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ART OF VERSIFICATION AND TECHNICALITIES OF POETRY

NEW AND REVISED EDITION j£Mnburgb JOHN GRANT 1908 . F. BEEWEE.A. B.ORTHOMETRY - THE ART OF VERSIFICATION AND THE TECHNICALITIES OF POETRY WITH A NEW AND COMPLETE RHYMING DICTIONARY BY E.

.

form that large and increasing number of the youth of both chief this is to The aim of book instruct. and generally with no discussion of principles. are too scholarly for general use.PREFACE Those whose use it is primarily designed. Other works. . again. Although numerous works on Versification have sexes. as far as I am aware. been published of late years. Canons are laid down without adequate illustration. the subject is treated in them. and are. in some cases. . a number of separate authors. and often. such as the student requires and to obtain which he has hitherto had to search through theory. for the most part. devoted to the elaboration of a pet No one work. has yet been issued which embraces full and accurate information respecting the technicalities of poetry and verse-making. by original versemaking. rather than as a complete whole. in fragmentary fashion. to their imitation. for whose cultivated taste leads them to the study of our poets.

them would cease to sift the golden grain ment. In the preparation of this book. and even the expressions. The general public has no conception of the enormous quantity of material of this kind which is sentenced to oblivion every year by the high priests and princes of the Fourth Estate of the Realm. while the student's interest in the subject is stimulated and increased by the intrinsic beauty of the selected examples. Clear and simple exposition. whenever they seemed best suited to the purpose. to avail myself of the views. the various agencies which profess to introduce amateur writers to the notice of editors the chaff. logical arrangement. and therefore I have not scrupled. this common dream of strug- gling into print by clinging to those position compels whose very from to cause bitter disappointIndeed. to impart sound and useful knowledge has been the aim rather than parade originality. and copious illustration have been to used throughout. were fully realised that the only sure passport to success is good work.Vlll PREFACE. Publishers of books and editors of serial literature have just cause of complaint at the onerous labour imposed upon them by the perusal of the mass of poetical composition continually submitted to them. largely on account of the ignorance of the principles of Orthometry displayed If it first by the writers. in some cases. of previous writers on the subject. and publishers can exist only by reason of an .

would doubtless save him a world of disappointment. say. knowledge. It on the part of the public. in this respect. Culture is no longer the privilege of the wealthy. I venture to look forward with expectancy more widespread appreciation of literary excellence in the near future. accustom the beginner untried wings.PREFACE. to the proper use of his feet before trusting himself to As many an amateur Hamlet as his actor has effort. and improving the quality. by diminishIt ing the output. would. aspired to the r61e of of an epic at the maiden so the youthful poet oft dashes into the composition first motive impulse of the Muses. by inducing him to try his 'prentice hand upon a ballad. While it is not given to more than a dozen men in a century to create a poem that will live ages after them. or a sonnet. a rondeau. would tend to minimise this waste of effort. and the relative bearings and soundings of poetic breadth and depth. while the millions who attend our elemen- . at least. such as a careful perusal of a work of this kind affords. pleasing and graceful verses may be produced by anyone who has the requisite taste. ix almost incredible amount of ignorance. and patience. The study of our poets has now happily obtained a footing in the to a A preliminary course of Orthometry curriculum of nearly all our public schools and colleges. Again. can hardly be doubted that a correct knowledge of metrical laws.

clothed in thoughts and to the generous choice language. with I fully this universal acquaintance promising indications of a brighter day. will contribute in no small degree moral and intellectual development of the young democracy. fostered a liking for poetry generally. with noble sentiments. If by this treatise I have assisted. trust and believe that life. Robert D. All but pessimists anticipate the good results of this early upon the young England is tastes and recreative pleasures of the twentieth century. B. this labour of love will not have been in ' ' vain. and enabled those who possess natural gifts for poetical composition to overcome the initial difficulties presented by the technicalities of their art.X PREFACE. in the formation of a truer conception of good verse. . tary schools have suitable poetic passages indelibly impressed upon their training of memory in youth. R. F. The horizon already aglow. even to a slight degree. have now only to express my indebtedness to Mr. Blackman for his many valuable I suggestions embodied in the work. here and there. in early be it ever so superficial.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Poetry and Prose
Kinds of Poetry
(i)

.

.....

MOB
i

6
7
7 8

Lyric Poetry
(a)

The Ode

(3)
(c)

The Ballad
The Hymn and Song The Elegy

8

(d)
(2)
(3)

Epic or Heroic Poetry

....
.

8

9
10 14 14
15 15

Dramatic Poetry
Descriptive Poetry

(4) (5) (6)
(7)

Didactic Poetry

The Sonnet The Epigram

Elementary Parts of English Verse
(1)

.

16 16
17

Sounds
(a)
(6)
(c)

Consonants

Vowels
Diphthongs

17
17

Xll

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PA6B
(2)

Syllables
(a)
(5)

20
'

Accent
Quantity

21

22 27 27 28

(3)

Feet
(a) Dissyllabic

(3) Trisyllabic

Measures of Verse
(1)

30
30
31

Iambic Measure
(a)

Iambic Monometet Iambic Dimeter Iambic Trimeter Iambic Tetrameter Iambic Pentameter

(6) (c)

32
33

(d)
(e)

34

36
37

(/) Iambic
(;f)
(/;)

Hexameter

Iambic Heptameter Iambic Octameter

38
39

(2)

Trochaic Measure
(a)

40

Trochaic Monometer Trochaic Dimeter Trochaic Trimeter
.

(*)
(c)

...»
. . .
. .
,

40

40
42
43

(d) Trochaic Tetrameter
(e)

Trochaic Pentameter

.45
j

(/) Trochaic Hexameter
(g) Trochaic Heptameter
(h)

46

.

.

.

.46
.

Trochaic Octameter

,

,

46
47
51
56

(3) (4)

Anapestic Measure

Dactylic Measure
.

Mixed Metres

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Xlll

Combination of Verses

XIV
(3)

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Metrical Licences

.....

PAGE

.122
138

Poetic Pauses
(1)

Final Pause

(2)

Crural

Pause.

........ ....... ......
.

139

139
146

Rhyme
(1)

Good and Perfect Rhymes
Imperfect Rhymes

.

.

.147
150
156

(2) (3)

Bad Rhymes
Double and Triple Rhymes Examples of Whimsical Rhymes
.

(4)

.

. .

.158
.161
164

.

(5) (6)

Faults in Rhyming

Arrangement of Rhymes

.

.

.

.172
175

Alliteration

Blank Verse
(1)
(2)

^4
185
.

Licences
Epic
.

or Heroic Blank Verse

.

.187
187

Milton

(3)

Dramatic Blank Verse
Shakspere

196

106

The Sonnet
The Song
(1) (2) (3)
(4)

203

2l6
. . .

The Sacred Song or Hymn The Patriotic and War Song

.221

.

.

.222
224
224

The Love Song The Convivial Song

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
(5)

xv
PAGE
,

The Political Song
Sentimental Song, Ballad

.

.

;

.225
.225
.

.

,

.

Oratorio, Opera, Cantata.

.

.

.

226 228

Poetic Trifles
Examples of Vers de Societe
(1)
(2)

(3) (4) (5)
(6)

The Ballade The Rondel The Rondeau The Roundel The Sestina

......; .......
. .
. .
.

.231
240
243 245

247 249

(7)

The Triolet The Villanelle

250
.
.

.

.251

Development of Versification
Classical Metres
(1) (2)
(3)

.

,

.254
264
266 266 267 268
2 59

Hexameters
Sapphics

Pentameters
Alcaics

....... ........
.
. . .

(4)

Imitative

Harmony
Versification

Bibliography-

Works on

.280

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES

.

.

.

.

2QQ

ORTHOMETRY.
POETRY AND PROSE
differs from prose mainly in the fact th at he words of the former are arranged upon a definite principle of order as to their sound. This principle has not been the' same at all times and in all languages. Amongst the Greeks and Romans it was based upon quantity, i.e. the time occupied in pronouncing the syllables, those that are long taking up twice as much time as those that are short. In_our
t

PogTRY

own poetry the principle of arrangement is tTip-*ag=»lar re currence o f accented and unaccented syllab les; the stress of the voice in uttering the accented ones occurring as regularly as the beats of the pulse or the

ticks of a watch.

The undulation
it is

of sound produced

and non-accents which constitutes the essential difference between poetry and prose. Other elements, such as rhyme and alliteration, are employed, in some kinds of poetry, in the way of embellishment and aid to the rhythm, but they are not of its essence, for the larger part and the

by
is

this continuous flow of accents

known

as rhythm, and this

1

ORTHOMETRY.

highest achievements of our poets are constructed without them. The words of Dr. Guest may appropriately be quoted here.* He says " Rhythm in its widest
:

sense
is

as the law of succession. It the regulating principle of every whole that is
of proportionate parts,

may be denned

made up

and

is

as necessary

to the regulation of motion, or to the

arrangement

of matter, as to the orderly succession of sounds.

By applying it to the first of these purposes we have obtained the dance, and sculpture and architecture are the results of its application to the

second.

The rhythmical arrangement

of sounds

not articulated produces music, while from the like

arrangement of articulate sounds we get the cadences of prose and the measures of verse. Verse may be defined as the succession of articulate\

by a rhythm so definite that we can readily form the results which flow from its application. Rhythm is also met with in prose, but in the latter its range is so wide that we rarely can anticipate its flow, while the pleasure we derive from verse is founded on this very anticipation. As verse consists mainly of the arrangement of certain sounds according to a certain rhythm, it is obvious that neither poetry nor even sense can be essential to it. may be alive to the beauty of a foreign rhythm though we do not understand the language, and the burden of many an English song has long yielded a certain pleasounds, regulated

We

* Dr, Guest's " History of English Rhythms.",

" — Poetry is one of the Fine Arts it is indeed the queen of the Nine Sisters of the fabled family of the Muses her children are the myriad forms of the beautiful in sentiment and emotion which are scattered through the world's literature. Doth glance from heaven to earth." Besides this fundamental distinction between poetry and prose. in its widest sense. And. poetry is creation or invention of ideal beauty. . through the aid of the imagination. and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name. upon the infinite resources of nature. creating new forms of the beautiful by combinations of existing materials. as the . It is the result " of a divinely bestowed faculty operating . it seems desirable to trace briefly the lines that separate further. the poet's pen Turns them to shapes." The poet's eye. from earth to heaven . them still Without attempting the hazardous task of formulating a definition of poetry. sure though every whit as $ unmeaning as the nonsense verses of the schoolboy. we may say that. as imagination bodies forth The forms of things unknown. * The Greek word for French equivalent is from still it is to find derived from the verb to make. which is all we are concerned with in dealing with versification. and in Lowland Scotch the poet is a maker.: POETRY AND PROSE.* Macaulay says of it " By poetry we mean the art of employing words in such a manner as to produce illusion on the imagination the art of doing bywords what the painter does by means of colours. in fine frenzy rolling. .

indeed. Frethe designation of poetry is denied them. Yet. whereas the aim of the poet is to give pleasure. for instance." said Milton hence it chooses picturesque images and quaint .. but as in that embodied shape their dress lacks the wavy flow of rhythm. and passionate. Poetry should be " simple. the . In this broad signification poetry is to be found in the higher forms of prose quite as much as in verse. romance and the creations of the poet showing a marked family likeness which the presence or absence of rhythmical arrangement alone can differentiate. and Ruskin. Creations of ideal grace and loveliness abound in amorphous prose. fictions of In addition to these distinctions of form. while his brother artist only occasionally falls under their seductive influence. the style and diction of poetry differs in many respects from that of prose. and aim. differ Again. the two forms of literary composition with respect to their object prose seeks for the most part to instruct. sensuous. not to mention others of the skilled masters in word-painting. Many passages from George Eliot. 4 ORTHOMETRY. a quently in impassioned perceptible rhythm which approaches very nearly the measured movement of verse. And here again we find the two frequently running upon parallel lines. matter. as metrical rules have not been observed in them throughout. as the cadences cease abruptly. Dickens. The poet must always conform to metrical laws. might well be arranged as poetic lines. prose there is. they cannot be dignified by the name of poetry.

' POETRY AND PROSE. The eloquent throughout. as the many-coloured blossoms of spring do the all-pervading sombre tints of winter. Striking epithets and picturesque compounds such as those that follow would disfigure good prose. Though bound to be musical. haply. vasty deep. and departure from ordinary rule is tolerated in order to make it so. and indeed all the rhetorical figures of speech are freely used to variegate the conventionalities of everyday ex- pressions. ken. list. and to excite pleasure. a-weary. Shakspere maintains a clear distinction between poetry and prose. the iron tongue of midnight. similes. elision. and every kind of inversion. rosy-fingered servants and jesters always speak prose. terse. while in verse they are pleasing and : natural : sea-girt isle. and euphonious. but the language of emotion and passion is invariably metrical. and others also in light conversation. Metaphors. His built castles. Brutus commences his famous speech to the populace after the murder of Caesar in plain. feelings of his hearers. morn and eve. 5 words and epithets that would be out of place in prosaic description. blissful. such as woe. air- dawn. thou and ye for you. his words run into verse. In spite of the freedom of treatment necessary in dramatic composition. There are many words protected by poetic association from vulgar use. ire. methinks. the breezy blue. direct prose but as soon as he begins to declaim and appeal to the . The poetic sentence is nervous. the poet is a chartered libertine in most other respects. art of Antony's speech is metrical .

and handed down by tradition. hence. in order to vary the entertainments. . We find bards or poets amongst all nations when emerging from a state of barbarism.KINDS OF POETRY. made and performers. The earliest compositions in all languages were was war and love and hymns to the gods were composed in some rude form of measure or jingle that was catching to the ear. whose duty it was to sing those traditional odes on great national. formed the chief feature of public gatherings. up in some cases to heroic pro- portions. as well as the chanting of hymns to the gods. Long before the art of writing invented. fantastically dressed. and to celebrate the achievements of their own heroes and the stirring events of the day in original compositions. In course of time these rude lyrical pieces were collected and metrical. the origin of the Epic poem. in broad outline. religious and athletic festivals. Gradually. A rude stage was and erected. chanted these national odes in chorus. On national annual holidays the celebra- tion of the deeds of past heroes in song. with narrative verses inter- spersed. rude songs of committed to writing. in order to give a unity to the collection .

We (a). corresponding in some degree to the typical form of the Greek choral odes. and the epode by the whole. sacred. find some early specimens of it in the Old Testament. This is so called. Shelley. here we have the dawn of the drama. Wordsworth. is restricted to lyrical compositions of some length and generally of complexity of structure. heroic. soliloquies . and dialogues were introduced . and Tennyson have produced almost . Campbell. irregular stanzas. In our own language we have odes written upon a variety of subjects.— LYRIC POETRY. adhering in one case strictly to the Greek model but perhaps the finest specimen we have is Dryden's Alexander's Feast. Ode is from a Greek word meaning song. ous. The different kinds of poetry may be considered under the following heads : briefly I.— KINDS OF POETRY. the strophe to be arranged in groups of three chanted by one half of the singers. The Ode. Collins. such as Miriam and Deborah's songs. and David's elegy on Saul and Jonathan. The term ode. and amorGray has composed some fine examples. the antistrophe by the other half. because it was originally intended to be sung and accompanied on the lyre. These consisted of . Lyric poetry comprehends several different kinds. moral. though generic.

while pathos and humour also furnish abundant material for these stories in verse. Cowper. may The Hymn and Song. Chevy Chase. Each is generally nothing more than the expression of some single sentiment. Ben Battle. Nancy Bell. modern equally noted poems of this class. may be mentioned as approaching very nearly the same excellence. the Robin Hood ballads. while to enumerate our songwriters would be to name nearly every one of our poets. The Ballad. as song. John Gilpin. (*). see p. be mentioned as typical specimens. (c). The Elegy. Lucy Gray. Heber. . Ken. Lord Ullin's Daughter. Wesley. Love and war are the two chief topics of our ballad literature. but poets rarely adopt this form. The only difference between these is that the former is always upon some sacred subject. This always differs from other odes in that its subject is mournful and its construction generally For fuller particulars * on this subject. Nothing has surpassed the sweet melodic charm of the lyrics of the Shakspere Milton period of our literature. or the elaboration of some one feeling. though perhaps Burns and Moore.* — (d). 217.8 ORTHOMETRY. Watts.writers. Ballads are distinguished from songs proper by the fact of their containing a narrative. and Keble are the authors of some of our most beautiful hymns.

still less of the heroic * The reader is Songs and Lyrical Poems referred to Palgrave's " Golden Treasury of the Best in the English Language.—EPIC OR HEROIC POETRY. Another but with subdivision of poems of this class. element in them." . Gray's Elegy written in a Country Churchyard. Virgil's jEneid. for want of a more suitable name. and Milton's Paradise Lost and Regained. and which are fictitious. Burns's Man was made to Mourn. be grouped may.KINDS OF POETRY. Scarcely inferior to these.* 2. Spenser's Faerie Queene. and Tennyson's In Memoriam are the finest specimens we have. 9 more regular. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. detailing some important national enterprise or the adventures of a distinguished hero. These may be classed under this head as Romantic Epics. Milton's Lycidas. Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered. This term is applied only to great and lengthy narrative poems. and differing from them only in the fact that they depict less dignified undertakings. in which the dramatic element is also introduced in the form of impassioned harangues. stand at the head of this species of poetry as the Classical Epics. Byron'-s Childe Harold may be included in the same category preferably to being considered a purely descriptive poem. Camoens's Lusiad. come such poems as Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. Dante's Inferno and Paradiso. and Tennyson's Idylls of the King. Collins's Dirge in Cymbeline.

" The very purpose of playing. intended to be acted. and the term applied to that species of commade up of dialogue. however. Moore's Lalla Rookh. there. Shaksfere. or are not suited. and is. speech and action being gradually . could not be so produced intact and many of the plays of Shakspere are more suited to study than the stage. Byron's Manfred. All poems. For the origin of the ancient Greece . the mirror up to nature to show virtue her own feature. both at the first and now. and which part.— DRAMATIC POETRY. drama we must look to we have seen above. Scott's together as Poetical Romances. scorn her own image. Marmion and Lady of the Lake.— IO ORTHOMETRY. which are thrown into the dramatic form. was. the germ of the theatre arose out of the national custom of singing odes in praise of gods and heroes on festive occasions. most of the stage carpenter. Bailey's Festus. The word drama means dramatic poetry position which is.g. to dramatic representation e. Coleridge's Christabel. Byron's Don Juan. 3. and Tennyson's Enoch Arden are of this kind. is is action." . and require grievous hacking before they can be adapted to the requirements for the . are not intended. such poems as Butler's Hudibras and Burns's Tarn O'Shanter would be included. to hold. and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure. as 'twere. and if we allow the burlesque element to be added. Taylor's Philip Van Artevelde.

by its ridicule. other species of composition then presented for national instruction. and which no satyrs. It grew out of the crude Mysteries. In course of time men of genius began to avail themselves of the opportunities which the recital of these crude verses afforded. and to arouse its sympathy and pity for devotion and suffering virtue. and Moralities. and we soon find plays more regularly constructed and based upon an organised Under ^Eschylus. which we find . Aristophanes. to distinguish it from the classic drama. the drama was rapidly developed and elaborated to its utmost perfection. introduced ments. or. as it is called. Tragedy was intended to excite the patriotic and heroic feelings of the audience. Comedy. The English Drama. with any of Shakspere's plays. mixed with extempore witticisms. comic verses. The difference between a Greek play and a modern one will be clearly seen by comparing Milton's Samson Agonistes. which were indulged in by bands of revellers at harvest homes and vintage festivities. or miracle plays. or moral plays. came into existence about the latter half of the sixteenth century. its n for variety and broadened require- The word Tragedy (literally the goat-song) takes name from the fact that the actors who sang and danced at these entertainments were dressed as Comedy (a festive or rural song) was originally applied to the coarse. turned the laugh of the hearers against the foibles and vices of the time. the Gothic. and plot. Sophocles. Euripides.KINDS OF POETRY. which is constructed upon the classic model.

the Moralities and the regular ters drawn from P's. and others. Comedy. the Deity Himself being frequently introduced the latter consisted of quaint. They were produced all over Europe under the direction of the clergy as aids to religious and moral instruction. which was represented in 1562. life were introduced. and this was followed a year or two later by Gammer Gurton's Needle. and frequently of furious disputes between characters personating abstract virtues and vices. the devil being the most important personage. master of Eton. Peele. was GorbudoCy or Ferrex and Porrex. The first comedy was Ralph Roister Doister. to us. The earliest known tragedy in English Four at the present day. profane burlesques of Scripture narratives. and. and carried them off in triumph on his back or in a wheel-barrow at the finish. The former were coarse. We see their survival down to the present day in the triennial representation of the Passion Play in the Bavarian village of Ober Ammergau. which was modelled after the Comedies of Terence. about 1550. at Whitehall. Marlowe. written by Nicholas Udall. Greene. Within an amazing short time after this. before Queen Elizabeth. produced a . regularly represented at holiday times throughout Christendom about the end of the Middle Ages.12 ORTHOMETRY. bishop of Bath and Wells. comical dialogues. the work of John Still. Interludes occupy an intermediate place between . the joint composition of Norton and Lord Buckhurst. as he always overcame the vices. as characHeywood's • which we should consider a broad farce may be taken as a fair specimen.

tragedies of the last- being hardly inferior to his great successor's early efforts and by 1 590 Shakspere himself was at work as a playwright. The only distinction that can be drawn between his tragedies and comedies is that the former have mournful terminations. but Unities are preserved. Several of his comedies present a continuous panorama of happy. and in the same immediate neighbourhood. in all his great tragedies the . and drew his characters with realistic truth from the living world around him. he depicted human nature as it is.KINDS OF POETRY. and that the tragic and comic elements be kept quite distinct. The Tempest and the Comedy of Errors are the only plays in which the unity of time and place is preserved. and by him the named. tragedy must be tragic throughout. and dramatic A humorous is constantly found mingled with the dark and suffering side of humanity. These arbitrary and artificial limitations our great master of dramatic art declined to conform to. the in particular.e. in which the sad and the joyous are ever found inextricably blended. . action. buoyant life . while the latter end happily. and a comedy more or less amusing throughout. large 13 number of dramas. drama was raised to the highest excellence ever attained. In the Classic Drama (and the French theatre is constructed upon that model) what are called the a unity in time and place This means that the scenes portrayed should occur in about the same time that is occupied in acting them on the stage. i.

and most of Cowper's poems are of this class. Tusser's bandrie. as its . Pastoral is a species of descriptive poetry. It is rarely attempted by modern perhaps because much of the charm and life has disappeared before the manifold invasions of commercial enterprise. Young's Night Thoughts. distinct from the conveyance of pleasure. The finest didactic poem in English is Wordsworth's Excursion. mens in Perhaps the choicest specithe language are Milton's L'Allegro and 77 Penseroso. morals. Goldsmith's Traveller and Deserted Village. Description enters into every kind of poetical composition. or Hundred Points of Good HusArmstrong's Art 0/ Preserving Health.14 ORTHOMETRY.—DIDACTIC POETRY. but there are some poems almost wholly of that kind. It consists of descriptions of rural life and scenery. whether in arts. 4. simplicity of country 5. of the simplicity and loves of shepherd swains and village maids. Pope's Windsor Forest. Denham's Cooper's Hill. Satirical poetry is a species of didactic. poets. Under this head are included all poems the prime object of which. Blair's Grave. Pleasures of the Imagination. Thomson's Seasons. Shenstone's Pastoral Ballad and Allan Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd are typical examples. Pope's Essay on Criticism and Essay on Man. &c. Akenside's philosophy.— DESCRIPTIVE POETRY. To this class belong Drayton's Polyolbion. is to instruct.

Byron. can't congratulate the devil If to the . 15 object is to improve manners and promote virtue by depicting vice in its true colours. and by holding up to ridicule hypocrisy and cant. brevity and wit being essentials.—THE SONNET. Tom Hood. On an M. who wrote a severe critique on " The Pleasures of Memory. Dean Swift. the point generally coming at the end. And when he preaches I shut mine. and as the name implies is supposed to be inscribed on his tomb. e. I Where he's gone to don't know . but I deny it has a heart and gets his speeches by — it On a Curate's Eyes. My a species of epigram. daughters praise our curate's eyes— I know not if their light's divine.J 7. .' He They say he has no heart.g.g.: . We realms of peace and love. : single thought. 6. Farewell to happiness above If haply to some lower level. is The Epitaph to eulogise or satirise Here lie the bones of Robert Lowe. designed some defunct individual. This is a short poem on some its e. and Robert Buchanan are our most famous satirists in verse. (See page to^. Pope. KINDS OF POETRY. Butler. For when he prays he closes his. Burns. Dryden.—THE EPIGRAM.P.

The deficiency is made up by making one letter stand for several different sounds. and by giving combinations of letters only one sound. The elementary sounds of the language. c. to represent consists of forty- which we have only twentysix written characters or letters. easy or difficult in utterance. and these in combination form verses or lines. elements of verse are syllables.ELEMENTARY PARTS OF ENGLISH VERSE.— SOUNDS. claim our first consideration as to whether they are rough or smooth. and in combination with other sounds. and of these three. i. Without going into details which are foreign to our purpose here. therefore. their effect on the ear is of the first importance. And thus we are called upon to review in brief the defects and anomalies of our alphabet. q. which grouped together in twos or threes form feet. and to produce a good effect the smallest parts which enter into their composition should receive attention. As verses are made for articulate utterance. The The spoken alphabet of English five sounds. viz. we will reproduce first . and x are redundant.

