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A) Framework: GOVERNMENT-FREE SOCIAL LIBERTY WOULD TRANSCEND OUR CURRENT CAPITALIST SLAVERY. Bakunin, Mikhail, a labor organizer, 1870, The Commune, the Church, and the State, (Bakunin’s Writings, 1947) I am a passionate seeker for truth and just as strong an opponent of the corrupting lies, through which the party of order – this privileged, official, and interested representative of all religions, philosophical political, legal economical, and social outrage in the past and present – has tried to keep the world in ignorance. I love freedom with all my heart. It is the only condition under which the intelligence, the manliness, and happiness of the people, can develop and expand. By freedom, however, I naturally understand not its mere form, forced down as from above, measured and controlled by the state, this eternal lie which in reality, is nothing but the privilege of the few founded upon the slavery of all. Nor do I mean that "individualistic," selfish, petty, and mock freedom, which is propagated by J.J. Rousseau and all other schools of bourgeois liberalism. The mock freedom which is limited by the supposed right of all, and defended by the state, and leads inevitably to the destruction of the rights of the individual. No: I mean the only true freedom, that worthy of the name; the liberty which consists therein for everyone to develop all the material, intellectual, and moral faculties which lie dormant in him; the liberty which knows and recognizes no limitations beyond those which nature decrees. In this sense, there are no limitations, for the laws of our own nature are not forced upon us by a lawgiver who, beside or above us, sits on a throne. B) Links 1) The affirmative plan works through the federal government, a structure of social control. 2) [insert specific link] C) Implications: 1) STATISM LEADS TO MECHANIZATION AND THE DEATH OF LIBERTY, BEAUTY, AND SCIENCE. Goldman 40, Emma, a journalist, 1940, Anarchism (1970), p.40 Real wealth consists in things of utility and beauty, in things that help to create strong, beautiful bodies, and surroundings inspiring to live in. But if man is doomed to wind cotton around a spool, or dig coal, or build roads for thirty years of his life, there can be no talk of wealth. What he gives to the world are only gray and hideous things, reflecting a dull and hideous existence – too weak to live, too cowardly to die. Strange to say, there are people who extol this deadening method of centralized production as the proudest achievement of our age. They fail utterly to realize that if we are to continue in machine subserviency, our slavery is more complete than was our bondage to the king. They do not want to know that centralization is not only the deathknell of liberty, but also of health and beauty, of art and science, all these being impossible in a clocklike, mechanical atmosphere.
2) HIERARCHICAL SOCIETY DEVOURS NATURE LIKE AN UNTREATED DISEASE. Bookchin, Murray, president of Goddard College, 1990, Remaking Society, p.15 Finally, liberal environmentalism suffers from a consistent refusal to see that a capitalistic society based on competition and growth for its own sake must ultimately devour the natural world, just like an untreated cancer must ultimately devour its host. Personal intentions, be they good or bad, have little to do with this unrelenting process. An economy that is structured around the maxim, “Grow or Die,” must necessarily pit itself against the natural world and leave ecological ruin in its wake as it works its way through the biosphere. 3) GOVERNMENT-BASED SOCIETY EXPLOITS AND DEGRADES THE POOR – WE NEED A COMPLETELY NEW SYSTEM. Kropotkin, Peter, editor of Le Revolt, 1880, The Spirit of Revolt (within Le Revolt) Those who long for the triumph of justice, those who would put new ideas into practice, are soon forced to recognize that the realization of their generous, humanitarian, and regenerating ideas cannot take place in a society thus constituted; they perceive the necessity of a revolutionary whirlwind which will sweep away all this rottenness, revive sluggish hearts with its breath, and bring to mankind that spirit of devotion, self-denial, and heroism, without which society sinks through degradation and vileness into complete disintegration. In periods of frenzied haste toward wealth, of feverish speculation and of crisis, of the sudden downfall of great industries and the ephemeral expansion of other branches of production, of scandalous fortunes amassed in a few years and dissipated as quickly, it becomes evident that the economic institutions which control production and exchange are far from giving to society the prosperity which they are supposed to guarantee; they produce precisely the opposite result. Instead of order they bring forth chaos; instead of prosperity, poverty and insecurity; instead of reconciled interests, war; a perpetual war of the exploiter against the worker, of exploiters and of workers among themselves. 4) GOVERNMENTS ARE INHERENTLY DESTRUCTIVE AND CAUSE CRIME. Goldman, Emma, 1940, Anarchism (1970), p.43 The most absurd apology for authority and law is that they serve to diminish crime. Aside from the fact that the State is itself the greatest criminal, breaking every written and natural law, stealing in the form of taxes, killing in the form of war and capital punishment, it has come to an absolute standstill in coping with crime. It has failed utterly to destroy or even minimize the horrible scourge of its own creation. 5) CAPITALISM AND GOVERNMENTS LEGITIMIZE EVIL AND IMPOVERISHMENT. Einstein, Albert, 1949, Monthly Review, New York The economic anarchy of capitalist society as it exists today is, in my opinion, the real source of the evil. We see before us a huge community of producers, the members of which are unceasingly striving to deprive each other of the fruits of their collective labor – not by force, but on the whole in faithful compliance with legally established rules. In this respect, it is important to realize that the means of production – that is to say, the entire productive capacity that is needed for producing consumer goods as well as additional capital goods – may legally be, and for the most part are, the private property of individuals.
Hierarchy Is Hypocritical
— HIERARCHY IS HYPOCRITICAL AND DOOMED TO EXTINCTION. Kropotkin, Peter, 1906, The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition, 1990), p.33 The system under which we live checks in its turn the growth of the social sentiment. We all know that without uprightness, without self-respect, without sympathy, and mutual aid, human kind must perish, as perish the few races of animals living by rapine, or the slave-keeping ants. But such ideas are not to the taste of the ruling classes, and they have elaborated a whole system of pseudo-science to teach the contrary. Fine sermons have been preached on the text that those who have should share with those who have not, but he who would carry out this principle would be speedily informed that these beautiful sentiments are all very well in poetry, but not in practice. “To lie is to degrade and besmirch oneself,” we say, and yet all civilized life becomes one huge lie. We accustom ourselves and our children to hypocrisy, to the practice of a double-faced morality. And since the brain is ill at ease among lies, we cheat ourselves with sophistry. Hypocrisy and sophistry become the second nature of the civilized man. But a society cannot live thus; it must return to truth, or cease to exist.
— CAPITALISM FORCES WORKERS INTO A REPULSIVE AND MECHANIZED EXISTENCE.. Marx and Engels, Karl and Friedrich , 1848, The Communist Manifesto Owing to the extensive use of machinery and to division of labor, the work of the proletarians has lost all individual character, and, consequently, all charm for the workman. He becomes an appendage of the machine, and it is only the most simple, most monotonous, and most easily acquired knack that is required of him. Hence, the cost of production of a workman is restricted, almost entirely, to the means of subsistence that he requires for his maintenance, and for the propagation of his race. But the price of a commodity, and therefore also of labor, is equal to its cost of production. In proportion, therefore, as the repulsiveness of the work increases, the wage decreases. — CAPITALISM MECHANIZES HUMANS. Goldmann, Emma, 1940, The Individual, Society, and the State One of the insane characteristics of this struggle is the complete negation of the relation of the producer to the things he produces. The average worker has no inner point of contact with the industry he is employed in, and he is a stranger to the process of production of which he is a mechanical part. Like any other cog of the machine, he is replaceable at any time by other similar depersonalized human beings.
which could ensure comfort to all. enforced migration and wars. the mines. thoughts and ideas. and in spite of the powerful means of production. p. of ignorance and oppression. tastes.. Emma. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. the highways. taking advantage of alleged rights acquired in the past. Why then are the many poor? Why this painful drudgery for the masses? Why." and decried as a disturbing element in the comfortable stagnancy of modern life. Kropotkin. In pre-war time the individual could at least escape national and family boredom. to create for themselves an “independent” position. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. food. or enabling their children to emerge from.148 We understand that all men have but one dream – that of emerging from. and then squander them in the most shameful way. Goldman. 1990). and life continual solitary confinement. this inferior state. Now the world has become a prison. The whole world was open to his longings and his quests. demonstrating it by arguments taken from all the sciences. 1906. — OPPRESSION OF THE MASSES WILL OCCUR SO LONG AS DIVISION OF LABOR EXISTS. Its most concentrated dullness is "public opinion. this uncertainty for the morrow." Few have the courage to stand out against it. black hands and white hands. It is everywhere present. Kropotkin. the least divergence from it is the greatest crime. It is because all that is necessary for production – the land. which means what? To also live by other men’s work! As long as there will be a class of manual workers and a class of “brain” workers. even to the best paid workman.. in habits. The wholesale mechanization of modern life has increased uniformity a thousandfold. in the midst of all the wealth inherited from the past. Classism /Division of Labor Bad — CLASS INEQUITIES OPPRESS THE MASSES. it will be thus. p. The Individual. It is because. He who refuses to submit is at once labeled "queer. Peter. 1990). Daily they reiterate it. 1906. and the State The strongest bulwark of authority is uniformity. ROBBING THEM OF THE ABILITY TO AVOID PAINFUL DRUDGERY." "different.— HIERARCHY MECHANIZES AND IMPRISONS SOCIETY. shelter.26 In our civilized societies we are rich. Society. which has been the life of the human race before it learned to subdue the forces of Nature. . knowledge – all have been seized by the few in the course of that long story of robbery.. in return for a few hours of daily toil? The Socialists have said it and repeated it unwearingly. these few appropriate today two thirds of the products of human labor. dress. education. . Peter. 1940. machinery.
