Topic 2: Cells

2.1 Cell Theory
Outline the cell theory. 1) Living organisms are composed of one of more cells. 2) Cells are the basic units of structure and function in all organisms. 3) All cells are derived from pre-existing cells. 4) In a multi-cellular organism, the activity of the entire organism depends on the total activity of its independent cells. Discuss the evidence for cell theory. y The cell theory has amassed tremendous credibility through the use of the microscope in the following: i. Robert Hooke- studied cork and found little tiny compartments that he called cells ii. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek- observed the first living cells, called them 'animalcules' meaning little animals. iii. Schleiden- stated that plants are made of 'independent, separate beings' called cells iv. Schwaan- made a similar statement to Schleiden about animals State that unicellular organisms carry out all of the functions of life y Metabolism; chemical reactions inside the cell, including cell respiration to release energy y Response; perceiving and responding to changes in the environment y Homeostasis; keeping conditions inside the organism within tolerable limits y Growth; an irreversible increase in size y Reproduction; producing offspring either sexually or asexually y Nutrition; obtaining food, to provide energy and the materials needed for growth. y Amoeba would be an example. Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells, using the appropriate SI unit nm = nanometer um = micrometer y Molecules - 1 nm y Thickness of membrane - 10 nm y Viruses - 100 nm y Bacteria - 1 um y Organelles - up to 10 um y Most cells - up to 100 um (three dimensional nature/shape)

Calculate the linear magnification of drawings and the actual size of specimens in images of known magnifications. y Drawings should show cells and cell ultrastructure. y Include: A scale bar: |------| = 1 µm Magnification: ×250 To calculate magnification: y Magnification = Measured Size of Diagram ÷ Actual Size of Object Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size. y A cell needs a large surface area in order to carry out metabolic functions (as chemical reactions require a surface). As a cell grows, it needs to carry out more and more reactions. Therefore, since a cell has to maintain a certain surface area to volume ratio, its size is limited. y The rate of exchange of materials (nutrients/waste) and energy (heat) is a function of its surface area. y As a cell grows in size (volume), the distance increases between the cytoplasm at the center of the cell and the cell membrane. The rate of chemical exchange with the surrounding environment may hence become too low to maintain the cell. It is not able to excrete waste quickly enough or take in important minerals. y Volume of a cell determines requirements while surface area determines supply. y The surface area to volume ratio of a cell is extremely important. When a cell becomes too big, it cannot transport material to the nucleus fast enough, which means it must either divide or die. y Divide or Die: when a cell gets too big, it can either divide or die. Cells don t divide haphazardly, but have an internal schedule/clock of sorts. This is called the cell cycle, and is made up of periods of growth, duplication, energy storage, and actual cell division. y Cells maximize their surface area by dividing and stretching, as well as possessing microvilli to create more area for gas exchange, such as in the small intestine. y While it is better for a cell to be rounded or cubic for efficient packing, it is more efficient to be long and slender, or invaginated (folded) for transport purposes.

State that multicelluar organisms show emergent properties y Emergent properties arise from the interaction of component parts: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Multicellular organisms show emergent properties: the activity of a multicellular organism depends on the sum of the total activity of its individual cells, and the activity of the cells depends on the activity of its organelles. Explain how cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others. y During the early development stages of multicellular organisms, cells undergo differentiation, becoming specialized in structure and function. These cells are then organized into tissues and organs. Cells of multicellular eukaryotes express only a small fraction of their genes, allowing them to perform highly specialized functions. Cells, such as those of muscle or nervous tissue, express only a tiny fraction of their genes. State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways. y Stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways. Outline one use of therapeutic stem cells. y Bone marrow transplants. They only work because what you are actually transplanting is the hematopoetic stem cells in the marrow. And peripheral blood stem cells, as well as cord blood stem cells, can be used in lieu of bone marrow, making being a donor FAR easier today than in decades past.