ELEMENTS OF VERSE. Morris's list of Elementary Sounds in the English (a) Consonants. . 17 Mr. spoken Alphabet.

n.- 1 The sounds of the vowels and diphthongs are produced by the uninterrupted passage of the breath through the open mouth. zh. s. The consonant sounds are the result of the more or less complete stoppage of the breath in utterance by the partial or entire closing of the air passage by one or other of the organs of speech. The liquids. I. f. g. z. Dentals (tooth sounds) t. Gutturals (throat sounds) k. easily combine with other sounds. d. We will next present an arrangement of the consonants which exhibits them in what may be regarded as the order of their discordance. They are classed according to the organ of speech by which they are produced into Labials (lip sounds)^. as they completely close the air passage. but as it is heard It in pronunciation. is not inferior to others its elementary sounds. and it is the degree of effort to produce these imperfect sounds that causes that harshness and roughness which renders speech difficult and unmusical. r. dK. sh. v. and the predominance of these sounds renders speech easy and musical. The sibillants. TYie mutes axe the most difficult of all in utterance. lish may here be pointed out that the rules of Engprosody and rhyme are not applicable to the language as it appears in writing. m. both . j\ x. th.8 — ORTHOMETRY. b. vp. have varying degrees of a disagreeable hiss. Our language so considered .

the French has an advantage over the English in the proportion of nine to eight. open. in the like manner. All the elements enumerated above have their of smooth. something less than as three to two but in Italian. will. having more vowels. perhaps. ." p. 269 . monosyllables. but as sounded in pronunciation. obscure. clear." page 168. rough. the proportion is three to two. are adequate to our occasions. • See " Imitative Harmony.* The comparison between the English tongue and others. supposing the orthography not as written. soft. entertain the reader.. has less occasion for . but this is overbalanced by the English . and furnish opportunities of assimilating sound to sense of which our poets have freely availed themselves. It is taken distinguishing qualities from Steele's "Prosodia Rationalis. the consonantal to the vocal sounds are as four to three . Therefore. five consonants to four vowels in French. given in the following passage. their proportion to polysyllables is not quite three to four. ELEMENTS OF VERSE. as to metrical elements. close. and others. by which they give a corresponding character to the sound of a verse. or one and a half to two. strong. "In English the proportion of monosyllables to polysyllables is more than as five to two in French. in this view. and in English. The superior melody of one language over another will be nearly in proportion as one exceeds the other in the number of vowel sounds. in variety iq all and number. The number of vowel and consonantal sounds in Italian is nearly equal in Latin. which.

tittered effort of some of the organs of speech. which it has more than the French in the proportion of five to three. . to an Englishman. and others again of an opposite character.—SYLLABLES.* Let it not be thought degrading to any composer of English verse to attend to the power and effect of these elementary sounds." p." No single element in a man's native tongue is of difficult pronunciation to him whose organs of speech are naturally perfect in a foreign language there may be such. !. will not feel himself much cramped by these combinations .to ORTHOMETRY. touchedst. as a circumstance worthy of notice. with all of which it is useful for every writer to be acquainted. : : Hampton. since Bacon has recommended an inquiry into the nature of language for purposes of the same kind. . 108. in verbs ending with a double consonant as touch. who has command of his language. advantage in its monosyllables. It may be one elementary sound. empty. nor accounted it beneath him to record in his works that we cannot pronounce the letter / after m. as the Welsh and German gutturals. A by one syllable is a word. or a combination * See " Poetic Licenses. Ex. some few there may be which are unmanageable such is that made by the second person singular of the past tense. and the French u. without inserting p. or unpleasant to hear. or a part of a word. either difficult to utter. The maker of verse. But there are various combinations.

and no word. smooth. with regarding it as stress merely. attention and demand clear elucidation. as is now precise diversity of opinion . prepositions. and that the stress occasionally varies . while. inasmuch as they constitute the very essence of verse . in degree. The . e. adjectives. however long. and particles are unaccented.g. these are accent and quantity. syllable has an accent invariably attached to one of its syllables which is called the tonic accent. harsh.: ELEMENTS OF VERSE. special 21 Like its elements. We shall see as we proceed that the exigencies of metre require that metrical accents be attached to syllables in verse in addition to the tonic accent. it is rough. Swe"6t are the tises of adversity. e. and adverbs are accented. the articles. depl6re. verbs. («). elementary. however. of several. nature of accent has given rise to some maintaining that it is an alteration in the pitch of the voice. pronouns (when not emphatic).g. But there are other qualities of syllables which claim our or difficult in utterance. others an increase in loudness of tone we will content ourselves. Monosyllables are accented or not according to their grammatical importance thus all nouns. generally accepted* . is a certain stress of the voice upon a syllable in Every word of more than one pronouncing it. terrible. easy. Accent. has more than one accent.

as. if they be not a mute and a liquid as. joy. Quantity. (6). called long by position. when followed by a single con. . manner. man. if the first was a mute and the second a liquid. (ii) When it consists of a short vowel followed by two different consonants. (i) A short vowel it. pen or by the same consonant doubled. as. Such a syllable is . is a short syllable. that such a combination of consonants is more readily pronounced than others are. in some cases. cline. A syllable is long (i) When it contains a long vowel. one /(^syllable being considered equivalent to two short ones. as. and therefore holds with us it is. loud. . For this we have the example of the ancients both in Greek and Latin. makes a short syllable. (iii) A short vowel. go. see. de- sonant. is the time occupied in pronouncing a syllable. This division into two classes has been deemed sufficient for all the purposes of prosody. The cause is founded in nature. the. into. though it is certain that in neither class are the syllables all equal among themselves. though followed by two consonants. as will appear when we have stated what is allowed to constitute a short and a long syllable. is when sonant follows the articles (ii) alone. or a diphthong.— 2t ORTHOMETRY. or when no contaken for a short syllable. number. as a. at last. A short vowel. reprove. who permitted a short vowel to stand for a short syllable. penny. as. when followed by two consonants.

they fixed the boundary between them. was because the mute and liquid could be pronounced more readily than two other consonants in their place. is based upon accent. The rhythm of English verse. without which it becomes mere prose. in this 2$ by whose authority we are guided arrangement of syllables. to make the syllable either short or long in that point. must be ranked together with the long. allowed a short vowel before a mute and liquid. however. to hold the opposite view. Much learned nonsense has been written upon this subject. as has been already pointed out. It would be almost equally wrong. the measured undulation of accented and unaccented syllables being its essential feature. and regard quantity as having classical verse is ' . it is certain that some time is in passing from one to another.ELEMENTS OF VERSE. of course. and each different letter by : . It follows then that the same vowel before two other consonants would make a syllable requiring more time in the utterance which. therefore. . and many attempts have been made to show that quantity and not accent is of the essence of English verse. When it is recollected that every letter is formed by a particular position of the organs of speech. The ancients. but all recent scholarship and and we taste concur 'in the view stated above may regard the controversy as finally settled. which in Latin and Greek poetry is governed by much more rigid laws than the metrical rules of English verse. The reason why such a syllable might be accounted short. a different position. On the other hand the rhythm of employed based upon quantity.

pensive Nun. sable stole of Cyprus lawn Over thy decent shoulders drawn. (ii) Short quantity predominant Hast thee. have a fourfold as. And Flowing with majestic train. . steadfast. tant aid to metrical perfection. 24 no bearing upon our versification. And laughter. cultivated by all though not as the foundation of rhythm. produce quite a different melody from others in which short syllables obtain. Come and trip it as you go On the light fantastic toe. And in thy right hand lead with thee Liberty.— — ORTHOMETRY. difference. devout and pure. sweet We see then that syllables long. and bring with thea and youthful jollity. The mountain nymph. some are either accented. • » • Jest • • Sport that wrinkled Care derides. Sober. and demure . Verses in which the proportion of long syllables in the accented parts of the feet predominate. It is an imporand is sedulously our poets as an embellishment. holding both his sides. (ij Long quantity predominant Come. The following extracts from Milton's L' Allegro and // Penseroso admirably illustrate this. All in a robe of darkest grain. nymph.

because they maintain that quantity has no concern whatever with English versification. a silly vanity. it is to be acknowledged that it may. or unaccented. V. as. so that the accents be set in their due places. couplet the first line has its accents regu- lar in place and number. Of this syllables. they are in nothing defective. refer. so as to observe quantity as well as accent. consent accented. 25 or unaccented. But now let them be altered. Still the verse would have juster measure. if the accented so that the syllables were long and others short quantity and accent should coincide. to place. either habit. others are short.— — ELEMENTS OF VERSE. Let us make this still clearer by an example . It cannot be denied that these verses are in true and exact measure and. would sound better to the ear. as. together with three long line is accented regularly as contains only two accented syllables. if accent . Rather let it be said that quantity cannot be altogether neglected without manifest and great injury to the verse. The second alone be requisite. and be much nearer to perfect. . in this manner . The busy world and what you It is see. but it and not one long. There are some who will think these observations on quantity might have been spared. but that it depends entirely upon accent. as. whether verse cannot be composed without any regard to the quantity of syllables. But if the question be put.

The gaudy Is all world. appears to have been insensible or inattentive. The second line of his first pastoral stood : originally thus Nor blush to sport on Windsor's peaceful plains. He would have altered it to happy . Pope therefore put of the effect of blissful. which is the only It point. under consideration. whate'er you see. at this time. foaming high.— — 26 ORTHOMETRY. was a matter to which Pope. 4 Boswell on Shakspere's Metre. to an empty show me. if the following anecdote be true. nor any great skill to form a right judgment between them in respect of their structure. Wide-rolling. saying the quantity would not then be the same for the first syllable . . Regard to quantity is not indeed essential to . at least in his early life. of happy was short . and so is regard to quantity to good English verse. This. however. does not require a nice ear to perceive the difference of these lines from the former. and tumbling on the Pope.* Here are other examples bles worthy of quotation The waves behind impel long sylla- the waves before. but Walsh objected to that correction. shore. English verse neither is symmetry nor proportion essential to a dwelling-house but to a good dwelling-house they are essential.

There are two kinds of Dissyllabic feet of which is constructed. but none of these have met with general ac- ceptation. therefore. In addition to these there are two other kinds in frequent use intermixed with the above. Throughout this treatise. to indicate Dissyllabic. Thou dost preserve the stars from wrong the most ancient heavens through thee strong. and viz. The names given to the different kinds of feet in English poetry are usually those of the classic metres.— FEET. and have invented other fanciful names in their stead. Spondee struct verses entirely: verse Pyrrhic «- ~. as temple*.—. syllables.: Iambus-' -. A fool is in verse is a foot and a group of two or three hence the division into Dissyllabic and Trisyllabic verse. and the method of marking the accented and unaccented syllables is from the same source. ELEMENTS OF VERSE. we shall adhere to the old lines in this respect. but of which it is impossible to con-. as dSspalr. 27 And are fresh and Wordsworth.— ) must be taken accented and unaccented syllables. viz. Many writers have objected to this system of nomenclature as liable to mislead. (a). with every confidence that no confusion can arise. long and short ( . and Trochee. .. The unit of measurement not a syllable. . since the distinction between accent and quantity has been clearly pointed out thus the usual marks for . 3.

and Dactyl.de. . Here. (b). and was the legitimate measure by which it was to be scanned. and is measurable by anapests. as Another kind occasionally met with is tremiiloiis. viz. Trisyllabic. finding such a foot at the end of a verse. only taking such a licence as is always allowed to anapestic verses. only two kinds Anapest. foot it is true. the three last syllables termed Amphibrach. and the whole line be divided into such feet as shown below Because he has never a hand that Is idle make the may | | | | It is nevertheless certain that the line belongs to verses of another class. that the first foot may be is The next line in syllable : truncated or curtailed of its first syllable. an anapestic verse of four with a redundant . called Amphibrach. — _ -.— — — 28 ORTHOMETRY. the poem. feet. to describe it accurately._. — . Of Trisyllabic feet there are also of which whole poems are composed : We might have omitted all mention of the Amphibrach but for the mistake of certain prosodians who. The following line from Swift is an example of the measure in question : Because | he has nev | Or a hand | that Is I | dig. have asserted that the same kind of foot properly constituted the whole verse.— —. as sSrena.

ever difference in the first foot. there would have been entire poems in that measure. measurable by that foot. . or. poems wherein verses of that measure predominate but there are none such. and also those which enter occasionally of necessity and for variety into its construction. notwithstanding the If the Amphibrach had been a foot by which any English verse ought to be measured. Name of Foot. For the right bri I | 20 | holds the sword. The following table exhibits at a glance the various feet of which English verse is composed. nor does a line. occur. except accidentally among a much greater number of anapestic ones. .ELEMENTS OF VERSE. | and the left hSlds the die. at least. So likewise is the former.

as enumerated in the following table ' (i) Monometer . Each of the four kinds of feet enumerated above may be combined in varying numbers according maker/ and the to the taste and fancy of the requirements of the metrical effects sought to be produced. The number of feet in each verse may vary from one to eight. Dimeter. and they are generally known as Monometer. &c.: MEASURES OF VERSE.

nor elaborate terminations to the moods and tenses of its verbs. And although the great majority of words of more than two syllables have their accent to the fore. Normal This measure line. and auxiliaries preceding the emphatic nouns and verbs tends to impart an Iambic measure to English is . MEASURES OF VERSE. seldom used except as furnishing The example quoted below from Herrick can only be regarded as a literary is refrains in lyric poems. Iambic Monometer. prepositions. And die As one Unknown And gone. the very frequent recurrence of unaccented articles. . Thus I Pass by. she is fooling thee. curiosity. Longfellow. speech. 31 lengthy poems of our tongue are of this order. Beware I Trust her not. She has a bosom white as snow Take care / She knows how much it is best to show . is non-inflectional there are no case endings to its nouns. («). Two Syllables ^ — . as compared with other tongues. English. This no doubt due to the structural peculiarities of our language..

And I' th' grave There have My cave. Iambic Dimeter. | hadst not | I Been true to me. All regular measures of verse. | | | Jonson.g. . Dryden. : Ing At meet Tears | ing. songs. Assumes the god. But left me free. J* ORTHOMETRV. said to be hypermetrical. Hearts beat | and the verse is e.g. had forgot Myself and thee. | &c. | | Affects If thou | the nod. e. Where I tell dwell. This is usually called a feminine ending. | start | ing At part (£). Farewell.. : . Herrick. Syllables Normal line. I'm made laid A shade. but is freely introduced in odes. Four ~ - | •— — This verse is also too short for whole poems. as will be more fully explained in dealing with poetical licence. With rav Ished ears The mon arch hears. have occasionally an additional unaccented syllable added. ing.

Whose gar lands dead. | | . The rag ing rocks And shiv 'ring shocks Shall break the locks Of pri son gates. from Tennyson's The Poet. Whose lights are fled.. Syllables | Normal line. And make and mar The fool I ish fates. I feel I 33 like one | Who treads alone Some banquet hall deserted. | | | I And Phib | bus' car | Shall shine | from far. Iambic Trimeter. (c)." The poet in a golden clime was born. the second verse is Iambic trimeter. when it is attended with Iambic tetrameter it constitutes our Ballad metre and the Common metre of hymns. As thou wert ev er kind Let me opprest with loads of guilt Thy wont ed mer cy find. Skakspere. MEASURES OF VERSE. | | And all but he departed. the scorn The love of love. " Mid-Night's Dream. | | on me. I | | of scorn. Moore. the fourth dimeter. Dowered with the hate of hate. In the last example. Lord. This measure is greatly used by our poets in the composition of ballads and hymns. Six — - | — - . With gold en stars above. Have mer I | cy. Tennyson.

This octosyllabic measure. 34 in | aw | ful state The god like he | | ro sate On his | imper ial throne. | And bade no more | rejoice his look. and very apt to degenerate into sing-song. bras. To what I shall unfold. as in the Ghost-scene in Hamlet : Ghost. Byron. &c. I Samlet. . 40}. &c. The mon All blood | arch saw | | and shook.— ORTHOMETRY." p. By By fairy hands their knell is rung. Byron. Speak. Marmion. less | waxed | | And trem ulous his voice. is forms unseen their dirge sung * Abbott's " Shakiperlan Grammar. Or twine it of | press tree. . twine | | no wreath the cy | | for me. Shakspere seems to have used this measure mostly for rapid dialogue and retort. Scott. which is of dangerously easy construction. Coleridge. Wordsworth. Dryden. O la | dy. and numerous poems by Shelley. Iambic Tetrameter. Normal line. has been largely used by our poets In it are composed Butler's Hudiof later times. Aloft | . Eight Syllables w - w | - I — | -» — . am bound to hear. Scott's Tennyson's In Memoriam.* (d). Burns's Tarn (yShanter.

and the street. a weeping hermit there. Ring happy bells across the snow The year is going. The field." Of the Ballad suffice: metre. To bless the turf that wraps their clay And Freedom shall a while repair. the chamber. the following examples will They followed from the snowy bank Those footmarks one by Into the middle of the one.. Butler.! And . let him go Ring out the false. Tennyson. . I The Stirrer of The hurricane I the storm left . And dwell. Byron.' behind Is yet with lightning warm. ring in the true. Some kicked until they can feel wheth er A shoe be Spanish or neat's leath er. 1 i 1 I am the Rider of the wind. Wordsworth. ring in the new. * • • Ring out the old. a pilgrim grey. " In Memoriam. . . 35 Some have been beaten till they know | What wood a cudgel's of by th' blow. MEASURES OF VERSE. For all is dark where thou art not. There Honour comes. further there plank— was none. | So find I every pleasant spot In which we two were wont to meet. Collins.

universal good. Pope. however. Goldsmith. It is. and is perhaps the most frequently used of any English metre. So the loud torrent and the whirlwind's roar But bind him to his native mountains more. Young. Syllables Normal line. Pope rendered it somewhat monotonous by over-refinement. harmony not understood All partial evil.: . and by making his pauses occur too frequently in the middle of the verse and his sentences terminate at the end of the line. Four heroics Elegiac stanza. hold their farthing candle to the sun.g. rhyming alternately form the e. Clings close and closer to his mother's breast. And thin parti | tions do their bounds | divide. and Southey. All nature is but art unknown to thee . direction which thou canst not see All discord. Dryden. 36 (*).. Ten ~-|~-|---|~-| This when rhymed is known as the Heroic Measure of English poetry. Great wits | are sure | | to mad | | ness near | allied. Keats. when scaring sounds molest. and its rhythm is capable of infinite variation. All chance. ORTHOMETRY. How commentators And And each dark passage shun. Dryden. . It was much used by Chaucer. Iambic Pentameter. Goldsmith. Pope. as a child. a noble metre.

air. and are seldom used except with pentameters to vary the monotony of their rhythm. like | Which a wound | ed snake | drags its | slow length | along. . that bowmen were right good. Xkeelve Syllables Normal This measure has been seldom used by our poets Drayton composed his Polyolbion in it in From an old French poem written in this measure detailing the deeds of Alexander the since 1 6 10.) Iambic Hexameter. All clad in Lincoln green. {/. MEASURES OF VERSE. Iambic pentameter unrhymed is the famous Blank verse of literature (see page 184). line. And waste sweetness on the desert Gray. His fellow's winded horn. needless Alexandrine ends the song. not one of them but knew.. Full 37 many a gem of purest ray serene The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear Full many a flower its is born to blush unseen. Hebtr. notable instance of this is in the use of an Alexandrine to form the ninth line of the Spen- A A serian stanza. ready at his call. Great. verses of this dimension are known as Alexandrines. Po$e. Still An hundred When spring unlocks the flowers to paint the laughing soil. Drayton. When summer's balmy showers refresh the mower's toil. with caps of red and blue. valiant men had this brave Robin Hood.

| or weep | upon | his urn. ~ -I. and sublime. translation of the Iliad measure is Chapman's Macaulay's Lays of Ancient May Queen. long to see a flower so before the day I die. 38 ORTHOMETRY. Byron. IAMBIC HEPTAMETER. where the Almighty's form itself in tempests . glorious mirror. There's not a flower on I I I all the hills . each zone | O | beys thee thou go est forth. in all time. | alone.-I. Macaulay. or storm. Fourteen Syllables Normal line. furnish recent specimens. thus forming Ballad metre. of (g). | or smile | when I Or sit | beside | the old man's bed. Dark. fath | omless. The verses of it are sometimes broken up and printed in alternate four and three feet Iambics. dread.. Thou Calm Glasses or convulsed. Note the additional syllable at the beginning this last Alexandrine. or in the torrid clime . in breeze. the frost is on the pane only wish to live till the snowdrops wish the snow would melt. endless. or gale. | will grieve | when | I | go forth. the throne Of the Invisible .-l~-|~ -I. and the sun come out on high . boundless. come again. | deep are made | . . Tennyson. even from out thy slime The monsters of the . heaving. and Tennyson's And none return. Icing the pole. The image of eternity. Rome."I The longest poems in this .

the garden of romance. MEASURES OF VERSE. " it is commonly divided each verse . Ken." says he. ' Where virtue wants and vice abounds. into two. Iambic Octameter. as a single verse but. " The longest verse which I have seen used in English consisteth of sixteen syllables. and the second to the fourth. — . No powers of darkness me molest. Webbe. Bell. whereof each shall contain eight syllables.' on danger deep This species. was the land The chosen home of chivalry. first to the third. No marvel that the lady wept. it was two " for. the of our psalms. in his " Discourse of Poetry. did once exist. in fact. and rhyme crosswise. therefore. To make men swallow down they look. each two verses rhyming together thus . Sixteen Syllables I I I Normal line. (A)." says." . in form and show. it 39 of France. f I I I This metre is very rare." forming the Long metre When in the night I sleepless lie. there wealth their bane. A few modern the specimens of Meredith. My soul with heavenly thoughts supply Let no ill dreams disturb my rest. before is but a baited hook. it may be seen in poems of Owen .

Addison. — — (a). Changing.: . 40 ORTHOMETRY. The rhythm of Trochaic verse has a distinctive flow from that of Iambic it is more sprightly and lively. Rich the treasure. e. Two This one-foot verse longer verses. Milton's L' Allegro the cheerful man is written for the most part in this measure. Burning. Sweet the pleasure. Pining. It is often called the Tripping measure. Ranging. while the sombre II Penseroso is mostly Iambic. Trochaic Dimeter. Four Syllables — w — | *•*. Sweet is pleasure after pain. . Normal line. Syllables Normal line. Sighing. Trochaic Monometer. . 2. and therefore suited for the dress of cheerful themes and the description of quick-moving action.—TROCHAIC MEASURE. Through Through all the mazes of the grove. (b). Full of grief and full of love. all the mingling tracks I rove. Whining. Turning.g is — — only met with mixed with Crying. | | Dryden. Is the lover's part.

last lines. e. Lost. because our poets avail themselves so freely of licences. Besides this. Fires that glow. Shrieks of woe. Gray's Liliputian ode diminutive metre. to find suitable specimens of exact verses in all the trochaic measures. Dreadful | gleams. Pope. I gaze Can our eyes Reach thy size ?] . if beloved. is almost entirely in this In a maze. I Hollow groans. Joys are vanished. is gone Dryden.g.g. not almost impossible. my It is difficult. making it hypermetrical it is now necessary to add farther that an additional unaccented syllable is allowed before the first foot of a trochaic line. truncated are frequently met with. | | | Dismal Sullen J moans. screams.e. verses shorn of their : unaccented syllables. to which the term anacrusis has been applied. MEASURES OF VERSE. It has been already pointed out that extra unaccented syllables are frequently used at the end of a verse. e. as they are called. 41 Damon. i. Hope is banished. : The I Queen was | In the 1 | garden.! .

Nearly all Six Syllables —— | - — — | *-. From not. Normal line.. weather | | Youth like | summer | brave. . short. happy day.. Tennyson. Tennyson's Maud furnishes an example of twentysame measure : eignt consecutive lines of the Go Go not. verses in this measure are truncated Passionate Pilgrim. in the last foot. Trochaic Trimeter. Rosy are her cheeks. — 42 ORTHOMETRY. Rosy is the west. May my lays Swell with praise Worthy thee. the maiden yields. Age Age Age is I full of care Youth like | | summer | like winter | morn. Crabbed CannSt Youth is | | age and | | youth live to full I gethgr I of I pleasance. the shining fields . Rosy is the south. only the 2nd. 3rd. Youth Age's I I of is I breath | Shaksjiere. And a rose her mouth. Till happy day. In the annexed passage from The and 6th verses are perfectly symmetrical. like is winter full bare sport. . . Worthy me 1 (c).

Again Now the Night is day is over. Child of ocean ? Shtllty. Can its rest be broken. Syllables Normal line. and seems to be a favourite with all our modern poets.— ! . drawing nigh of the evening Shadows Steal across the sky. Fill the bumper fair Every drop we sprinkle On the brow of care Smoothes away a wrinkle. Trochaic Tetrameter. chiefly with symmetrical and truncated verses intermingled. Eight - w — w | |-*-'| — *-" This measure is sufficiently lengthy for continuous composition. Tennyson and Shelley also furnish numerous examples. Moore. Sleeps a voice unspoken . MEASURES OF VERSE. (d). . Baring Gould. In the world unknown. a poem of upwards of five thousand lines. By thy stop alone. Longfellow's Hiawatha. is composed in it in unrhymed verse. 43 A beautiful combination of verses of this kind but slightly varying is seen in Shelley's Prometheus.

Prythee.. Those we love and those who love us Just when they have learned to help us. departing. When w£ are old and lean up on them. The following quatrains line in both its is exhibit the four-foot j the 8. Comes a youth with flaunting feathers. a stranger | | | | I | | | | | | | Wanders piping through Beckons to the fairest the village. Though Though Still in in distant lands we sigh. Leaving all things for the stranger Longfellow. And she follows where he leads her. And. Friendship shall unite our souls fancy's rich domain Oft shall we three meet again. Lives of great this men all remind us We can make our lives sublime. Wha will be a traitor knave ? Wha will a coward's grave ? Wha sae base as be a slave ? fill Traitor 1 coward ! turn and flee ! Burns. Parched beneath a hostile sky the deep between us rolls. if | | pale and | | wan. With a flute of reeds. leave behind us Footprints on the sands of time. Looking Prythee. Longfellow. . maiden.7 complete and truncated forms measure of our hymns. Whf s8 Will. ! 44 ORTHOMETRY. . why ill so | pale vail ? | ? | looking | well can't | move her. pre | why | so pale ? Stickling. Thus it is our daughters leave us. fdnd | | lover.

angels.! MEASURES OF VERSE. by the castled Rhine. Low voluptuous music. " If my heart by signs can tell. Aytoun. ere now it had been melted swans. Syllables Normal line. ." Tennyson. Then methought I heard a hollow sound. Trochaic Pentameter. Spake well In | | One who dwelleth language quaint and 6ldSn. Ten - ~|- -I-H- ~l- - Composition in this measure when combined with verses it is very rare. I have watched thee daily. | | | | | When he | called the | | flowers so | Stars that in earth's firma | blue and golden ment do shine.! . | | | Longfellow. winding. . What is yon Is it so white beside the greenwood flight of ? snow or Were it Were it cygnets resting ? snow. And I think thou loVst me well. Gathering up from all the lower ground Narrowing in to where they sat assembled. in the height Sun and moon Praise rejoice before all Him I Him ye stars of night I (<?). ere now the flock had left us. and even truncated and hypermetrical has been but full | little cultivated. In hei ear he whispers gaily. trembled. Praise the Lord ! ye heavens adore Him Praise Him. Tennyson. 45 Maiden.

Borrow | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (g and h). Trochaic Heptameter and Octameter. Trochaic Hexameter. Holy. There are but few symmetrical poems in these measures. and Tennyson Tennyson's Locksley in irregular combinations. Aytoun. There are but few examples of this measure. Bosom bosom meeting 'gainst our youths we pressed Bright the morn a rose then glad to see us blessed G. 46 (/). | | golden | crowns a sea. lines Fourteen Normal and Sixteen Syllables. . although they have been freely used by Longfellow. Hall and Poe's Raven supply good examples. ORTHOMETRY.! ! . round the glassy Heber. holy. holy. Twelve Syllables Normal line. Casting down their | | | all the | saints | a | dore Thee. Lord Lytton. | | Love with rosy fetter held us firmly bound Pure un mixed en joyment grateful here we found. Cursed Cursed | | be the | | social ! | wants that | sin a | 'gainst the ) strength of | youth | be the be the social | lies that | warp us err | from the | living truth | | Cursed sickly | forms that | from | honest | na- ture's rule Cursed be the head of the | | gold that | | | gilds the | straitened | fore- fool 1 Tennyson. | | Here is a specimen of this verse truncated. .

and the storms on sea and shore When we sake. They require the constant recurrence of two syllables both unaccented and short to one syllable accented. read of deed and daring done for dear old England's We have cited Nelson's duty and the enterprise of Drake. it was in the bleak December. Poe. In the market-place of Bruges stands the belfry old and brown: Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded. Ah And ! 47 distinctly I remember. vainly I had sought to borrow From my books surcease of sorrow— sorrow for the lost Lenore For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore Nameless here for evermore. Aytoun.: — — MEASURES OF VERSE. the world threw off the darkness like the weeds of widowLongfellow. covert. and sit beside me we have often talked before Of the hurricane and tempest. Eagerly wished the morrow . each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the I floor. As the And summer morn was breaking on that lofty tower I stood. Come. and our language does not afford that proportion. . Judge how looked the life When they saw the rugged mountain start to with armed men. still it watches o'er the town. hood. my lad. Their construction being thus rendered .—ANAPESTIC MEASURE. Then we bounded from our Saxons then. Trisyllabic measures have not been much used by our poets for reasons that are not far to seek. Clement Scott. 3.

Never hear the sweet mu sic of speech. Moore. The licences made use of in verse of this kind are many and varied. lam I 5ut | df | human Ity's reach. and their rhythmical ring being more pronounced and therefore liable to become monotonous. however. trimeter verse. it need not surprise us that no lengthy poem has been attempted in the three-syllable metre. | mfir. adequate for all the purposes of illustration and explanation. the interchange of feet. the omission and addition of syllables being almost the rule instead of the exception. Tts the last | rSse of | sum . » Left bloom Ing alone All her lovely companions Are faded and gone. given. It is unnecessary. we think. . and Tennyson. | | | | Cotoper.48 ORTHOMBTRY. numerous and varied examples are. must fin ish my jour ney alone. I start at the sound of my own. especially in Shelley. to preserve further the detailed classification of dimeter. Longfellow. as has been Normal Measure ——— | | | —*»_. done in the dissyllabic measures. and the reader will find abundant material for the exercise of the critical faculty and skill in scanning in the works of all our modern poets. Pure symmetrical lines are rarely met with consecutively unless the rhyme demands it. more complex and artificial than dissyllabic verse.

| ] | | I I come. yet the melody throughout is perfect. Shelley. She from the land where her young hero sleeps. is far | | | And lov I | | . And the lips of the minstrel for ever was mute. to the fo rest. MEASURES OF VERSE. Like a summer-dried fountain. There the war | rior lay stretched | | in the midst | | of his pride. " Pompeii.. When our need was the sorest. and forsaken the lute. Till fold after fold I to the faint | ing air | soul of her beau ty and love lay bare." And the rose unveil I | like | a nymph | | to the bath | addrest. | Which The ed the depth | of her glow | ing breast. . Wolfe. not a fun eral to the ram part we hur | | note. | ye have | call | id me long. Scott. | | | ried Not a dier discharg | O'er the grave ed his fare well shot where our he ro we bur ied. | come I o'er the mount ain with light and song B . HS Is gone He is lost | 49 5n thg I moun | | tain. the bride | Anon. of his bride And groom fell dead by the corpse Unwept was the lyre. I I come. Not a drum | As his corse sol I was heard. trical Note here that the first verse is the only symmeone in the stanza. . ers around her are sigh ing But coldly she turns from their gaze and weeps For her heart in his grave is lying. Moore.

By the green leaves op ening as I pass. The concluding specimens exhibit still greater irregularities. in church — Tennyson. E. And the stars are shining bright. it And the first may be last— I have heard And the last may be first. And a spirit in my feet I arise | | In the | | Has led me who knows how ?— To thy chamber-window. wakening. and the melody runs smoothly. When the winds are breathing low. first sweet sleep of night. Delicate violet-bloom that shrank from the bitter wind. sweet. opening. though in every case the flow is distinctly anapestic. Shelley. For the lawyer is The Saviour lives born but to murder but to bless. Hickty. " Ri«p»h. By the prim rose stars in the shad owy grass. All the tender flowers could gather about his head so I could only find . vidlet. By the winds which tell of the vi olets' birth. — I have laid him down in the cot that each night used and spread I I rock. there shall from dreams of thee." . | | | | | | | | | | | In the last example the rhythm demands that be no elision in called. You may trace my step o'er the wak ening earth.— SO | ORTHOMETRY. I arise from dreams of thee. Early springtime it is.