for the crisis that is a periodic and inevitable product of capitalism. The result of this state of things is that all our production tends in a wrong direction. . Mikhail. 1993. Bakunin. turn where he will. such as now.31 We cry shame on the feudal baron who forbade the peasant to turn a clod of earth unless he surrendered to his lord a fourth of his crop. and all that is done in the name of the monarch. a mine labor reformer. and the worker is forced. cuts in real wages. Enterprise takes no thought for the needs of the community. under the name of free contract. For. No. etc. the periodical industrial crises. he can find no better conditions. but in the name of the will of the people. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. each of which throws scores of thousands of workers on the streets. to accept feudal obligations. the system can be overturned and replaced with something much better.38 Anyone who talks about 'social partnership'. It is on this front that the fight for a new society will be won or lost. 1990). MacSimóin. If we can reclaim that aspect of our lives. it is the exploitation of our labor that is fundamental to the system. 1906. RACISM. What rights we have and gains we have made have been the result of long and often bitter struggles. — DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS ARE JUST AS OPPRESSIVE AS ANY MONARCHY. Peter. But if the forms have changed. Hence the constant fluctuations of trade. cuts in public spending. and he must accept. the same bureaucracy does exactly the same thing. In times of recession. p. Statism and Anarchy The essential difference between a monarchy and a democratic republic is reduced to the following: In a monarchy. Everything has become private property. Its only aim is to increase the gains of the speculator. or die of hunger. they try to make workers pay through job losses. Workers’ Solidarity.Capitalism Is As Bad As Feudalism /Monarchy — CAPITALISM IS AS BARBARIC AS FEUDALISM. productivity deals. 1870. Kropotkin. in a republic. the relations have remained the same. Hierarchy Hurts Workers — CAPITALISM NEVER HELPS WORKERS – IT LEADS TO SEXISM. race and sex to name but two. AND EXPLOITATION. We called those barbarous times. Although capitalism oppresses people on many different levels. about labor and capital working together for the benefit of all is talking nonsense. the bureaucratic world oppresses and plunders the people for the greater benefit of the privileged propertied classes as well as for its own benefit. The bosses only give such rights and concessions as they are forced to. Alan.
— THE WAGE SYSTEM DENIES WORKERS THE NECESSITIES OF LIFE. Remaking Society. has always proved an impossibility. States will exist and since every State regards itself as absolute. oppression. repeatedly attempted. injustice – all these brought together as a system are the main condition of present-day society. Peter. and now. 1990). and proclaims the adoration of its power as the highest law.” Beyond the capitalist system there are no further “turning points in history. to which all other laws must be subordinated. as well as the forcible disruption of the common solidarity of mankind (externally). reform it. . Every State must conquer. but the manufactured articles of which he stands in immediate need. it therefore follows that as long as States exist wars cannot cease. Kropotkin. spades. president of Goddard College. its existence. Its only morality and justice is its own interest. and before its interest.84 We must offer to the peasant in exchange for his toil not worthless paper-money. The State is the negation of Humanity. militarism. ploughs. exploitation. constitutes the point of absolute negativity for society and the natural world. clothes to protect him properly from the inclemencies of the weather. Bookchin.94 Indeed. — CAPITALISM IS THE SOURCE OF ALL OF OUR SOCIAL EVILS AND EXPLOITATION. or be conquered. under present conditions. implies force. p. capitalism completely incarnates Bakunin’s notion of “evil” without the qualification that it is “socially necessary. growth for the sake of growth – that has afflicted “civilization” and tainted all its great advances. and never can have. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. One cannot improve this social order. lamps and oil to replace his miserable rushlight or tallow dip. because he has no money to buy them. but because. Governments Exploit — GOVERNMENT IS THE “NEGATION OF HUMANITY” – THE OPPOSITE OF FREEDOM AND JUSTICE AND THE CAUSE OF WAR. the peasant is forced to do without. and its omnipotence at any price. 1990. The German Crisis Whosoever mentions the State. All these things. class exploitation. p. 1906.The Universal State. Capitalism. It is this in two ways: the opposite of human freedom and human justice (internally).” Capitalism marks the end of the road for a long social development in which evil permeated the good and irrationality permeated the rational. a morality. so that as long as the State exists. Michael.” The only choice one has is to destroy it. and statism to avarice. a thousand useful things are beyond his reach. for it embodies every social disease – from patriarchal values. Murray. all interest of humanity must stand in the back-ground. or remake it on its own terms with an ecological prefix such as “eco-capitalism. Bakunin. The State has never had. rakes. in effect. in his life of struggle and privation. He lacks the proper implements to till the land. not because he does not feel the need for them. 1870.
. p. a professor of political science. and. p. The only obligation which I have a right to assume is to do at any time what I think right. men had to be sufficiently destitute to consent to sell their labour. which makes it very steep marching indeed. Kropotkin. Civil Disobedience It is not desirable to cultivate a respect for the law. powdermonkeys. against their wills. ay. They have no doubt that it is a damnable business in which they are concerned. It was poverty that made capitalists. Carter. And if the number of then poor increased so rapidly during the Middle Ages. corporal. of which we hear so much. 1849.172 Poverty. and taught them to proclaim the principle of wages. These two causes tore asunder the bonds that kept men together in the agrarian and urban communities. The Political Theory of Anarchism. privates. fraud. April. because. 1906. at the service of some unscrupulous man in power. colonel. DESTROYING SOCIETY. was the primary cause of wealth. captain. and to the increase of riches resulting from the exploitation of the East. sympathy. against their common sense and consciences. force. and all. what are they? Men at all? Or small movable forts and magazines. while the State incorporates all the bad aspects of social interaction – coercion. Peter. marching in admirable order over hill and dale to the wars. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. by means of their respect to it. society becomes the opposite of the State. It was poverty that created the first capitalist. that you may see a file of soldiers. Governments Exploit/Coerce — GOVERNMENTS CANNOT AVOID POVERTY AND EXPLOITATION. A common and natural result of an undue respect for law is. it was due to the invasions and wars that followed the founding of States. Society is the repository of all the good aspects of social life and organization – co-operation. and politics tends to be seen as the arena of force. Now. — GOVERNMENTS COERCE AND DOMINATE. and spontaneity.25 But for anarchists and many socialists. Henry David. but a corporation of conscientious men is a corporation with a conscience. and produces a palpitation of the heart. It is truly enough said. and trickery. affection. that a corporation has no conscience. instead of the solidarity they formerly practised in their tribal life. so dear to the exploiters. Law never made men a whit more just. they are all peaceably inclined.— GOVERNMENTS DO NOT FOSTER JUSTICE – THEY DEHUMANIZINGLY COERCE. initiative. and domination. so much as for the right. Thoreau. even the well-disposed are daily made agents of injustice. so as not to die of hunger. before accumulating “surplus value”. The state is an incubus upon society – a distorting factor. we have said elsewhere. 1990). 1971.
just. and freer if he is not in fear for his life. All States are bad in that sense. the prophets are bound to be among the divergent and intractable. intellectual or moral. his senses. because it is just this nature that constitutes the State. Let us see who is the strongest. morality. and liberty. Yet it is not in the name of the social welfare that the anarchist primarily pleads his cause. developments. is the chief of all political goods. p. It must help itself. p. by their principle. are the opponents of human liberty. . then no sacrifice of it for any other good can be other than a bad bargain. and the more the use of these powers is restricted. I do not hear of men being forced to live this way or that by masses of men. 1970. I was not born to be forced. They force me to become like themselves. It is in the name of the individual’s own destiny and right. and therefore most priceless. The German Crisis To strive for international justice. I will breathe after my own fashion. “Your money or your life. April. Though not every divergent genius is a prophet. do as I do. and justice.323 There are well-known difficulties in defining freedom. Bakunin. If liberty is the chief political good. a professor at Somerville. What force has a multitude? They can only force me who obey a higher law than I. look to the total abolition of the organs of state violence. by their very foundation and the highest ideal of their existence. Thoreau. instead of looking to the rule of law to maximize personal freedom.— WE MUST NOT BE COERCED BY GOVERNMENTS – THEY DON’T WORK FOR THE GOOD OF THE PEOPLE. Society stands to lose by every diminution of general freedom. Michael. for it runs the risk of checking its most original. William. Civil Disobedience Thus the State never intentionally confronts a man’s sense. and States cannot change their nature without ceasing to exist. in the anarchist’s ideal. It thus follows that there cannot be a good. Thus freedom in general increases the more the powers of violence wielded by the state against the individual are restricted. 1978. but only his body. 1849. Anarchism. What sort of life were that to live? When I meet a government which says to me.” why should I be in haste to give it my money? It may be in a great strait. and at the same time to uphold the State.120 First of them is the restriction of liberty. — ULTIMATE FREEDOM CAN BE ATTAINED ONLY WHEN THE STATE IS DESTROYED. that they. of Harvard. Anarchists. It is impossible to alter the nature of the State. liberty. Hocking. It is not armed with superior wit or honesty. 1870. Nomos XIX: Anarchism. Governments Kill Liberty — GOVERNMENTS ARE INHERENTLY VIOLENT AND OPPRESSING. Henry David. and not know what to do: I cannot help that. and perpetual peace. but it is reasonable to start from the basic assumption that an individual’s freedom depends on the absence of immediate and hurtful physical constraints and of extreme sanctions: an individual is freer out of jail than in it. Carter. — GOVERNMENTS UNNECESSARILY DESTROY LIBERTY AND FREEDOM. freer without the constant threat of arrest and torture. virtuous State. by their nature. but with superior physical strength. is contradictory and naive.