2.2 Prokaryotic Cells
Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of Escherichia (E. coli) as an example of a prokaryote

Annotate the diagram from 2.2.1 with the functions of each of the named structures 1. Cell Wall: Maintains the cell's shape and gives protection. 2. Plasma Membrane: Regulates the flow of materials (nutrients, waste, oxygen, etc.) into and out of the cell. 3. Cytoplasm: Holds and suspends the cell's specialized organelles and enzymes. 4. Pili: The function of the pili is attachment to solid surfaces, apparatus for use in transfer of DNA from one cell to another, twitching motility, and cell-cell adhesion. 5. Flagella: Flagella are whip like tails that are used to propel the organism forward. 6. Ribosome: Protein synthesis. 7. Nuceloid: Nucleoid is the area in the cytoplasm where the strands of DNA are present. Identify structures from 2.2.1 in electron micrographs of E. coli

State that prokaryotes divide by binary fission. y Prokaryotes divide by binary fission.

2.3 Eukaryotic Cells
Draw and label a diagram of the ultrastructure of a liver cell as an example of an animal cell

Annotate the diagram from 2.3.1 with the functions of each of the named structures. 1. Ribosomes: Main site of protein synthesis. 2. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER): Packages the proteins synthesized in the ribosomes. 3. Lysosome: Digests macromolecules and contain digestive enzymes. 4. Golgi apparatus: Modifies, stores and routes products of the endoplasmic reticulum. 5. Mitochondrion: Serves as the site of cellular respiration. 6. Nucleus: Contains a cell's genetic material Identify structures from 2.3.1 in electron micrographs of liver cells.

Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Small cells (<5um) Larger cells (>10um) No nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles DNA is circular, without proteins/histones Ribosomes are small (70S) No cytoskeleton Motility by rigid rotating flagellum (made of flagellin) Cell division by binary fission Reproduction always asexual Huge variety of metabolic pathways Always have nucleus and membrane-bound organelles DNA is linear and is associated with proteins/histones to form chromatin Ribosomes are large (80S) Always has cytoskeleton Motility by flexible waving cilia/flagella (made of tubulin) Cell division by mitosis/meiosis Reproduction either sexual or asexual Common metabolic pathways

State three differences between plant and animal cells. Only plant cells have: y Cell walls y Chloroplasts y Vacuole - more specificially central vacuole Outline two roles of extracellular components. y The plant wall maintains shape, prevents excess water uptake, and holds the whole plant up against the force of gravity. y Animal cells secrete glycoproteins that form the extracellular matrix (ECM). This functions in support, adhesion and movement.

2.4 Membranes
Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes.

Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes. y Hydrophilic molecules are attracted to water. Hydrophobic molecules are not attracted to water, but are attracted to each other. The phosphate head is hydrophilic and the two hydrocarbon tails are hydrophobic. In water, phospholipids form double layers with the hydrophilic heads in contact with water on both sides and the hydrophobic tails away from the centre. The attraction between the heads and the surrounding water makes membranes very stable. 2.4.4 Define diffusion and osmosis. y Diffusion: is the passive movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, as a result of the random motion of particles. y Osmosis: the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.

List the functions of membrane proteins. y Enzymes: there are many enzymes in membranes; ATP synthase, for example, catalyzes the formation of ATP. y Electron Carriers: arranged in chains in the membrane; needed for photosynthesis and cellular respiration. y Channels for passive transport: membranes need channels to allow certain molecules to diffuse in or out of the cell; a channel is formed by two adjacent integral proteins. y Pumps for active transport: ATP energy is needed to transport certain molecules across a membrane protein pumps are needed to accomplish this. y Hormone binding sites: cells communicate with one another using hormones. To receive a hormone message, a cell quires an integral protein that has a hormone binding side on its outer surface. 2.4.5 Explain passive transport across membranes by simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. y Membranes are semi-permeable which means that they allow certain molecules through but not others. The molecules can move in and out through passive transport which is a method that does not require any input of outside energy. It can either be done by simple diffusion or facilitated diffusion. Molecules will go from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration as they move randomly and eventually become evenly distributed within the system if they are permeable to the membrane. Simple diffusion involves the diffusion of molecules through the phospholipid bilayer while facilitated diffusion involves the use of channel proteins embedded in the membrane. The cell membrane is hydrophobic inside so hydrophobic (lipid soluble) molecules will pass through by simple diffusion whereas hydrophilic molecules and charged particles will use facilitated diffusion. Water moves through by osmosis which is also by passive transport. Osmosis involves the movement of water molecules from a region of low solute concentration, to a region of high solute concentration. So if the solute concentration is higher inside the cell than outside the cell, water will move in and vice versa. Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes. y Active transport involves the movement of substances through the membrane using energy from ATP. The advantage of active transport is that substances can be moved against the concentration gradient, meaning from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration. This is possible because the cell membrane has protein pumps embedded it which are used in active transport to move substances across by using ATP. Each protein pump only transports certain substances so the cell can control what comes in and what goes out.

Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and plasma membrane. y Vesicles are made by pinching off a piece of membrane (the fluidity of the membrane allows this). y Vesicles can be used to transport material around inside cells (ex: proteins). y They travel from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, then to the plasma membrane. y The formation of vesicle from plasma membrane allows material to be taken in (endocytosis). y The fusion of vesicle with plasma membrane allows material to be secreted / passed out (exocytosis). Describe how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape, break and re-form during endocytosis and exocytosis. y In endocytosis part of the plasma membrane is pulled inwards. A droplet of fluid becomes enclosed when a vesicle is pinched off. Vesicles can then move through the cytoplasm carrying its contents. y In exocytosis vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane. The contents of the vesicles are then expelled. The membrane flattens out again.

2.5 Cell Division
Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G1, S, G2), mitosis, and cytokinesis. 1. Interphase: in the G1 (growth one) phase the cell grows larger; in the S (synthesis) phase the genome is replicated; in the G2 (growth two) phase the newly replicated genome is separated. 2. Mitosis: The division of the nucleus to form two genetically identical nuclei is termed mitosis. 3. Cytokinesis: Division of the cytoplasm to form two new cells is called cytokinesis. State that tumours (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division and that these can occur in any organism. y Sometimes, mitosis gets out of control and a cell begins to divide and the new daughter cell begins to divide as well. Soon, this overflow of cells is called a tumour. Tumours can occur in any organ. Cancer is a disease caused by tumours. State that interphase is an active period in the life of a cell when many biochemical reactions occur, including protein synthesis, DNA replication and an increase in the number of mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. y During interphase the cell grows larger. Genes of chromosomes are subsequently transcribed to allow for protein synthesis and necessary organelles are doubled. The DNA is then replicated in preparation to be divided between the two new cells. Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.) 1. Prophase: the mitotic spindle (made from microtubules) starts growing, going from pole to pole. Chromatin coil up to form distinct chromosomes. The nuclear envelope starts breaks down. 2. Metaphase: each chromosome attaches to two spindle microtubules (one going to each pole) at the centromere region, so that they line up at the equator of the cell. The mitotic spindle is fully developed: some microtubules are attached to chromosomes and reach to the equator, whilst others go from pole to pole. 3. Anaphase: the spindle microtubules pull the sister chromatids to opposite poles; each sister chromatid will become one new chromosome of the daughter cell. 4. Telophase: each sister chromatid reaches its pole, becoming a chromosome. The nuclear envelope starts to reform. Spindle microtubles deteriorate. Cytokinesis takes place. Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical nucleus. y The result of the process of mitosis is two nuclei. During S phase, each chromosome replicates. These identical sister chromatids are separated during Anaphase, and are moved to each pole. When they are separated they are referred to as chromosomes. The result is two nuclei, identical to each other and to the original nucleus.

Outline the differences in mitosis and cytokenisis between animal and plant cells. y In plant cells, there are no centrioles. and after anaphase a cell wall forms dividing it into two cells. In animal cells, after anaphase, the plasma membrane forms dividing it into two cells by forming a cleavage furrow. State that growth, tissue repair, and asexual reproduction involve mitosis. y Growth, tissue repair, and asexual reproduction all involve mitosis.

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