Hogg. lads. Bird of the wilderness. martial ring about it it suitable for gay and sprightly ShadSws of beauty Shadows Sf powfir 1 | ! | Rise t8 your duty This Is the hour. lads. 4.* Hood. | Rash and un Past all dis | honour. Light be thy matin o'er mountain and | | | | | lea Emblem of | happiness. Come. | Death has Only the left | on her beautiful.— : . . Ruskin. remark! upon this poem." p. | | | | . Port and Ma deira be side. and the accent equal on every syllable " (sic). O to a bide in the I | desert with thee. of this measure presents the same Anapestic that Trochaic does to has a bounding. MEASURES OF VERSE.— DACTYLIC 51 MEASURE. Make no deep Into her | | scrutiny dutiful mutiny. in his " Elements of English Prosody. 34. "the emotion is entirely continuous. | I Byron. — Normal Measure | —— | — --' ^ | The rhythm antithesis : to Iambic it which renders lyrics. | Blest be thy dwelling-place | . Blithesome and cumberless. let us sit and be merry. | | | | * Mr. Here we se curely can hide Here we have claret and sherry.

| Stormed at with | shot and shell. 4th series. z. p. vol. G. Crispin's day Fought was this noble fray." * This famous Charge of the Light Brigade. O when shall Englishmen With such acts fill a pen. Rode the six hundred. both in metre and style. Into the mouth of hell. Or England breed again Such a King Harry I . Byron. was doubtless suggested. by a short but grand poem by Michael Drayton on the battle of Agincourt. Boldly they rode and well. | front of them. Here we go off on the " London and Birmingham. the last stanza of which is as follows :— Upon St. says Mr. thou | bonny | bird. Tell me. Scott..! — 52 ORTHOMETRY.* | | | Tennyson. | path. Which fame did not delay To England to carry." Bidding adieu to the foggy metropolis Staying at home with the dumps in confirming 'em Motion and mirth are a fillip to life. | | | | | | sword Heed not a Bury your | corse. When shall I marry me ? When six braw gentlemen | Kirkward shall | carry ye. Warriors and Pierce | chiefs ! me in | | leading the should the shaft or the hosts of the Lord. steel in the though a king's. Austin Dobion (Notes and Queries. | Volleyed and thundered. Into the jaws of death. left | of them. : " Railway Dactyls. D. in your bosoms of Gath. Cannon Cannon Cannon to to in | right of them. 338).

MEASURES OF VERSE. | daughter from | over the | sea.! ! ! ! . The more following examples will be found to run measure of Amphibrachs. We'll follow the Bourbon ! | | Th6 BourbSn ! I To plunder | old Rome. | I Bright are the visions of | youth ere they | Passing a Sea-king's | way like a | dream of the | heart. | thundering all | cheer of the | street her. the Bourbon Sans country 8r home. Guide where our Infant Re deemer is laid. Brightest and sons of the morning. thunders of fort and of fleet | | | I I | | ! | | | Welcome Welcome her. darkness and lend us thine aid Star of the East. though by regarding the first foot as an Iambus it would become Anapestic. Alexandra Saxon and Norman and Dane are we. But all of us Danes in our welcome of thee. Alexandra Welcome her. Hervey. | best of the | | | Dawn on our | | | | | j | | Heber. Onward she Over the | | 53 | glides | waters a | amid ripple and way and a way | spray part. | | things | youthful | and 1 | sweet Scatter the blossom | under her feet Tennyson. Byron. Th8 dew of the mSrnlng Sank chill on my brow. the hor izon a doming. while by beginning with a single syllable The general character of the it becomes Dactylic. | It felt like | the warning I Of what I feel now. . rhythm as interpreted by a trained ear is the sole in the test.

| | | Macgregor. in a robe of clouds. hear thy name spoken. Around his waist are forests braced. The av'lanche in his hand . Like the spirit of gliding with pinion Like an angel descending to comfort the world. are | | impatient | | and chide thy | | delay. In the extracts which follow. Thy vows are | all | broken. all of which are full rhythm is so varied that it is difficult to pronounce with certainty which of the measures predominates. | The morn The clans Arise. warning of what I feel now. of melody. Gerald Griffin. And I light is | thy fame. Byron. But ere it fall. . that thundering ball for Must pause my command. the Now Now silently poised o'er the war of the main. Hogg. . On a throne of rocks. This The" It | is perhaps better scanned as follows d6w 8f thS | | : | felt like the | morning sank chill on my brow. let ri | Macgregor. remember our foemen ses broad from the brow of Ben Lomond | | ! | | . us bound to Glenlyon away. And share in its shame.54 ORTHOMETRY. With a diadem of snow. Mount Blanc is the monarch of mountains. | Byron. We crowned him long ago. Charity brooding o'er pain all silently furled.

There came to the beach a poor exile of Erin The dew on his thin robe was heavy and chill For his country he sighed when at twilight repairing. I 55 was a child. Foe. I and my Annabel Lee With a love that the winged seraphs . . Sheilty. And . In this kingdom by the sea . and she was a child. MEASURES OF VERSE. But we loved with a love that was more than love. Campbell. I arise and unbuild it again. I silently laugh at my own cenotaph. like a ghost from the tomb. To wander alone by the wind-beaten hill. out of the caverns of rain. Like a child from the womb. of heaven Coveted her and me..

Writers of verse are under no necessity to a slavish adherence to metrical rules.g j^ 1 life | is ! cold | and dark | It rains an<* the w n<* ' *s I nev and drear y er wear 7« | ' I . in addition mingling of long and short measures in elegant complexity. MIXED METRES. . the have to illustrate. or about the lower grounds in fantastic mazes but his movements must always be rhythmical and his utterances musical. the combined effect of which often adds to the melody of the rhythm the richness of harmony. Trochaic with Dactylic.' urge him that lends freedom to the measure movement. and relieves the monotony of regularity. together with the fitful ring of rhymes. We have already to the adoption of every possible variety of pointed out the addition or omission of short syllables. Linguistic difficulties and the ' seductive chains of linked sweetness. in both of which the swing of the melody is uninterrupted. Amongst the simpler of these combinations are the Iambic with Anapestic. Now we to these variations. e.: . the interchange of feet of one kind for those of another. The muse may soar high with steady flutter wing and stately swoop.

And Willy's wife has written for Never the wife —he wouldn't take my advice. Then Till the livelong daylight fail to the spicy nut-brown ale. upland hamlets will invite. And Willy." In the following.. Milton. Sweet tones are remembered not the lips have spoken. And the jocund rebecs sound. To many a youth and many a maid Dancing in the chequer'd shade forth to play And young and old come On a sunshine holiday. " —she never was overwise Tennyson. — MIXED METRES. Longfellow. Shelley. and strong on Willy his legs. little Annie ? white. light in the dust lies dead . you say. is gone. . Loved accents are soon forgot. When The the cloud the lute is is scattered. | are dark and drear y. 57 | My thoughts | still | cling | to the | mould | ering past.. he looks like a man. is rainbow's glory shed When When broken. In L' Allegro and // Penseroso the measures are mingled irregularly. The Grandmother. . When The the lamp is shattered. When the merry bells ring round. . Iambic and Trochaic verses alternate regularly. Sometimes with secure delight The. And the hopes And the days of youth | fall | thick in the blast. my Ruddy and eldest born.

In realms long held beneath a tyrant's sway. the bic. But the British lion's roar. He who. Combina4. Trochaic. where the number of feet in each verse. The waves lie still and gleaming. 6. for I have lived to-day. is 4. The charmed ocean's pausing. ! Happy the man. as in the examples here given. Banded despots hate the sight In the 4. and happy he alone. When. Heard on every shore. as if its sound were causing . Iam- In this auspicious day Her glorious ensign floats. A combination figures denote the of the same species of verse is made by those which differ in the number of their feet. And in spite Arm their slaves for war and plunder. 2. 5. Lo Freedom hath again appear" d 1 ! tions in 3. secure within. Soon shall break their impious league asunder. To-morrow do thy worst. '5. and high in Spain rear'd. .: . 58 ORTHOMETRY. 3. Dryden. ^ 4. He who can call to-day his own. can say. And the lulled winds seem dreaming Byron. As also in the following There be none of Beauty's daughters With a magic like thee And like music on the waters Is thy sweet voice to me.

or parts of a verse. viz. indignant. if you need 'em Every Briton will yield will assist the Other combinations are those of trochaic with the anapestic different kinds .: : . 3. and the two These combinations are made last together. And baffle. Another line in the same ode is of ambiguous measure. . ! MIXED METRES. '3. Their foes that advance They shall laugh at the threats of the Holy Alliance. Prayers and arms in your cause. 1. : These are | Grecian | ghosts that in | battle were | slain. 4. in a variety of degrees sometimes no greater than single verses. merrily shall I live now Under the blossom that hangs on the bough. A napes- 4. 1 2. defenders of Freedom . as in this of Dryden's Ode. of verse. On Heaven to the field ! In th'e ' Dactylic. th' invasion of France. the 2. \ 4. the iambic with the three others the and dactylic. Such combinations are to be observed as matters of curiosity rather than imitated. the anapestic with the iambic : And amazed | he stares | around. Ariel's Song On in the Tempest combines the tro- chaic with the dactylic the bat's back I do fly After summer merrily Merrily. but it reads and scans better as trochaic . The latter half is anapestic so the first may be. 59 Then Spaniards shall set at defiance : In tic. according to the fancy of the writer.4. .

Herds stand weeping. half as many combinations : Behold a ghastly band. being trochaics of five feet. for love is dead. . just quoted has. ? Cross thy delights with a thousand sad tormentings . flocks all sleeping. Nymphs very extraordinary combination of English is a song by Campion. verse A What if a Crown thy day. the last curtailed. Green plants bring not forth their dye . All our love is lost. All our evening sport from us is fled . which may account for so singular a specimen of metre.. or a month. 60 ORTHOMETRY. musician as well as a poet. Each a torch in his hand These are Grecian ghosts that And unburied remain Inglorious on the plain Give the vengeance due. of delights with a thousand wish'd contentings Cannot a chance a night or an hour. : : in battle were slain. who will be quoted at Campion was eminent as a length hereafter. In Love's Labour's Lost there is a stanza formed by a curious combination of verses. the cause of all my woe Poor Coridon must live alone. Other help for him I see that there is none. AH our merry meetings on the plains. or a year. some of them of a measure very uncommon. black peeping fearfully. For a sweet content. Clear wells spring not. sweet birds sing not. sweet love. All our pleasur > known to us poor swains. within the The ode compass of six lines. ihy like ne'er was. Farewell.

is finely contrasted with the smooth iambic which describes the gentle gait of Venus. N6w pursuing. 6 In their live bereiving. In every combination there should be a design some effect to introduce a combination without any design is a mark of carelessness. for example. Wanton Fortune. : . MIXED METRES. are but shadows flying. or lack of patience and resource. but the change is made more properly when it is done to accommodate the verse to the sentiments. Idle thoughts deceiving None hath power of an hour. in his ode on the Progress of Poesy. n6w retreating. N6w in circling tr6ops they m6et brisk n6tes in cadence beating Glance their many twinkling teet.e. by a change of the measure. beauty. of producing .. Gray. are but blossoms dying pleasure. has produced a very striking and happy effect by such a combination of verses the tripping measure which represents the frisky dance of the Cupids. honour. . youth. as the iambic what is sprightly by the trochaic. T6 A duced disagreeable and jarring effect would be proif they were made contrariwise to this. what is grave by a suitable kind. doting love. for the sake of variety. to express. i. and the like. All our joys are but toys. 1 . . . Slow melting strains their queen's approach declare In gliding state she wins her easy way. The effect designed may be merely to please.

and gives the measure desired. which follows a produces an unpleasing effect for it seems to have a syllable too much. . he quoted the passage from Dryden incor- The last line. rectly . This satisfies the ear for the verses flow smoothly on to the end of the period. being an iambic. In his Art of Poetry. . but full. The following is good : The listening 'tis Muses all around her Think Phoebus' strains they hear. because the iambic measure is continued unbroken. . the last line runs thus And can ne'er be made a slave. In fact. the trochaic and iambic should change places. followed by a trochaic. ORTHOMETRY. Combinations may be esteemed good or bad. not curtailed. because the measure is broken: strike out that syllable. trochaic. in that author. and the offence will be removed the trochaic measure will be preserved to the end. A mind that's truly brave Stands despising Storms arising. Here is an iambic with a redundant syllable . It offends the ear. in this instance. And can't be made a slave. The combination below is not good. line.: 62 if. the objectionable line is owing to a mistake of Bysshe. which is a trochaic verse. according as they preserve or break the measure and flow of the verse.

One reason is. . . generwhich subjoins a short line to a long one. and. Desolate. o'erwhelm As this nether ball. And upon this account. Should gape immense. Another reason why these combinations are faulty. that such a combination is is wants dignity. because the preceding line heroic verse. especially if they rhyme together as. 6j In serious poetry the combination is bad. ally speaking. In these lines the quick return of the rhyme nearly destroys the gravity of the matter. as in this instance if great Atlas from his height Should sink beneath his heavenly weight. Akenside. To By give another example Euphrates' flowery side . is the disproportion between the length of the lines. Dryden. the combination would still be unpleasing. which the more apparent in this inthe stately : stance. And with a mighty flow the flaming wall. rushing down. We did bide and When poor Sion's doleful state. As once it shall. Be thou thine own approver .: MIXED METRES. if lines as disproportionate as these were set in a contrary order. honest praise Oft nobly sways Ingenuous youth.

. may be and follow the Alexandrine sylvans to their shades retire Those very shades and streams new shades and streams And want a cooling breeze of wind to fan the raging fire. After this manner in. gradual increase above the preceding which makes the Alexandrine so graceful in the close for it has no beauty if set in the beginning of a poem or stanza. of our poets. of glass Perceiving his mistress had one eye . increasing. or more. Dryden.: . 64 ORTHOMETRY. Warton.: : . lines. in a moderate i. his tribute all sincere. the verse of fourteen syllables brought with good effect The require. where wit is often most happily expressed by brevity. as they proceed.e. had blameless been. What a frail thing is beauty ! says Baron le Cras. is But a good combination degree : made by two . The lighter sorts of poetry are not to be consid- In epigrams. as it has been by some It is this lines . by one or two feet example All real here the bard The The His lyre glories of his pictured had seen queen : tuneful Dryden had not flatter'd here. the point or concluding line may very properly be shorter than the preceding as in this ered as necessarily subject to this rule. for instance.

O divine light Through the cloud that roofs our noon with night. too true By a negligent rage proved the maxim it. Fall'n.! . divine light 1 Tennyson. Through the blotting mist. : MIXED METRES. She dropt the eye and broke Prior. the blinding showers. Fought all his battles o'er again. Far from out a sky for ever bright. And thrice he routed all his foes. Over all the woodland's flooded bowers. and thrice he slew the The master saw the madness rise. and The Sisters furnish illustrations of still greater complexity. Over all the meadows drowning flowers. 65 angry she grew. Fallen from his high estate. He sang By Darius great and good. more enraged as more it. Soothed with the sound the king grew vain. He chose a mournful muse. The concluding specimens of mixed metres from Dryden's Alexander's Feast. fall'n. And weltering in his blood. Dryden. And scarcely had he spoke When she. Tennyson's Ode on the Death of the Duke of Wellington. Break. fall'n. . His glowing cheeks. fall'n. Changed his hand and checked his pride. Over all this ruined world of ours. Soft pity to infuse : slain. too severe a fate. his ardent eyes And when he heaven and earth defied.

With honour. And keep the soldier firm. Tennyson. Let his great example stand. honour. shame. honour Eternal honour to his name.66 OR THOMETR Y. honour. And when the long-illumined cities flame Their ever-loyal iron leader's fame. seen of every land. Colossal. and through all human : story The path of duty be the way to glory And let the land whose hearths he saved from For many and many an age proclaim. But while the races of mankind endure.. to him. the statesman pure". Till in all lands. At civic revel and pomp and game. .

as termed. and nearly all other it may be and other minor poetic forms. In continuous verse are the heroic measures of Chaucer. all the great poems of our own tongues are embodied. or in detached groups of a VERSES varying number of lines. i. since it allowed them the widest freedom of rhythmic roll. . &c.COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. and the noble blank verse of Milton. and Tennyson. Goldsmith. Addison. which are called stanzas. Keats. a stanea . Dryden. extending in some instances to thousands of lines. generally of iambic pentameter. Cowper. and harassed them with the fewest verbal diffi* A verse is a succession of feet forming one line of a poem 3 group of verses constituting a regular division of a poem. Wordsworth.* The former consist of verses of the same metre. Pope. and in this amorphous form. without division or metrical complexity.—CONTINUOUS VERSE. The latter includes all our lyric poetry. Shakspere. All the great masters of song have clothed their lofty imaginings and philosophy in this form. are combined to form poems either in continuous unbroken runs.

2. Then back again his curls And cheerful turned to he threw. R. laboured. illustrate the various We now proceed to of stanza into which poets (a). it is obviously impossible to exhibit specimens of all varieties that may be found. ORTHOMETRY. forms have moulded their verses with infinite variety. long and well Over his work the boy's curls fell. Stanzas of Two Verses. and the verses themselves range in length from one to eight feet. . Of epic and dramatic verse." . Poets. we have spoken elsewhere. " The Boy and the Angel. work anew. or in portraying the chequered drama of life the minuteness and polish of the miniature picture is bestowed for the most part upon lyrical efforts. These are called Hard he distichs or couplets. however. ters. which embraces nearly all the continuous forms of poetry. like their brother artists the pain- have availed themselves of larger canvas and freer methods of treatment when depicting continuous heroic action.: 68 culties.—STANZAIC VERSE. sekcted with care as many and as varied illustrations of each kind as the subject demands. We have. As these groups of verses not only vary in number from two to sixteen. Browning.

. not cast in endless shade to the me is What so wonderfully made. that. " Locksley Hall. These are known as together are called and when rhyming triplets." . me sleeping. lightly shaken. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. passed in music out of sight. " Two Voices." And the world beneath than the sky." (*). A still " Thou Were Then " Let small voice spake unto me. " My Mary." Tennyson. " Belfry of Bruges. Stanzas of Three Verses. Love took up the glass of Time. Tennyson. tenets. in more lovely my sight Than golden beams of orient light. . From their nests beneath and high the rafters 69 hung the swallows wild seemed more distant Longfellow." Thy Are silver locks. it not better not to be " ? still small voice I said. Comber. Love took up the harp of life. still once auburn bright. and turned it in his glowing hands Every moment. . and smote on all the chords with might Smote the chord of Self. ran itself in golden sands. trembling. art so full of misery.

R. Browning. And this story of both do our townsmen tell. Maiden with the meek. is't. silken twist. And withered in my hand. this my For what other reason But to show thee how. 70 ORTHOMETRY. brown eyes In whose orbs a shadow lies. " Life and the Flowers. But Time did beckon to the flowers. There's a palace in Florence the world knows well. It Anon. Francis Mahony (Father Prout). and tie My life within this band. Herrick." made a posy while the day ran by Here will I smell my remnant out. Beautiful faces are those that wear matters little if dark or fair Whole-souled honesty printed there.— — — . Julia. "The Bracelet. And a statue watches it from the square. Till my life all sunshine seems 'Tis the Ladye of Lee. " The Statue and the Bust" When I tie about thy wrist. in part." There's a being bright whose beams Light my days and gild my dreams. ? —But thy bond-slave I Thou my pretty captive art is my heart. Herbert. Like the dusk in evening skies 1 ! 1 . and they By noon most cunningly did steal away.

the sweetest rain Makes not fresh or grow again. Weep no more. I hold it true." . ! — 1 Mrs." I hear the trailing garments of the night ! I Sweep through her marble halls saw her sable skirts all fringed with light From the celestial walls Longfellow. " In Memoriam. Tennyson. Beaumont and Fletcher. These are designated quatrains. 71 O thou child of many prayers life ! Life hath quicksands hath snares Care and age come unawares Longfellow. or moan. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. Grief recalls no hour that's gone Violets plucked. "Hymns to the Night. I sorrow most. Browning's Vision of Poets consists of upwards of three hundred stanzas of rhymed triplets. I feel it when lost. and are more other arrangement of verses. (e). what follows of the common than any lengths. whate'er befall. The first four examples illustrate the various dispositions of the rhymes. Stanzas of Four Verses. 'Tis better to have loved and Than never to have lovd at all. or sigh.! .

Love. And that infantine fresh air of hers " ! R.' Now all With is short shrill shriek hushed save where the weak-eyed bat flits by on leathern wing." Let's contend no more. 72 ORTHOMETRY. And louder than the bolts of Heaven Far flashed the red artillery. " Ode to Evening. The rising morn has hid the stars Her level rays. Collins. Strive nor weep All be as before. A Pretty Woman. Lie on the landscape green. . " Hohenlinden. A Woman's Last Word. Love." That fawn-skin dappled hair of hers. — Only sleep " R. like golden bars. Anon. And the blue eye." We three archers be. Or where the beetle winds His small but sullen horn. Rangers that move through the north countree." . Then rushed the steed. " Endymion. Browning. Campbell.! . to battle driven . Longfellow. With shadows brown between. Browning. That value not honour or money. Lovers of ven'son and liberty. Then shook the hills with thunder riven . Dear and dewy.

Full many a gem many a waste of purest ray serene The dark unfathomed caves Full flower its And of ocean bear born to blush unseen. sweetness on the desert air. Another year is 73 swallowed by the sea Of sunless waves Another year. thou past eternity Has rolled o'er new-made graves. Gray. as in Gray's Elegy. " Milton's Last Verses. constitute the Elegiac stanza. by no of mine. that thou should'st shed Full radiance here I O 1 Give but a ray of peace. Lloyd. ." Give I feel me now my lyre ! the stirrings of a gift divine Within my bosom Lit glows unearthly skill fire. Ebenezer " Elliott.! . and the Are mine alone ! Byron (In his 36th year). A New Year. Four heroics rhyming alternately. Eliz. the canker. that may tread Without a fear. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. ! ." I do not ask. Lord. . Adelaide Anne Procter. is ." My days are in the yellow leaf are gone. The flowers and fruits of love The worm. grief. " Per pacem ad lucem.

74 OR THOMETR Y. "The Steadfast Life. and have been employed by our poets in great variety of rhyme and length of verse. A All melancholy lying Thus wailed she for her dear Replied each blast with sighing. slight variation of the latter goes by the name of Gray's stanza." Who He that doth his is the honest man ? To God. (<2). Queen of Bohemia. R. Browning. Gay." You meaner beauties of the night. rise ? Wotton. and so was light. or wrench from giving all their due. to pierce the strained and tight When Tent of heaven. .:. light That poorly satisfy our eyes More by your number than your You common people of the skies. Four and three iambics alternate are known as Ballad or Service stanza. a planet small Life was dead." . still Whom neither force nor fawning can Unpin. "A Serenade. there rose no moon at all. Each billow with a tear. That was I you heard last night. and strongly good pursue neighbour. These are called quintains. and himself most true. What are you when the moon shall "To Elizabeth. Nor. Herbert. Stanzas of Five Verses.

" ." We look before and after. Browning. " Midnight Mass for the Dying Year. "The Go. that wastes her time and me. Hooded fairly like her hawk.. : COMBINATIONS OF VERSES." Yes." But he fluttered his wings with a sweet little cry." Tennyson. sorely 1 I Longfellow. Listening less to her own music than for footsteps on the walk. Waller. With a book or lute in summer." Tell her. Love flew in at the 75 window said I. And a hope of sweeter talk. the year is growing old. with frosty hand and cold Plucks the old man by the beard." Oh. Sorely. . That now she knows. " You have come as you saw Wealth coming. As Wealth walked in at the door. Shelley.Ode to a Skylark. " The Rose's Message. lovely Rose 1 Foresters. And his eye is pale and bleared Death. a lady might have come there. When I resemble her to thee How sweet and fair she seems to be. " I'll cleave to you rich or poor. And pine for what is not Our sincerest laughter With some pain is fraught Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought. "The Lost Bower. Mrs.

." is gone. And heard the wooing thrushes sing. . Two by a moss-grown spring They leaned soft cheeks together there Mingled the dark and sunny hair. called the Sestet pale. Ere the dawning of morn's undoubted Is the light. "The Pauper's Deathbed. flame of light so fickle and wan That flits round our steps till their strength Shelley. The and the moony smile Which the meteor-beam of a starless night Sheds on a lonely and sea-girt isle. can image you." Stranger ! however great. nursed in hamlets small— I love ye all Nicholl. " Death. ! . O budding time O love's blest prime. the cold. Than those that flourish by a garden wall I And Fair. " Wild Flowers. Ah ! wretched and too solitary he loves not his Who To own company He'll feel the weight oft many a day. lovers : ! ! Beautiful flowers to me ye fresher seem From the Almighty hand that fashioned all. modest maidens. as in a dream. One by Greater than thou. With lowly reverence that paltry bed. Cowley. Stanzas of Six Verses.! . Unless he calls in sin or vanity help to bear't away. George Eliot. Bowles. 76 ORTHOMETRY." (*). bow There's one in that poor shed.

. palaces. " Mountain Daisy. Till she. And all alone went she. is laid i' the dust. And time had not begun to overthrow Those temples. his matted hair Was buried in Again the sand. all soiled. "The Slave's Dream." Fair pledges of a fruitful tree. . The western wind was wild and dark with foam. Burns. Kingsley. in the mist and shadow of sleep He saw his Native Land. Sweet flow' ret of the rural shade 77 1 By love's simplicity betrayed And Low guileless trust. home. and piles stupendous Of which the very ruins are tremendous I Horace Smith. I) When the Memnonium was in all its glory. go and call the cattle And call the And call the cattle cattle home. Longfellow. Across the sands o' Dee. His sickle in his hand His breast was bare. like thee. •• Address to a Mummy. And thou hast walked about (how strange a story In Thebes's streets three thousand years ago." Beside the unfathered rice he lay. home. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES." O Mary. fall Why do you is so fast ? Your date not so past. Such is the fate of artless maid.

" I was not ever I loved to prayed that Thou me on choose and see my path but now thus. Newman. e. Burns. Pride ruled my will : remember not past years. the last two in succession. and winds. and through the starting tear Survey this grave.. I love snow. first five Seven heroics. (/). form what is known as Rhyme Royal. spite of fears. Chaucer." Untainted by man's misery. Stanzas of Seven Verses.'' clear Is there a man whose judgment Can others teach the course to steer. &c. " To Blossoms. " Invocation. and. and may be Shelley.g. loved the garish day. nor Should'st lead — Lead Thou me I on. Yet runs himself life's mad career Wild as the wave ? Here pause. But you may stay yet here awhile To blush and gently smile. Spenser. : . And go at last. . but has found few imitations in modern poets. 78 ORTBOMETRY. Herrick. " A Bard's Epitaph. and storms. the rhyming at intervals. This stanza was much used by early writers. Everything almost is Which Nature's. I and all the forms Of the radiant frost love waves.

Lyre. south dries the hawthorn sprayOnly. what a dawn of day 1 How the March All is sun feels like May 1 blue again. the sooner to sleep." " The Three . Kingsley. and is more fairly dight With cheerful grace and amiable sight For of the soul the body form doth take For soul is form and doth the body make. The Lover to his Oh. " A Lover's Quarrel. Spenser." Three corpses lay out on the shining sands In the morning gleam as the tide went down And the women were weeping and wringing their hands For those who will never come back to the town. So every So it 79 spirit as it it is most pure." Cowley.— ! . And the After last night's rain. the fairer body doth procure To habit it. and women must weep. . JR. Tell her such different notes make " all thy harmony. And the sooner it's And good-bye to over. Browning. my love's away I'd as lief that the blue were grey. awake my lyre ! And tell thy silent master's humble tale In sounds that may prevail inspire Sounds that gentle thought Though so exalted she And I so lowly be. the bar and its moaning. . Fishers. Awake. And hath in the more of heavenly light. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. For men must work.

knelt to pray. to Thee— Nearer to Thee. Which make thee terrible and dear. And meant." Though." Swiftly walk over the western wave. hold Life's new pleasures manifold. Swift be thy flight Shelley. all the long and lone daylight.. Spirit of Night Out of the misty eastern cave. And the poet heard their bells. my God. But his rhymes Found other chimes Nearer to the earth than they. that none could guess We were children of one mother mutual tenderness. Paced the cloisters. to Thou art rose-lined from the cold." We are so unlike each other Thou and But for I. Browning. My rest a stone Yet in my dreams I'd be Nearer. The sun gone down. Thou wovest dreams of joy and fear. " Bertha in the Lane. . In the convent clad in grey. Sat the monks in lonely cells. ! ! 80 ORTHOMETRY. Sarah Flower Adams. Longfellow " Olive Basselin. Mrs. Where. like a wanderer. " To Night. verily. Darkness be over me.

are known as Ottava Rima. And darkly looked he at the wall. "Their van What hope to save the town ? " Macaulay. And the Consul's speech was low. the last two in succession. The flower that smiles to-day dies 8« To-morrow All that we wish to stay Tempts and then flies is this : What world's delight ? Lightning that mocks the night. and Por: tugal are arranged in this stanza tion of Morgante Maggiore Byron's transla- and it. Brief even as bright. " Mutability. COMBINATIONS Of VERSES. Shelley.! . . Stanzas of Eight Verses. " Horatius." A wizard is he you see. his Don Juan axe the best English examples of But the Consul's brow was sad. And darkly at the will foe. d'ye see ? Temples arise in the upper Do air : Now they are gone. Spain. the six rhyming alternately. Many of the great poems of Italy. be upon us Before the bridge goes down And if they once may win the bridge. first Eight heroics. And a troop comes on ladies fair . Of plumed knights and ." (g).