Letters To A Frenchman Collectivism can be imposed only upon slaves – and then collectivism becomes the negation of humanity. Such command no more respect than men of straw or a lump of dirt. Civil Disobedience The mass of men serve the state thus. 1849. In most cases there is no free exercise whatever of the judgement or of the moral sense. a linguist and policy analyst. it takes on a somewhat more ideal form and becomes somewhat ennobled. and the militia. which springs forth freely and necessarily when the conditions of privileged individualism . Thoreau. posse comitatus. as God. — CAPITALISM TYRANNICALLY CONTROLS. though they consider it just fine for the general population. OR A CONTROLLING SOCIAL STRUCTURE – IS THE DEVIL OF HISTORY. by force of circumstances: not by imposing it from above. contrary to much illusion. Among a free people collectivism can come about only in the natural course of things. Under the influence of the mental development of man. operating in close co-operation with powerful states that intervene massively in the domestic economy and international society. Bakunin. with their bodies. but they put themselves on a level with wood and earth and stones.blackened. and office-holders – serve the state chiefly with their heads. but as machines. it extends its scope and intensifies the power of its action. They are the standing army. Chomsky. as they rarely make any moral distinctions. not as men mainly. They have the same sort of worth only as horses and dogs. and it becomes even more so when. but by a spontaneous movement from below.net/revolt/rbr/noamrbr2. with the application of science. altogether bestial. and wooden men can perhaps be manufactured that will serve the purpose as well. and. jailors. lawyers. ministers. 1870. it is this power principle. with huge and largely unaccountable private tyrannies exercising vast control over the economy. is a carnivorous. CAUSING EVIL. But in its essence it remains just as baneful. without intending it. interview with Kevin Doyle. The rich and privileged are no more willing to face market discipline than they have been in the past.html What is called 'capitalism' is basically a system of corporate mercantilism. politicians. presenting itself as the instrument of reason and the devoted servant of that abstraction. they are as likely to serve the Devil. Yet such as these even are commonly esteemed good citizens. in its primitive essence. or political fiction. Protestation of the Alliance The instinct to command others. That is dramatically true of the United States. and social and cultural life. constables. political systems. and savage instinct. which is called the public good. Bakunin. — TRULY HUMAN COMMUNITIES CANNOT DEVELOP UNDER GOVERNMENTS. etc.Governments Kill Liberty — GOVERNMENT. 1995. Mikhail. http://flag. Noam. Governments Kill Humanity — GOVERNMENTS MECHANIZE HUMANS. Mikhail. If there is a devil in history. Henry David. Others – as most legislators.
crime. pestilence. urban collapse and unexpected deaths caused by ever more hazardous industries and energy use. the refugees. 1970. Much of the price of all this is paid by the already unprotected. "The individual is nothing. — GOVERNMENTS ARE HIDEOUS MONSTERS WHICH CONSUME HUMANITY. In defense of Anarchism The defining mark of the state is authority. he will deny that he has a duty to obey the laws of the state simply because they are the laws. that there can be no resolution of the conflict between the autonomy of the individual and the putative authority of the state. — GOVERNMENTS ARE OPPOSED TO THE BASIC HUMAN VALUES. a professor at the University of Massachusetts. What would he have called the hideous beast in the garb of modern dictatorship? Not that government had ever allowed much scope to the individual. and the State Friedrich Nietzsche called the State a cold monster. of the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies. the insecure and vulnerable. then. Alternatives. the poor. Robert Paul. women and children. It would seem. Rajni. April 1997.– State politics. That is to say. it is a global order built on the social erosion of diverse civil societies and shunting to the margins of existence ideas of individual freedom and primary bonds. THREATENING Kothari. the codes of civil and criminal law. Wolff." they declare. and free-trade in guns and bombs. The Individual. a caste or a tribal ancestry. the right to rule. Goldman. of the pride and dignity that comes from belonging to a clan or a community. indeed is producing. growing trade in juvenile and gender-based populations. If it is a global order that is being envisaged. the juridical family and inheritance rights – have been swept away by the Revolution. producing destruction and annihilation not through wars and military machines but through starvation. Governments Kill Humanity — CAPITALISM HUMANITY. social erosion. . he will resist the state’s claim to have authority over him. drugs. PRODUCES INNUMERABLE SOCIAL ILLS. the minorities. Society. the refusal to be ruled. Insofar as a man fulfills his obligation to make himself the authors of his decisions. "it is the collectivity which counts. Emma. violence. 1940. and the least secure of all. but the champions of the new State ideology do not grant even that much.233 It is a model of global integration built on all-round splintering and polarizing. The primary obligation of man is autonomy. In that sense. and loneliness." Nothing less than the complete surrender of the individual will satisfy the insatiable appetite of the new deity. it would seem that anarchism is the only political doctrine consistent with the virtue of autonomy. This is what capitalist development and the forced urbanization and migration and displacement that are entailed in it will produce. p.
the State has fatally interfered with my lawful business. Thoreau. constitute in themselves the most glaring contradiction in terms. but I had foolishly thought that I might manage to live here. Anthony Burns. perhaps. and I feel that my investment in life here is worth many per cent less since Massachusetts last deliberately sent back an innocent man. on which he had trusted soon to leave Court Street far behind. Hocking. or a democratic State. Emma.43 Crime is naught but misdirected energy. Governments Kill Equality — GOVERNMENTS DESTROY EQUALITY WITH BRUTAL DOMINATION. minding my private affairs. Anarchism (1970). Goldman. as it exists today. predominance. and the disaffection from rulers extends to the law behind them. I dwelt before.121 For however worthy of obedience the law may be. Henry David. The site of that political organization called Massachusetts is to me morally covered with volcanic scoriae and cinders. and there is no State. 1854. Law which allies itself with force begets lawlessness. It has not only interrupted me in my passage through Court Street on errands of trade. economic.. but never do away with crime. Bakunin. but now I cannot persuade myself that I do not dwell wholly within hell. Mikhail. so long as most people are out of place doing the things they hate to do. What right had it to remind me of Court Street? I have found that hollow which even I had relied on for solid. There is an element of arrogance in their wielding of principles more sacred than themselves. the fearful struggle the human soul must pass on its way to crime and degradation? — GOVERNMENTS ARE THE CAUSE OF CRIME. So long as every institution of today. I feel curious to see it. the poverty. to some extent. For my part. and forget it. and moral. The State. What does society. social. know of the process of despair. and all the laws on the statutes can only increase. crime will be inevitable. living a life they loathe to live. political. to slavery. World Revolutionary Alliance of Social Democracy Equality of political rights. but it has interrupted me and every man on his onward and upward path. Where all rule. and if they insist on being inseparable from the law. or political right. William. I feel that. denotes force. 1870. Anarchism.— THE INJUSTICE OF LAWS AND GOVERNMENT TURN OUR LIVES INTO A DELUSIONAL HELL. in the illusion that my life passed somewhere only between heaven and hell. p. authority. .. the horrors. seduced by force-using. the ruled. of Harvard. it presupposes inequality in fact. . I had never respected the government near to which I lived. If there is any hell more unprincipled than our rulers. Governments Cause Crime — GOVERNMENT-CAUSED SOCIAL HIERARCHY LEADS TO CRIME. seldom are. the resentment due to them will not be withheld because it strikes the law also. 1970. 1940. there are no more ruled. and we. conspires to misdirect human energy into wrong channels. p. governments. my old and worthiest pursuits have lost I cannot say how much of their attraction. Slavery In Massachuesetts At last it occurred to me that what I had lost was a country. such as Milton describes in the infernal regions.
