type of rectification. and output type. quad (2+2). Three phase configuration choices include delta . Output choices include AC or DC. wye (Y) ± single-phase. The maximum primary voltage rating is another important parameter to consider. usually from higher to lower. The Rated Power of the transformer is the sum of the VA (Volts x Amps) for all of the secondary windings. High voltage transformers usually depend on the principle of magnetic induction between coils to convert voltage and/or current levels. Toroidal transformers typically have copper wire wrapped around a cylindrical core so the . A transformer should be provided with more than one primary winding if it is to be used for several nominal voltages. High voltage transformers can be configured as either a single-phase primary configuration or a three-phase configuration. 400 Hz is most widely used in aerospace applications. and control and instrumentation applications. 60 Hz. A transformer may provide more than one secondary voltage value. They can include features for electrical isolation.

h frame. and step-down transformer. The use of a separate HV source is more informative than measurement at normal operation voltage. the application of on-site tests may be able to be separated in: ‡ commissioning tests: as part of the on-site equipment commissioning procedure in order to demonstrate that shipment and erection have not caused any new defects to HV insulation. which occurs within the coil. and PCB mount Testing Of Transformer As regards complex electrical equipment such as high voltage power transformers. These steel laminations are insulated with a nonconducting material. ‡ on-site repair or refurbishment: as part of the repair or refurbishment procedure in order to demonstrate that repair or refurbishment have been successfully completed and HV insulation is free of dangerous defect. the coil efficiency is good. In addition. as it allows investigation of the HV insulation performance with voltage. and ‡ diagnosis: as part of a diagnostic procedure in order to provide reference values to further tests or to confirm results obtained from other types of test. . and the magnetic flux has little influence on other components. Basically. power transformer. isolation transformer. Up to date. potential (voltage) transformer.magnetic flux. distribution transformer. design. they are also called E-I transformers. Laminated transformers contain laminated-steel cores. instrument transformer. generalpurpose transformer. current transformer. These include autotransformer. control transformer. On-site electrical tests are for the test voltage to simulate on the transformer under testing the equivalent stresses which may be established during service condition. step-up transformer. manufacturing processesor resulting from shipment. such as varnish. dish or disk mount. doesn't leak out. internal insulation is subject to defects due to several reasons associated to bad material. enclosure or free standing. Power transformers can be one of many types. and then formed into a core that reduce electrical losses. Mountings available for high voltage transformers include chassis mount. The goal of a routine test is to check correct manufacture of HV insulation while the goal of a type test is to confirm correct design of HV insulation. on-site high voltage withstand tests including partial discharge monitoring and measurements are the most significant tests in order to quantify HV insulation quality. electrical tests on power transformers are grouped in type and routine tests.

The proper group is selected according to transformer power and voltage. Other voltage shapes for simulation of overvoltages have been used. 850kVA and 2MVA.Alternating voltages are most important for on-site tests . There are three motor-generator groups available: 300kVA. a complete set of mobile testing equipment is made available at field. Since 1992. HV ON-SITE TEST SETUP To perform HV on-site tests. . ‡ step-up and regulating transformers. including: ‡ variable frequency 60-240Hz motor-generator group. ‡ no-load and load measuring system. The application of HV on-site tests has been a good practice in South America. on-site HV tests have been performed in more than 110 power transformers ranging from 30MVA to 550MVA. Large electric power utilities and industrial plants are the main customers to this technology. 115kV to 765kV (AC) and 600kV (DC). they are strongly dependent on availability of onsite testing systems. and ‡ partial discharges measuring and monitoring system as per IEC60076-3 and IEC60270. however. ‡ reactive power compensating capacitors and reactors.

As an example. or ‡ detected mechanical event such as overacceleration during a shipment operation. The process of this application typically starts based on previous events such as: ‡ detected event of in oil dissolved gas generation increase given up partial discharge as a possible diagnosis using dissolved gas analysis methods. figure 4 shows a 4-year old 300MVA. In several cases.8kV on-load regulating transformer under on-site testing at a substation yard . HV on-site tests have been used for diagnostic purposes on large power transformers. HV induced voltage with partial discharge electrical and acoustic monitoring has been successfully used to detect and locate partial discharge in large power transformers. 550/138/13.HV ON-SITE TESTS APPLIED FOR DIAGNOSIS In many cases.