John. One huge nameless rock in the front was ascending. The day's aye fair I' the land o' the leal. John." . "To Violets. When I mark'd the sad spot where the wanderer had died. "Helvellyn. save. Striden-edge round the Red-tarn was bending. Like snaw wreaths in thaw. 82 ORTHOMETRY. 1 Sir Walter Scott." Welcome. by fits." I'm wearin' awa'. John. John. On the right. . when the eagle was yelling. There's neither cold nor care. Lady Nairn. Herrick. climbed the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn. She has virgins many Fresh and fair Yet ye are More sweet than any. And wait upon her. maids of honour I You do bring In the spring. There's nae sorrow there. and a host of spirits grey Are floating onward away away Sarah Flower Adams. They pass — — ! ! " March Song. And Catchedicam its left verge was defending. Lakes and mountains beneath me gleamed misty and wide All was still.. And starting around me the echoes replied. I'm wearin' awa' To the land o' the leal.

— COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. Thus to their hopeless eyes the night was shown. Which. Angels alone that soar above Enjoy such liberty. He sat him on the grass beside me. and now Death was here Byron. . and the sunless day went down Over the waste of waters like a veil. do. "To Althea. Of Fortune or Disdain. if withdrawn. And And to my ashes lend a tear Melt the hard marble with your groans. . from prison.. 1' Draw You near. Nor iron bars a cage Minds innocent and quiet take That for a hermitage If I have freedom in my love. And the dim desolate deep twelve days had : Feat ! Been their familiar. I'll call my mother. : And in my soul am free. M. Stone walls do not a prison make. And lovingly began to chide me And wiping from my cheek the tear. He feigned such pretty amorous love. lovers that complain. could but smile while whispering low Be quiet. 83 I Breathed such sweet vows one after other. " Don Juan. . And grimly darkled o'er the faces pale. would but disclose the frown Of one whose hate is masked but to assail." 'Twas twilight. C. He saw my anger was sincere. soften the relentless stones. . Lovelace.

Stavley. " To his Love. and not you I — Come. Donne. " Catarina to Camoens. Flung to the cavern-roof inconstant spheres And intertangled lines of light a knell Of sobbing voices came upon her ears : — From those departing Forms. " Sweetest eyes were ever seen. And every little circlet where they fell. . I ween. Browning. Close and cover These poor eyes. By feigned death to die. you called. on going a Journey. 'tis best to use myself in jest. " Witch of Atlas. cruelties and Beauty's pride ! T. O lover.: 84 ORTHOMETRY. have gazed too long —adieu ! Hope withdraws her peradventure— Death is near me. o'er the serene Of the white streams and of the forest green. Whose Of all Love's cold embraces the sad subject hide. with thy hollow breast Still in rude armour drest. Sweetest love I do not go For weariness of thee. Shelley." She spoke and wept : the dark and azure well Sparkled beneath the shower of her bright tears. ! Nor in hope the world can show But since that I A fairer love to me Must Thus die at last." On I the door you will not enter. thou fearful guest 1 Who." Mrs. speak.' Speak.

: and richesse to compare Yet childe ne kinsman living had he none To leave them to but thorough daily care To get.3. unto himselfe unknowne. structure. are written in each of these poems follows His life it. 8. The Spectre in Armour. and nightly feare to lose. dost thou haunt me " Longfellow. . Byron's Childe Harold. 1. Besides the Fairie Queene. Revolt of Islam. as palms ? Why asking alms. To fill He led a wretched life. 4. Burns's Cotter's Saturday Night. "Avarice. Stanzas of Nine Verses. fleshlcss if But with thy Stretched. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES.: ." . made to rhyme in three sets. One particular arrangement of nine-line verse is known as the Spenserian stanza. And thread-bare cote and cobbled shoes he Ne scarce good morsell all his life did taste But both from backe and bellie still wore . and these are 2. his owne. A stanza from was nigh into death's door yplast. Comest to 85 daunt me ! Wrapt not in Eastern balms. did spare. Sj>enser. 7 ." (A). either for lengthy or short compositions. and Shelley's poets. Though it is thus complex in 9. his bags. is sufficient 6. Beattie's Minstrel. 5. It consists of eight by an Alexandrine. being first used by heroics followed Spenser in his Fairie Queene. and to make it a favourite form with most of our Thomson's Castle of Indolence. there to render it variety in its stately swing suitable.

Thomson. by living stream. virtue. scoff of Pride. Fortune. at Let health eve : my nerves and finer fibres brace. Ah who ! can tell how hard it is to climb The Ah ! steep where Fame's proud temple shines afar who can tell how many a soul sublime felt Has the influence of malignant star. reason. by Envy's frown." .* * Forbes's " Life of Beattie. I their toys to the great children leave . into the grave. It seems also very well adapted to the genius of our language. nought can me bereave. which from its irregularity of inflexion of monosyllables. You cannot bar my constant feet to trace The woods and lawns. what you me deny . I think it the most harmo- nious that ever alternate it was contrived. and concludes with a pomp and majesty of sound which to my ear is wonderfully delightful.. 86 I ORTHOMETRY. . Dr. and number abounds in diversified terminations and consequently renders our poetry susceptible of an endless variety of legitimate rhymes. care not. unpitied and unknown. And waged And In Checked by the life's with Fortune an eternal war . And Of fancy. Beattie. You cannot rob me of free Nature's grace You cannot shut the windows of the sky. Then dropped low vale remote has pined alone. Beattie says of this stanza so little : "lam surprised to find the structure of Spenser's complicated stanza troublesome. Poverty's unconquerable bar. Through which Aurora shows her morning face . It admits of more variety of pauses than either the couplet or the rhyme [he means the stanza of four].

87 ! O O happy love ! where love ! like this is found heart-felt raptures bliss beyond compare ! paced much this weary. Lives a woman true and fair. Things invisible to see. Byron. when thou return'st wilt tell me All strange wonders that befell thee. — Without a grave. If thou beest born to strange sights. and unknown. Burns. One cordial in this melancholy vale. unknelled. uncoffined. When. And swear. Ride ten thousand days and nights Till age snow white hairs on thee Then. modest pair In other's arms breathe out the tender tale. not Spenserian. mortal round. loving. follow. save his own." . I've Ten thousand fleets sweep Roll on. Beneath the milk-white thorn that scents the evening gale. 'Tis when a youthful. Donne.— . like a drop of rain He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan. thou deep and dark blue Ocean roll over thee in vain . Specimens of other nine-line stanzas. nor doth remain shadow of man's ravage. " Fair and False. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. for a moment. And sage experience bids me this declare If Heaven a draught of heavenly pleasure spare. upon the watery plain The wrecks are all thy deed . Nowhere. — 1 A Man marks the earth with ruin his control Stops with the shore .

within. wiser being good than bad . nor leisure. surpassing wealth.— No more where ignorance is bliss . (i). a sin will pierce It's safer The thickest cloud earth ever stretched after Last returns the First. . inward glory crowned love.. Thought would destroy their paradise. Shelley. " On a Distant Prospect of Eton College. The tender for another's pain. "Apparent Failure. see whom these surround. Nor what God blessed once. It. — 'lis folly to be wise. Nor that content. To each his sufferings all are men Condemned alike to groan. Yet ah why should they know their ! fate ? Since sorrow never comes too late. Th' unfeeling for his own. And walked with Others I Nor fame. . being meek than fierce It's fitter being sane than mad." Alas ! I Nor peace have nor hope. That Though a wide compass round be fetched That what began best can't prove worst. nor health. nor calm around. Browning. nor power. Gray. The sage in meditation found. My own hope is. . prove accurst. Stanzas of Ten Verses." . 88 It's ORTHOMETRY. And happiness too swiftly flies . nor Smiling they live.— and call life pleasure To me life's cup has been dealt in another measure. : .

And folly's all they taught me. As yet the early rising sun Has not attained his noon. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. most loving mere folly. 89 You haste we weep to see away so soon . Then heigh ho the holly ! ! ! I This life is most jolly. Thou dost not bite so nigh benefits forgot As Though thou the waters warp. Herrick. Stay. The time I've lost in wooing. Fair daffodils." Freeze. Has been my heart's undoing.. thou bitter sky. My only books Were woman's looks. we Will go with you along. Thy sting is not so sharp As friends rememberM not. Until the hast'ning day Has run. ! But to the even-song And having prayed together. . freeze. In watching and pursuing light that lies The In woman's eyes. Heigh ho sing heigh ho unto the green holly. Moore. ShaksQere. I scorned the love she brought me. Most friendship is feigning. " To Daffodils. stay. Tho' wisdom oft has sought me.

For she lies hushed in cold decay). Wither. like summer flowers away. 90 She passed OR THOMETR Y. a soft and naked child." And stings me now to shame . But Thee. and mine did not obey. : . Thy mother undefiled. Wanton eye. . or lip of ruby. Go. Woolner.. From off her virgin breast. Broken the golden bowl. " My Beautiful Lady. Her spirit went. Thos. Her aspect and her voice Will never more rejoice. For thou wert born of woman Holiest to this world of sin and gloom. Thou didst come. . Milman. Which It held her hallowed soul was an idle boast to say " Our souls are as the same. In the rude manger laid to rest ! O ! . Ever rob me of my rest." I'm no slave to such as you be Neither shall a snowy breast. display Thy beauty's ray To some Are all o'er-soon enamoured swain These common wiles Of sighs and smiles bestowed on me in vain. go. Not in Thy omnipotent array And not by thunders strewed Was Thy tempestuous road Nor indignation burnt before Thee on Thy way.

if you will not blame. As when the distant bagpipes blow. And this beside. I Stanzas of Eleven Verses. Like the round ocean girdled with the sky. since now at length all so. my love avails. 9 How beautiful is No night A dewy freshness fills the silent air mist obscures. 'tis said —Then. be— Since all my life seemed meant for. nor stain. fails. R. Your leave for one more last ride with me. Breaks the serene of heaven. . Since Since nothing my fate I know. . "The Last Ride Together. the landlord stirred. The landlord's eyes were closed in sleep. (/). As one awakening from a swound. 1 COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. And .— ! ! . How beautiful is night Southey. nor speck.' rises ! — The hour was late the fire burned low. dearest. nor cloud. At this all laughed . Since this was written and needs must My whole heart up to bless Your name in pride and thankfulness Take back the hope you gave I claim Only a memory of the same. In full-orbed glory yonder moon divine Rolls through the dark-blue depths Beneath her steady ray The desert-circle spreads. And. Browning. gazing anxiously around. near the story's end a deep Sonorous sound at times was heard.

since 'Twere idle. — . With the farewell and the hollo. Alas I can but teach thee. I was half broken-hearted For a week. Longfellow. Browning. my beloved. who try to reach thee. vainly follow. it's over." God be with thee. all around thee and beneath thee. And God be cannot reach thee so. Stanzas of Twelve Verses. me then. You'll come since we parted. Thy face unto the north. "Good Night. my beloved. But only shut his eyes. God be with thee Else alone thou goest forth. ! 92 ORTHOMETRY. O what a plague is love I 1 cannot bear will it She I inconstant prove. it. God be with thee Mrs." (£). to our ball . when they took you away. ! with thee. and kept His ears attentive to each word. you'll come to our ball ? Praed. 1 " A Valediction. Vainly follow. But. or worse to recall I know you're a terrible rover. I've thought of you more than I'll say Indeed. gfeatly fear . Looking equal in one snow While I. musical numbers to Which you used to sing know the romance.. Protested that he had not slept. Clarence. Fond fancy brought back to my slumbers And echoed the I Our walks on the Ness and the Den. Moor and pleasance. ! .

a want. your part While mine to repay it . Had her lover. all yours for a word. She said. Wants warmth from the heart which sends it so R. miles removed. love's proof to show But I cannot show it you cannot speak From the churchyard neither. The broken sheds Uplifted look'd sad and strange latch .: — : . " I am aweary. was the clinking Weeded and worn the ancient thatch Upon the lonely moated grange. Which stabs and stops. She loves still to gainsay Alack and well-a-day \\ Please her as best ! Fhilinda flouts me 1 Anon. aweary. Browning. Put into a look—just a look. . Were the woman that's dead alive to hear. . She wavers with the wind It so 93 As a ship saileth. " Mariana. that's lost. one and all The rusted nails fell from the knots That held the pear to the gable-wall. and finds none near. 1 . I may. that the woman I loved Needs help in her grave. valiant vaunt. : COMBINATIONS OF VERSES." With blackest moss the flower-plots Were thickly crusted. Though I feel by a pulse within my cheek. Ueie was I with my arm and heart And brain. torments my mind That my heart faileth . — ! "Too Late." . I would that I were dead 1" Tennyson. " My life is dreary He cometh not. She only said." she said .

. And Long years of toil and care. Stanzas of more than Twelve* Verses. And looked upon her Yet how she looked. pain and poverty. lie. while a playful child. For a full account of the Sonnet. last. Scattering contagious * fire into the sky. O see. see page 303. : o'er Spain. See. Every flower. and how she smiled Upon me. Within my memory lie As fresh as they had only been Bestowed. and felt." A glorious people vibrated again The lightning of the nations Liberty From heart to heart. My Grandmother. When the mind has lost all measures ? {I). from tower to tower.04 ORTHOMETRY. Every bower. and seen Since yesterday went by. What are all the senses' pleasures. A new life gives to others' joys Whilst that I. the fond embrace. The lustre of her eye. But what faster mine destroys. How every tree. Nor can meet With any sweet. The kind caress. : Grief-stricken. " John Bethune. The reverence of her placid face. have passed Since last I listened to her prayer. and heard.

My soul spurned the chains of its dismay. of thee With thy bells of Shandon.. Sweet Cork. in the rapid plumes of song. and the ray Of the remotest sphere of living flame Which paves the void was from behind it flung. And thus grow fonder. Where'er I wander. Whose sounds so wide would In my days of childhood. when there came The A voice out of the deep : I will record the same. . The Cloud. And recollection. Shelley's beautiful ode." With deep affection. Hovering in verse o'er its accustomed prey Till from its station in the heaven of fame . is built up of stanzas of twelve. sublime and strong As a young eagle soars the morning clouds among. I often think of Those Shandon bells. And. Shelley. On this I ponder. That sound so grand on The pleasant waters Of the river Lee. Francis Mahony Father Prout). COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. j 95 Spirit's whirlwind rapt it. fourteen. "Ode to Liberty. Clothed itself. As foam from a ship's swiftness. Fling round my cradle Their magic spells. and eighteen verses. the first of which is here given. Gleamed.

the sense is continuous. and perchance the best They felt. The following extract from Byron's Prophecy of Dante furnishes an excellent example are the poets who have never penned Their inspiration. and rejoined the stars Many Unlaureled upon earth. and it is therefore usual to present them in unbroken succession. as in Shelley's Triumph of Life. . And laugh as I pass in thunder. It consists of heroics with three rhymes the first line rhymes with the third. bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers From the seas and the streams wear light shade for the leaves when laid In their noon-day dreams From my wings are shaken the dews that waken I The sweet birds every one. and the second with the first and third of the following tercet. but far more blest .: . and so on at intervals. Even when the groups are separated. 96 I ORTHOMETRY. Shelley. When I rocked to rest on their mother's breast. they compressed The good within them. furnishes another variety of verse arrange- ment intermediate between the continuous and stanzaic forms. : . As she dances about the sun. Terza Rima. and died. In the first tercet continuously throughout. and loved. And whiten the green plains under And then again 1 dissolve in rain. in which Dante's Divine Comedy is written. but would not lend Their thoughts to meaner beings . flail wield the of the lashing hail.

having lavished his high gift in vain. as with toil and travel. his the load of any secret crime. and aim At an eternal life beyond our fate. And be the new Prometheus of new men. Who. Bestowing Byron. and Conquerors of high renown. who. But pity and wild sorrow for the same . but without the is name . withering up his prime like fiends. — Philosophy's accepted guest. And Not goading him. There was a youth. H . For nought of ill his heart could understand. fire from heaven. Lies chained to his bare rock by the seashore. Shelley. Not his the thirst for glory or command shame Baffled with blast of hope-consuming Nor evil And the vulgar breast quench in speedy smoke its feeble flame. For what poesy but to create From overfeeling good or ill. Which burned within him.— : . Many are the poets. full Of passion. fire joys which Had left within his soul their dark unrest religion fables of the grave Nor what Feared he. COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. And vultures to the heart of the bestower. Than those 97 who are degraded by the jars their frailties linked to fame. Had grown quite weak and grey before his time Nor any could the restless griefs unravel . and then too late Feeling the pleasure given repaid with pain. from land to land. but of scars.

trembling. with fury. While yet Exulting. delighted. The Passions oft. Possess'd beyond the Muse's painting By Till turns they felt the glowing mind fired. 'tis said. refined once. Dryden's Alexander 's Feast. Thronged around her magic cell. Shelley's West Wind and The Cloud. Each. fainting. Pope's Ode on St.. in early Greece she sung. and they are usually broken up into stanzas of varying length. Collins's Ode on the Passions is here quoted at length as a typical specimen. noted compositions of this kind may be enumerated Milton's Ode on the Nativity of Christ. . from four Amongst the most to upwards of twenty lines. Disturbed. both in variety of metre and length of verse. Cecilia's Day. rapt. raised. was young. Irregular Stanzas. to hear her skill. the supporting myrtles round s Would prove his own expressive power. when all were Fill'd From They snatch'd her instruments of sound And as they oft had heard apart Sweet lessons of her forceful art. raging. When Music. 98 ORTHOMETRY. Most of the finest odes in our language are exceedingly complex in structure. THE PASSIONS. (m). Gray's Bard and On a Distant Prospect of Eton College. heavenly maid. for madness ruled the hour. inspired. .

First 99 Fear his hand. he knew not why. the vale. 'Twas sad by by starts 'twas wild. his eyes on fire. Amid the chords. A soft responsive voice was heard at every close And Hope enchanted. And bade Still the lovely scenes at distance hail. And blew a blast so loud and dread. But thou. In one rude clash he struck the lyre. She call'd on Echo still through all the song And where her sweetest theme she chose. E'en at the sound himself had made. Next Anger rush'd. Still it strange. And ever and anon he beat The double drum with furious heat And though sometimes. the woods. . each dreary pause between.. its skill to try. The war. COMBINATIONS OF VERSSS. And strain prolong from the rocks. . . A solemn. Dejected Pity at his side Her soul-subduing voice applied. While each strain'd ball of sight seem'd bursting from his head. fair ? O Hope ! with eyes so What was thy delighted measure whispered promised pleasure. smiled and waved her golden hair And longer had she sung but with a frown Revenge impatient rose He threw his blood-stained sword in thunder down And with a withering look. — . In lightnings own'd his secret stings . bewilder'd laid And back recoil'd. Were ne'er prophetic sounds so full of woe . : would her touch the — . With woeful measure wan Despair Low sullen sounds his grief beguiled . and mingled air fits. . . And swept with hurried hand the strings.denouncing trumpet took. Yet still he kept his wild unalter'd mien.

to fawn and dryad known The oak-crowned sisters. a nymph of healthiest hue. . . Her buskin gemmed with morning dew. Blew an inspiring air that dale and thicket rung. and seized his beechen spear. Her bow across her shoulder flung. Pour'd through the mellow horn her pensive soul And dashing soft from rocks around. Jealousy. And now it courted Love. and their chaste-eyed queen. In hollow murmurs died away.: . The hunter's call. They saw in Tempe's vale her native maids. as one inspired. But oh ! how alter'd was its sprightly tone When Cheerfulness. And Sport leap'd up. First to the lively pipe his hand address'd But soon he saw the brisk awakening viol. to nought were fir'd Sad proof of thy distressful state Of diffring themes the veering song was mix'd. And from her wild sequestered seat. In notes by distance made more sweet. OR THOMETR Y. To some unwearied minstrel dancing: . Whose sweet entrancing voice he loved the best. With eyes upraised. Round a holy calm diffusing. now raving call'd on Hate. Satyrs and sylvan boys. Last came Joy's ecstatic trial He with viny crown advancing. Bubbling runnels join'd the sound Through glades and glooms the mingled measure stole Or o'er some haunted streams with fond delay. . They would have thought who heard the strain. were seen Peeping from forth their alleys green Brown Exercise rejoiced to hear. Pale Melancholy sat retired. . Love of peace and lonely musing. : I OO Thy numbers. Amid the festal sounding shades. .

Return in all thy simple state Confirm the tales her sons relate.commanding power Thy mimic soul. and I believe the tale. her zone unbound And he. Revive the just designs of Greece . Had more Than Even all all of strength. Thy humblest reed could more prevail. chaste. wisdom's aid Why. Oh. sublime Thy wonders in that godlike age Fill thy recording sister's page 'Tis said. O nymph endeared Can well recall what then it heard. that charms this laggard age at once together found. goddess why. As it he would the charming air repay. . Love framed with Mirth a gay fantastic round. as in that elder time. bid our vain endeavours cease. Warm. ! ! O You learn an all. Loose were her tresses seen. art ? Arise.— !! . Shook thousand odours from his dewy wings. fancy. Cecilia's mingled world of sound. Lay' st thou thy ancient lyre aside ? As in that loved Athenian bower. IOI Music sphere-descended maid. as his flying fingers kiss'd the strings. . Devote to virtue. to us denied. Friend of pleasure. Where is thy native simple heart. : COMBINATIONS OF VERSES. While. energic. diviner rage. amidst his frolic play.

and all that is left to prosaic mortals is to approve or condemn The restrictions and difficulties that the them. he has to conform to strict grammatical rule manipulate sounds and their symbols which bristle with irregularities and difficulties of many kinds. and therefore he makes no scruple in surmounting obstacles to trespass the boundaries laid down for . in a sense. has to contend With are at once so embarrassing and unavoidable. and yet he must produce melody which is pleasing and varied. as of the kind and amount he thinks fit to take. In this chapter we are called upon to deal with all the departures from normal exactitude of which writers of verse avail themselves. Verseit is making preceded prosodial laws. The poet presents us with the verses he has framed to his own sweet will. as speech and writing existed before the rules of grammar were drawn up. that what are called licences would be more truly desigThe versifier is expected to nated necessities.POETIC LICENCES. whose material is words. ordinary observance. artist. To accomplish all this he is compelled to become. a law unto himself. . We shall find that not so much an enquiry into the nature and extent of the liberty the poet is allowed.

That hangs his head. and Metrical. This is the omission of words which are necessary to complete the construction though not to convey the sense. In prose most of them would be considered solecisms. cold. (a). Oswald ? have shown the unfitness " King Lear. These embrace deviations from ordinary forms of expression.—GRAMMATICAL LICENCES. or the strict grammatical structure of sentences. 10$ These so-called poetic licences may be conveniently grouped together and considered under three heads Grammatical. or to add and elegance to the composition." Is there for honest poverty. I." : .— POETIC LICENCES. but in verse they are allowable in variety order to meet the exigencies of rhythm. and a' that ? Burns. Cold. form of ellipsis in which the consequence suppressed to be supplied by the hearer's mind called Aposiopesis. : A is is When I him and his hundred knights How now. my girl ? " Othello. If she sustain e.g. Ellipsis. Orthographical." What ! all fell my pretty chickens ? and their dam At one swoop '•Macbeth.

the past tense for the participle. or moon. or woman. thy prattle.. Po$e. says Coleridge. Pleonasm is the introduction of superfluous words. thy snatches of old lays. "Temfest* Omission of conjunctions (b). Enallage is the use of one part of speech for another. year. In prose these would be condemned as tautological. Worthy Sebastian ? O what might ?—No more : And yet. as: Those more easiest who have learned to dance.g. e. is called Asyndeton. — 1 04 OR THOMBTR Y. Milton. : What a length of tail behind ! The sea-girt isle. Nor to these idle orbs does day appear. all thy pretty ways needlework. the occasion speaks thee and My strong imagination sees a crown Dropping upon thy head. They fell together all as by consent They dropped as by a thunder stroke. What might. adjec- tives for adverbs. throughout the Or man. or stars. Or sun. . these things are over — Macaulay. (c). Such repetitions as these. in order to strengthen the expression or to keep the mind dwelling upon the thought. methinks. I see What thou should' st be : it in thy face . Now all Thy yes. consti- tute beauty of the highest kind.

Tennyson From morn To noon he fell.g. with richest hand Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold. Idle after dinner. 1 05 Byron. fat. Satan exalted sat. Or where the gorgeous East. as : My name is Edgar. Pope. in the con- This is the struction of a want of proper sequence compound sentence. of royal state. live thunder. Sat a farmer. e. from noon to dewy eve. which far Outshone the wealth of Ormuz or of Ind. Far along. (e). •'King Lear. From peak Leaps the to peak." . (d). They fall successive. in his chair. ruddy. A summer's day. Anacoluthon. Byron.: POETIC LICENCES. High on a throne Milton. Milton. and fair. Hyperbaton is the transposition of words beyond what would he allowable even in rhetorical prose. and thy father's son. The idols are broke in the temple of Baal. and successive rise. the rattling crags among.

he descending. shall himself. flower. o'er. ope'. Milton. and therefore in the pronunciation of words. in the middle syncope. yclad." God from the Mount of Sinai. {d). loved. their object being to shorten or lengthen a verse by a syllable. familiar. Synjeresis the merging of two syllables into one. th\ At the beginning this known as aphcsrests. murmuring. 2. Prosthesis is prefixing an expletive syllable to a word.g. («). beweep. Why Is I do trifle thus with his despair it. In thunder. ta'en. (b). is . e. done to cure " King Lear. and loud trumpets' sound. 'scape. These are deviations from the ordinary spelling. or end of a word.— ORTHOGRAPHICAL LICENCES. whose gray top Shall tremble. as. Paragoge .106 ORTHOMETRY. adds an expletive syllable to a word as withouten. (c). as may be done with such words as alien. : 'gainst. is the omission of a letter or syllable at the beginmiddle. mouldering. Ordain them laws. lightning. Elision is ning. at the end apocope. amorous.

Whereas in the opening line of The Paradise Lost the last two syllables of disobedience are merged without any unpleasant effect. dire as dissyllables. as occasionally found in our older poets such as regarding the endings tion. hire. e'en or eyne for eyes. generally speaking. Of man's first disobedience. Tmesis is the insertion of a . ((?). i. for instance difficulties : Then 'gan th' obstrep'rous mob to rage. these may be added old forms of words that have become otherwise obsolicences present as wis for know. on which side soever. (/). to word between the parts of a us ward. the use of archaisms. and words like is is . 107 Diuresis the separation of a diphthong into two sounds. And so by many winding nooks he strays. Elisions. of these orthographical Some which have given rise to so much diverse opinion that it may be useful to illustrate them more in detail. To lete .e. should not be such as to create words of unpleasing sound or difficult pronunciation. With willing spirit to the wide o-cean. and the fruit One complaint made that its against our language is consonants are too numerous in proportion .— POETIC LICENCES. compound as. sion. The following verse is somewhat harsh.

rather than meet it. Yet some few have attempted it. in the sun. making such elisions as this ought to be avoided but unfortunately they occur oftenest in those kinds of poetry where they are east admissible. That usher' st and still prepar'st its way. my voice inspire. the same person in the past time presents an obstacle almost insurmountable to any elision. Thou shar'd'st their nature. and fate. But to others this rough assemblage of consonants has appeared so formidable that. that proportion. as love. Thou mourn'st them living. insolence. For instance. in Pope's Messiah this passage occurs O Who touch' Thou. it is The occasions for . fear. they have ventured to trespass upon their grammar rules. For with respect to elisions. . as already dead. — ORTHOMBTRY. The second person singular of our verb terminates with letters that selves to elisions. loved. and the effect of elision is to increase 108 to the vowels. feared. do not well accommodate themwhen the verb itself ends with a consonant 111 thou consider'st that the kind are brave. These elisions are harsh : but where the verb is regular. as. &c. d Isaiah's hallowed lips with is fire ! —where touch'd used for touch' d'st.. making indeed two elisions.

him. so in we may admit those which are to be excluded from the higher species from epic and recital of solemn — poems and the like. as they ought. if we' our wealth obey. he'd. into one syllable. We find in some of our poets other elisions which are faulty. as in familiar discourse we use without scruple those which we should not allow in the familiar verse lyric a grave composition. The following is such We' allow'd you beauty. because the letters which are left do not meet and coalesce. I'm sure . The elisions which we meet with as frequently as any are of the verbs. and we did submit.: : POETIC LICENCES. Shame and woe to us. poems in none which they sfand verbs. enter into light pieces without as into satires. Many From Paran's height the One that's holy came. for he would. to 109 be observed that. substantive and auxiliary. &c. . and thou'rt secure 'tis only he. as neither are those all made of the auxiliary I'll. but they might offence . of these are improper in grave poetry. as here 'Tis sad say you're curious when we say you're mad. To I'm very sensible he's mad in law. in vain. But have evoked them Kill oft. These of elisions of the verb substantive are them suitable to the rank of the . for I will.

p. Winnen thy cost.: : 1 1 ORTHOMETR Y. 113. and ever of I am behind. * See Hiatus. like these in Milton * : Th' specious deeds on earth which glory" excites. fault still greater is But a here : Sha'n't I return the vengeance in my power ? This term. . it is to be acknowledged that they are more correct and guarded against these blemishes. not much practised by our moderns. But among our earliest poets common Gower used it . take her ensample' of me. Other elisions. So he with difficulty' and labour hard. In justice to the poets of the present time. As pray unto my Lady' any help. is so elision as to deformed and vulgarized by be altogether unfit to appear in poetry. So did Chaucer Then help me. My body' is ay so redy' and so penible. are made in words of more than one syllable. this sort of elision was For ever I wrastle'. by cutting off the last. to-morrow' in my battaille. and to collect them we are forced to go back to a former age. To be invulnerable' in those bright arms. sha'n't. Lord.