It is a propertied society that concentrates economic power in corporate elites. the state mediates between individuals. The Possibility of Cooperation. .31 Second. as long as domination organizes humanity around a system of elites. It is a bureaucratic and militaristic society that concentrates political and military power in centralized state institutions. the project of dominating nature will remain a predominant ideology and inevitably lead our planet to the brink. The Futility of Reformism. Samuel. courts.123 Our present society has a definite hierarchical character. even where the disputes and the publics for which the goods are to be provided. Reflecting On Nature (ed. Gruen and Jamieson). they come to deal with each other through the courts.168 Men who live for long under government and its bureaucracy. instead of arranging these things for themselves. p. wars will continue to be fought over private property and related issues when diplomacy and negotiations fail. Murray. Capitalism Causes Nuclear Extermination — CAPITALISM CAUSES WARS AND RISKS NUCLEAR EXTERMINATION. or will they be interrupted by a worldwide nuclear disaster? Hierarchy Kills Nature — HIERARCHY RISKS ECOLOGICAL EXTINCTIONS. 1994. Given a society organized as a gigantic market place. 1984. They find it easier to use the state for the settlement of their disputes and for the provision of public goods. p. As long as hierarchy persists. Leight. through the tax collector. Taylor. In this way. While it is theoretically possible that a hierarchical society can biologically sustain itself. and the bureaucracies which spend the taxes. are quite local. Michael. at least for a time. The big question is: will the “small” wars continue on daily basis. president of Goddard College. a professor at the University of Washington. come to rely upon them. and police. a professor at the University of Arizona. as they have for decades. the cause of war is inherent in capitalism – this is a chronic condition that is both irremovable and incurable as long as the system survives. Bookchin. And it is a racist society that places a minority of whites in a self-deceptive sovereignty over a vast worldwide majority of peoples of color. through draconian environmentalist controls. it is absolutely inconceivable that present-day hierarchical and particularly capitalist society could establish a non-domineering and ethnically symbiotic relationship between itself and the natural world. 1987. if not into the abyss. p. It is a patriarchal society that allocates authority to men in varying degrees.Governments Kill Independence — GOVERNMENT ACTION CREATES COMPLETE DEPENDENCY. of ecological extinction.
— CAPITALISM KILLS BEAUTY.6 The ecological crisis is defined by the brutal fact that the normal course of social production inexorably destroys the natural basis of society.12 Wherever capital has its way. waterways polluted. AND THE HUMAN SPECIES. In nearly every region. November 1997. and the fruits of billions of years of evolution are transformed into cash. of women by men. p. intoxication by pollutants. — OPPRESSION OF HUMANS MUST CEASE BEFORE WE CAN STOP OPPRESSION OF NATURE. as for many centuries in the past. Remaking Society. Gruen and Jamieson). but its message is clear and harrowing: survival depends upon coming to grips with what is wrong at the mainspring of our civilization. Coastal areas and even the depths of the sea are not immune to widespread pollution. and consciousness are broken down through the intrusion of the commodity form. whether in Western corporate or Eastern bureaucratic forms. the list can be extended. depletion of soils and groundwater. Murray. Quality is replaced by quantity. 1994. Reflecting On Nature (ed. president of Goddard College. The Monthly Review. . More significantly in the long run. Bookchin. is fundamentally destructive. and wildlife destroyed. differentiation and balance are replaced by brutal expansion. The Monthly Review. cultural achievements. Joel Kovel.124 Capitalist society. the ecological principles that underlie the emergence and flowering of life. And as ecosystem damage grows and interacts upon itself. p. the survivability of the species is itself thrown into doubt. and innate creativity for its own benefit and for that of the natural world. disease. species loss. Now this function is breaking down in a proliferating and incalculable way across multiple ecosystems. Bookchin.— HIERARCHY IS INHERENTLY DESTRUCTIVE TO ALL LIFE. the land desiccated. upon which all living things depend for the maintenance and renewal of life. air is being befouled. November 1997. 1990. all ecological problems will have their roots in social problems.39 Whatever has turned human beings into “aliens” in nature are social changes that have made many human beings “aliens” in their own social world: the domination of the young by the old. p. almost systematically. Climate change. Until as recently as the 1960s nature was able to buffer the effects of production. p. Hierarchy Kills Nature — THE CAPITALIST-BASED ECOLOGICAL CRISIS THREATENS SURVIVAL. Murray. there are still oppressive human beings who literally own society and others who are owned by it. beauty. Joel Kovel. basic biological cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle.. technological innovations. THE EXISTENCE OF NATURE. Today.. Until society can be reclaimed by an undivided humanity that will use its collective wisdom. and of men by men. The power of this society to destroy has reached a scale unprecedented in the history of humanity – and this power is being used. scientific knowledge. to wreak havoc upon the entire world of life and its material bases. soil washed away. are being distorted to the point of irreversible damage. president of Goddard College.
and they are many and weighty.Bakunin in 1870: Government-free society would help everyone. but most governments are usually. Kropotkin. The Monthly Review. Development or industrialization. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. Thoreau. in which capitalist corporations. rather than exploiting the labor of others. Joel Kovel. Henry David. Governments Don’t Represent the People — GOVERNMENTS FAIL TO REPRESENT THE WILL OF THE PEOPLE. 1848. – “That government is best which governs least. and deserve to prevail. and so becomes the efficient cause of the crisis. which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will. 3) We must not allow a minority of the people to benefit from the suffering of the majority. and who work badly because their brains remain inactive. inexpedient.7 It is capital that conditions and drives separate determinations in an ecologically destructive way.182 We know the consequences of the division of labour full well. 2) CLASSISM CRIPPLES BOTH THE RICH AND THE POOR. Peter. 1990). first of all. It is evident that. Civil Disobedience I heartily accept the motto. AT: Anarchy Would Harm the Wealthy 1) Extend. The objections which have been brought against a standing army. 1906. Carried out. Government is at best but an expedient. that will be the kind of government which they will have. even psychologies and character structure. 4) Today’s upper-class could continue to live excellent lives – they would just have to work for it.” and when men are prepared for it. .” and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidly and systematically. The government itself. But development or industrialization under capitalist aegis. November 1997. have the privilege of thinking for the others. all interact. who consume very little and are exempt from thinking because they only do physical work. it finally amounts to this. may also be brought up against a standing government. – “That government is best which governs not at all. as such. the consumers. p. is an empty construct. and on the other hand. who. and who think badly because the whole world of those who toil with their hands is unknown to them. producers. is what destabilizes ecosystems all over the planet. lifestyles. we are divided into two classes: on the one hand. and all governments are sometimes.— CAPITALISM DRIVES ALL FORCES WHICH DESTROY NATURE. which also I believe. is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it. markets. p. producing little or hardly anything.
Peter. views. Michael. most are summed up in the notion that the State. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. no matter how constituted. AT: Humans Are Naturally Competitive /No Cooperation 1) THE IDEA THAT IT IS HUMAN NATURE TO STRIVE FOR POWER IS FLAWED AND SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED. that absolute chaos would come about if authority were overthrown during a revolution. 3) HUMANS COOPERATE TODAY WITHOUT GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION. p. 1970. legislation and magistracy everywhere. The new society would teach different ideals. and serves society as it sees. Hoffman. national communes. without any intervention of the law. “ain’t necessarily so!” We may feel that incentives and rewards are necessary to sustain an efficient level of work. imposing its will on a largely helpless and often resentful population. a professor of history. and societies. Robert. the Church. Only thus can be evolved the true vital order of liberty and happiness for all. is alien from most or all of the society it governs. 4) This is an utterly pessimistic view of humanity. through the free federation and union of the workers into groups. Rather than expressing and enacting the needs and wishes of society’s members.— GOVERNMENTS OPPRESSIVELY IGNORE THE NEEDS OF SOCIETY. 2) People compete now because they have been taught to do so. and the goals peculiar to itself. 1990). Kropotkin.72 What most of us take to be “natural”. A FREE SOCIETY CAN ONLY BE CONSTRUCTED FROM THE BOTTOM UP. Anarchism. there’s no reason for wanting to live. the order which is not opposed to the interests of the individual or of society. which will unite again into districts. Were we to live in a culture where cooperation and not competition were the norm our conception of human nature might be fundamentally different. And with our eyes shut we pass by thousands and thousands of human groupings which form themselves freely.129 Accustomed as we are by hereditary prejudices and our unsound education and training to represent ourselves the beneficial hand of Government. Keith. but is instead an institution with needs. Dixon. we have come to believe that man would tear his fellow-man to pieces like a wild beast the day the police took his eye off him. But these assumptions may be socially derived. It can not be the embodiment of the citizenry. The Commune. 1906. the State has a life of its own. p. unions. that men will necessarily strive for power and status and that human wants are limitless. and attain results infinitely superior to those achieved under governmental tutelage. and prevailing over it only through compulsion. p. and the State he organization of the society of the future must and can be accomplished only from the bottom upwards. of Simon Fraser University. . Bakunin. communes. Freedom and Equality. If you believe that people can never work together. and finally form a great international federation. but on the contrary strengthens the same and brings them into harmony. 1986.8 The reasons for this conviction are many.