During the test. . Figure 5 shows the results of PD location through the application of 3 acoustic sensors. the transformer has been shipped back to factory and disassembled for complete repair. partial discharge activities were measured (up to 7500pC at 130%Un) and located in the HV winding exit areas. The transformer has been visually inspected internally and partial discharges evidences have been located in the area indicated by the previous test induced test. . After that.

In most cases using special adapted circuits can solve the problem. According to IEC 600060-1 there are the following time parameters and tolerances for the standard LI 1. This is caused by the oscillating discharge determined by the impulse voltage test generator capacitance and the transformer impedance. Impulse voltage test generator with capacitive load For the LI testing of basic arrangements but also of different electrical components a purely capacitive load can be assumed. the time to half -value T2 is determined by the impulse capacitance of the impulse capacitor Ci and the resistance of the tail resistor Rp being part of the impulse voltage test generator. The impulse voltage shape generated by an impulse voltage test generator based on the MARX multiplier circuit can be described by two exponential functions with different time constants.2/50: Front time T1 = 1. 1. see fig. Whereas the LI front time T1 according to IEC 60060 -1 [1] is essentially determined by the resistance of the front resistor Rs located in the impulse voltage test generator and the load capacitance Ct.Impulse Voltage Test Of Transformers During the Lightning Impulse (LI) test of transformer windings with a low impedance it is difficult to ensure a minimum time to half -value of 40 s in accordance with IEC 60076-3 and IEC 60060-1.2 s + 30 % Time to half-value T2 = 50 s + 20 % . 1.

whereas all other terminals are connected with the earth. For a three -phase winding in a star connection the following equation can be applied: Lt Inductance (stray inductance) of the winding to be tested Impedance voltage of the winding to be Tested VP-P Rated phase-tophase voltage of the three-phase winding to be tested Ptot Rated total power of the three-phase winding to be tested f Rated frequency .Impulse voltage test generator with inductive load In most of the cases power transformers cannot be assumed as a purely capacitive load for the LI testing. Hereby. with decreasing rated phase -to-phase voltage VP-P and with increasing power Ptot of the transformer winding to be tested. 1) must be extended by the transformer inductance Lt that is connected in parallel to the test capacitance Ct Thereby the inductance Lt of the load becomes smaller with decreasing impedance voltage vimp%. The principal circuit (fig. Therefore the lowest values of the inductance Lt have to be considered by testing the low-voltage side windings for power transformers. Usually the LI test voltage is applied to one winding terminal of the transformer to be tested. not only the input capacitance of the transformer winding acts as the load for the impulse voltage test generator but also its impedance to all other short circuited windings.

to equation (5). In many cases the value of 30 % is sufficient for routine tests. partial operation) and the above aspects regarding the total charging voltage the stage charging energy can be calculated in principle for each possi ble test case. a total charging voltage. rated power.With decreasing inductance Lt the impulse capacitance Ci of the impulse voltage test generator is not only discharged via the tail resistor Rp. Thereby the time to half -value T2 of the LI is reduced and the aperiodic discharge of the impulse capacitance turns to a damped oscillating cosine shape. . but also via the low inductance Lt of the winding to be tested. At the other side the amplitude of opposite polarity of the LI voltage dmax should not exceed 50 %. However. If the exception ³earthing via termination resistors´ is not considered. Normally a stage energy of 5 « 10 kJ per 100 . To fulfil these both requirements the impulse voltage impulse voltage test generator must have a minimum required impulse capacitance Projection of an impulse voltage test generator for the LI test of power transformers The main technical data of the transformers to be tested. impulse voltage test generators for power transformer testing have an energy of 15 kJ per 200-kV-stage. Taking into consideration the different circuitry options of the impulse voltage test generator (parallel connection of stages.kV-stage and a stage energy of 10 « 20 kJ per 200-kV-stage will be sufficient. the lower tolerance limit for the time to half-value of T2 min may not remain under 40 s (= 50 s . their rated voltage. impedance voltage and not at least the rated frequency determine essentially the total charging voltage and the stage energy of an impulse voltage test generator for the LI test. If development tests are to be carried out. the higher values apply to transformers with higher power (fig. the required impulse capacitance Ci req can be calculated for each winding voltage level acc. Often. like the circuitry and the arrangement of the windings.20 %). which lies 60 % above the highest rated LI test voltage. This is permitted in principle acc. Whereas the lower values apply to transformers with lower power. is recommended. 4). The total charging voltage of the impulse voltag e test generator should lie for LI testing 30 % « 60 % above the highest required LI test voltage. to IEC 60076-3 [2].