" Fairy Queen. after all these elisions." This siege that hath engirt his marriage. " Rape of Lucrece. POETIC LICENCES. The two last syllables of these and other such words are now always contracted into one. will not fail to observe that. these our language contains in great number and variety particularly a large class from the Latin. "Hall's Satires. . Be rich in patience. the next word begins with a vowel. Spenser. And that would stand to good conditions. and that in general the syllables cut off are short.: : . as has been said. of syllables which are not separated by any consonant. It was not so formerly region. Spenser. Shakspere. . ." Examples To in other words fly his step-dame's love outrageous. Contractions are made. " Fairy Queen. gif thou* in goods be poor Who livis The reader merry' he livis mightily Without gladness availis no treasure. For trouble' in earth take \ \ I no melancholy." Should bleed in his own law's obedience." Some willing men that might instruct his sons. when used in a verse. as motion. : His name was heavenly contemplation Of God and goodness was his meditation. occasion.

But such licence would not be now permitted. Cowley. versifier At thy strong charms it must be gone.: : : . Though a disease. as is pronounced resemhaving four syllables. how this spring of love resembleth The' uncertain glory of an April day 1 Shakspere. quoth she. alack 1 what were it But with my body my poor soul's pollution ? They that lose half with greater patience bear it. In our early poets it could not be accounted a licence. " Two Gentlemen of Verona. —where the word resembleth ble-eth. so. This division of syllables is found in our poetry but he was a licentious as late as Cowley's time . for it was . Syllables like these were divided whenever it suited the poet's convenience. 3. Nor double penance Sonnet iii. as well as devil. were call'd legion." aot 1." I will drink Potions of eysel 'gainst my strong infection No bitterness that I will bitter think. to correct correction. " Ra£c of Lttcrect. A different manner of lengthening the word is seen in this example O. Shakspere in all his rhymed poetry makes them rhyme double. 112 OR THOMBTR Y. Than they whose whole is swallow'd in confusion. as To kill myself.

" scanned : * Whan that And ba | | April | | le with | | his schow | | res swoote | The drought Of which Whan Ze I | of Marche | thed eve I vertue | ced to the roote. to Caunt terbury they wende. Sj>enser. * . can6nized. POETIC LICENCES.g. farewell.' I . c6mplete. " Knight's Tale " Right in the middest of the threshold lay. for instance. engen dred is the flour | hath per | | | eek with his swe te breethe Enspi red hath in eve ry"holte and heethe The ten dre crop pes. To fer ne hal wes. Chaucer. So pri keth hem nature in here corages :— Thanne Ion gen folk to gon on pil grimages | phirus | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | I | | | | | | ken straun ge strondes." It may here be pointed syllables were out that in our older poetry final since entirely disappeared or e y is.: — . da. and the yon ge Sonne Hath in the Ram his hal fe cours i-ronne. kouthe in son dry londes And spe cially. twilight. "Fairy Queen. such as The smalfi fowles maken melodie — many words were differently accented hundred years ago. That hem | hath holp en whan that they | were seffke. from eve ry'schi res ende Of En gelond. according to the ordinary pronunciation of such words 113 many He came at his commandement on hie. : sounded which have become mute. That sle pen al the night with 6 pen eye. ry veyne in swich licour. And sma le fow les ma ken me 16die. three and also that revenue. pal I | And mers for | to see | | | | | | | | | | | | I The ho ly blis I | ful mar | | tir for | | td seeke. aspect. * This is farther illustrated by presenting the opening lines of the Prologue to the " Canterbury Tales. e.

and cannot be pronounced in one. though we will not allow them the same rank in verse. cannot proceed to sound the letter r without being in a position to sound the short u (sometimes. if in describing a you end with these lines The blood that streamed from the gash profound. mour. Of these the following is an account. as higher. To what has been said of the contraction and lengthening of words may be added. after sounding any long vowel or diphthong.: . however. " All's Well that . it is commonly inserted between e. o. that there are some English words which are not allowed to pass in verse for two syllables. dyer. gone : our rash faults. pure. more. u (when long).Jlur. 114 ORTHOMETRY. fire. into Should you. though in sound they are such. " Our short u.* If you repeat . a person players may think you mean to reflect upon the when you intend them a compliment. Shahspere. represented in writing by e). i. transpose the dire. Or drunken quarrel." In this line our stands for two syllables. For high renown the heaven-born poets strive. Actors for higher (hire) in toils incessant live. sounded as in but. which indeed it may fairly claim for the organs of speech. &c. you would not per* Crying that's good that's Ends Well. Sad scarlet dyer he who gave the wound. and r as in there. easiest of all the vowels. in reading them. is pronounced and therefore is a great favourite with my countrymen. With scarlet dire distain'd their garments round. each other's places. which we pronounce theur. I think hire and dire have as fair a claim to be counted dissyllables as higher and dyer.

Perhaps the truth lies in regarding it as unavoidable. Pope exemplifies in the line : Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tire. an hiatus. yet it is to occurrence as it much as possible. called after the Latin. be absolutely inadmissible into our verse. By it is meant the occurrence of a final vowel followed immediately by the initial vowel of another word without the suppression or elision of either by an apostrophe." The vowels which he calls open are those that stand one at the end of a word. It is admitted on all hands to be a fault. that it does not know when one and one syllable make two. and though by some writers it is declared hiatus in verse. which offends the ear in prose as well as in verse." . without any consonant between them.POETIC LICENCES. Two skill in of our own poets. 115 such is the force of custom and imagination to debauch the ear. repeatedly spoken of the hiatus as a fault * but."* Here we must introduce the consideration of the which has occupied the attention of writers on versification beyond its due importance. When vowels so meet they cause in the pronunciation a gaping. and the remedy in minimising its to in Italian. ceive the change . versification. most celebrated for their Pope and Dryden. and the other at the beginning of the next. as Tucker's " Treatise on Vocal Sounds. " Essay on Criticism. as it is be found in the works of all our poets. have . viz.

Pope says. " the hiatus should be avoided with more care in poetry than in oratory and I would try to prevent it. that no vowel can be cutoff before another. when we cannot sink the pronunciation of it. and the first syllable of the next begins with a vowel. one vowel gaping on another for want of a ccBsura [i. I will give an example of it from Chapman's Homer. . me. " Since I have named the synalepha.6 1 1 ORTHOMETR Y.e. &c." In another place he mentions the hiatus with extreme severity. It is in the first line of the argu- ment to the first Iliad. I will here state their opinions respecting it. but th* Argive. the next begins with a consonant. or what is its equivalent for our w and h aspirate. Apollo's priest to th' Argive fleet doth bring. and our diphthongs are plainly such the greatest latitude I take is in the letter jy. to shun the shock of the two vowels immediately following each other. as he. . which is cutting off one vowel immediately before another." Dryden is still more averse to the hiatus. I. she. when it concludes a word. and their practice. . but in the same . unless where the cutting it off is more prejudicial to the sound than the hiatus itself. to the best of my remembrance. " There is not (says he in his dedication to the j&neid). Here we see he makes it not the Argive. . they represent it to be of greater magnitude than I think it is in reality. Neither need I have called this a latitude which is only an explanation of the general rule. a cutting off) in this whole poem but where a vowel ends a word.

117 page he gives a bad example kind ."* As Dryden acknowledges that." It does so at the beginning of a word. I cannot say that I have every way observed the rule of the synalepha in my translation but wheresoever I have not. in the verses to which this dedication is prefixed. he has sometimes admitted an hiatus. instances. " aspirates. at the end of a word is. army's). it is a fault in the sound. On every altar sacrifice renew. without cutting off the first (by which it had been. Alpha the prayer of the quite contrarj of Chryses sings j The army's plague. but at the end it is either silent or makes a ." . But. let us pass to his ^Eneid. here as much a vowel as any in the alphabet. indeed. the ending with a vowel. and army's beginning with another vowel. In these words.• He W diphthong * Dedication to " Translations from Ovid's Metamorphoses. there remains a most horrible ill-sounding gap betwixt those words. but that letter claims a latitude in the letter jy and everywhere else. the strife of kings. Book iv- line 76.: POETIC LICENCES. the army's. where he professes to have avoided it throughout only allowing himself a certain latitude. what he allows himself is nothing less than an admission of the hiatus. as will appear by various th' : . He says.

Or hid within the hollow earth to lie. before another. He says further. which occur book of his dEneid. line 1346. Ibid. not unbeloved by Heaven. Book xii. line 1293. false. can I. In each of these lines it. line 210. forsworn." but it does not follow that there is no hiatus where such a vowel is left. . in every and many similar cases. Ibid. line 515. and those words express'd. ation of true . False as thou art. line 523. as So One bough it bears . is there when the last consonants of a word are not sounded. she. and more than Ibid. Now low on earth the lofty chief is laid. nor more she said. alas ! contend ? Book xii. although away. Book iv. is an hiatus : Whoe'er you are. " That no vowel can be cut off when we cannot sink the pronunci- This is very I. line 537. Weak as I am. &c.. line 1280. me. She drew a length of sighs. Dryden has left an he endeavours to explain it hiatus. In all these. Book vi. as he. Book i. These walls he enter' d. but wond'rous to behold.: Il8 ORTHOMETRY. line 1262.

This observation is made. (ii) And praise the easy vigour of a line. lb. Ii. the hiatus occurs nearly as often throughout all the poetry of Dryden and Pope. 569." 404. and done so in every one of those instances which he exhibits as faulty. they are these Though (i) oft the (ii) ear the (iii) open vowels tire. if once wrong. POETIC LICENCES. As for their frequency. they recur : sometimes as often as twice in one line Unlucky as Fungosa in the play. 16. (iii) As on the land while here the ocean gains. not to condemn their practice. 7. 54. 328. will needs be always so. " Ess. has repeatedly committed the same fault. but to show partly that the fault is not so great as they seem to represent . hq Pope. on Crit. And these are his (i) own faults feel Though each may increases and decays. except the ^Enetd above-mentioned. Who. there will be found.361. upon an average.5. in the poem where he stigmatizes the hiatus as a fault. But taking the whole poem.: : . an hiatus in every eleven lines and.

Works without show. to compute and fifty last lines of Paradise yet this may as: hardly necessary to say more of the hiatus may be added. In his other poems. On the other hand. violet. heaven. the hiatus will be perceived most when the two vowels which mark it are such that the organs of speech. . to avoid from the fifty first Lost and Samson Agonistes. The same want appears still plainer when such words as glorious.705. Nature. " Essay on Crit. ticable. lb. tower. for into one then there is a gap. it is and partly that it. Po$e. 90. is but restrained. in pronouncing them. evening. it may not be so frequent perhaps." 75. whatever offence it give will be less noted if it stands at a pause. lb. It is very difficult. like liberty. as it may be termedj which is made when a word or part of it stands for two syllables that might be contracted as. . . ORTHOMETRY. that. because the verse seems to want its full measure. there is an hiatus at every fifth. &c. if not impracIn Milton's poetry. and without pomp presides.120 it. In these instances the hiatus is better managed than in the three quoted above from the same poem. Immortal Vida I on whose honour'd brow. earlier. There is a different sort of hiatus. keep the same position.

does not readily supply short is syllables in the proportion which that verse requires. following verse of thirteen syllables. | Which make such del | icate mu sic in the woods. last syllables divided. While in the declines to allow two examples that follow it at once any elision in the feet that are marked off. Borne on the storm its millions shall advance. 121 have the two servation . . the ear instinctively sanctions their reduction to the normal ten. no licence And at therefore to divide syllables like those just is. And multitu dinous as the desert sands. in that species of verse. but instead of doing so further. mentioned all. Shelley. POETIC LICENCES. we prefer to impress upon the student the importance of cultivating a refined taste and critical ear as the ultimate For instance. Canst thou imagine where those spirits live. Many other instances of diverse opinions might be quoted upon the niceties of elision and synaeresis. thus: And man | y a fro | zen. man | ya fi | ery Alp Milton.. being somewhat overstocked with consonants. | | Ibid. in the test of rhythmic appreciation. But this obnot extended to verse of the anapestic kind for our language.

: 1 22 ORTHOMETR Y. may be substituted in nearly any part of the verse. Thus the normal line of heroic verse. The application the restrictions in their tion.: |~ -I. viz (i) That an additional unaccented syllable.— METRICAL LICENCES. We have already been obliged to anticipate to some extent the subject of metrical licences when dealing with the various kinds of metre in detail. now claim a more detailed examina- . These embrace all deviations of whatever kind from the normal metre of the verse of which the poem is constructed. (iii) That feet. therefore. of these general principles. the iambic pentameter. other than those of the normal line. or even two. is this. and which the best poets have observed use. and to trespass still further in the same direction in the chapter on mixed metres but we have only . 3.-|~ -l~ -I--I . Any variation. (ii) may be added to the end of a verse. from this standard is to be regarded as a metrical licence and the same is the case with all other measures. at That a syllable may be omitted or added the beginning. formally stated and inadequately illustrated the three fundamental principles which form the basis of all such licences.

as regards the Iambic measure. heavenly G6ddess. POETIC LICENCES. to Greece the dfreful spring Of w6es unnumber'd. . very On hungry waves that howl around the fold. The next approaches very near larity : the same regu- 'Twas all he gave. a friend. heroic line to form it The is regular required is common enough. It bears a strong resemblance to a line in Gray's is Elegy which perfect all He gained from heaven. So are the following from a celebrated poem whose numbers are most highly polished When o'er the blasted heath the day declined. but if if quantity be regarded together with accent the syllables in a regular verse ought to be not only accented and unaccented. sfng. but also long and few such will be found in our poetry. Ibid. which embraces the bulk of our poetry.: : : : . 'twas all he had to give. This line is of the sort short. But why prolong the tale his only child Rogers. if to have accented syllables in the even places be all that Achilles' wrath. . 123 And first. 'twas he wished.

to what extent this is allowable we now proceed to if. It may surprise those who have been taught to depreciate the versification of our earlier poets. . Is he a churchman ? then he's f6nd of p6wer. But first. The pyrrhic foot (two unaccented syllables — ~) may supply the place of an iambic." has these three lines together The more secure. considering them according to quantity. . to be informed that such perfect verses as are here quoted are not so rare among them as among the moderns.: 124 OR THOMETR Y. except on the sixth in the last verse. it will stand in any part of the verse. It may cented. lines as Such he distinguishes by the name of licentiate iambics i. not as long or short tity is to be noticed. : In the ist/oot. Campion. In the 2nd foot. : too are placed on the even syllables throughout.e. A rfibel to the very king he 16ves. the more the stroke we feel Of unprevented harms so gloomy storms Appear the sterner if the day be clear. in his " Art of English Poetry. they are the accents . lines in which some other foot is substituted for an iambic.g. and is substituted for it oftener than any other foot. These he calls pure iambics which. . e. state. be it remembered that : in these feet the syllables are considered as accented or unac- and that where quanbe expressly pointed out. want this perfection.

In the zndfoot. In the \thfoot. b61d and brave. e. T6m struts a s6Idier. a queen. a cricket of a pinnacle.POETIC LICENCES. In the ydfoot. In the ydfoot. When flattery glares 411 hate it in In the $th foot. Pope. The spondee (two accented syllables . But as unaccented feet weaken a line.-) may be substituted as the pyrrhic. not one long. That gay freethinker. and for quantity. The dull flit falsehood serves for p61icy. In the $thfoot. 6pen. 125 Has made the father of a nameless race. a ffne talker 6nce . or even three times in the same You It is line : 16se it in the m6ment you detect. there being in it only two syllables accented. The plain rough hero turn a crafty knave. : and in as many places In the 1stfoot. Ibid. But quite mistakes the scaffold for the pfle. for the iambic.g. This foot may have place twice. this last has the utmost degree of weakness that is consistent with a verse.

but not in such abundance. Pope. any trochaic foot except in the beginning of a verse. and that in poems extending to thousands of lines. but is fixed by tins prevalent foot throughout. n>6re learn'd. and the following line show to what extent m6re just. such exceedingly licentiale verses form a pleasing break to the monotony rather than a blemish. and to a greater master of poetical numbers. bogs. and shades of death. except the last. In the $th foot. For such examples we must turn to a poem of a different structure. Any foot of the heroic verse may be a trochee. in that compass. Yet times not this. it sticks to our list sind. which the even In the H£re \stfoot. caves. fens. Such instances merely demonstrate that the measure of a poem cannot be gathered from isolated verses. lakes. dens. The iambic verse admits likewise the trochee. Po£e. . who furnishes all the examples here given from a poem of 260 lines.g. though ones alone bear the metrical accent. in the first six syllables are all long. M6re wfse. e. This foot will may be repeated. has not.: : 126 ORTHOMETRY. in the heart of hell to work in fire. —m6re 6verythfng. as this : In Milton we have such a line Rocks.

Anon.: POETIC LICENCES. In the zndfoot. Shoots in | visi | ble virtue ev'n to the deep. . . Ibid. The beginning of the third book of the Paradise Lost will afford examples . Milton. vaulted with Ibid. as the spondee and pyrrhic. c6vering the flood. Abject and lost lay these. : Hail. | | Ibid. L6rds of the world besides In the tfh foot.rd foot. For one restraint. h61y Light ! 6ffspring of Heaven ? ffrst-b6rn is I May I express thee unblamed since G6d Hght. Paradise Lost. feet. . . The same verse will admit two trochaic hell. out of the earth 1 27 a fabric huge. . In some places so much so as to destroy the metre and is therefore not to be approved. as Burnt after them to the bottom less pit. In the j. as H6v'ring on wing under the cope of Sm6te on him sore besides. . | | . may so stand and all the three may be introduced into the same line. fire * . whose eye darted contagious fire. * It is to be noted that in every one of these instances there is a pause immediately preceding the trochaic foot the introduction of it without such a pause is always harsh as Of Eve. but not a greater number for the last foot cannot be a trochee neither can two trochees stand close together in one line but different feet. instead of iambics.

the last being unaccented. Mitford's " Essay on the Harmony of Language. like numberless others that occur in our tragedies. | or even two. but as heroic verges with two redundant syllables. where an Alexandrine is denned to be " a verse of the heroic cadence. Than th' Amazonian dame Penthesile. but of a higher order. * But all such syllables must be unaccented . which were never yet reckoned as Alexandrine. 3.: : : : . as For solitude sometimes is best soci | 6t^. 133. Ibid. 128 ORTHOMETRY. as is commonly supposed. must be an Alexandrine. And Dwelt from never but in unapproached light eternity. and conBy heroic cadence is meant such measures (or feet) sisting of six feet. then it follows that a line of five such feet must be an heroic verse and these in Hudibras She laid about in fight more busily. Another kind of licence permitted to the heroic verse. If it must. i. e. . and . The licences here taken are so many that they exceed the number of iambic feet in these lines. sc. The line in Milton is exactly like the following in Othello For sure he fills it up with great abil ity. Brfght effluence of bright essence fncreate. P. contain six iambic feet but it is not true that every verse of six such feet. for an accent upon the last syllable. dwelt then in thee. Paradise Lost." p. With any strong or vehement importun Ity | | Act Hi. is to have an additional syllable at the end. 1st edition. 2 are not doggerel. when two are added. as His wish and best endeavour. whichis another species * This line is quoted because it has been called an Alexandrine. and may claim to be ranked with the heroics of Pope and Dryden. Ibid. would make an A lexandr me." It is true that an Alexandrine must as an heroic verse is made of. . us asund Sr.

The sure is introduction of trisyllabic feet in iambic meaone of the favourite bones of contention with writers on versification. and to us the more reasonable one. Hypermetrical syllables should not occur often in serious poems. because the unaccented terminations have the lightness of the trochee and dactyl. Mason. even in Shakspere. of verse to the . which he elaborates in his "Shaksperean Grammar. Abbott takes the former view.POETIC LICENCES." takes the latter. and in the "English Lessons for English People. than to have recourse to extra metrical syllables. His summing up of the question leaves little more to be said. — — . which are unsuitable to pieces of a grave character. a licence which. and much ingenuity and learning have been wasted on the matter." 97 150 Mr. J. "Dactyls and Anapests being recognised feet. The drama. which claims greater liberty than any other form of composition. uses them more freely. 129 and the addition of an accented syllable normal line would destroy any known measure. is now unknown and not recognised by all. or accept them in a friendly spirit as forming metrical feet of another kind. in his "Chapters on English Verse. seems to us a mere verbal question of very little importance. except at the end of a line. it is better to use them where they will serve to explain the metre of a verse." . B. It is an undoubted fact that extra unaccented syllables are freely introduced by our standard poets into the body of iambic verse." 45 2 5 1 5. Dr. and whether we attempt to deal with them as troublesome interlopers.

. it is a matter of computation neither is the variety such as is allowable only. . are allowed to the other species of iambic measure and. But the English heroic verse admits of four and according to the same rate of different feet it : . eight teen the fifth of twice sixteen. viz.. and no other and the last foot of the verse being invariably a spondee. . the iambic. and not in usage it is to be seen in all our poems of that measure and it will not be foreign to our subject to establish these facts by evidence and proof. thirty-two. will be seen how many of them may be taken in each species. From the account of the numerous licences which are permitted by substituting some other foot for that which is fundamental to this measure. . 130 ORTHOMETRY. sixfour. The measures which enter into the composition of an hexameter are the dactyl and spondee. . viz. And this was precisely the number of varieties which the ancient grammarians recognised in the hexameter. viz. Now the first foot admits of two. it will appear what a variety the English heroic verse is capable of exhibiting much greater than the Latin or Greek hexameter can produce. whatever has been advanced to the conThis is a point that does not rest upon trary. and the second of the same number which. is four the third of twice the fourth of twice eight. opinion. there remains a line of five feet to receive all the varieties that can be made by two different measures. combined with the first. . by observing upon what ground they stand. licences which are given to the heroic The same line . .

The first two feet of each verse will be sufficient for the purpose. viz. and the gout. to which we have already had recourse. as has been said. Trochee and Spondee. Two Iambics. Trochee and Iambic. its varieties in the second foot would be four times four. Line 24. Line 9. Nor will I life's stream | for observation stay. His prin | ciple | of action once explore. And that this variety is not imaginary.g. We gr6w See the | | m6re par | tial for the observer's sake. Line 68. . same man j in vigour Iambic and Pyrrhic. Iambic and Spondee. may be shown from any of their works. and so on but because. Line 7. Line 27. 131 combination. . two trochees cannot stand together.: POETIC LICENCES. Pyrrhic and Spondee. but con- employed by our poets. sixteen. nor two pyrrhics. Line 18. the varieties will not be so many yet they will amount to a much greater number than those of an hexameter. Pyrrhic and Iambic. The same epistle of Pope. And in | the cun | ning truth itself s a lie. . Grant but | as ma and | ny sorts of Spondee and Iambic. Quick whirls | shifting eddies of our minds. Line 71. will afford tinually the proof. e. And yit | the fate | of all extremes is such. Line 12. mind as moss.

portion. or four lines of three. viz. The pure trochaic line is composed of trochees without the intermixture of any other foot: thus the normal trochaic tetrameter line is this whether of two. I and if quantity concurs with accent to form the measure. that of cutting off part of the concluding syllable. the varieties in two feet amount to eight. taken from a poet who is more distinguished for the smoothness than the variety of his measures. and many specimens of them have been given already. five. In this example. . which is double the number that the hexameter is capable of making within the same compass the varieties of our entire heroic line must therefore exceed those of the hexameter in a still greater pro. there is another licence very generally extended to the trochaic . feet so that we have and seven syllables. where the accented syllables are all long and the unaccented all short . as far as consists in the substitution of the kind.: — 132 ORTHOMETRY. it is then perfect as in the following example. Next with regard to Trochaic measure. three. is This allowed in every species of the trochaic verse. . There being some affinity between the trochaic and iambic measures. some other foot for that which is characteristic of But beside these. the licences permitted in each will be similar.

The first foot admits a On a or a spondee No. rock. or an iambus To : brisk I notes in cadence beating. Richly paint the vernal arbour. Sir W. or spondee Wakes thee | n6w. A perfect line is not oftener found in this kind than in the heroic verse. Pyrrhic With Harmodius | shall re | pose . though | he inherit. I whose haughty brow Gray. Gray. spondee Rome shall perish— | write that | word. bl6st I pyrrhic. Cornier. . POETIC LICENCES. 133 Gray. . Now as to the licences which we will exemplify from lines of eight and seven syllables indiscriminately.: : : : : . The third foot admits the same. Gray. The second foot admits a pyrrhic Mute. but I to the | voice of anguish Gray. Jones. chiefs ! a hero's crown .

in the first foot. others Anapeshc verse allows but few licences. though but little attended to. as in this . syllable may be short as And with godlike Diomed. and produces a bad effect on the ear. In the line of eight syllables. | | This rule. find an iambic in the second or third any authentic composition. which otherwise is sometimes overloaded.: : 134 ORTHOMETRY. and thankful in all. the last . Byrom. or spondee. is good and proper because the observance of it will keep the measure entire. the regular foot as hardly to be approved of. . And Jove had descended each night in the season. necessarily a trochee. In the first. One is a redundant syllable at the end of a line another. Prithee. example To invite the gods hither they would have had rea son. it has obtained a place by the authority of Gray and We do not foot of it is nevertheless so harsh a violation of . Byrom. an iambic. . pluck To be cheerful up a good resolution. the last foot is and therefore the seventh but in the line of seven. And where the former of these is introduced. the other ought to be taken in the line next following. syllable accented .

Moore. and . Any long or accented syllable.g. a monosyllable into a dissyllable wherever possible. is a deviation from this measure . to make a dissyllable into a trisyllable. for I was a dream'd I saw a huge —O dear how scream'd ! But this licence is questionable at least it . By the nightingale warbling nigh. standing first or second in the foot. as here : . Such a division of syllables helps the line to move lightly. because halting metre. as gay as the j/ire-&y's light.e. e. and is a reasonable indulgence to a measure which. Another licence claimed by some writers is that of dropping a syllable in the middle of the verse Swift takes it very often. And now my That I dream's out rat . .: POETIC LICENCES. but place than in the it is less offensive to the first ear in the second . i. Drayton makes April three syllables. Diaeresis is occasions such this a licence more suitable to kind of verse than to the dissyllabic metres. Cozoper. is apt to suffer by the clogging of accented words and consonants. Would feel herself hazier here. the whole will run smoothly and agreeably. : Whose humour. more than others. the measure is broken omit it. 135 The second line begins with an anapest and by the word to. it may be called unwarrantable.

so divided without violence: Thou shalt eat curds | and cream All the year lasting And drink the crystal stream. v. Every line of this stanza but the last is divisible and they all make verses in that they are nevertheless designed for the measure. | Pleasant in tasting. it. dactylic. I greatly fear I may. 338. ! I $6 Whfle a par | ORTHOMETRY. . Please her the best Phillida flouts me Elites •' Specimens. A willow supported his head. which cannotbe into iambic feet. . | When its leaves are 411 dead and | its col | ours 411 lost. And while | a f41se nymph was his theme." p. She looks another way Alack and well-a-day. eel of verses the hawkers were hollowing. as in this ! uncommon specimen a pain is : Oh what love it ? ! How She shall I bear will unconstant prove. as appears by these next. The licences taken in Dactylic verse are sometimes such that they disguise the measure and render it equivocal.. iii. Wfne the sov 411 | | ereign cordial of God and of man Far above | the flowers | of the field.

Or a single accented syllable even for two feet together. sometimes by one syllable. The question of metrical licences as it affects the Heroic measure will be further considered when we come to deal with Blank verse (see p.: : POETIC LICENCES. which. but more usually by two. 185}. Old Ballad. allowed in the beginning of a line to sub: stitute for the proper foot a trochee. as Come. as in the lines quoted above. makes a better close such is : Under the blossom that hangs on It is the | bough. as compositions of this kind are chiefly for music. see | rural felicity. as Songs of I shepherds and rustical roundelays. The allowed licences are to curtail the last foot. 137 But this great confusion of measure is not often made. . I may stand for it.

at the it Metrical pauses are of two kinds. be clearly distinguished from sentential stops at the outset of this enquiry. which cuts into equal or unequal parts. to deal throughout with poems as read or recited with the body. just as A We tion. These pauses are identical in many instances with the grammatical stops. but they are also independent of them. The is to one is as essential to the melody as the other the sense. POETIC PAUSES. which divide it into phrases of different lengths. With the latter we have no further concern. the other ccesural. The rhythm or musical flow of verse depends not only upon the metrical arrangement of accented and unaccented syllables. again here that music in sound. Metrical pauses must.. therefore. but in no little degree upon breaks or pauses. . not with the soul of poetic crea- perhaps necessary to verse is rhythmic articulate It is insist speech. and occur where there are no stops at all. its broadest definition is rhythmic printed sheet of notes on a stave is no more have music than is a page of poetry verse. the one final end of a verse.

in his " Art of Reading. and is often omitted entirely. however slightly. Caesural pause occur at almost any part of the line. We We considered prose. may safely conclude that verse which will not stand such a test as this is well deserving of being continuous. 139 the verse is rhymed the final pause is unmistakable. most educated men would condemn this assertion. they would be read are certain that the judgment of as prose. When A the end of the lines. in reciting two consecutive into another here verses. although it is may . the occurrence is never Sheridan. and even in the middle of a foot. good reader. No precise rules can be laid down as to its position. however. As well might we take the opinion of a Chinaman upon one of Beethoven's sonatas as of an illiterate person upon a question of verse and prose." says that if the first thirteen lines of the Paradise Lost were printed as prose and read by some one who had never seen the poem.—THE FINAL PAUSE. 2. it is not so clearly marked.POETIC PAUSES.—THE CffiSURAL PAUSE. i. and is absolutely necessary to bring out the jingle of the rhymes but in blank verse. is the rest or halt of the voice in verses aloud at other points than the end reading It is independent of the same. and if one line is run and there. and of the line. and especially in the dramatic form. will hardly ever fail to mark .