Kropotkin in 1880: Hierarchy is inherently destructive. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. 6) The affirmative team insists that cooperation is impossible. a professor at the University of Arizona. yet you can see multiple examples of it in this debate round. first. All four debaters have agreed to work alongside their partners and you have agreed to judge the round. the moment we consider human history more attentively. . Samuel. it was not from within. Kropotkin.. it loses its strength. in their village communities. and yet it has never been realized. for many hundreds of years. one of the main elements of Socialism – the common ownership of the chief instrument of production. These are the breeding grounds for dictatorial regimes. p. the early Christians joined in communist groups. by the governments which created a land monopoly in favor of the nobility and the middle classes. Schemes of ideal States haunted the thinkers of Ancient Greece. and the appointment of the same according to the labor capacities of the different families. this objection seems very serious. We see.. At first sight. 1984. 1990). that hundreds of millions of men have succeeded in maintaining amongst themselves.AT: Humans Are Naturally Competitive /No Cooperation 5) COMMUNALISM WORKED UNTIL IT WAS CRUSHED BY THE INEQUITIES OF GOVERNMENTS. However. generally of an equal or greater magnitude. We need a completely new system. large communist brotherhoods came into existence during the Reform movement. the danger of such activity lies in the inevitable apathy and disillusionment that arises in the aftermath. AT: We Can Reform the System 1) CAPITALISM CAUSES MERE REFORMS TO INTENSIFY PROBLEMS AND CREATE DICTATORSHIPS. centuries later. Leight. Even when certain problems get resolved they are replaced with new ones. 2) Extend. p. but from without. 1913.6 Reforms never live up to their expectations because the very nature of capitalism invariably sabotages the performance of the reformers. and we learn that if the communal possession of the land has been destroyed in Western Europe. . Peter. the land. The Futility of Reformism.17 One of the current objections to Communism and Socialism altogether. later on. is that the idea is so old. Apart from the wasted energy and time that reformism engenders.
We have to try something new. Why do they not dissolve it themselves. Civil Disobedience The broadest and most prevalent error requires the most disinterested virtue to sustain it. while they disapprove of the character and measures of a government. most urgent. Samuel. confusions and purposeful misrepresentations that have so drastically hampered the presentation of the socialist case. – and refuse to pay their quota into its treasury? 4) CAPITALISM DESTABILIZES NATURE IN WAYS THAT CANNOT BE CURED BY MERE REFORMS. Thoreau. November 1997. and as long as it extends itself it tends to destabilize ecologies by degrading the conditions of production in the hunt for surplus value. Some are petitioning the state to dissolve the Union. Joel Kovel. Thus the regime of capital leads inexorably to an ecological crisis that cannot be resolved within the terms of capital. – the union between themselves and the state. yield to it their allegiance and support are undoubtedly its most conscientious supporters. p. Those who. Henry David. We are always being advised that socialism is for the distant future and that “immediate” needs must receive attention. to disregard the requisitions of the President. For as long as capitalism endures. The Monthly Review. immediate need of the working class is the establishment of socialism within the shortest possible time. and so frequently the most serious obstacles to reform. AT: We Can Reform the System 6) WE MUST HAVE COMMUNAL LIVING NOW – MERE REFORMS ONLY HINDERS THE PROCESS. the actual. it tends to reign. Leight. The slight reproach to which the virtue of patriotism is commonly liable. .3) IT’S COUNTERPRODUCTIVE TO DEMAND REFORM FROM THE GOVERNMENT – INDIVIDUALS MUST ACT AGAINST OPPRESSION. concrete limits of nature will continue to be brushed aside. 1984. 1849.10 So long as the money nexus is the expression of capital. Quite the contrary – the highest.3 The deluge of propaganda surrounding the reformist administration of capitalism produces the distractions. the noble are most likely to incur. and as long as it reigns it extends itself. a professor at the University of Arizona. 5) Reform-based policy has been tried since the birth of hierarchy and hasn’t worked yet. p. The Futility of Reformism.
cannot be compared favorably with the social benefits of a classless society in socialism which will convey to all common ownership rights to the means of production and distribution. p. In a totally-free society like ours. and in many things even those who neither know nor can do so well. such as we know it. The Futility of Reformism. is a progress toward a true respect for the individual. Thoreau. irrespective of wage levels. Is a democracy. Leight. should justifiably be rejected when compared to free access to all goods and services for all human beings. past and present.” 2) By destroying hierarchy. It would just stop the privileged from exploiting others. a professor at the University of Arizona. 3) What the affirmative team sees as oppression. – is still an impure one: to be strictly just. 3) THE ADVANTAGES OF CAPITALISM ARE NOTHING COMPARED TO THOSE OF HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY. Attempting to make the working class “better off” is no match for the advantages of socialism. AT: Anarchy Oppresses the Rich 1) A government-free society would not eliminate any rights.AT: Some Are Oppressed For the Good of the Whole 1) ANY GOVERNMENT OPPRESSION IS WRONG – WE MUST ADVANCE TO THE NEXT STAGE OF FREEDOM.2 Life for the working class under capitalism. The progress from an absolute to a limited monarchy. and democratic privileges that no reformation of capitalism can ever attain. from a limited monarchy to a limited democracy. it would be impossible for coercion to occur. – for I will cheerfully obey those who know and can do better than I. Henry David. even such as I am willing to submit to. the last improvement possible in government? Is it not possible to take a step further towards recognizing and organizing the rights of man? 2) Government-free society would allow everyone to be happy while oppressing none. Even the Chinese philosopher was wise enough to regard the individual as the basis of the empire. we abolish the source of all oppression. We must not sacrifice any more lives. 1984. Samuel. . It can have no pure right over my person and property but what I concede to it. Their view is comparable to saying that abolition of slavery oppressed slave owners are taking away their property. Civil Disobedience The authority of government. we see as a return of rights to the disadvantaged. it must have the sanction and consent of the governed. 1849. 4) Exploitation is never justified. Exploitation is not a “natural right. and the wages system.
president of Goddard College. Tim. Remaking Society.32 Social life. p. is human society when we try to view it from an ecological perspective? A “Curse?” An unmitigated “blessing?” A “Device” for coping with material needs? Or.189 This claim was already forcefully advanced in Murray Bookchin’s seminal writings of the 1960s which argue that ecological and anarchist principles are mutually reinforcing. Murray. would then be rationally integrated with first nature as a self-conscious dimension of a new. Murray. creative. Ecological Thought. of the University of Glasmorgan. — DEPRIVATIZATION IS ESSENTIAL FOR HUMAN AND ECOLOGICAL SURVIVAL. p. p. 1995. and “deep ecology” at one extreme. rooted in the still-unfinished Enlightenment.” Malthusianism.17 I submit that we must go beyond the superficial layer of ideas created by “biocentricity. after all. dare I say. a product of natural evolution as well as culture that not only meets a wide variety of human needs. What. Re-Enchanting Humanity. far from being divided from or placed in opposition to the natural world. but. Bookchin. 1990.” “antihumanism.Hierarchy-Free Society Saves Nature — HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY WOULD HARMONIZE HUMANS AND NATURE AND FOSTER BEAUTY. — AN END TO HIERARCHY WOULD BRING HUMANITY INTO PEACE WITH NATURE AND ITSELF. decentralization is therefore not only desirable but even necessary for human survival. These goals. and the belief in growth. constitute a vision and passion that takes full note of humanity’s singularity and potential ability to ultimately create ecosocial institutions – institutions that will bring human beings into harmony with one another and humanity into harmony with the natural world. Bookchin believes there is not hierarchy in nature and that a society free of hierarchy is a precondition for putting ecological principles into practice. can play a major role in fostering the evolution of life on the planet. richly differentiated. 1994. and meaningful whole. competition. potentially at least. . human “supremacy.” and social power at the other extreme. Bookchin. president of Goddard College. We must look at the social factors that have created both of these extremes in their many different forms and answer key questions about the human condition if we are to harmonize humanity’s relationship with nature. Hayward.
and especially of artistic creation. that the social revolution must guarantee daily bread for all. Kropotkin. the needs which we consider luxuries today will be more keenly felt. so that the collective interests of men may gain from it the greatest good for all. 1990). the worker’s child must go without bread! But in a society in which all have the necessary food and shelter. arable lands. Peter. could hardly win a few bushels of wheat from an acre of land. with a little iron and a few sacks of coal. for all his pains. leisure is the supreme aim. to satisfy it. p. when hundreds and thousands of human beings are in need of bread. plenty for all is not a dream – though it was a dream indeed in those days when man. in order to give leisure and the possibility of developing everyone’s intellectual capacities. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. painfully won. Anarchy Gives “Plenty For All” . 1906. of art. is reduced to ignore the higher delights. clothing. and had to fashion by hand all the implements he used in agriculture and industry. for the monopolist to dispose of at his pleasure. gives him mastery of a creature strong and docile as a horse. and especially of scientific discovery. the highest within man’s reach.108 We see that the worker. education – must cease to be regarded as private property. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. This rich endowment. expropriation – the means. and shelter. p. highways. Now it is no longer a dream. Peter. The well-being of all – the end. pastures. must become common property. fashioned.38 No. 1990). or invented by our ancestors. — HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY WOULD PROVIDE EVERYONE WITH BOTH FOOD AND LUXURIES. luxury is a crime. But if plenty for all is to become a reality. No doubt. There must be expropriation. Kropotkin. factories. nowadays. It is in order to obtain for all of us joys that are now reserved to a few. houses. because man has invented a motor which. builded. this immense capital – cities. After bread has been secured. coal. of science. compelled to struggle painfully for bare existence. 1906. and capable of setting the most complicated machinery in motion.Anarchy Gives “Plenty For All” — HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY WOULD PROVIDE PLENTY FOR ALL.
liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. as Proudhon said. 1906. Then work will no longer appear a curse of fate: it will become what it should be – the free exercise of all the faculties of man. 1940. that we have never quenched. we feel surprised at their perseverance. scientific and artistic creation. expansion. like machines blindly obeying an impetus given. poverty. for happiness.173 For the day on which old institutions will fall under the proletarian axe. above all. will be part of a humanity rich in all the treasures of a bountiful nature. shelter. can this depressing work have for the worker. really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion. alone can teach us the real dominant factors of human nature and all its wonderful possibilities. an order that will guarantee to every human being free access of the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life. according to individual desires. AND JOY. Peter. we will set to work to demolish the last vestiges of middleclass rule: its ‘mine and yours’ institutions. Anarchy Frees — HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETIES PROMOTE LIBERTY. and inclinations. or at least their children. voices will cry out: “Bread. p. p. that we want the Social Revolution. It is precisely to put an end to this separation between manual and brain work that we want to abolish wagedom. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. INDIVIDUAL AUTONOMY AND Goldman. Anarchism (1970). Anarchism. and we shall build in the name of Communism and Anarchy. GIVING THEM THE LUXURIES OF HUMANITY. Emma. opportunity. Kropotkin. the people will say: “Let us begin by allaying our thirst for life. without foreseeing ever so vaguely that some day they. at their zeal for work. Peter. and insecurity of the morrow? Therefore. 1906. the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property. LIBERTY. . ease for all!” And those voices will be listened to. reserved today to a few privileged favourites. Kropotkin. ‘In demolishing we shall build’. p. then. 1990). And when we shall have tasted of this joy. at the habit that enables them. to lead this life of misery without hope for the morrow.148 What interest. tastes. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. for liberty. when we see the immense majority of men take up their wretched task every morning.— ELIMINATION OF HIERARCHY WOULD FREE WORKERS FROM MISERY. and. — A HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY WOULD PRODUCE HAPPINESS. when he knows that the fate awaiting him from the cradle to the grave will be to live in mediocrity. peace and repose.45 Freedom. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth. 1990). in fact. in all the enjoyments of knowledge.
38 Anarchism is the only philosophy which brings man the consciousness of himself. and society are nonexistent. that their promises are null and void. Anarchism (1970). Rule for the people is merely benevolent slavery. Anarchism is therefore the teacher of the unity of life.81 The argument runs thus: men cannot be free so long as they are subject to the will of others. 1906. the State. and which are the true foundation of a normal social life. p. 1990). any more than there is between the heart and the lungs: the one the receptacle of a precious life essence. conserving the essence of social life. and give the very best in him. whatever their party colour. Only in freedom will he realize the true force of the social bonds which knit men together. which maintains that God. Goldman. the individual – pure and strong. . the Revolution will be on the right road.— ANARCHISM ALONE FORWARDS TRUE HUMANITY AND FREEDOM.81 In destroying government and statutory laws. Anarchism (1970). then they can combine the benefits of government with the blessings of freedom. if they are both law-givers and lawobeyers. Emma. the other the repository of the element that keeps the essence pure and strong. 1940. Peter. for in solving the question of Bread we must accept the principle of equality. p. HUMANITY WOULD BE INDEPENDENT AND FREE. — A SOCIETY WITHOUT GOVERNMENT WOULD GRANT THE ONLY TRUE FREEDOM. Only in freedom can man grow to his full stature. p. which will force itself upon us to the exclusion of every other solution. anarchism proposes to rescue the self-respect and independence of the individual from all restraint and invasion by authority. we maintain our contention: bread must be found for the people of the Revolution. 1940. 1976. since they can be fulfilled only through man’s subordination. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. Kropotkin. p. Wolff. If it is settled in the interests of the people. Anarchy Frees — IN A HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY EQUALITY WOULD REIGN. The individual is the heart of society. whether one man or several. There is no conflict between the individual and the social instincts. and clothes to all – an idea extremely displeasing to middle-class citizens. society is the lungs which are distributing the element to keep the life essence – that is. Robert. not merely in nature. Anarchy Grants Independence — WITHOUT GOVERNMENT. Goldman. but rule by the people is true freedom. But if men rule themselves. Only in freedom will he learn to think and move. All the same.69 So Utopian are we that we go the length of believing that the Revolution can and ought to assure shelter. for they are quite alive to the fact that it is not easy to keep the upper hand of a people whose hunger is satisfied. food. In Defense of Anarchism. and the question of bread must take precedence of all other questions. Emma. but in man.
Murray. 2) WE CAN REJECT CAPITALISM AND SAVE OURSELVES. an official Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence has stressed that poverty is the main cause of the crime rate. p. — GOVERNMENT-FREE SOCIETY IS THE BEST ANSWER TO CRIME.Anarchy Solves For Crime — GOVERNMENT-FREE SOCIETY WOULD ELIMINATE CRIME. But it is necessary. The Monthly Review. or have invested in their own guns – a truly Hobbesian picture. p. There are still vestiges of free humanity remaining. of cooperation and criminal tendencies. and urged the need to completely rebuild American cities.40 Where the level of violent crimes is exceptionally high. the anarchist society is one which maximizes the tendencies for the good and the cooperative. 1971. and not to succumb passively to the given situation. a species. Conceiving things this way is scarcely sufficient. in the current balance of forces. and all partial measures and reforms should be taken in the spirit of bringing about capital’s downfall. April. or gangsterism particularly well entrenched. November 1997. the anarchist case for abolishing the police may be most persuasive. These could be expanded. an economist. it seems inconceivable. Rothbard.13 Therefore capitalism must go if we are to survive as a civilization and. Nor does the existence of a police force sufficiently reassure the large number of householders who fear to walk outdoors at night. for example. Therefore the first job must be to conceive it as a possibility.193 I assume with most observers that mankind is a mixture of good and evil. p. Joel Kovel. and there is no essential reason to assume it cannot be un-chosen. then surely abolition of such an engine of crime can do nothing but favor the good in man and discourage the bad. indeed. 1978. In the United States. oppression. All we have to do is convince more people to think like me. indeed. Carter. while it minimizes both the opportunity and the moral legitimacy of the evil and the criminal. mass murder – on a massive scale. AT: Can’t Reject Capitalism 1) We have to at least try to undo our mistakes. in both a moral and a practical sense. 3) I’m rejecting capitalism right now. Nomos XIX: Anarchism. a professor of political science. . it has been the result of choice. The Political Theory of Anarchism. Capital expresses no law of nature. Nothing could seem more daunting than this. In my view. If the anarchist view is correct and the state is indeed the great legalized and socially legitimated channel for all manner of anti-social crime – theft.
wages. 1984.81 If we assume a society of anarchists – a society. and the “market place. Frederic. Robert. exchange. p. freedom will spread. 3) Extend. 5) It has been empirically proven – hierarchy-free communities don’t go to war. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. 4) ONCE PEOPLE HAVE LEARNED ABOUT THEIR FREEDOM. There can be no unemployment. when all men and women are co-owners of the means of production and distribution. There can be no insecurity when all “needs” can be satisfied as the result of “common ownership” and “free access. a professor at the University of Arizona. August 4.” AT: Governments Would Take Over Communes 1) Societies of free individuals would have nothing to offer nations – they would have no marketable goods.Anarchy Solves For War — A HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY WOULD BE IMMUNE TO WAR AND MOST SOCIAL PROBLEMS. 1976. . national boundaries. or armed forces. Wolff. 2) ANARCHIST SOCIETIES COULD DEFEND THEMSELVES. which has achieved a level of moral and intellectual development at which superstitious beliefs in legitimacy of authority have evaporated – then the citizenry would be perfectly capable of choosing freely whether to defend the nation and carry its purpose beyond the national borders. civil rights activist. giving of their abilities in useful work for society as well as for themselves. 1857 Find out just what the people will submit to and you have found out the exact amount of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them. with production and distribution solely for use.S.Bookchin in 1971: Once the U. The Futility of Reformism. Leight.” There can be no war when humanity is united as a whole without states. that is to say. or with both. Douglass. and not for profit. and these will continue until they are resisted with either words or blows. THEY CANNOT BE ENSLAVED. eliminating money. In Defense of Anarchism. The army itself could be run on the basis of voluntary commitments and submission to orders. with free access to all goods and services. Samuel.9 There can be no poverty in a classless society. acts. technologically capable of satisfying the needs of the population. communitizing the possible enemies. p.