with the minimum number of stages. for which the existing impulse voltage test generator has not been originally meant.e. . Usually the tail resistors meant for switching impulse voltage can be applied. Increasing the effective impulse capacitance The following ge nerally known measures can be taken: a) Running the impulse voltage test generator in partial operation. being necessary to reach the required test voltage level. A further increase of the resistance of the tail resistors Rp above the resistance value for the SI generation does not have any result.Extension of the loading range of impulse voltage test generators Often it is required to test transformer with such a high power. Increasing the parallel resistors If the time to half -value remains only a few below the permitted lower limit T2 min = 40 s. b) Switching a certain number of generator stages r espectively in parallel and connect this parallel stages in series to reach the required test voltage. i. it is possible to reach a value of T2 I40 s by increasing the tail resistors Rp. In such cases it is necessary to utilise all reserves of the existing impulse voltage test generator .

5: Impulse Voltage Test System IP 150/2000 G (150 kJ. with a stage energy of 15 kJ being used for the LI test of power transformers up to 245 kV .Fig. 2000 kV) with impulse voltage divider and chopping multiple spark gap.

3. which may exceed the permitted limit for the overshoot of 5 % /1/. This would cause a shorter front time T1 of the LI. This is easily realised by connecting an additional capacitor in parallel to the transformer winding to be tested. For a further reduction of the damping the resistance of the front resistor Rs has to be reduced. Unfortunately. if the circuit damping is to high. The damping caused by the tail resistors Rp can be considerably eliminated by their increase. because a reduction of the resistance of the front resistor Rs will lead to oscillations on the front of the LI voltage soon. The front and tail resistors in the impulse voltage test generator are mostly responsible for that damping. Hereby the front resistor responsible for the voltage front remains unchanged but it is bridged by an additional inductance formed by an aircoil The Glaninger-coil must have an inductance value ca. 100 « 200 H.3. Decreasing the damping of the test circuit As already mentioned in chapter 2. a time to half-value of T2 I40 s is not reached even with a sufficient of the impulse voltage test generator (Ci ICi req). to form a true voltage divider consisting of Rs//Lg and Rt//Lt . the capacitance of the load has to be increased corresponding to the reduction of the resistance of the front resistor Rs. So he front of the LI impulse remains unchanged and the tail is extended. To keep the front time T1 unchanged.2.5. Application of the ´Glaninger -circuit´ The disadvantage of oscillations on the voltage front after a reduction of the front resistor Rs is completely avoided with a circuit invented by GLANINGER . as already recommended in chapter 5. . to be ineffective for the fast impulse front and to bridge the front resistor Rs during the much longer impulse tail. Consequently an additional resistor Rt has to be switched in parallel to the load inductance Lt. the effect of this method is limited. see fig.

adjustment of the time to half-value T2 and the amplitude of opposite polarity d by means of the tail resistor Rp (optimal adjustment Rp = 60 Ohm for this example. d < 50 %) With a Glaninger-circuit the front time T1. .Fig.e. For example. A variation of the Glaninger-coil inductance is as a rule not necessary. T 2 and d with the resistors Rp und Rt (fig. i. 6. T1 with the tail resistor Rs. An existing impulse voltage test generator can be utilised optimally. there exists a close connection between the main data of the transformer to be tested and the required impulse capacitance of the impulse voltage test generator. The Glaningercircuit enables for LI testing the most effective adaptation of the impulse voltage test generator and the transformer to be tested. 8: LI test of power transformers by using the Glaninger-circuit. 7: LI test of power transformers by using the Glaninger-circuit. to the IEC standards presupposes special knowledge of the interaction between the impulse voltage test generator and the inductive load. There are also requirements related to the damping characteristic of the test circuit to utilise an existing impulse voltage test generator optimally. Conclusion The testing of power transformers with LI test voltage acc. the time to half-value T2 and the amplitude of opposite polarity d of the LI test voltage can be set almost independently. 7 and 8). T2 > 40 s. Some basic aspects and circuitries were described in this paper. adjustment of the voltage shape at the voltage crest by means of an additional resistor Rt (optimal adjustment Rt = 300 Ohm for this example) Fig.