: 140 OR THOME TR Y. (None. whose verse is remarkable for smoothness . Pleased with the danger | when the waves went high. all succeeding ages curst. the heroic. Here are a few examples of the diversity of their occurrence Over them triumphant Death Shook. the monotonous note to the rhythm. and by the when both these strongest When the occurrence of these arranged to take place in different positions in succeeding verses. The This quality of mercy | is not strained. at one part of the line rather than at another. A man to The pause bined. Pope. faint praise. is skilfully melody of the measure is broken into something approaching harmony. occasionally.) is often preceded are comand on the most important word. | | his dart but delayed to strike. | in a moment | brings me to an end. there are verses with no break in the middle at all. Sweet | are the uses of adversity. the emphasis thus produced gives as it were the key- accent of the line. Damn with | assent with civil leer. for generally found in one kind of verse. one more marked than the other. I'd rather be a kitten | and cry mew. example. and. Sometimes there are two or even three metrical pauses in a line.

and buffoon. where it occurs at the end of the third : Offend her Oblige her | | and she knows not to forgive. e. Milton uses them It is said. whose heroic measures are somewhat more vigorous than Pope's. or sixth syllable. Dryden. : less polished but A man so various that he seemed to be Not one | (None.) Was chemist. and correspondingly diversifies his rhythm. Some fold the sleeve. it beyond the fourth. fifth. Thus. has been greatly censured for arranging his pauses in the same. fiddler. as has been already is most diversified by the varying position of the pauses.) but all mankind's epitome always in the wrong. for labours not her And Beauty's praised own. while others plait the gown. Here is an instance.g. varies the position of his pauses more. The swing of hundreds of lines such as these He seldom varies becomes sleepily wearisome. | | | | | blank verse. however. and she'll hate you while you live. position for many lines in succession. whose rhythm .: : : 1 POETIC PAUSES. (None. | set the head and these | | divide the hair . or very nearly the same. Still in opinions Was everything by starts and nothing long But in the course of one revolving moon. it occurs at the end of the second foot in each line and The busy Those sylphs | surround their darling care. in the following example from his Rape of the Lock. 14 polish. very rare with him. statesman.

They in his work after every syllable even immediately before the fifth accent. In thy book record their groans | Who were thy sheep. : are to be met with of the verse." . With Shakspere the pauses are still more irregularly distributed throughout the lines. the result being a still greater mobility to the rhythm. Their moans The poles redoubled to the hills and they | | To heaven. but all night tuned her soft lays : Others on silver lakes and rivers bathed Their snowy breasts. Slain | and in their ancient fold | | by the bloody Piedmontese that rolled Mother with infant down the rocks. Here are two examples from Paradise Lost. seldom placing them in the same any three or four consecutive lines. When Adam waked so customed for his sleep | | | | | Was airy light | from pure digestion bred | And temperate vapours bland. e. They occur with him very frequently after the second and third syllable. Much He spoke and lear ledly "Henry VIII. for life. skill.142 ORTHOMETRY. | From branch | [ | | | | Now morn her rosy steps in Eastern clime Advancing sowed the Earth with orient pearl. And so his peers upon this evidence | Have found him guilty of high treason. which is very rare.g. and one from the Sonnets with great position in : to branch the smaller birds with song Solaced the woods and spread their painted wings Till even : nor then the solemn nightingale Ceased warb ling.

Measure for Measure. madam. | And Like mercy. and that was far away recked not of the life he lost. | | | But where his rude hut by the Danube lay . and persuading . I the souls that were | were forfeit once . e. fair spoken. How would you be If He who is the top of judgment should | But judge you as you are ? | O think of that. I will breathe within your ' ' lips." He was a scholar. Rarely the pause may take the place of a syllable. sweet as summer. | And He I that might the vantage best have took | j Found out the remedy. But to those men that sought him. | man new made. | | and a ripe . He was most princely. Alas I 143 alas all | ! Why. In any other position the long majestic march of the measure is broken. Which was a sin. | | | | | I | | | | | In an Alexandrine verse the pause should always occur at the end of the sixth syllable. then. And though he was unsatisfied in getting. Lofty and sour to them that loved him not. | | | . his eyes with his heart. nor prize.g. A added few examples from our modern poets are He He heard Were it but he heeded not .: ' POETIC PAUSES. ' From his cradle and good one Exceeding wise. ''Henry VIII. : Spreads his | light wings | and | in a mo ment | flies. or after the seventh if that syllable is strongly accented. I . yet in bestowing.

I <U | OR THOMETR Y. j | — | | | | — | ! "Childe Harold. And unavenged ? Arise. The pang. | while | it lasts : | Of friends. and conduct The world at last to freedom. | : | the block may soak their gore Their heads may sodden in the sun . which while I weighed thy heart with one Too wholly true to dream untruth in thee. Guinevere. | | — | | Elapse. All this rushed with his blood. | Protects | the lingering dew-drop | from the sun. whose vast pity al most makes me die J. their limbs Be strung to city gates and castle walls Though years But still their spirit walks abroad. Shall he expire. and others share as dark a doom. There were his young barbarians all at play. There was their Dacian mother Butchered to make a Roman holiday. Yet think not that I come to urge thy crimes I do not come to curse thee. | | . | The wrath which forced my thoughts on that fierce law. their sire. he. at my feet. Small service | is true service. The doom of treason and of flaming death. however humble." They never In a great cause | fail | who | die . and glut your ire Byron. They but augment the deep and sweeping thoughts Which overpower all others. (When first I learnt thee hidden here) is past. | | My pride summers. | | | | | | Byron. Wordsworth. scorn not one The daisy by the shadow that it casts. | | | | | : | | To see thee laying there in happier | | thy golden head. ye Goths. | | | | | | | | I .

Tennyson. past. in this 1 whdse vast pity al | | mdst makes | m£ die. | . the { | 145 \ — is ajso past.'| : | sin is sinned.— POETIC PAUSES. : | as Eternal God soul | Forgives do thou for thine own the rest." The way 1 third line is best scanned. | in part I. perhaps. | and Lo 1 1 I forgive thee. Made my tears burn And all is. " Guinevere.

o'er." In words that rhyme there must be difference as well as similarity of sounds. eye. ore. curl. high. if their sounds be similar without being identical. oar. as the "jingling sound of like endings. For instance. Words that are identical in sound. as the word was formerly.RHYME. are assonances. In order to arrive at a clear conception of the elements which make up — . they form perfectly good rhymes. The chief of these is rhyme. though we occasionally find them there on account of the fewness of rhyming words in our tongue. On the other hand. spelled. as Milton speaks of it. locks cow. box. frau. we have now to enquire into the accidents which largely enter into its composition as ornaments to its melody. do not form rhyme in English poetry. however different their appearance may be. bough. not rhymes. pearl. or rime. and more correctly. however unlike each other words may look. and the chief variations and combinations thereof. Having considered the essentials of verse. Rhyme may be defined as a similarity of sound in the final syllable or syllables of two or more verses. or. . hie. such words as I. of which the following are examples girl.

if any. rose. (i) (ii) This is Identity in the vo^ /el sound. bring. that follow. Rhymes may be and false or bad. beauty.—PERFECT RHYMES. e. imperfect.g. t. as: duty. three. rhymes are called single. the consonant sounds that (iii) Difference in and to these must be added similarity precede in accent. Identity in the consonant sound it. Now. when embracing when extended to as : slenderly.g. and in triple the last two. consonant sounds of r. rhymes are Such as have an exact agreement in sound in the vowel and the consonants. double. sing rhymes with ring.— — RHYME. two. classed as perfect. as these words rhyme correctly we can gather from this brief examination of their constituent parts what is essential to a perfect rhyme. each of which kinds requires de- tailed consideration. but preceded by the different n. is rhymes the last syllable In double unaccented. : . 147 toes. if that fol- lows any. Faultless (i) e. . the open 0. When confined to one syllable. a good rhyme we will take the three words nose. 1. tenderly. followed by the same sibillant consonant. In each of these we have the same vowel sound. as: swing. but not well with thinking. triple.

seal. For such the steady Roman shook the world. but they make the nearest approach to identity that can be allowed. gum . The want of sufficient difference is likewise perceptible in such rhymes as bled. where the second consonant is dropped. are regular. because the consonants with which they begin are different. strictly taken. pit . p\ d. in preference to their opposites among which last are the terminations (iii) long . in one of his poems. indeed. in bit. z. resound * Compounds do not rhyme well with their simples. " Vanity of Human Wishes. that can be uttered. pay. like these. in the sound preceding the vowel.." of these words is aspirated and the other not so that here is a difference. are perfectly good. bed . Such rhymes differ. and therefore. The greater variety also Dr. with sound. led. pray. which would rhyme b. Did God set His fountain of light in the sky. That man should look down with a groan of despair J. t. f. has used a very uncommon rhyme Such bribes the rapid Greek o'er Asia whirl'd. Johnson. (ii) Such as have a marked and sensible difference between the consonants preceding the vowel that is. One . ? C. fan. ten . ray. but the rhymes bled. 148 ORTHOMETRY. of polysyllabic words. van . s. and both words begin with the same letter. or. g. come. Prince. . pray. as. den. consonants not of the same class. That man should look up with the tear in his eye ? Did God make this earth so beauteous and fair.. c. v.* Such as are made by syllables that are and full-sounding. zeal. but the difference is so slight that they are not to be commended. indeed.

but the ex- ample is not to be recommended. though less rich.RHYME. or a liquid consonant. nor of A dignified sound . this topic of The observations of Mitford on rhymes are worthy of attention. mean sound. English speech has rarely any material cacophony in the middle of words. The word king is certainly not euphoqbus. euphony and cacophony. in the length of the as 149 better. rhyming words the hound with rebound. one consonant expressed by two characters. but in terminations it too certainly abounds. the vowel is short and close. of any verse. has led him to admit some rhymes rather cacophonous. will The by a make a plea- . that Pope chose it for the first rhyme of his Essay on Man. justly directed to that powerful closeness of phrase. especially the last syllable. indeed. appears doubtful. and in the conspicuous parts. Pope has had generally credit for what are called rich poems. an added s. welleared poet will avoid cacophony in rhymes. with cacophony doubled by He has. termination in a liquid consonant preceded short vowel. in which he singularly excels. not scrupled to use the same ing for the first rhyme of his translation of the Iliad . or for the opposite quality of the sound. the most cacophonous in our Whether it was for the dignity pronunciation. preceded by a long vowel. good " Ac- He says : cording to our preceding definitions. of the idea conveyed. pleasing and unpleasing. though his higher respect. in language. and the following consonant. will Terminations in a long vowel. be most euphonous.

be limits too narrow for the poet and the ear practised in our versification will take no offence at the conclusion of the second line of Paradise Lost. however. if a vowel begin the following word. These. will be sparing of such accumulation of consonants.. " 2. and two consonants begin the next verse. or they are made of little insignificant words." We are not to expect that such good and approved rhymes as are here advocated should constitute the major part in any composition. but they generally labour under some defect. .—IMPERFECT RHYMES. where a long vowel is followed by two consonants within the same syllable. in our language. as in the first verse of Paradise Lost. must always plead for as much indulgence as can be granted. would. That of a mute preceded by a long vowel will be wholly unobjectionable. These form a most extensive class they are found in the works of all our poets. and the propriety of sacrificing what is merely ornamental to what is more important. The difficulty of rhyming well. or they are stale . and into some of them they enter very largely. sant variety. but are not of the best quality.I^O ORTHOMETRY. however. rich without any cacophony. such as are admissible into verse. The judicious poet. viz. either they want the proper correspondence of sound. They are admissible. We now proceed to pass in review imperfect rhymes. .

RHYME. and hackneyed. that such . Yet. these. (ii) In the vowel itself. taken from a considerable number of poets. and consonants. imperfection. to obviate what otherwise might be objected. viz. In support of this assertion. it will not be unfit to enlarge thereon. who within the compass of thirty rhymes. it has been ascertained that there are upwards of six hundred of them at the rhymester's disposal. (iii) In the letters (if any) that follow it. By failing in the first part. it is evident that a word may fail of making an exact one. By a broad computation of the possible rhyming combination of our vowels. : A failure as it is in either of the other parts is a rhyme which may yet give passable. from Dryden to Goldsmith. which perhaps may surprise some readers. does not usually make some repetition upon an average taken of the whole of his works in rhyme. . diphthongs. notwithstanding this ample field for choice and variety. by making no difference before the vowel. there will not be found one. that mars our poetry. And more than any other rhyme this particular defect. in three parts (i) In the letters which go before the vowel. 151 Examples will be given of all According to what has been already said of rhyme. among all our poets. the rhyme will be inadmissible. because it will form an assonance. though defective. we will exhibit a specific account of such repetitions. These have been pitched upon for two reasons one. and also of imperfect rhymes. as far as goes.

The table subjoined shows the number of repeated rhymes. taken from the first sixty rhymes of to prevent the pieces there specified. do not occur in our best versifiers the other. . Authors.152 faults ORTHOMETRY. and of those which are imperfect. young writers from being misled by examples of such high and deserved authority. . in the works of the authors whose names are in the margin.

and everything that is From out the womb of fertile Nothing Cowley. obeyed him. the rhyme is bad had built Nor did your crutch give battle to your duns. appear that in the points under consideration. and the vowel-sound and consonant are both different. east . for that word was he ris'. with an exception to Swift alone. have improved upon their predecessors. than this in the For Britain's Empire. The introduction of little insignificant words to make rhyme is a blemish which is not often It was very chargeable on our modern poets. field identical. . to speak of them generally. When there is a double imperfection. it From a review will of the extract given above. . RHYME. revere. who as a correct rhymer has never been excelled by any. And hold it out where you a sconce.: : . are numerous : Who with his word commanded And all all to be. great . And awe th' aspiring nations into peace. Only he spoke. before the beginning of the last century common nor do such rhymes appear to have been conThe instances sidered then as any imperfection. impell'd. and one known. retreat. are Some of these imperfections less tolerable and none of them consonants very slight. Will guard at once domestic ease. . 153 breast. our later versifiers. star . Butler. none. boundless as the main. as in this couplet.

" Were those first councils disallow'd by me ? 'Tis dangerous climbing to your sons and you I leave the ladder. They occur more frequently in his prologues and but examples enough have been given . naming me. in the present day. is described and exemplified by Pope he calls them " the sure returns of still expected rhymes " . What these rhymes are. doth warm Shows for my his courage so. " and when. The Panther smiled at this. " Verses for Drinking Healths. for they are not introduced for the purpose of cen- but only to show what. Those curious nets thy slender fingers knit." We find in Dryden rhymes of the same class. " Verses to Saccharissds Maid " Who. as in this couplet . ought to be avoided. Why all these wars to win the book. sake what his bold hand would do. ." said she. : And whets those arrows which confound us so in A thousand Cupids those curls do sit. : A frequent rhyme in Waller is the word which has been noted and censured by Johnson Thy skilful hand contributes to our woe. Another defect in this part of versification is the employment of such rhymes as are become hackneyed by overmuch use. if we Must not interpret for ourselves. but she ? . and its omen too. so. " Hind and Panther.: — 154 ORTHOMETRY." epilogue sure. .

" Many subjects for verse have these common rhymes accompanying. do in the same manner as Demetrius Phalerus informs us the Athenians did sometimes towards those orators who composed their speeches in studied and artificial periods. at the first recital of them. and utter it aloud. they would often forestall the speaker. belonging to them. as is shown in the following Her fate is whisper'd by the gentle breeze." says he. and. RHYME.: . is readily taken and then its partner shall be age or rage. "Fourth Pastoral. in prologues and epilogues it is perhaps necessary to mention the stage this. when the whispering breeze Pants on the leaves. being a very easy word to rhyme with. " The hearers were disgusted. I 55 Where'er you find the cooling western breeze. sometimes fall under this censure. so hackneyed that we might. "Eloisa to Abelard. as it were. : . and also some ends of verses. and dies upon the trees. "Essay on Criticism!' His own verses. And told in sighs to all the trembling trees. For example. " and being well aware how the sentence would end. however." The dying gales that pant upon the trees. and stand with it after this manner ." There are some rhymes. In the next line it whispers through the trees. The lakes that quiver to the curling breeze. In some still evening.

which are about two words rhyme above a dozen times. forty. state draws. And act yourselves the force of your own age. Here are a few specimens imperfect rhymes war shore of commonly recurring . we find these .: 156 ORTHOMETRY. resemble the distracted age. was cause. stage. state great. . . and is made as serviceable for its termination in ay affords as many rhymes as any in the language. age . It consists of twenty-three couplets. Dryden. rage . Pope's Prologue to Cato is another instance in point. cause. Methinks. in which . The plays that take on our corrupted stage. laws laws. ally as stage. fate. these In his prologues and epilogues. While you turn players on the world's great stage. In the same pieces the term flay occurs as natur. rhymes : stage.

: : RHYME. with manly strength endued. last is an instance of pure assonance. as for indulgence. Or which in the consonants are different. and is still allowable in French verse. which not admissible into modern poetry. as : But this bold lord. Po$e. as Beauty and youth. . and wealth and luxury. Dryden. as in atttempting to make a rhyme is The of scenes and sense. Another gross violation of the requirements of rhyme is where the preceding consonants have the same sound. sharpen'd falchions or the scythe. though it was common enough with our earlier writers. And sprightly hope. and smith. lish. both in the vowel-sound and which follow it. and the vowel and what follows it different ones. 157 as compared with some other tongues. and short-enduring joy. as All trades of death that deal in steel for gains Were there . Dryden. Who forges the butcher. Or those in which the consonants preceding the vowel are of the same sound. She with one finger and a thumb subdued. ground Of such are those that are widely different in the vowel sound. armourer.

pere's Rape of Lucrece sometimes occupy an entire stanza. and tears may grace the fashion Of her disgrace. censurable. the When sighs. as glory. of how many syllables soever they may consist. to spend when he is by to hear her Besides. she would not blot the letter action might become them of a better. beautiful. blot. story . The rules or custom more correct age . considered as having too sprightly a character to accord with it. Double rhymes are but sparingly used in our serious poetry the reason may be that they are in single . both consonants and syllables. and Triple rhymes are Under the name all of Double comprehended those which are made by more than one syllable.: : 158 ORTHOMETRY. till To shun this With words. 4. As rhymes it is required that all which follows the vowel shall be identical in sound so in double rhymes all which follow the last accented vowel. as this .— DOUBLE AND TRIPLE RHYMES. lier life and feeling of her passion She hoards. the better so to clear her From that suspicion which the world might bear her. as in the examples above. together with that syllable. and groans. dutiful . . a dactyl but in eartimes this unfitness was either not perceived The double rhymes in Shaksor not regarded. the rhyme of two syllables forming a trochee. should in sound be identical. commensurable. And they may consist of as many syllables as follow the last accented syllable of a word. and that of three.

of double rhyming is to be seen But the most suitable place for the exhibition of double rhymes is where ludicrous subjects are treated of in a burlesque style. : O lyre divine ! Wakes Nor the thee now pride. like some in the stanza above. this large use of double rhymes and what was still allowed. But I. be made of two words. Indeed I'm no z. Wild croquet Hooper banned. that the rhyme should not consist of more than two syllables and second that it should not.: RHYME. in which numerous examples Gilbert's of double and triple rhymes may be found. in serious poems. That the Theban eagle bear.. as in the following stanzas taken at random from the Butler's Hudibras. as. And all the sports of Mammon He warred with cribbage. some years ago. and He exorcised backgammon. and not without grace.j>ologist. in our lyric poetry. I . as in Hood's Whims and Oddities. what daring spirit ? though he inherit nor ample pinion. and Co. or Bab Ballads. Gray. Under these restraints the double rhyme often appears. A fine example in Shelley's Cloud. first. Assisted a phrenologist. 159 abridged. latter For Burglars. Sailing with supreme dominion Through the azure deep of air. was under . as here certain limitations : . Thieves.

though of an inferior order. There are poems of a very modern date which will prove this assertion. by the combination.— — . When more words than one are taken to make up the rhyme. Our language has not many polysyllables where the accent is thrown farther back than the antepenultimate and therefore we have but few rhymes of four syllables. the rhyming syllables may be as many as follow the last accented syllable of a verse. To produce this novelty is a species of wit. to frame new rhymes. including that syllable. the novelty of which is pleasing. whence we conclude that our contemporaries. Perhaps and yet It is surely not a sin If I keep my secrets in — Violet Mortimer Collins. mean here that verse which ends with polysyllables. as in the following by Butler The oyster-women lock'd their fish up. No Bishop. some of them . it gives opportunity. expressions. to cry And trudgM away. : 160 ORTHOMETRY. And again You have said my eyes are blue There may be a fairer hue. yet such as cannot be exercised without great facility in composition and command of language. Hudibras. In verses of this class. and these are only met with in whimsical and far-fetched We .

that I can. RHYME. in these tragedies. used to venture high But these are lost full many a century. Down For in the Strand. that no folk lays The weight on him they do on Sophocles. Euripides I sometimes dip a' days) Is rightly censured by the Stagirite. dear friend. A friend of mine that author despises So much. The following verses of Swift. Commonly speaking. I prefer Eschylus. But. when they please.: . as Horace says. are superior in these points to the generality of former writers. Who says his numbers do not fadge aright. At least. I'm well assured. Thus you may see. Sheridan. and he appears to have set himself down to this piece merely for the purpose of exerting them I went I in vain to look for Eupolis. will not find Poets." Here follow a few instances of whimsical combi- . above all. rior this faculty in upon the ancient dramatic authors. he swears the very best piece is. (An author where Whose moving touches. take his greatest grandees for asses. . For aught he knows. can tell you one thing. in those days. as bad as Thespis's And that a woman. Proceed to tragics : first. kill us " To Dr. but a sad jade is. exhibit a remarkable degree: He had supeabilities in rhyming. l6l at least. just where the new pole is . You He and To it in the Vatican. And now I find my muse but ill able To hold out longer in trisyllable. ex fade hence. My judgment of the old comedians. Cratinus used.

have they not henpecked you I all ? Byron. Byrom. that he to Handel' Is scarcely fit to hold a candle. and thou. never shall I see the U niversity of Gottingen niversity of Gottingen. adieu.: — . doomed to starve on water gruel. From Bentley to the Grub-street Journal. for what else Is in them all but love and battles. That Mynheer Handel's but a ninny Others aver. 102 ORTHOMETRY. Some say. compared to Bonnocini. Gifford. . That kings and priests are plotting in Here. may it. I hate all critics . mostly by modem Just so romances are. stick. Fielding. Sun. they burn all. oh ye lords of ladies intellectual I Inform us truly. Butler. But. Butler. vain world. moon. And pulpit. Wordsworth. May no rude hand deface And its forlorn hicjacet. drum'ecclesiastic. Strange all this difference should be 'Twixt Tweedledum and Tweedledee. nations in the writers way of rhyming. fist Beat with instead of i. .

' satire My Lord' life. I it ! my to our Captain. sir. Having reached the summit. Captain. it. Mortimer Collins. hang that's not at all necessaree For the very First Lord of the Admiraltee. now steward.: : RHYME. " Now. Browning. alas / Some prussic acid. true it is That my favourite But am I colour's blue." We sailed to the eastward but miles two or three. To be made a If to victim. he'd And that put him out of his pain. and managed to cross Rolled down the hill with uncommon velocity. Barham." cries " I shall throw up my post at the Admiraltee. Barhant. An hour they sat in Council. Careless rhymer. ." says was never before at sea. he Grown blind. 163 At length the Mayor broke silence For a guilder I'd my ermine gown sell. I — wish I were a mile hence. puddings I prefer Cambridge ir. Here are some stanzas from an amusing which rhymes throughout on the long e Says " On But. When somehow My Lord took as ill as could be " If you take me much further. he." ' ' : he.

indeed. our vessel went down. if say so. tickles sort of we are pleased ungratefully." 5. his rhyme. .. for it turns earnest too much to jest. "The double rhyme (a necessary companion of burlesque writing) is not so proper for manly satire. It awkwardly. not being able to put it in thought. But what would become of the Admiraltee A. arise themselves but there are other usages deserving censure. below so great a master to make use of such a little instrument. useful thought. We and gives us a boyish kind of pleasure.. no matter to we.—FAULTS IN RHYMING. can only make us grin with the excrescence of a word of two or three syllables in the close. He (Butler.64 " Bout ship If ! ORTHOMETRY.J. and. with a kind of pain to the best readers . ' " And bear the First Lord ' to his own countree " ! . rhyming. immediatelee. which are independent of any such imper- The faults in . But his good sense is perpetually shining through all he writes it affords us not the time We pass through the levity of for finding faults. who. " shouts the Captain. against our liking. It is. admirable. which have hitherto been from some imperfection in the rhymes noticed. of may whom I he is writing) might have left that task to others. and are immediately carried to some . shall conclude this subject of double rhymes with laying before the reader what Dryden has said upon it.

and are even made by the same words. But what we gain'd in skill we lost in strength : Our builders were with want of genius curst The second temple was not like the first Till you. some may be attributed to the inadvertence or negligence of the writer. satirise — Why And guilt's chief foe. ! what author shall we find. who. Congreve. fairly won. Our age was cultivated thus at length. Dryden. And sharply smile prevailing folly dead? . though consisting of different words. Doubly distrest. 165 Of these. Our beauties equal. The courtly Roman's shining path to tread. say. as bay. By the same rhymes is meant. and severely kind. all those which rhyme together. Discreetly daring. And And scatter roses on the wealthy dead ? Shall authors smile on such illustrious days. Dryden.: . Of this sort is the recurrence of the same rhymes at short distances. . day lay. A fault similar of the to this is the frequent repetition same rhymes. while others run He will not write and (more provoking still 1) Ye gods he will not write. may pay. Rochester. come at length. and Maevius will. which he loves. Here the same rhymes occur. crown'd with laurels. but excel our strength. complain ? Donne. Dorset. who leads the tuneful train. Sits smiling at the goal. as in this example Shall funeral eloquence her colours spread. : . the best Vitruvius. are dead. RHYME. . Nor hears that virtue. separated by one couplet only. fections. is fled . in Addison. with nothing but their praise? slumbers Pope. .

within the distance of ten couplets. is free. a swelling knot there Just in that space a narrow slit grows : we make. In whose moist womb th' admitted infant grows. to differ only though not the same. And in the solid wood the slip enclose. are so near as by a single letter. Then other buds from bearing trees we take Inserted thus. . Will no superior genius snatch the quill. as in this instance The lofty skies at once come pouring down. And save me. And mighty trophies with your worthy son : Two gods a silly woman have undone. Dryden. The fault is still greater when two couplets together have the same rhyme. Here. Dryden. endless honours you have won. on the brink. The battening bastard shoots again and grows. are two rhymes twice repeated. and one three times. But when the smoother bole from knots We make a deep incision in the tree . from writing ill ? Though vain the strife. Again For when the tender rinds of trees disclose Their shooting gems. I'll strive my voice to raise j What will not men attempt for sacred praise? Young. The promised crop and golden labours drown. the wounded rind we close.: : : 1 66 ORTHOMETRY. as With soothing words to Venus she begun : High praises. Nor is the fault much less when : the rhymes.

to be correct and polished makes a considerable part of their merit. are by no means to be allowed in short pieces for in such. An instance of such repetition demned occurs in Gray . This frequent repetition of rhymes may be perhaps allowed or at least will not be severely con. The dikes are fill'd. But the bold lord. The following couplets in Pope's Rape of the Lock are very remarkable The doubtful beam long nods from side to side At length the wits mount up. Just where the breath of life his nostrils drew. These are faults which.: : : RHYME. . the rhymes of the first and fourth couplets have the additional fault of . She with one finger and a thumb subdued. where the return of the regular stanza lays the author under a greater restraint. See. couplets have nearly the same first three rhymes. in lyric compositions. Who sought no more than on his foe to die. though not inexcusable in a long work. with manly strength endued. 167 Dryden. With more than usual lightning in her eyes Nor fear'd the chief th' unequal fight to try. fierce Belinda on the Baron flies. A pinch of snuff the wily virgin threw The : Canto 5. the hairs subside. so have the two others and to mark the poet's negligence in this passage. being identical. and with a roaring sound The rising rivers float the nether ground.

