Ion Implantation and Diffusion

 This process allows more precise control of junction depths and dopant distributions.  This process involves the direct introduction of highly energetic.  The greatest advantage of ion implant over diffusion is its more precise control for depositing dopant atoms into the substrate 2 .Ion Implantation  Process which is used to selectively deposit dopant ions into the surface of the wafers. charged atomic species onto the target surface.

impurity atoms are vaporized and accelerated toward the silicon substrate.  These are all the examples of ion implanters 3 .  These high-energy atoms enter the crystal lattice and lose their energy by colliding with some silicon atoms before finally coming to rest at some depth.  Adjusting the acceleration energy controls the average depth of depositing the impurity atoms.Ion Implantation Process  During ion implantation.  Heat treatment is used to anneal or repair the crystal lattice disturbances caused by the atomic collisions.

an acceleration tube. an ion source. a device for extracting and analyzing ions.Ion Implantation Focus A typical Ion Implantation equipment consists of a feed source. a high vacuum system.axis scanner X . Beam trap and gate plate Neutral beam and beam path gated Neutral beam trap and beam gate Y .axis scanner Wafer in wafer process chamber Gases Ar AsH3 B11F3 * He N2 PH3 SiH4 SiF4 GeH4 Solids Ga In Sb Liquids Al(CH3)3 Process Conditions Flow Rate: 5 sccm Pressure: 10-5 Torr Accelerating Voltage: 5 to 200 keV * High proportion of the total product use 4 . a scanning system.

Diffusion Process  Diffusion is the movement of a chemical species from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.  Diffusion is used primarily to alter the type and level of conductivity of semiconductor materials.  It is used to form bases.  It is also used to dope polysilicon layers 5 Examples of Diffusion Furnaces . as well as drains and sources in MOS devices. and resistors in bipolar devices. emitters.  The controlled diffusion of dopants into silicon is the foundation of forming a pn junction and fabrication of devices during wafer fabrication.

 The wafers are then spun with an opposite polarity doping source adhering only to the exposed areas.C) to drive the doping atoms into the silicon. This process is called annealing. 6 .Methods of planar process Diffusion  A uniformly doped ingot is sliced into wafers. Ion Implantation  A particle accelerator is used to accelerate a doping atom so that it can penetrate a silicon crystal to a depth of several microns  Lattice damage to the crystal is then repaired by heating the wafer at a moderate temperature for a few minutes.  An oxide film is then grown on the wafers.  The film is patterned and etched using photolithography exposing specific sections of the silicon.  The wafers are then heated in a furnace (800-1250 deg.

Diffusion Process Ion Implantation 7 .

 Dopants also diffuse unevenly.  Aids in the manufacture of self-aligned structures which greatly improve the performance of MOS transistors.  It is an anisotropic process and therefore does not spread the dopant implant as much as diffusion. but can only be performed from the surface of the wafers. 8 . and interact with each other altering the diffusion rate.  It does not require high temperatures and also allows for greater control of dopant concentration and profile.Comparison of Diffusion and Ion Implantation Diffusion:  Diffusion is a cheaper and more simplistic method. Ion Implantation:  Ion implantation is more expensive and complex.

Wafer up to Ion Implantation Process silicon wafer silicon wafer silicon dioxide (oxide) p.silicon epi layer p+ silicon substrate photoresist p.epi p+ substrate photoresist field oxide p.epi p-channel transistor p+ substrate 9 .silicon epi layer p+ silicon substrate p+ silicon substrate p.epi p+ substrate phosphorus (-) ions junction depth photoresist mask field oxide n-w ell p.

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