additional problems can be the loss of gas. The problems associated with these transformers may be excessive wearing of contacts. Moisture condensation: The main causes for moisture condensation are improper ventilation in open -type transformers and a cracked diaphragm or leaking gaskets in sealed-type transformer. These problems are caused by gas leaks above the oil. or contaminati ons. Gas-sealed transformer troubles: In gas-sealed transformers. around gaskets. Leakage of transformer liquid: Leakage can occur through screw joints. moisture condensation in mechanism liquid. mechanism overtravel. Discoloration of transformer liquid: Discoloration is mainly caused by carbonization of the liquid due to switching. insuffi cient gas space. poor joints. improper fi lters. Excessive contact wear is due to loss of contact pressure from weakened springs or a contact-making voltmeter set at too narrow a bandwidth or insuffi cient time delay. and/or insuffi cient fl ushing of gas space with nitrogen. or insuffi cient tightness of mechanical parts. and others. Mechanism overtravel usually is due to defective or improper adjustment of controller . leaky valve seats. Transformer switching equipment troubles: Many transformers are equipped with tap chargers and other switching equipment. casting. and so on. or gas regulator malfunctions. oxygen content above 5%. Pressure-relief diaphragm broken: This is due to an internal fault causing excessive internal pressures or the transformer liquid level being too high or excessive internal pressure due to loading of transformer.Oxidation of oil: Oxidation usually results in the formation of acids and sludge in the transformer liquid. pressure-relief device. The main causes are improper assembly of mechanical parts. welds. defects in the material used. core failure. improper fi nishing of surfaces. It is mainly due to exposure to air and high operating temperatures.

Voltage ratio is proportionally equal to turns ratio. and carbonization is due to excessive operation and lack of fi ltering. The AC HV test value should not exceed 75% of the factory test value.contacts. The voltage generated on the lowvoltage winding is measured and the voltage ratio between high and low windings is calculated. the dial readings indicate the ratio of the transformer under test. This test is recommended for all voltages. mechanical binding. Moisture condensation is due to improper ventilation. The HV windings of the transformer under test and the TTR reference transformer are connected through a null detecting instrument. 8 V AC is applied to the low-voltage winding of the transformer under test and a reference transformer in the TTR set. After polarity has been established at 8 V. In the case of a low voltage hand-crank powered TTR. When AC hi-pot testing is to be used for routine maintenance.5 kV. For routine maintenance testing of transformers. a voltage (typically 80 V AC) i s applied to the HV winding of the transformer under test.9. especially those above 34. or low -voltage conditions in the control circuitry AC Hi-Pot Test The AC hi-pot test is applied to evaluate the condition of transformer windings. The hand -crank . the test voltage should not exceed 65% of factory test voltage. This test is commonly used for acceptance testing or after repair testing of transformers. Testing procedures and test connections are similar to the DC hi-pot tests TTR Test The TTR test applies voltage to one winding of a transformer and detects the voltage being generated on another winding on the same core. In the case of an electronic TTR test set. Othe r problems such as control fuse blowing and mechanism motor stalling are due to short circuits in the control circuit. However. when the null reading is zero. the hi-pot test for routine maintenance is generally not employed on transformers because of the possibility of damage to the winding insulation. the transformer can be tested at rated voltage for 3 min instead of testing at 65% of factory test voltage. The AC hi-pot test values for voltage systems up to 69 kV a re shown in Table 5.

the handheld electronic TTR. Tests include all no-load tap positions on a transformer. The TTR test provides the following information: It determines the turns ratio and polarity o ‡ f single .powered TTR. ‡ It confi rms nameplate ratio. polarity. If tested on load taps. respectively. The TTR with accuracy of 0.12.1% is accepted as a referee. ‡ Identify trouble in transformer windings. Section 9.1 states that results should be within 0. On LTC transformers connected for phase angle control. one phase at a time. .5% of nameplate markings. ratio and polarity are performed in neutral positions only. but will deviate from nameplate ratings. with rated voltage applied to one winding. readings may be taken for reference for future comparison. and vectors. tap changer (LTC) transformers if connected for voltage ratio control. and the three-phase electronic TTR are through c.and three-phase transformers.00 -2006. ‡ It determines the ratio and polarity (but not voltage rating) of transformers without markings. The standard deviation as defi ned by ANSI/IEEE C57. such as open -circuit and short-circuits of turn-to-turn sensitivity. LTC taps may be confi rmed by application of low three-phase voltage and reading volts and the phase angle for each. Tests include all load taps on load.

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