. and these being more pliable than the others. This is done in various ways first. This arises sometimes when a rhyme is wanted for a word that has but few rhymes to it in the language. when a smooth expanse receives impressed Calm Nature's image on its watery breast. as Rome. are therefore often worked up into some distorted phrase to furnish a rhyme for example five that will not above pair with it . by making use of unnecessary and superfluous words. Now in both these instances the rhymes are made by words that had better been omitted and the last not only clogs the sentence. The stings of Falsehood these shall try. this shall tempt to rise. but gives a false idea for the objects which are reflected by a mirror are not impressed upon it. Scorn a sacrifice. '* Ode on the Prospect of Eton bitter To And grinning Coll)'' Another fault to be mentioned here is the intro- duction of words merely for the sake of rhyme. The term world is one of these there are .: : t68 Ambition orthomepry. And hard Unkindness' alter' d eye. : . the terror of the world. in ruin hurled. At length shall sink. Then whirl the wretch from high. two of which axe furled and hurled. — Again So. Infamy. . That is. . when a smooth piece of water reflects natural objects.

from the Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard and exemplify what we mean. he was driven to . Another form of this blemish is. * All who have dabbled to in amatory verse must have felt the want of more words rhyme with love. that full abridgment of the world. and the ardent sentiment of Eloisa was enfeebled by these expressions Not Caesar's empress would I deign to prove .: : RHYME. out the sense as well as he could by some He therefore substituted the term prove as an equivalent to be . Pope had to express in rhyme and measure this sentence " I would rather be the mistress of the man I love. make substitute. mined. as the sentence afforded him no second word to match with the rhyme he had taken. by pitching upon some rhyme. Outrageous. Pope. * No." and having thus fixed his rhyme. the poet is often obliged to substitute such as he can get. I69 Let Envy In him He all things with strange order hurled . make me mistress to the man I love. for want of a proper word to match with the rhyme already deter. he sacrifices the other line to it for. " Make me mistress to the man I love. in a whirlwind's bosom hurled." Of this he took will explain : A couplet the strong energetic part for his close. Butler ridicules this in the couplet But those that write in rhyme still make The one verse for another's sake. to which all the rest of the sentence is to be held subservient and then. . search the corners of the world. than the empress of Caesar. In him.

The misapplication of such terms as these. : . as is worst offenders in this respect. The notice taken of this imperfection leads to Our the mention of another very similar to it. versifiers. purpose of supposed poetical ornament. waves of tresses to every head of hair. and o'er the stream His shining horns diffused a golden gleam. and the term is gen- . . and water are the same every wave is water but water in every situation and quantity is not to be called a wave. sometimes for the adversion. yet traces of it are to be seen in writers of a much higher order. if they had the same signification in all cases. a blemish in our poetry.: 170 0RTH0METRY. Tresses are braided hair. and possess a store of terms and phrases which are very fit and proper to be employed in the composition of verse. and the indifferent use of one for the other. for the most part. For instance. are well acquainted with poetical language. His tresses dropp'd with dews. and it deserves animIt is admitted. a head of hair and tresses frequently mean the same thing but we cannot properly give the name Again. but they often commit mistakes in the application of them. Among their errors one arises from this that they consider certain words to be synonymous which are only partially so. In Pope's Windsor Forest the river Thames is described thus: In that blest moment from his oozy bed Old Father Thames advanced his reverend head. and sometimes for the more urgent purpose of supplying a Tyros in the art of versifying are the rhyme.

Her unadorned golden Dishevell'd.RHYME. merely to : We . and Gray. " (the English) are almost reduced to says find our rhymes among the monosyllables. in which our tongue too much abounds. and he marks. down to the slender waist. but in tresses wore waved. They would make an incongruous appearance in the head-dress of a reverend old man. in the compass of forty lines. the wide difference between the male and female head of hair in those whom he represents as perfect models of human beauty. but not beneath his shoulders broad veil. which is a misuse of the word. is acknowledged. That it is undesirable to rhyme with such monosyllables as are trifling and insignificant words. His hyacinthine locks Round from She. In Pope's Ethic epistles (that to Lord Burlington). I find. if not always. syllables. only seven words at the end of a verse which are not monosyllables. Besides these faults it has been reckoned another make the great majority of rhymes with monoGoldsmith has been censured for this. used to signify the hair of a female head. by many distinguishing circumstances. as has been already observed but to object to monosyllables for rhymes. Milton had occasion to use this word when describing Adam and Eve in Paradise. 171 erally. . but they are here put for hair of the head in general. as a his parted forelock manly hung : Clustering. wanton ringlets As the vine curls her tendrils. in his remarks on the poems of Lydgate.

because they are tion. or (Hi) At irregular intervals. to satisfy the ear better pleased with the rhymes that are perfect. is fastidious. some remarks appear necessary as to their arrangement in verse. and a skilful managment in ordering those that are imperfect will render them less displeasing." Puttenham. who is accustomed to read tion. be justified. so.e." adopted an elaborate system of angular and wavy lines to illustrate such arrangements. The quick return of the same sound. By arrangement is to be understood the order in which rhymes ought to stand to produce the best for the ear will be effect. and as to the kinds of poetry to which their introduction seems suitable and necessary. as applied to nor can the objecour language. will know how and when to mark the points on which his attention should rest.—ARRANGEMENT OF RHYMES. a plan which we decline to adopt as unnecessary and disfiguring to verse presentaThe student. Rhymes are arranged either (i) Consecutively in couplets and rarely in triplets." 6. in his " Art of Poetry.: 172 OR THOMETR Y. however . Before closing the chapter on rhymes. if they stand in one order rather than another. of which numerous examples will be found in " Combinations of Verse. . with pencil in hand. or (ii) Alternately. as in the elegiac stanza and ballad metre. or crossed." and the " Sonnet. i.

In our own language traces of it are to be found as far back as the tenth century. At the same time if the interval that separates the rhyming words be too great. When three heroic lines intervene. rhyming with a monosyllable. No definite rules bearing upon the subject can be deduced from the writings of our best poets. and in the Spenserian stanza. the light ending should always come last. of course. And the same applies to a word of many syllables. would be lost. and a hard consonant sound precede the corresponding soft sound. being unaccented. and Rhyme although Chaucer may be said to have popularised . the discordance between them is not so disagreeable as when this order is reversed. The remarks that are made as to the disposition of rhymes in the pure Italian form of the sonnet. 173 pleasing to the ear and suitable to the nature of the lighter kinds of verse.RHYME. may be appropriately referred to here. they seem to be set as far asunder as can be allowed with propriety. which is the main purpose of rhyme. is Minstrels poured forth their lays of war and love long before the chiming of similar sounds had been thought of. is inconsistent with the gravity and sublimity that characterise the higher forms of poetic expression. a non-essential element in verse. if the broader and longer vowel sound be arranged to come before the corresponding shorter one. In the case of imperfect rhymes. and little more can be said with certainty beyond the two broad principles stated above. the last. their correspondence on the ear.

and stricted to lyrical pieces of all kinds." All the very greatest poems in all languages are rhymeless. as well as to verse of a descriptive and humorous kind. no doubt owe much of their charm to its embellishments. but its use seems more suitably rein his Canterbury Tales fourteenth century. it was long looked down upon as a barbarous innovation. Spenser's Fairie Queen and Byron's Childe Harold. like art. and is still regarded by some as a meretricious aid to " poesie divine.174 it ORTHOMETRY. . The additional restrictions that it imposes upon the freedom of the poet have caused it to be discarded in all the masterpieces of poetic Some few noble and lengthy poems. all towards the end of the succeeding poets have made use of it more or less.

linked together by alliterative consonance. Kirke White. which. Alliteration is the frequent recurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of words in a verse. : and dull despair.* Here is a specimen from the opening lines of Piers the Plowman's Vision. 256. forming a kind'of initial rhyme. e.: ALLITERATION. * See Development of Versification. written by Willam Langlande about 1362 : In a somer seson. Green-eyed grief. Unholy of workes. . With many bishops' seals. When I softe was the sonne. As he a prieste were Brought forth a bull . in for the Anglo-Saxon most part. Again. consists of short couplets containing three or four accented syllables. . It was an essential element and Old English poetry. shope me in shroudes As I a shepe were In habit as an hermit. p. Carking care. from the same poem There preached a pardoner.g.

" and used it with great taste and skill. The Elizabethan poets evinced a marked fondness for its " artful aid. In the fashionable craze called Euphuism* of Queen Elizabeth's reign. which is an expression in which the offensiveness of a thought is somewhat hidden e. and became much in vogue with the wits and dandies of Elisabeth's Court.g. Muse I did of many things That the mind in quiet brings." . Sjbenser. It was in a ridiculously ornate style. and to this comely damsel the beamties of Morpheus. here is an example * Ephuism takes Lily. alliteration was carried to a ridiculous excess. Sir Walter Scott parodies its use in the Monastery in the person of Sir Percie Shafton . and alliterations.. Repining courage yields No foot to foe : the flashing fire flies As from a forge. and introduced the regular rhythmic flow of accented syllables and the new element of rhyme. classical written allusions. Greene. abounding in conceits. It took the popular fancy of the time. or the Anatomy of Wit by a minor dramatist of Elizabeth's reign (1534-1600). and to all common good night. Where a silent stream did glide." your leave to depart Euphuism should not be confounded with Euphemism. John " And now having wished others the to my fairest Discretion those pleasant dreams which wave their pinions around the couch of sleeping beauty. forced antitheses. alliteration ceased to be an essential to English has always retained its hold as an its melody. verse. which furnished occasion for Its name from Euphies. " He has gone to that other world which is not heaven. I will crave to my place of rest.: : : 176 OR THOMBTR Y. When Chaucer began to reform our versification. but it aid and embellishment to as for example Sitting by a river's side.

" Whose influence. This precious stone set in a silver sea. a sore . ' Nevertheless he avails himself of this simple ornament with rare felicity throughout his entire works. Holofernes. : ' ALL1TERA TtOtf. "King Lear. the pedantic pedagogue. He ridicules the excessive use of it again in the bombastic words of Bottom Whereat. He bravely broached his boiling. like a wreath On flickering Phosbus front. " Richard III. King Lear. of radiant '* fire.: . ' ' Midsummer Nights Dream ." He To the capers nimbly in his lady's chamber lascivious pleasing of a lute. with bloody. blameful blade. but not a sore till now made Sore with shooting. 1 77 Shakspere's mock imitation of it in Lovers Labour's Lost. with blade. bloody breast." M . " Richard II." Myself could else out-frown false fortune's frown." Our dreadful marches to delightful measures. " Richard III. writes some verses which he calls " An Extemporal Epitaph on the Death of the Deer " they run : The praiseful princess pierced and pricked a pretty Pleasing pricket Some say.

" Then And the whining schoolboy. 'twas wondrous pitiful. "As You Like It. creeping like snail. " Romeo and Juliet. like angels." They are not a pipe for Fortune's finger To sound what stop she please." After life's fitful fever he sleeps well. 'twas passing strange. Poor naked wretches. cribb'd. " Romeo and Juliet. "Macbeth. That bide the pelting of this pitiless storm. with his satchel. : — "Othello." But now I'm cabin'd. 'twas strange. wheresoe'er you are.' 178 OR THOMBTR V." ." Life is as tedious as a twice-told tale. " King Lear. shining morning face. trumpet-tongued. " Hamlet. dull ear of j Vexing the a dying man. "King John* My story being done. if looking liking move." Jocund day Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops. against The deep damnation of his taking oft. "Macbeth. 'Twas pitiful." I'll look to like. confined. She gave me for my pains a world of sighs She swore in faith. ' His virtues Will plead. Unwillingly to school. "Macbeth.

" Paradise Lost. The very sound of many of his verses..." Perhaps some cold bank is her bolster now. " Comus. as b. 179 "Hamlet. even apart from the sense." Milton's use of alliteration his epics as in the is not so marked in minor poems.. all the purposes of melodic effect is unsurpassed by picturesque and any of our poets. " Paradise Lost." The rising wind of waters. has a distinct skill in the choice of words for pleasurable effect." . Deep on his front engraven Deliberation sat. " Paradise Lost. Paradise Lost. And moon-struck madness. and public care.." That Deserve the precious bane soil may best . " Comus. His exquisite . ALLITERATION." Moping melancholy. &c. dark '* and deep. Make thy two eyes like stars start from their spheres. He also em- ploys various devices to tone down the alliterative effect by (1) employing it with unaccented syllables (2) with syllables other than the initial one and (3) by the use of consonants similar but not identical in sound. t. p." Or 'gainst the rugged bark of some broad elm.

" Sweet bird. "L'Allegro. Poj>e. Lyte." Sweetest Shakspere." Lap me Married in soft to Lydian airs. e.— : 180 Yet they in ORTHOMETRY.} Dryden and Pope both of this poetic avail themselves freely the latter seems specially to have taken care to make the consonance less . Milton. Most musical. most melancholy. The broad blue sky above thee spread. Sleep on. : allitera- Where awful arches make a noonday night. '• 71 Penseroso. The boundless ocean round thee. Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tire. Warble "L' Allegro. A glorious tomb they've found thee. With sudden adoration and blank awe.g. immortal verse. Pope. " Comus. Fancy's child. pleasing slumber lulled the sense. thou mighty dead. his native wood-notes wild. that shunn'st the noise of folly. ornament obvious by separating the words more than usual ." Sometimes we have instances of vowel tion.

Pope. And waft a sigh from Indus to the Pole. ignorantly read. Dryden. but for the most part more artfully concealed. Pope. Deprived of day. The bookful blockhead. So. With loads of learned lumber in his head. 181 Dryden. Deep in a dungeon was the captive cast. Pope. and held in fetters fast. Alliteration enters largely as a melodic element modern poetry. No doubt it is often employed unconsciously. Who shall decide when doctors disagree ? Pope. speechless. One laced the helm.: ALLITERATION. Speed the soft intercourse from soul to soul. for a little space he lay. but felt our captive's charms. Soft as the slumbers of a saint forgiven. We conquered France. Pope. In the following verse Pope employs an elaborate onomatopeia it skilfully in Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone. another held the lance. for in the choice of words association as well as sound affects the into all our its effect is . Dryden.

Drank the last life drop of his bleeding breast. Sounds sweet as if a sister's voice reproved. for all that we knew. breathless. furious to the last. Byron. . Havelock baffled. 'Tis better to have loved and lost Than never to have loved at all. Full in the centre stands the bull at bay. There is a pleasure in the pathless woods. Beneath its base are heroes' ashes hid. Shelley. Byron. Tennyson. our nineteenth-century poets Back to the struggle. pall. Our sincerest laughter. baffled in the strife. Tennyson. Shelley. Foiled. or beaten. bleeding. Like a glow-worm golden In a dell of dew. Here follows a selection from taste in selection. Byron. Byron. Byron.: : 1 82 ORTHOMBTRY. or butchered. The lustre of the long convolvuleses. This truth came borne with bier and I felt it when I sorrowed most. Byron. With some pain is fraught Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought.

Leigh Alone. alone. Alone on a wide. the white foam flew. The The fair breeze blew . Campbell. .ALLITBRA TION. all 1 83 Hunt alone. Abou Ben Adhem (may his tribe increase !) Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace. Coleridge. The sentinel stars set their watch in the sky. all. sea. furrow followed free. wide Coleridge.

This term. with fixed face attent.. ancient or . it is thy will Thus 'gan to speak : should renew a woe cannot be told. and its rhythm is improved by the introduction of a greater number of deviations from normal regularity than any other measure in English. the opening lines of which are as follows They whisted all.: BLANK VERSE. — . When I Prince . in a translation which he made of the second and fourth books of the JEneid. These lines are not an unfavourable specimen of the kind of verse they run smoothly. during the reign of Henry VIII. Milton's epics and Shakspere's dramas. or Iambic pentameter. or indeed of any other language. and the pause in fact they would bear comparison with is varied the blank verse of all but the greatest masters. In it are embalmed the masterpieces of English poetry. It was first employed in English verse by the Earl of Surrey. Blank verse is less trammelled by artificial restrictions.(Eneas from the royal seat Queen. is generally restricted to Heroic verse. although it includes all unrhymed measures. who also introduced the sonnet.

infinite variety of it almost is capable. though rarely in the fifth foot two.—LICENCES. but then A . . only two kinds. Read aloud. and then by some verses of Shakspere's. the approach to prose is dangerously close. The simplicity of its structure. which even an untrained ear would readily detect. (ii) Spondees ( .BLANK VERSE. such substitutions may occur in the same verse. 1. or Cowper's Task. free and mellifluent as a summer breeze the marked contrast in the rhythmic flow is unmistakable. chief licences allowable in standard blank verse have already been enumerated and illustrated. pyrrhic foot (~ ~) may take the place of (i) an iambus in any part of the line.) may also find place in any part of the line. a passage from Wordsworth's Excursion. Each great poet that has employed it to any extent has given to it a distinctive character. for instance. dactyls and spondees. though the metrical accent is only . and follow it by a full-mouthed piece from Milton. 185 modern. but it will be as well here. 122. whereas in the most commonly used classical measure. to recapitulate and supplement what has there been said. The p. and (very rarely) three.. and the rhythmic effect of which render it the noblest vehicle of poetic expression which the melodic instincts of mankind have conceived. find place. It admits into its composition a free use of at least five different kinds of feet. the hexameter. for the sake of completeness.

but there must be no sixth accent. They are to be found frequently in Two the regular trochees should the (iv) first foot. and are in agreement with the views of the most recent authorities on our versification. This liberty is mostly confined to dramatic verse. Abbottf states that about one at pleasure." p. and occasionally a twelfth syllable is added. occasionally in the third and fourth. never occur together. Abbott. and the accents may be.* " The number of syllables may therefore be greater than ten. Two spondees often occur together. especially anapests (— — same rhythmic run from weak to strong . or at the end of the second and fourth. and generally are. weak breaks iambic flow weak to strong. (iii) Trochees ( -^ -') are occasionally admissible. (v) An additional unaccented syllable is frequently found at the end of a verse. other accents maybe distributed almost Dr.1 86 ORTHOMETRY. less than five. The canons here concisely laid down have been carefully deduced from the usage of our best poets. " Shaksperian Grammar. which have the the utmost . .). given to the second syllable of each." • Ellis. 77. Trisyllabic feet are also frequently used for iambic. 453. If there be accent at the end of the third and fifth group. limit of such substitution is three to five." p. and not more than two in the same line. but rarely in the second and fifth. Mr. and occasionally as many as three or four. t " Essentials of Phonetics. Ellis says. but much more sparingly than as their run from strong to either of the former.

) . be selected as the most suitable form of verse for lofty and continuous poetical utterance. fifteen with four. Conway. Now. | Deliberate valour breath'd * Gilbert | and unmoved. 24. Milton. such versification. Conway* has drawn out with elaborate prewhich he gives thirty-five different arrangements of the accents found in heroic lines of approved authors.—EPIC OR HEROIC BLANK VERSE. and ten with two. singular excellence of Milton's blank -verse being generally admitted.: BLANK line in three has the full VERSE. 1 87 number of emphatic accents. about two in four have three. London. (Longmans. " Treatise on Versification." p. seven with the full number of five. and one out of fifteen Mr. rhythmical variety Well may it 2. four. we will here point out some of its causes. eleven with three. 1878. we shall at once realise the boundless capabilities of that this measure presents. or at least some of those quali- The ties which are most apparent and eminent in his has availed himself of the use of mixed metre to the utmost possible extent. He as these Draw after him the third | part Sf firm | Heaven's host. if to all these allowable variations in the arrangement of the accented syllables we add the practically limitless change that may be made cision a table in in the position of the pauses in successive lines.

But it .: : : ! 1 88 ORTHOMBTRY. Better | out fif | | to reign in hell than serve in heaven. it offends only because there is no pause before the following. How art thou Uni | lost ! | how fin | a sudden lost versal | reproach. This trochaic substitution being the direct oppofundamental measure of the heroic line should be used most sparingly. and | fear to | transgress. remember. which has exactly the : same feet. Of Eve. | f6r£st | or den. Anon. and it . though a pyrrhic or spondee may site to the so stand. These licences are is this all of stitution of the trochaic for the one kind viz. . two following lines Ingale | nor then the solemn night all | Ceased warbling. is a musical line In wood or wilderness. far worse to bear. but night tuned her sdft lays. as in this Yet fell . the subiambic foot. which offends the ear in some of Milton's lines. a fabric huge. as in the Till even. the earth. whose eye | darted | contagious fire. and never occur in the last foot. Here are examples of other substituted Milton's verse feet in And the | shrill sounds | ran echoing through the wood.

BLANK Murmiirlng. the wideEncroaching Eve. similar if not so great. | and shades of Next to the variety of feet may be noticed the variety of pauses with respect to their position in the line. O'er man y a fr6 zen. e'er yet Dictaean Jove was born. | lakes. of their purchase got. and man y a re gion do ISrous. eternal splendours flung yet faithful : Their glory wither' d how they stood. Through man y a dark and dreary vale They passed. | | | | | | | | | Racks. death. Here again Milton's excellence appears : However. a variety. with Eurynome. perhaps. dens. had first the rule Of high Olympus. lines together Millions of spirits for his fault amerced Of heaven. all of the earth since wild. | bdgs. And fabled how the serpent. thence by Saturn driven And Ops. 189 and with him | fled the Innu I mfirablS before th' Almighty's throne. fens. shades of night. and Sf | chase. whom they call'd Ophion. cdves. Gambolled All beasts | | before | thSm . In this passage the pause is so varied that no two have it in the same place. man y a fi ery Alp. as when heaven's fire . | VERSE. and from For his revolt . and within the compass of seven lines it stands in six different places. is one characteristic of this poem. some tradition they dispersed Among the heathen. the | | unwieldy | el | gphant. This is by no means a singular instance .

&c. from the second line to the sixth. are it would therefore be a weak foot. To this Milton has attended in many passages for as . Convulsions. here their prison | ordain'd. second Eve. And In every line here. thus began. and wide-wasting pestilence. Demoniac phrensy. moon-struck madness. pining atrophy. the foot in which it stands will generally be a pyrrhic. all unaccented which is sometimes to be guarded against. Intestine stone and ulcer. the majestic march. Hath scathed the forest oaks or mountain pines. epilepsies.: 190 ORTHOMETRY. With singed top their stately growth. . Marasmus. except the last. No modern poet would venture to construct a passage such as the last one. the horrid silence. colic-pangs. in order to preserve what Pope calls " the full resounding line. the syllable is accented this makes the foot an iambic." of the heroic measure. Stands on the blasted heath. as conjunctions. . example T6rments For these Breaking | | him. fierce catarrhs. Here. though bare. sus. When a pause falls on the third. following the pause . round rebell | | he throws | | his bale | ful eyes. and gives a fulness to the measure. son of When Je | Ma | ry. or seventh syllable of a verse. | ious. there are many different pauses as lines. or fifth. moping melancholy. because the connecting words of our language.

:

1

BLANK VERSE.
Another circumstance remarkable
versification is his use of elisions.

19 in Milton's

cutting off a vowel at the end of

The practice of a word was not

introduced by him into our poetry, but he revived it when it had become obsolete so that his manner appeared as a novelty, and was indeed clearly different from that of other poets, and even from his own earlier productions. In his Comus there occur no elisions like these
;

His temple right against the temple' of God
Anguish, and doubt, and
fear,

and

sorrow',

and pain

Abominable', unutterable', and worse.

The length of periods,
is

occasionally and judiciously

introduced, is another distinguishing feature. Such

the following:
Sing, heavenly Muse, that on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed, In the beginning, how the heavens and earth Rose out of chaos.

To

these

may be added
is

the frequent inversions,
:

as this, which

most remarkable

God, from the Mount of Sinai, whose gray top
Shall tremble, he descending, shall himself, In thunder, lightning, and loud trumpet's sound,

Ordain them laws.

But in Milton's versification nothing is more remarkable than the skilful manner by which his

:

1^2

ORTHOMETRY.
and run one
into another.

lines are connected
is

This

done by where there is no sensible pause. But to explain this it will be necessary to consider how, for this purpose, a sentence may be divided, and also what And first to mention what, in a makes a pause. simple sentence, will produce a pause. Take a sentence in its natural order of words viz. ist, 2nd, the nominative case, and what the article may be joined with it, as adjective or genitive case; 3rd, the verb 4th, the noun, or other word governed
:

ending the line in that part of a sentence

;

;

by

it,

e.g. :

The affable archangel had forewarn'd Adam.

Whatever disturbs
pause, as
(i)

this natural order creates a

Transposition

;

i.e.

any change

of that order,

e.g.

:

The

sojourners of Goshen,

who beheld

From
Ahaz

the safe shore their floating carcases.
his sottish conqueror,

whom he drew

God's altar to disparage.
(ii)

The

insertion of

any phrase, or word, not
:

necessary to

make

out the sentence

the selfsame place where he

First lighted from his wing.

my sudden hand Prevented, spares to tell thee yet by deed*.

;

BLANK VERSE.
On a sudden open fly With impetuous recoil andjarring sound The infernal doors.
on each hand the flames

193

Driven backward,
(iii)

slope their pointing spires.

Apposition, or the introduction of a second signification as the former this differs but little from the preceding, e.g. :

word having the same

or that sea-beast

Leviathan, which God of all his works—
yea, often placed Within his sanctuary itself their shrines, Abominations, and with cursed things.

Hid Amalthea, and her

florid son,

Young Bacchus, from

his

step-dame Rhea's eye.
is

By any

of these

means a pause

made, even in a

simple sentence.

Dramatic writers sometimes end a line with such words as would hardly be allowed in other kinds of serious poetry such are the articles, the adjective pronouns, and conjunctions. Now there is no pause between the article and its noun, nor between
;

the pronoun adjective and

its

substantive

;

on the

contrary, these have too close a connexion to be

separated. But verses may be made to run into one another by dividing a sentence in other parts, where yet there is no pause. (1) Between two substantives. (2) Between the nominative case and the verb.

1

94
(3) (4)

OR THOMETR V.
Between the verb and the accusative case. Between two verbs. These breaks are of the

most frequent occurrence, but there are others, as (5) Between the adjective and its substantive. (6) Between certain pronouns and the verb. (7) Between some prepositions and the word governed by them.

The

following instances are subjoined to
:

show

Milton's use of these divisions

(1.) Of man's first disobedience, and the Of that forbidden tree.

fruit

whose mortal taste (2.) Brought death into the world.
Sing, heavenly

(3.)

muse that

didst inspire

That shepherd.

(4.)

To speak
(5.)

;

He now prepared whereat their doubled ranks they bend.
their creator

God

and

th' invisible

Glory of him that

made them

to transform.

-

the gray
before

Dawn, and the Pleiades
(6.)

him danced.
but thou

And

feel

thy sovran vital lamp

;

Revisit'st not these eyes.

that thou art naked,

who
?

Hath

told thee

?

hast thou eaten of the tree

:

BLANK

VERSE.

195

(7.) That were an ignominy and shame beneath This downfall.

Sole Eve, associate sole, to

me beyond

Compare above

all living-

creatures dear.

These prepositions are dissyllables the smaller seldom, if ever, occur at the end of a line. find, but very rarely, the auxiliary separated from its verb:
;

We

That with

reiterated crimes

he might

Heap on

himself damnation.

And

once a compound epithet

is

divided at the find

of a verse

Ophion, with Eurynome, the wideEncroaching Eve perhaps.

All these qualities enumerated above appear throughout Milton's versification, which indeed he himself has described in his note prefixed to the Paradise Lost, in these words, " True musical delight consists only in apt numbers, fit quantity of syllables, and the sense variously drawn out from one verse into another." Such, according to his judgment, are the essential elements to good verse, and by due attention to what he here laid down he attained to his distinguished eminence in this, which is the highest species of English versification.

:

196

ORTHOMETRY.

3.-

DRAMATIC BLANK VERSE.
Shakspere.

With

respect to dramatic verse very
is

little

con-

sideration of what

requisite for effective stage

representation is necessary to show that the utmost freedom and variety of treatment must be allowed in this species of composition. The verse is not the language of the poet, but of the characters whom he introduces upon the stage. Words of the deepest passion and pathos have to be altered at times, but without causing incongruity with the everyday surroundings of life. The poet sinks his own individuality altogether, while his puppets speak and act as real men and women do on the great world's stage. The dialogue, elevated and heroic as it must sometimes be, should also be natural and easily comprehended; hence involved constructions, and unusual inversions, and
stilted diction are out of place.

The

natural order

a sentence ought not to be violated foi the sake of metre beyond what would be deemed suitable in rhetorical oratory. The audience must readily grasp the sense of the words as they are there is no time for reflection. uttered To accomplish all this the dramatist avails himself freely of every kind of poetic licence, already enumerated and illustrated, and, in true Bohemian
of

words

in

spirit,

trespasses the conventionalities of versificafurther,

tion

still

whenever

it

suits his purpose.

Such as

:

'

BLANK
(i)

VERSE.

1

97

The

free use

of one or

two hypermetrical

syllables

Thou

marshal'st

me

the

way that

I

was go ing. "Macbeth."
|

To-day

|

he puts forth
|

The tender

And

leaves of hope, to-morrow bios sums, bears his blushing honours thick upon him.
|

"Henry

VIII."

He

were much goodlier

;

is't

not a handsome gen tlfman ? " IPs Well that Ends Well.
|

A

'

Your honour and your goodness

is

so ev

|

Ident.

" Winter's Tale."

The use of these additional syllables increases in Shakspere's later plays. of extra mid-syllables before the (ii) The use caesural pause, which also becomes more marked in the latter plays of Shakspere
:

This

is

his

Majesty

;

say your mind to him. "All's Well."
her, no further trust her.

Then when

I feel

and see

"Winter's Tale:'

And first-fruits I am barred.

of

my body,

from his presence

" Winter's Tale."

The marigold, that goes to bed wi' the sun, with him rises weeping these are flowers Of middle summer.

And

;

"Winter's Tale."

:

;

:

"

198
There
is

ORTHOMETRY.
no more such masters
:

I

may wonder.

" Cymbeline."

(iii)

Imperfect lines are admissible,

i.e.

of only one, two, or three feet

—rarely four.
come

verses

When

these hemistichs, as they are called,

together,

they require to be scanned as a continuous line
Ophelia.
I

Hamlet.
I

pray you now receive them. No, not never gave her aught.

I

"Hamlet."
Of but a
sickly part of one true sense Could not so mope. O shame, where is thy blush ?

" Hamlet:

1

Occasionally, Alexandrines are blended with the
five-foot verse

Hamlet.

