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# OFDM with pulse shaping

Gang LIN Department of Electronics and telecommunications August 26, 2004

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Traditional Frequency Division Multiplex (FDM) • Sub-channels are completely separated in frequency 2 .

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) • There exists intersection between sub-channels but sub-channels are orthogonal to each other. 3 .

Why we use OFDM in wireless channel? • OFDM is much more robust in wireless fading channel than single carrier system 4 .

Used in ADSL. IEEE 802. DVB.Two main categories of OFDM • OFDM/QAM with guard interval: .Lower side lobes in frequency domain 5 . etc.11.The most common type of OFDM .Improved power and bandwidth efficiency . • OFDM/OQAM with pulse shaping: .

OFDM/QAM with guard interval 6 .

. there will be no intersymbol interference (ISI) and inter-channel interference (ICI). The guard interval can be implemented by inserting cyclic prefix or suffix.Guard interval to eliminate ISI in OFDM/QAM 7 If the maximum delay of multi-path channel is less than the guard interval .

Efficient scheme for OFDM/QAM based on DFT 8 .

2T 9 . SNR loss: SNRloss ∆ = 10 log(1 + ) T • The guard interval will reduce the information rate: BWloss = 1 (1 + ∆ T ) • Usually.Some characteristics of OFDM/QAM • The DFT based scheme has low complexity. ∆ = 0. • The receiver pulse is not matched with transmitter pulse.

Basic block diagram of OFDM/OQAM 10 .

Pulse design for OFDM/OQAM Principles for the design of pulse: .Concentrated in time and/or frequency Example: (1) Square root raised cosine pulse with a roll off factor less than 1.Zero ISI and ICI .1/T]. which is strictly band limited to [-1/T. (2) Optimal finite duration pulses with maximum energy concentration in [-1/T.1/T]. 11 .

Modulator of OFDM/OQAM based on DFT 12 .

Demodulator of OFDM/OQAM based on DFT 13 .

Equalization for OFDM/OQAM • OFDM/OQAM need equalizer in multi-path channel. • If the number of sub-channel is large enough. then ICI is also eliminated. • If the equalizer eliminates ISI. the channel can be viewed as flat fading. 14 . Then a onetap equalizer is sufficient.

A rough Comparison of OFDM/QAM and OFDM/OQAM OFDM/QAM Total computations per complex symbol period Equalizer Information rate reduction SNR loss (dB) 5 N (log 2 N − 1) OFDM/OQAM 4 P + 5 N (log 2 N − 1) (Cariolano’ scheme) s One-tap equalizer 1 (1 + ∆ T ) 10 log(1 + ∆ ) T Yes No reduction 0 P : the length of shaping pulse with respect to 15 an over sampling interval T/N .

Work done so far • Implementation of OFDM/OQAM. • Design of pulses robust to carrier frequency offset. 16 . • Equalization for OFDM/OQAM over multi-path fading channel.

Joint timing and frequency offset and channel estimation • A comparison of OFDM/QAM and OFDM/OQAM.Timing and frequency offset estimation . • Wireless MIMO system based on OFDM/OQAM. 17 . .Future research • Synchronization.