The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. a linguist and policy analyst. it follows.html The general intellectual culture. AT: Anarchy Promotes Chaotic Individualism 1) GOVERNMENT-FREE SOCIETIES WOULD BE COMMUNITIES – NOT PLACES FOR CHAOTIC INDIVIDUALISM. Nomos XIX: Anarchism.blackened. very importantly. and so on. bombs. spends infinitely far more energy and intelligence. interview with Kevin Doyle. In this lies the whole secret.33 The degree of liberty or tyranny in any political society is. So people are often surprised when I speak positively of anarchism and identify myself with leading traditions within it. Peter. Civilian-Based Defense. Noam. http://flag. serfdom. not technological means of destruction. Those who have espoused anarchism on individualistic grounds are in error. as you know. disruption. And where a hireling hardly succeeds to produce the bare necessities with difficulty. or wagedom. Social power. and obtains first-class products in a far greater abundance. 1990). McIntosh. however.6) ANARCHIST COMMUNITIES WOULD USE SOCIAL MEANS TO PRESERVE LIBERTY. It is inherently collectivistic. Don. or have rested on weak psychological or sociological grounds.Bakunin in 1870: The new society would not favor individualists. The one feels riveted to misery. the other hopes for ease and luxury in the future. Therefore a society aiming at wellbeing of all. Gene. has always been the most powerful stimulant to work. Sharp. who sees ease and luxury increasing for him and for others in proportion to his efforts. Kropotkin. their ability to resist any efforts to dominate or enslave them. largely a reflection of the relative determination of the subjects to be free. and at the possibility of all enjoying life in all its manifestations. a professor of philosophy.net/revolt/rbr/noamrbr2. and moral needs. which will be infinitely superior and yield far more than work has produced up till now under the goad of slavery.146 Well-being – that is to say. 1906. p. AT: No Incentive To Work In Anarchy 1) PEOPLE IN A FREE SOCIETY WOULD WORK BETTER AND ATTAIN GREATER WELL-BEING. associates “anarchism” with chaos. the satisfaction of physical. of the Albert Einstein Institute. of their willingness and ability to organize themselves to live in freedom and. 4) Turn/ Today’s society is horribly individualist – People are oppressed for the good of exploiters. . is not for the individualist. a free worker. artistic. the basic ideas seem reasonable when the clouds are cleared away.269 Anarchism. 2) Extend. Chomsky. p. 1990. But my impression is that among the general public. will give voluntary work. 3) THE VIEW OF HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY AS “CHAOS” IS FLAWED. 1995. 1978. is the strongest guarantee of human freedom. p. Their views have not been internally coherent. violence.
give him the chance of tilling the soil. by the Russian nobility before the liberation of the serfs? “Without the whip the Negro will not work. who is stifled at his little tapping machine. Stephenson. It was the refrain -of the French noblemen in 1789. 3) PEOPLE ARE ONLY LAZY AND BAD WORKERS BECAUSE HIERARCHY FORCES THEM INTO MISERY. and that there will be no need to manufacture a code of laws on their account. Peter. while he feels he has exuberant energy which he would like to expend elsewhere. Suppress the cause of idleness. And each time the actual facts give it the lie. AT: No Incentive To Work In Anarchy 5) FREEDOM WILL ELIMINATE LAZINESS TO THE EXTENT THAT LAWS WOULD BE UNNECESSARY.156 Somebody has said that dust is matter in the wrong place. while knowing himself to be far the less stupid of the two. 4) Those who refuse to work could be excluded from the community. and knowing his only fault to be that of having been born in a hovel instead of coming into the world in a castle. The majority would not suffer. Kropotkin. and. p. In reading the biography of great men. “Free from their master’s supervision the serfs will Leave the fields uncultivated. a refrain as old as the world. of felling trees in the forest. the refrain of the Middle Ages. for a second time. especially voluntary work. or to drill the eye of a needle. Often. The . Peter. They are people gone astray in a direction that does not answer to their temperament nor to their capacities. by the anti-abolitionists in America before the emancipation of the Negroes. 1906. and you may take it for granted that few individuals will really hate work. p. 1990). which he ends by loathing. too. dashing through space on an engine.144 They fear that without compulsion the masses will not work. Peter. but do not make an idler of him by forcing him all his life to attend to a small machine. we are struck with the number of ‘idlers’ among them. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. The same definition applies to nine tenths of those called lazy. p.” said the anti-abolitionist. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. 1990). Kropotkin. and many others belonged to this category of idlers. 1906.2) This assumes modern society’s tendency toward exploitation which will disappear once hierarchy is removed. 6) LIBERATION OF THE SLAVES AND SERFS PROVES THAT PEOPLE WORK HARDER WITHOUT COERCION.” said the Russian serf-owners. 1990). or the hundredth part of a watch. Very often the idler is but a man to whom it is repugnant to spend all his life making the eighteenth part of a pin. Kropotkin. Darwin. to plough the head of a screw. 1906. But during our own lifetime. he is a rebel who cannot submit to being fixed all his life to a work-bench in order to procure a thousand pleasures for his employer. have we not heard the same fears expressed twice? Once. sailing the seas in the teeth of a storm. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. and we shall hear it every time there is a question of sweeping away injustice. afterwards they became laborious to excess.158 Give the workman who cannot condemn himself to make all his life a minute particle of some object. They were lazy so long as they had not found the right path.
to regional uniqueness and worldwide brotherhood. Anarchy Is Better Than Authoritarianism — WE PROTECT FREEDOM BETTER THAN BUREAUCRATIC SOCIALISTS. has taken up work with an eagerness proportionate to the completeness of his liberation. indeed as sharply opposed. those of political parties. there is too much occasion for corruption by the prerogatives of power and by the methods needed to attain power. the emancipated Negro works more than his fathers. p.78 Anarchism is not only a stateless society but also a harmonized society which exposes man to the stimuli provided by both agrarian and urban life. as they know its motive. Hoffman. contemptuously dismiss anarchists or libertarian socialists as utopians. Representative Democracy Is Oppressive — EVEN REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACIES ARE OPPRESSIVE. In our schizoid society. Falk. representatives and officials act in their own interests. Richard. to the elimination of toil and the promotion of craftsmanship. those in authority are too distant from the bulk of the populace really to know their needs and beliefs. after having honoured the honeymoon of his emancipation by celebrating Fridays as well as Sundays. or worse. they know what it is worth.Friedman in 1989: Any remaining government returns society to statism. and those of privileged minorities with powers far in excess of ordinary people.liberated peasant of 1792 ploughed with an eager energy.65 Bureaucratic socialists. AT: Permute 1) Extend. to spontaneity and selfdiscipline. where the soil is his. a professor of International Law. Murray. to communal solidarity and individual development. Post-Scarcity Anarchism. 1970. There. a professor of History. unknown to his ancestors. he works desperately. to physical activity and mental activity. The anarchist quite properly contends that merely to seize power is to default upon the humanist content of socialism and to create a new form of despotism. to unrepressed sensuality and self-directed spirituality. Instead. Nomos XIX: Anarchism. 1978.12 Anarchists believe that this ideal can not be fulfilled: those to whom the people’s authority is delegated do not and can not act as their constituents require. as reactionaries. . But the anarchist response is more credible than the challenge here presented. p. Even when relatively uncorrupted and impartial. Robert. these goals are regarded as mutually exclusive. 2) HIERARCHY-FREE SOCIETY AND STATISM ARE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE – GOVERNMENTS CANNOT ACCEPT OUR GOALS. 1971. president of Goddard College. p. as to the slaves themselves. The anti-abolitionist refrain can be of value to slave-owners. Anarchism. those who seek to seize state power rather than to decompose it. that is the exact word for it. Anarchists are cynical about the possibilities of officials acting disinterestedly. and the Russian peasant. Bookchin.
David. will not want to negate technology precisely because it is liberated and can strike a balance. AT: Anarchy Would Lead To Primitivism 1) Turn/ A hierarchy-free society would actually find more. and political passage – all responsibilities of other government agencies. 4) Extend. One cannot simply build any imaginable characteristics into a government.134 A liberated society. president of Goddard College. starting with the Bill of Rights that reserved to the states and the people all powers not explicitly delegated to the federal government. p. is left to the community. have a good deal of personal experience. The Machinery of Freedom. better. Murray. and more liberating uses for technology than exist in the status quo. By this I mean the machine will remove toil from the productive process.Bakunin in 1870: Any act of government control is oppressive.146 Would it not be better to have a severely limited government doing those few things which it could do better? Perhaps it would be – if the government stayed that way. funding. governments have their own internal dynamic. I believe. the affirmative team has to prove that our authors are against technology. The permutation would muddle this message and pervert the counterplan’s ideals. p. leaving its artistic completion to man. especially those destined for personal use. 6) HISTORY PROVES THAT LIMITED GOVERNMENTS EXPAND. 1989. 1971. It may well want to assimilate the machine to artistic craftsmanship. The machine. Here we run into the problem discussed in Chapter 4. Bookchin. specifically rely upon advanced technology to reduce drudgery and toil. to produce a Supreme Court willing to rule that growing corn to feed to your own hogs is interstate commerce and can therefore be regulated by Congress. a clear message must be sent to the people that government is wrong. There is no reason why automatic. a professor at the University of Chicago. cybernated machinery cannot be used so that the finishing products. to our sorrow.3) You can’t simply have the affirmative policy standing alone as the sole governance structure. primary authors. Post-Scarcity Anarchism. . in effect. 5) In order for a hierarchy-free society to succeed. 4) Kropotkin and Bookchin. 3) A GOVERNMENT-FREE SOCIETY WOULD EMBRACE TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE HUMANITY AND NATURE. 2) Our counterplan doesn’t say that we reject technology! For this argument to carry any weight. And the internal dynamic of limited governments is something with which we. Friedman. will participate in human creativity. It took about 150 years. It’s solvency requires enforcement.
