Assignment Assignment

Suspended Solids in Seawater
Base on: 1, Arkhipov, B. et al. (2003) 2, Bilotta, G.S. and Brazier. R. E. (2008) 3, Bruton, M.N. (1985) 4, Gartner, J. W. (2004) 5, Shin, P.K.S.et al. (2000) 6, Suzuki, Y., Maruyama, T. (2002) 7, Weiner. E. R. (2000) 8, Wong, M. S et al. (2007) 9, Zang, M. et al. (2010)
Nguyen Hoang Lam Environmental Oceanography, CNU lamfishery@gmail.com

Assignment

Content

1, Introduction 2, Effects on water quality and aquatic lives 3, Analytical methods 4, Removal method

© Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011

Introduction Suspended solids (SS) (7) Insoluble solid or filterable solids Including organic and mineral particular matters . Weiner 2000) Includes silt. clay. 1995.Do not pass through a 0.With a diameter of less than 62 μm (Water. metal oxides. sulfides.Assignment 1.45 μm filter . bacteria and fungi © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 . algae.

Introduction Suspended solids (SS) Removed by flocculation and filtering Contributes to turbidity which limits light penetration for photosynthesis and visibility in water © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .Assignment 1.

Effects Physical alteration (2) Reduce penetration of light Temperature changes Infilling of channels when solids are deposited Reduce navigability of channels.Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives 2. higher cost of water treatment © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

nutrients (phosphorus) from adsorption sediments Deplete levels of dissolved oxygen in the water Produce a critical oxygen shortage (kills fish in low – flow condition) © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives 2. Effects Chemical alteration (2) Release of contaminant (heavy metals and pesticide).

Effects Biological effect (2.Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives 2. 3) Directly or indirectly through food chains and energy input to the water column Fast flows of high level SS can act to scour these organisms away from streambed substrates Damaging to the photosynthetic structures of organisms Indirectly affect the abundance of phytoplankton and other aquatic life as nutrients or toxic compounds © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives (2) 2. Effects © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives (2) 2. Effects © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

Effects © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives (2) 2.

Reduction in light penetration -> reduced food availability and plant biomass 2. Effects 1. Clogging of gillrakers and gill filaments © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives (3) 2. Reduced visibility of pelagic food 3. Reduced visibility of benthic food (in shallow water) 4.

Effects Factors determining the effects of SS The concentration of SS The duration of exposure to SS concentrations The chemical composition of SS The particle size distribution of SS Life stage of aquatic animals (egg.Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives (2) 2. larvae or adult) © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

Effects Conclusions Most important negative effect: limiting the penetration of sunlight and reduce the production of sea (seriously in areas that grow seaweed) Positive effect: hard water (dissolved Ca and Mg) can reduce the toxic of heavy metals on aquatic lives © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .Assignment on water quality and aquatic lives 2.

Analytical methods (2) Filter water sample through a dried and pre weighed 0. 2000) This technique are time consuming and must have a large water size so we use turbidity method (conventional method) © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 . 1980.Assignment 3.7 μm pore size glass fiberfilter (Anon. . Gray et al.

Analytical methods (2) Figure 1: A diagram shows the various components that are incorporated when measuring turbidity and SS via the conventional method © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .Assignment 3.

Assignment 3. Analytical methods (7) Table 4: Total suspended solids concentration estimated from the turbidity measurement © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

Analytical methods (2) The disadvantages of turbidity method Measure of only one of many effect of SS (the light penetration) Responds to many factors than SS concentration (the particle size and shape of SS.Assignment 3. the presence of phytoplankton. dissolved humic substances and dissolved mineral substances © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

Assignment 3. Analytical methods (8) MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) or MODIS spectral imagine method is used to measure SS Case study: use MODIS to measure SS in Hong Kong © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

Analytical methods (8. 9) Case study: use MODIS to measure SS in Hong Kong Using images from NASA Aqua/ MODIS satellite (250 and 500 m) and 49 ‘in-situ’ samples in 10 clear sky days Data from MODIS satellite are supported from 7 different bands Analysis method using 3 different models such as linear.Assignment 3. multiple regression and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Finding the best correlation constant in models between the SS in satellite and ‘in – situ ‘ samples © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

utexas.html.tacc. Cited: Wong. et al. S.Assignment 3. (2007)) © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .edu/DataUsersGuide/MODISbands. Analytical methods (8) Case study: use MODIS to measure SS in Hong Kong Table 5: MODIS chanels on 250m and 500m images and their potential applications (adopted: http://synergyx. M.

095 x Band 1 – 2. 282 x Band 2 © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .683 + 120.303 x Band 5 + 9.085 x Band 4 – 5. 628 x Band1 – 15.963 x Band 7 SS (mg/l) = .675 x Band 2 – 14.709 x Band 6 + 10.653 x Band 3 + 79.966 x Band 1 – 24.281 + 23.Assignment 3. Analytical methods (8) Case study: use MODIS to measure SS in Hong Kong Best modes: SS (mg/l) = 94.251 x Band 4 + 21.821 SS (mg/l) = -4.3.787 SS (mg/l) = 97.

82) from 250 m pixel resolution with wavelenghts at 650 nm and 859 nm Figure 2: Suspended solids in Hong Kong © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .Assignment 3. Analytical methods (8) Case study: use MODIS to measure SS in Hong Kong Results The best imagines that have high correlation constant (R > 0.

pH 5 – 6) Assignment © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 . casein dosage 3 mg/l. Removal method (6) .4. Coagulation and foam separation using surface – active protein Using coagulation foam separation with FeCl3 and casein The removal efficiency of SS was over 98% (FeCl3: 20 mg/l .

Assignment 4. Removal method (6) Figure 3: Schematic diagram of batch foam seperating system (not to scale) © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

© Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 . pp.. Yau. Removal of suspended solids by coagulation and foam separation using surface – active protein. Arkhipov. (2010). pp.S. Vol. (1985).G. Hydrobiologia 125. California. R. Brazier. pp. Bruton. pp. 3. et al.K. Suzuki. CRC press . M. (2000). (2003). R.. Wong. 221 – 241. J. S. The effects of suspensoids on fish. E.N. Estimating suspended solids concentrations from backscatter intensity measured by acoustic Doppler current profiler in San Francisco Bay. M. 157 – 162. pp. Korean Journal of Remote Sensing.. 6. S et al. Gartner. Calculation of suspended solids dispersion in the sea environment. Water research (42): 2849 – 2861. ISBN 1880653-61-3. (2002). 23. 392 – 403. 2 rd Ed. Proceedings of the fifth Ocean Mining Symposium Tsukuba. Applications of environmental aquatic chemistry: a practical guide. 2003. (2004). 7. 161 – 169 9. 4. and Cheung. Retrieval of total suspended matter concentration in the Yellow and East China Seas from MODIS imagery. ( 2008).S. September 15 -19. Zang. Chow. Shin. (2007). 2. F. 169 – 187 5. (2000). Remote Sensing of Environment 114. 3. Responses of the green mussel Perna viridis (L. Bilotta.References Assignment 1. P.N. Japan. No. B. Understanding the influence of suspended solids on water quality and aquatic biota. Y. pp. G. Weiner.H. Maruyama. T. M. E.) to suspended solids.. 2195 – 2204. et al.. Water Research 36. W. 8. Marine Geology 211. Modeling of suspended solids and sea surface salinity in Hong Kong using Aqua/ MODIS satellite Images. S. Marine Pollution Buletin 45.

Assignment © Nguyen Hoang Lam 2011 .

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