the room. Delegates to town. We could liberate the entire world and still have small communities by simply shunning cities. can be regarded simply as the walking mandates of the local assemblies. Peter. The civilized man needs a roof. a hearth. Hoffman. and it is right we should consider them public property. Such order is mere appearance. Remaking Society. p. to gain at the expense of others. Robert. a room. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. Kropotkin. “the soil. these are the instruments of production. 1990).5 Thus. and manufactures must be expropriated. called righteous by those able to dominate while making law serve their own interests. however.Laws Bad — LAWS ARE CORRUPT AND FAIL. clothes. president of Goddard College. to establish a distinction. and dwellings – should remain private property. p.64 Some Socialists still seek. 3) With the increase in efficiency of production attained by liberation. and a bed. people are deluded when they suppose that order and justice are created and regulated by law and powerful institutions. Anarchism. But articles of consumption – food. Everything Must Be Deprivatized — ALL MUST BE DEPRIVATIZED – ARTICLES OF CONSUMPTION ARE AS IMPORTANT AS THOSE OF PRODUCTION. But for the worker. and regional bodies. p. behind which actually is the chaos of men struggling to subjugate and hurt each other.175 Nor can populations be so large or the number of assemblies so numerous that they cannot be coordinated in a manner that perpetuates their integrity as face-to-face policy-making bodies. It is true that the bed. 1906. . the mines. properly heated and lighted. a room.” Popular common sense has got the better of this subtle distinction. 2) A LARGE POPULATION WOULD NOT HINDER GOVERNMENT-FREE SOCIETY. the mills. Murray. without other shelter than branches. Bookchin. 1970.” they say. a professor of history. is as much an instrument of production as the tool or the machine. Such justice is a sham. and the house is a home of idleness for the non-producer. “Of course. in the anarchist view. city. It is the place where the nerves and sinews gather strength for the work of the morrow. AT: Anarchy Won’t Work With A Large Population 1) Government-free society would consist of decentralized communities. We are not savages who can live in the woods. 1990. government-free society would be able to deal with large populations better than the status quo.
AT: Unfair To Reward Skilled and Unskilled Labor Equally 1) In modern society. – men of integrity for whom the act is one with the idea.46 The wage system arises out of the individual ownership of the land and the instruments of labor. for whom prison. – these are the lonely sentinels who enter the battle long before the masses are sufficiently roused to raise openly the banner of insurrection and to march. but ever searching for the means to transform them into action. AT: Anarchy Is Utopian 1) Extend.Kropotkin in 1906: All we have to do to destroy hierarchy is to strike at it once. Wage System Will Fall With Capitalism — THE WAGE SYSTEM WILL FALL ALONGSIDE CAPITALISM. 1880. 3) Unskilled labor is no worse than mind work. It would be impossible to give extra bonuses to certain workers. before the spirit of revolt is sufficiently awakened in the masses to express itself in violent demonstrations in the streets or by rebellions and uprisings. 2) In a hierarchy-free society. People who decide to take up skilled labor would do so because they enjoy it. and will perish with it. The common possession of the instruments of labor must necessarily bring with it the enjoyment in common of the fruits of common labor. The Spirit of Revolt (within Le Revolt) When a revolutionary situation arises in a country. The Conquest of Bread (Elephant Edition. not everybody has the opportunity to get a job which requires skills. BRAVE INDIVIDUALS COULD BE ENOUGH TO SPUR SOCIETAL CHANGE. Kropotkin. everyone would have everything they needed. It was the necessary condition for the development of capitalist production. everyone could choose their own job. Kropotkin. It’s only in modern society where people are able to get away with exploiting others that physical jobs are seen as degrading. p. This power can only be used to enslave. Peter. 1990). it is through action that minorities succeed in awakening that feeling of independence and that spirit of audacity without which no revolution can come to a head. an anarchist theorist.--intrepid souls who know that it is necessary to dare in order to succeed. arms in . The wealthy have great advantages that are inherited by their children while poor families suffer eternally. not satisfied with words. 2) THE ACTS OF A FEW. and death are preferable to a life contrary to their principles. Peter. 4) In a free society. 1906. in spite of the attempt to disguise it as “profit-sharing”. 5) The only advantage to getting paid more than others is that you are brought into a position of greater power. exile. Men of courage.
3) We do read recent evidence from Bookchin and Friedman. indeed. the last improvement possible in government? Is it not possible to take a step further towards recognizing and organizing the rights of man? AT: Cards Are Too Old 1) Although our evidence is old. and there is no essential reason to assume it cannot be un-chosen. it has been the result of choice.hand. Joel Kovel. proving that thoughts of a hierarchy-free society still exist. p. even such as I am willing to submit to. it comes from some of most respected thinkers of all time. Civil Disobedience The authority of government. – for I will cheerfully obey those who know and can do better than I. authors. to the conquest of their rights. Is a democracy.13 Therefore capitalism must go if we are to survive as a civilization and. and in many things even those who neither know nor can do so well. 4) WE CAN REJECT HIERARCHY AND SAVE OURSELVES. symbolizing the dominant aspirations. and all partial measures and reforms should be taken in the spirit of bringing about capital’s downfall. The progress from an absolute to a limited monarchy. November 1997. it seems inconceivable. Therefore the first job must be to conceive it as a possibility. it must have the sanction and consent of the governed. – is still an impure one: to be strictly just. We quote some of the founders of the freedom movement – people who actually experienced oppression in Russia and Germany. Even the Chinese philosopher was wise enough to regard the individual as the basis of the empire. Nothing could seem more daunting than this. Henry David. talk. But it is necessary. 5) The affirmative’s evidence is from journalists. an individual or collective act of revolt supervenes. 4) The age of our evidence further proves the fact that hierarchy is always damaging. and professors. and not to succumb passively to the given situation. Conceiving things this way is scarcely sufficient. 2) Issues of slavery and dehumanization don’t change over time. 1849. in both a moral and a practical sense. Oppression is always wrong. The Monthly Review. such as we know it. is a progress toward a true respect for the individual. Capital expresses no law of nature. a species. from a limited monarchy to a limited democracy. It can happen again. . In the midst of discontent. 3) Hierarchy-free societies existed before in ancient Crete and the Middle-ages. indeed. It can have no pure right over my person and property but what I concede to it. 6) WE CAN ADVANCE TO THE NEXT STEP IN SOCIETY TO ATTAIN FREEDOM. theoretical discussions. in the current balance of forces. Thoreau. 5) We have to at least try to move beyond the current system of enslavement.
This is the highest principle I can get out or invent for my neighbors. Why is it not more apt to anticipate and provide for reform? Why does it not cherish its wise minority? Why does it cry and resist before it is hurt? Why does it not encourage its citizens to be on the alert to point out its faults. The fate of the country does not depend on how you vote at the polls – the worst man is as strong as the best at that game. by and by. Henry David. But it is the fault of the government itself that the remedy is worse than the evil. Civil Disobedience Unjust laws exist: shall we be content to obey them. by some Speaker's casting-vote. and obey them until we have succeeded. Thoreau. they may reinstate God. — WE MUST TRANSGRESS UNJUST LAWS. the remedy would be worse than the evil. under such a government as this. 1854. Slavery In Massachuesetts Will mankind never learn that policy is not morality – that it never secures any moral right. but on what kind of man you drop from your chamber into the street every morning. some time or other. that is. perhaps. Slavery In Massachuesetts The amount of it is. if they should resist. This is expediency. but considers merely what is expedient? chooses the available candidate – who is invariably the Devil – and what right have his constituents to be surprised. In morals the only sliders are backsliders. think that they ought to wait until they have persuaded the majority to alter them. 1854." There is no such thing as sliding up hill. 1849. not of policy. if the majority vote the Devil to be God. a downhill one. It makes it worse. These men act as if they believed that they could safely slide down a hill a little way – or a good way – and would surely come to a place. . or shall we transgress them at once? Men generally. Thoreau. or choosing that course which offers the slightest obstacles to the feet. the minority will live and behave accordingly – and obey the successful candidate. Henry David. Henry David. trusting that. They think that. or the decision of the majority. UNJUST HINDRANCES TO HUMANITY WHICH CAN BE Thoreau. it does not depend on what kind of paper you drop into the ballot-box once a year. but of probity – who recognize a higher law than the Constitution. and do better than it would have them? Must act against gov — OBEYING UNJUST LAWS AND GOVERNMENTS IS IMMORAL AND COUNTERPRODUCTIVE.Laws Bad — LAWS ARE TRANSCENDED. But there is no such thing as accomplishing a righteous reform by the use of "expediency. or shall we endeavor to amend them. where they could begin to slide up again. because the Devil does not behave like an angel of light? What is wanted is men.
The slight reproach to which the virtue of patriotism is commonly liable. Civil Disobedience The broadest and most prevalent error requires the most disinterested virtue to sustain it. Henry David. – the union between themselves and the state. and so frequently the most serious obstacles to reform. – and refuse to pay their quota into its treasury? .— IT IS COUNTERPRODUCTIVE TO DEMAND REFORM FROM THE GOVERNMENT – INDIVIDUALS MUST ACT AGAINST OPPRESSION. the noble are most likely to incur. Those who. yield to it their allegiance and support are undoubtedly its most conscientious supporters. Thoreau. Some are petitioning the state to dissolve the Union. to disregard the requisitions of the President. while they disapprove of the character and measures of a government. Why do they not dissolve it themselves. 1849.