Honeying and making love Over the nasty sty, Queen. O, speak to me no more 1

"Hamlet."
(iv)

What

are

known

as " light " and "

weak

endings are freely used, especially in the choicest specimens of Shakspere's verse. By the former is meant the termination of a line with personal or relative pronouns, or auxiliary verbs, that admit but a very slight pause by the latter the verse is ended by prepositions or conjunctions which allow of no break whatever the line is forced to run
; ;

e. Massinger. he being the acknowledged master of poetic art both as regards His unrivalled series of matter and form. Had I been any god of power.. : The power I serve Laughs at your happy Araby. or the Elysian shades. " Tempest. my dearest father. are not only an inexhaustible source of pleasure to the successive generations of English-speaking people all the world over. but they furnish a field of ever-increasing interest and enquiry into the methods of his art and the development of his genius. of late — — years. and their united labours have resulted in such an arrangement of .g. led Shaksperean students to pay special attention to his versification. beyond what has already been said upon blank verse generally and dramatic verse in particular." At this point the versification of Shakspere claims our special attention. I would Have sunk the sea within the earth. If by your art. The attempt to fix the chronological order of his plays has. or e'er It should the good ship so have swallowed. you have Put the wild waves in this roar. 190 both in sound and sense into the closest connection with the opening words of the succeeding verse.BLANK VERSE. dramas thirty -seven in all the pride of our mother tongue. allay them. and The freighting souls within her.

works further in the order of their production.200 his ORTHUMETRY. the more it burns The current. . removed from disappearing. Lear. extra syllables the end. the early comedies. a clearly marked change will be observable in the nature In the and rhythmic movement of the verses. . . the tenth usually has an emphatic accent. syllables rarely occur. such. first set the numbers flow with a smoothness approaching the monotony of rhymed heroics extra The men of Verona. never alter. and Macbeth. even varying the sense as well as the sound is continuous from one line to the next the verse is run-on. The Two Gentleand compare them with selections from the great tragedies of his matured powers. clearly discernible in the following selections : The more thou damm'st it up. and find place in any part of the line. to distinguish it from the These marked characteristics are former kind. and again with others from The Tempest and The Winter's Tale. as it is called. in all probability. that with gentle murmur glides . and the pause comes regularly the end of the line selections : at the verses are end-siopt. Comedy of Errors. as Love's Labour's Lost. for the most part. for instance. as enquiry will. . have been appropriately In the other we shall find this regularity gradually Light and weak endings and occur in increasing numbers! the pauses are. as they called. If we take a number of passages from the known works of his 'prentice hand. like Hamlet. creations of the calm sunset of his life.

The clouds.BLANK But when his fair VERSE. " Tempest:' O For the flowers now ! Proserpina. But sweeter than the lids of . being stopped. and sweet airs. and to gradually . he strays. Will make me sleep again and then. if I then had waked after long sleep. impatiently doth rage . by many winding nooks With " . in dreaming." air is full of noises. . lilies of all kinds. Or Cytherea's breath That die unmarried Juno's eyes. and The crown imperial . Sometimes a thousand twanging instruments Will hum about mine ears and sometimes voices. 201 Thou know'st. . a malady Most incident to maids bold oxlips. and take The winds of March with beauty violets dim. The Sounds. That. thou letf st fall From Dis's waggon daffodils That come before the swallow dares. willing sport to the wild oce-an. ! — " Winter's Tale." The proportion of run-on to end-stopt lines has been ascertained by Mr. when I waked. : I cried to dream again. would open and show riches Ready to drop upon me that. . The flower-de-luce being one . course is not hindered. He makes sweet music with the enamell'd stones. Giving a gentle kiss to every sedge He overtaketh in his pilgrimage And so. frighted. Furnival to be one in eighteen in Love's Labour's Lost. Two Gentlemen of Verona. pale primroses. that. ere they can behold Bright Phoebus in his strength. methought. that give delight and hurt not.

They begin to appear plentifully in Macbeth. directed by an instinctive sense and faculty divine for beauty and melody. . but the grace and ever-varying music of his rhythmic numbers must be regarded as a lost art. His are inimitable. for they defy analysis their beauty must be felt rather than reasoned The clear sweet ring of his lyrics is perhaps out. but gradually discarded rhythmic melody grew. equalled by some of his contemporaries.Night's Dream. and remain choicest efforts unique in our literature. there are two rhymed lines to each one without but in the Tempest there is only one couplet as his skill in In Love's Labour's Lost it throughout. we thus see. and only one in Midsummer. Again. and in the later plays they amount to from five to seven per cent. According to Professor Ingram there is no single light or weak ending in the Two Gentlemen of Verona and The Comedy of Errors. is the result of careful labour and ripened judgment. and in Winter's Tale not one. in his early plays the youthful poet made free use of rhyme. The blank verse of Shakspere's latest plays.. and nearly approached by Burns and Shelley. 202 increase to ORTHOMETRY. one in two in Cymheline and The Winter's Tale. of the whole number of endings.

that a more detailed account of its position in verse seems desirable. The sonnet. and came into use in the fifteenth century. one for the first. The rhymes through- out are unequally blended. of two tercets. into two unequal groups of eight the latter is and six the sestet. lines. and in the normal type are rigidly adhered to. and its utmost melodious of Petrarch and type it consists which are divided sweetness attained in the verse Dante. its nature and construction are so complex. and it occupies at the present time such an important and popular part in our poetic literature. third. The form of the sonnet is of Italian origin. lines. The tercet . In the octave only two rhymes are admissible. Besides. demands separate treatment. sixth. In the perfect Italian of fourteen decasyllabic octave. and is therefore not dealt with here as a mere fourteen-line stanza. fourth. their arrangement being based upon well-tested laws of melody. and seventh. the former the The octave and the sestet made up of two quatrains. fifth and eighth lines. being a distinct kind of poem. towards the end of which its construction was perfected.THE SONNET. the other for the second.

James Y. c. in the second To write a sonnet doth my Julia in press me plain. . d. and complete in itself. Gibson the first quatrain. and is an ingenious and amusing illustration of the build of the sonnet itself. b. b. combined with epigramatic force. b. The following example is constructed on the pure Petrarchan model. Yet here I'm midway in the last quatrain And if the foremost tercet I begin. the first and fourth second and fifth. I've never found me such stress or pain 'tis A sonnet numbers fourteen lines. And I three are gone ere I can say. God bless me ! thought that spinning lines would sore oppress me. . d. In each of the two tercets it should be again treated differently. by Mr. c. and brought to a close with a dignity fully equal to the opening note. b. b. or one emotion elaborately and continuously wrought out throughout. subject matter of the poem should consist one idea. a — a.: : . This arrangement may be illustrated as follows. d. It is an English version of Lope de Vega's Sonnet on the Sonnet. : The quatrains need not any more distress me. 204 ORTHOMETRY. . The principal idea should be stated in The of and illustrated and elaborated then follows a pause. the letters a. lines. e — c. e. and the third and sixth. e representing the rhymes in succession Octave Sestet a. the admits of three pairs of rhyme. a.

through it with such right goodwill. . English soil. It was during the early part of the sixteenth century that the Earl of Surrey and Sir Thomas Wyatt. Out of these attempts to acclimatise the stranger to the altered conditions of our speech attempts which demonstrated the necessity of freedom from the flowery chains of Italian tyranny grew the English sonnet. carrying the same jingle from the octave into the sestet. To the first 205 tercet And travel That with I have got at last. and others experimented with the new toy. They found the difficulty of transplanting this choice exotic from the musical Italian tongue into the comparatively rough and rhymeless English so great. Philip Sidney. who had imbibed a taste for the glowing of Italy during residence there. for which some writers have claimed an indigenous production. first atpoetry tempted the sonnet structure in English verse. I this line I've finished ween : I'm in the second now. — — the last of which is carried into the and that the poem ends with a couplet first tercet. and see how fast : • The thirteenth line ! Hurrah 'tis done ! comes tripping from my quill Count if there be fourteen. thus abolishing the central pause.: THE SONNET. that many liberties had to be taken with it before it could be well adapted to the sterner Sir Spenser. Drayton. and introduced a variety of changes in the arrangement of the rhymes. In the following example from Spenser. it. and they closed the poem with a couplet. note that three rhymes are admitted into the quatrain.

In the next example. whiles her fair light I miss. And in her songs sends many a wishful vow For his return that seems to linger late So I alone. though the break between the two halves is observed will Care-charmer Sleep. Seek with my plaints to match that mournful dove. Spenser. Like as the culver on the bared bough Sits musing for the absence of her mate. son of the sable Night. in silent darkness born. the images of day's desires..: . but her own joyous sight Whose sweet aspect both God and man can move. dreams. entitled Sleep. wandering here and there all desolate. And never wake to feel the day's disdain. and restore the light With dark forgetting of my care return. Daniel. Can comfort me. . the last two forming a couplet. it by Daniel. And dead my life that wants such lively bliss. Ne joy of ought that under heaven doth hove. Brother to Death. To model forth the passions of the morrow Never let the rising sun approve you liars. Moan to myself the absence of my Love. from Drayton. my languish. Cease. : In her unspotted pleasance to delight. in the exact model . And let the day be time enough to mourn The shipwreck of my ill-adventured youth. And. Day by day. Still let me sleep embracing clouds in vain. 206 ORTHOMETRY. now left disconsolate. Let waking eyes suffice to wail their scorn Relieve Without the torments of night's untruth. The following. be noticed that six rhymes are admitted. To add more grief to aggravate my sorrow.

207 of the Shaksperian sonnet. And 1 am glad. rhyming alternately. but as illustrating the early development of the English form : Since there's no help. Shake hands for ever cancel all our vows And when we meet at any time again. — Be it not seen in either of our brows. Innocence is closing up his eyes. THE SONNET. the distinction of quatrain and sestet is altogether ignored. come let us kiss and part Nay. When. not only for its intrinsic beauty. Passion speechless lies. While consisting of fourteen lines only.— . That thus. Now at the last gasp of Love's latest breath. I myself can free. followed and concluded by a couplet thus b a ace . so clearly. The Shaksperian sonnet is made up of three decasyllabic quatrains. there . differing in almost every respect from the Italian type. That we one jot of former love retain. his pulse failing. when all have given him over. and the arrangement of the rhymes is entirely different. Now. When Faith And vehicle of poetic In the hands of Shakspere the sonnet became the expression. yes. From death to life thou might'st him yet recover. glad with all my heart. and maintaining the principle of unity of thought. you get no more of me . : d f g g as to c e f b d However critics may differ the superior melodic sweetness of the pure Italian form. I have done. is kneeling by his bed of death. is worthy of quotation. if thou wouldst.

Archibald Brown's hypothesis as to the story they tell. There is an abiding interest in the one hundred and fifty-four short poems of this kind that Shakspere wrote. that in them he lays bare the joys and sorrows and inner workings of his own marvellous personality. in the hands of our great master.208 ORTHOMETRY. great beauty of person and mind. was wrought into a degree of perfection that has never been surpassed in our own or any other tongue. and portray. Mr. The most plausible conjectures are that the initials stand for (1) Henry Wriothesley. Earl of Southampton. who is known to have been his early patron. It is obviously impossible to discriminate to what extent the deeper utterances of a poet are purely subjective. inasmuch as it is the real himself. and to much ingenious special pleading. The sustained. that is clearly perceptible throughout the sonnets. like the plays that were published in 4to during his lifetime. the poet's junior by nine years. however. a " dark lady. . Earl of Pembroke. gifted. An attempt has been made of late to identify this mysterious lady as Mary Fitton.* feelings generally admitted that they embody and experiences of the man * Shakspere's Sonnets were published in 1609 by T. or about. T. of Gawsworth. to whom Heminge and Condell dedicated the first folio in 1623. in time passes out of his heart. The young friend had wealth. at one time maid of honour to Queen Elizabeth. The bitterness. (Thomas Thorpe) and. It is to the effect that Sonnets 1 to 127 were addressed to a young man. a series of real occurrences. however. and (2) William Herbert. rank. though dimly. seems the most natural and reasonable one that has been suggested. and the poet entertained for him an inordinate affection. but unfaithful. H. The Dedication of them runs " To the only begetter of these ensuing Sonnets." Who this W. They gradually became estranged. and fascinating. who was for a time Shakspere's mistress. can be no question that this poetic gem. but the truth will probably never be known with certainty. and that the rest were written to. ." imperious. passionate depth of emotion. and this double faithlessness plunges the poet into profound darkness and sorrow. W. was has given rise to many conjectures. modified by Professor Dowden. Cheshire. and is in accordance with the later developments of the poet's genius. without the poet's knowledge. and to whom ha dedicated Venus and Adonis and The Rape o/Lucrece. Mr. or are the outcome of his objective experience. which is ever attracting the fancy and ingenuity of new students of his genius. H. lead almost conclusively to the belief that they embody the poet's own feelings. however the younger succumbs to the seductions of the dark lady. the friends become reconciled and bound together by a love that is now purged from all earthly dross.

however. the latter of which is regarded by many as the finest sonnet — — ever written : When I to the sessions of sweet silent thought summon up remembrance of things past. in proof. and no sooner had. not to trust Enjoyed no sooner but despised straight Fast reason hunted . a waste till of shame Is lust in action and action. murderous. bloody. All losses are restored and sorrows end. a joy proposed behind. rude. . and in quest to have. . heavily from And But if the while I think on thee. is altogether apart from the illustration of metrical laws with which we are concerned.. And with old woes new wail my dear time's Then can I drown an eye. cruel. lust Is perjured. full of blame. and in possession so . in death's dateless night. Which I new pay as if not paid before. . : . For precious friends hid waste. having. I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought. THE SONNET. unused to flow. a dream. Shaks^ere (39). And weep afresh love's long-since-cancelled woe. 209 This innate attraction. Then can I grieve at grievances foregone. Savage. Fast reason hated. and proved. dear friend. as a swallowed bait On purpose laid to make the taker mad Mad in pursuit. though it furnishes an instance if instances were required of the fascination of the materials with which we are dealing. The expense of spirit in . extreme A bliss. . extreme. And moan the expense of many a vanished sight. Had. woe to woe tell o'er The sad account of fore-bemoaned moan. Here follow two choice specimens of his work. a very woe Before.

In the two fine examples quoted below the rhymes of the sestet in the first vary from the original c. and in their ancient fold Slain by the bloody Piedmontese. O Lord. while varying it slightly in the sestet. d . thy slaughtered saints. and they To heaven. d. c. e. d. (129). . Forget not in thy book record their groans. : Milton. being arranged c. c. e . ture ON THE LATE MASSACRE IN PIEDMONT. Even those who kept thy truth so pure of old. Shakspere In his use of the sonnet form Milton departed altogether from the Shaksperian model. which gives to his productions a majestic sonority pre-eminently grand. and. Early may fly the Babylonian woe. He was well read in the literaof Italy. All this the world knows well . Avenge. and reverted to the Italian type. d. c. that from there may grow A hundredfold. who rolled Mother with infant down the rocks. d . Their moans The vales redoubled to the hills. yet none knows well To shun the heaven that leads men to this hell. whose bones Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains cold . he adopted their arrangement of the rhymes in the quatrain. recognising the melodious beauty of the sonnets of Petrarch and Dante. Their martyred blood and ashes sow O'er all the Italian fields. Who were thy sheep.O 2 I OR THOMETR Y. He also departed from the archetype by allowing no break in the melody between the two halves of the poem. where still doth sway The triple Tyrant . who having learnt thy way. When all our fathers worshipped stocks and stones.

— THE SONNET. but a variable arrangement of the rhymes is adopted in the sestet. and Mrs. returning. Browning may with confidence be mentioned as . : : : Ere half my cultivated at all After Milton's time the sonnet was scarcely by our poets for upwards of a hundred years. and it is hardly too much to say that the sonnet is more sedulously cultivated at the present day than The productions of our any other poetic form. Since Wordsworth. ON HIS BLINDNESS. to prevent I fondly ask. Milton. Wordsworth revived its flickering flame. 211 When I consider how my light is spent ^ days in this dark world and wide. Lodged with me useless. Dante G. His state Thousands at His bidding speed Is kingly. The taste and love that he enkindled throughout the English-speaking world for this artistic poetic gem has never since waned. And post o'er land and ocean without rest They also serve who only stand and wait. And that one talent. modern poets conform in the main to the Italian type as regards the structure of the octave. early in the present century. and caused it to break forth again with a new beauty and sweetness peculiarly his own. soon replies God doth not need Either man's work or His own gifts. till. Who best Bear his mild yoke. though my soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker. That murmur. which is death to hide. light denied ? " But patience. they serve Him best. and present My true account lest He. Rossetti. chide " Doth God exact day labour.

The world is too much with us. . Nuns fret And And not at their convent's narrow room hermits are contented with their cells . Wordsworth. a sordid boon 1 The sea that bares her bosom to the moon. ON THE SONNET. the weaver at his loom. no prison is and hence for me In sundry moods. late and soon.. . Should find brief solace there as I have found. we lay waste our powers Little we see in Nature that is ours : We have given our hearts away. ! — . Getting and spending. . Wordsworth. And are up-gathered now like sleeping flowers For this. The winds that will be howling at all hours. Will murmur by the hour in fox-glove bells In truth the prison unto which we doom Ourselves. . . students with their pensive citadels Maids at the wheel. 'tis pastime to be bound Within the sonnet's scanty plot of ground Pleased if some souls (for such there needs must be) . . Who have felt the weight of too much liberty. for everything we are out of tune It moves us not. A few modern specimens of great beauty are added to complete the sketch of the subject. . Great God I'd rather be A pagan suckled in a creed outworn So might I. bees that soar for bloom Sit blithe and happy High as the highest peak of Furness fells. most successful contributors to our wondrously rich store of sonnet literature. standing on this pleasant lea Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn. : . 212 the OR THOMETR Y. .

That to such countless orbs thou mad'st us blind Why do we then shun Death with anxious strife ? If Light can thus deceive. ! For there thy habitation is the heart The heart which love of thee alone can bind And when thy sons to fetters are consigned To fetters and the damp vaults' dayless gloom. And Freedom's fame finds wings on every wind. Hesperus with the host of heaven came. O Sun or who could find Whilst fly and leaf and insect stood revealed. Bathed in the rays of the great setting flame. And lo Creation widened. And thy sad floor an altar. ! ! ! Note. Chillon thy prison is a holy place. Who could have thought such darkness lay concealed Within thy beam=. which forms the introduction to the Prisoner of Chillon. Did he not tremble for this lovely frame. in the following example. as if thy cold pavement were a sod.! — — . Byron. for 'twas trod. By Bonnivard May none those marks efface For they appeal from tyranny to God. wherefore not Life ? J. Mysterious Night when our first parent knew Thee from report divine. third CHILLON. and heard thy name. NIGHT AND DEATH. Eternal spirit of the chainless mind Brightest in dungeons. Their country conquers with their martyrdom. Until his very steps have left a trace Worn. THE SONNET. a rhyme is introduced into the octave. Blanco White. widened in man's view. ! ' ! . This glorious canopy of white and blue ? I 213 Yet 'neath a curtain of translucent dew. Liberty thou art.

— — " And thou thyself to all eternity. — . nor of nightingales Whose hearts leap upward through the Cypress-trees To the Met clear moon . Not reason's subtle count.) . Browning. And silence against which you dare not cry." (lo! each one saith. athirst alway ? I do not see them here but after death God knows I know the faces I shall see. Rossetti. with low last breath. nor the angels' sweet All hails in the smile of God Nay. Speak Thou. What are they. Each one a murdered self. 21 OR THOMETR Y. " I am thyself— what hast thou done to me ?" "And I and I thyself. Aches round you like a strong disease and new What hope ? What help ? What music will undo That silence to your sense ? Not friendship's sigh.'' D. fadeth suddenly. availing Christ and fill this pause. G. SUBSTITUTION. could fell ? Lie as they I see them on the street would they be ears of wheat Sown once for good but trodden into clay ? Or golden coins squandered and still to pay ? Or drops of blood dabbling the guilty feet ? Or such spilt water as in dreams must cheat The undying throats of Hell. : ! LOST DAYS. The lost days of my life until to-day. Mrs. nor yet the spheric laws Self-chanted. nor of pipes that Faunus blew Not songs of poets. none of these. Where some beloved voice that was to you Both sound and sweetness. The last two examples are extremely irregular by many they would not be considered sonnets at . not melody Of violo.4 .

Have fled like sweet dreams. Thou wert as a lone star whose light did shine On some frail bark in winter's midnight roar: Thou hast like to a rock-built refuge stood Above the blind and battling multitude In honoured poverty thy voice did weave Songs consecrate to truth and liberty. Or that the brief and plain must needs be weak. depth than . thou leavest me to grieve. 215 As a piece of versification the one by Shelleysimply a stanza of fourteen heroics. or a strange. friendship. MONOSYLLABIC SONNET. an experiment in monosyllables. or woe. with one couplet introduced. rhyming alternately. For whom can this be true who once has heard The When cry for help. or spun too fine Which has more height than breadth. These common woes I feel. all. Deserting these. thou hast wept to know That things depart which never may return : Childhood and youth.: THE SONNET. The last one is appended more as a literary curiosity. Which thou too feel'st. having been. the tongue that all men speak want. yet I alone deplore. Poet of Nature. or fear is in the throat. Thus. that thou shouldst cease to be. is TO WORDSWORTH. leaving thee to mourn. wild note I Sung by some fay or fiend There is Which dies if stretched too far. is like So that each word gasped out Pressed from the sore heart : a shriek a strength . One loss is mine. and love's first glow. Think not that strength lies in the big round word. more length.

but not a flame. And he that will may take the sleek. Light. being one of the volumes of the Canterbury Poets. This is the most complete collection of English Sonnets yet published." with a critical introduction by William Sharp. (Walter Scott.. " Sonnets of this Century. Manchester.* * The student who may desire to enter more fully into this interesting corner of poetic literature will find delight and instruction in the following works : " A Treasury of English Sonnets. a flash. and is accompanied by critical notes and extracts of an exhaustive and scholarly character. Main (Alexander Ireland & Co. That glows but burns not. 1880). Let but this force of thought and speech be mine.) . London. though it beam and shine. 1SS8.6 2 1 OR THOMETR Y." by David M. but no heat. fat phrase.

while a simple ballad or a pathetic song rarely fails to touch a sympathetic chord. It does not flavour of the " superior person " to say that the bulk of human kind do not possess cultivated artistic tastes a sonnet of Shakspere's or a fugue by Bach would doubtless fall flat on the general ear. Again. are topics that attract the fancy. all forms of verse is easy to understand why this is so. and. the song. if it is a good one. its rhymes ring out clear. and — the dormant phantoms of memory. Love. these. and such-like materials of song. but it stimulates the sensuousness of our nature. it is generally wedded to a melody which lingers in the ear long after the sounds have died away. or moisten the eye of the most apathetic listener. is short. : . and thrills into life Perhaps the most popular of it is the song. moreover. The sentiment embodied in a song is simple. It makes no appeal to the intellect. its rhythm smooth and exact. patriotism. and lies on the surface of our common nature. and appeal to the hearts of all. the blended associations of natural beauty with human feelings. its words are simple and natural. direct. the buoyant life and dangers of the deep.THE SONG.

requires an open mouth. so that however beautiful the thought and dress of a line of poetry may be. Milton. if the sounds of its words keep the mouth closed. the open vowel sounds to the long notes. Who of has not witnessed the almost electrical effect The Marseillaise. is. Some of our most eminent poets have failed in it entirely. song should embody some common human which should meander through its verses and bind them together like a silken cord. and smoothed into regularity. may be : . whose exquisite taste in sensuous poetry is unrivalled it is unsuitable to vocalisation.! 2l8 ORTHOMETRY. it should be built up of words having as many open vowels and as few guttural and hissing consonants as The utterance of musical sounds possible. indeed. much ingenuity and taste are required in arranging the accents to the beats. that to the uninitiated may seem an easy literary effort. with a view to its and if it be written to an air musical setting already composed. and others have wisely refrained from attempting it. Pope. A An instance of this taken from Shelley. one of the most difficult forms of metrical composition to accomplish satisfactorily. Rule Britannia. As it is intended for singing rather than recitation. and Wordsworth may be cited as proofs of this assertion. and the Wearing of the Green upon gatherings of the different nationalities Song-writing. The metre should be carefully selected. . sentiment.

it. How can ye bloom sae Mafd fair ? open the mouth as Italian words would. and if the tone of expression touch the head or the heart of the listener appeal either to his fancy or his feeling — has in it. and that thought A gracefully expressed at least. Burns may be singled out as supreme as a song-writer the firmness of his rhythm and the musical flow of his numbers have never been surpassed. But : — simplicity should never descend into baldness. If you preach too much. or philosophise too much.: ! — 219 THE SONG. may be reproduced here " To awaken sympathy by the simplest words will go farther in a song than pomp of language and elaborate polish. or the stringing of nonsensical rhymes together. himself no mean writer of tender and humorous songs. song should have a thought in it. or if it . his happy selection of open-vowelled words recommends his compositions for vocal purposes. lines as Ye banks and braes o' bonny Doon. On the other hand. I love that thou lovest. Here the vocalise third line of the stanza is a beautiful poetical image. I believe. besides. the germ of success. And. but it is next to impossible to word shuts the mouth in utterance. Such as nearly every . And the starry night. The following remarks of Samuel Lover. fresh earth in Spirit of delight The new leaves drest.

but the passionate words of a song that embody national sentiments. doth protest too much. inscribed upon a single sheet of paper. the writer of the well-known Elegy. . the song. like the queen in the play in Hamlet. Thackeray has said that Gray. ' is How small of all that human hearts endure. the winds they The grass of yester-year shift and veer Is dead . the birds depart.' the chances are the song overdone.. and peoples disappear Songs pass not away. to the effect that some few of our humblest bards have been admitted amongst the " Immortals " upon the strength of one or two songs only." It has been said that the songs of a nation are as potent as its laws. and in proportion as this is skilfully done. pass into ever." and live on for The seasons change. I That part which kings or laws can cause or cure Laws become obsolete and are abrogated. proves successful. or have touched the nation's heart. . This truth might well be extended still further. the groves decay Empires dissolve. its "household words. And upon an eminence scarcely lower than the national . 220 ORTHOMETRY. and doubtless there is no little truth in the saying. passed on to immortality with the thinnest volume under his arm of any English author. passion. I believe. The feelings you want to excite in a song should be rather suggested than ostentatiously paraded.

and a rhythm easy and harmonious. once heard. and to the social circle to enliven make The night to be filled with music. Besides. I. and Anthologies of our lyric muse are both numerous and exhaustive. indeed. Nor. and present choice and representative specimens of their lyric art.—THE SACRED SONG OR HYMN. a consistent elevation of tone. but ness. soothe. and aspirations of the human heart in strains that. greatly as it might enhance the charm of this volume to the general reader. sorrows. a small thing to charm with song to excite.THE SONG. 221 songwright is he whose simple words and pregnant thoughts have embodied the universal joys. . this has been already accomplished by several competent hands. for our purpose to point out the chief varieties of to To attempt songs. "A . which is didactic. freshand reality of feeling. would extend it beyond the limits of our main object. jaded heart and soul and thrill the and keep sweet the home-life when the day's work is done. And as silently steal away. can never be forgotten. is it . And the cares that infest the day To fold their tents like the Arabs. enumerate our song-writers. with brief allusions to some of the best specimens. and the characteristics of each kind. It will be sufficient. therefore. good hymn should have simplicity.

Fortitude. Like the harangues of Henry V.) . Nor will most exemplary soundness of doctrine atone for doggerel. while his collection of the best specimens may with safety be regarded as embracing the choicest expression of the crystallized piety of the English race. enkindle the warrior to deeds of devotion in defence of " the ashes of his fathers. they are framed to arouse the heroic in man. . clothed in stirring words. love of home and freedom —these and such-like sentiments.— THE PATRIOTIC AND WAR SONG. and nerve him to deeds of daring and endurance. These partake of the nature of fiery eloquence and impassioned declamation.222 ORTHOMETRY.* 2. Their ringing accents stir the heart like the sounds of a trumpet or the weird shrill shriek of the pibroch. not jingling Its language may be but should not be slovenly or mean. or trivial. the temples of his gods. at Harfleur and at Agincourt. glory." selected and arranged by Lor J Th« Book Selborne (Macmillan & Co. can be said as to the requirements of sacred song." The narrative element * " is very frequently introduced into songs of of Praise. death rather than dishonour. Affectation or visible artifice is worse than excess of homeliness a hymn is easily spoiled by a single homely." These words of Lord Selborne's express nearly all that falsetto note. or redeem from failure a prosaic didactic style.

Rule hoe. the cradle of battle ' liberty. And when some famous phrase is hit upon as a refrain." the enthusiasm they arouse leaves nothing to be desired. All nations have their national songs. The Death of Nelson." is still invoked by Jack. and even the " Gentlemen who live at home at ease" are ever hushed into appreciative silence when they hear sung the virtues of Poor Tom Bowling. God Queen. simple-minded tar as we love to regard him. and to have rendered the odious In every forecastle press-gang unnecessary. over the broad ocean his "Sweet little cherub that sits up aloft. the mistress of the to sea. the majority are already forgotten. is . At a critical time in our history his songs are said to have recruited our Navy with volunteers. is said to have written. and England. wha Of the twelve hundred he Dibdin's Sea Songs call for special mention here. they all have the genuine sniff of the briny about them. may be cited as typical examples. and Scots &c. but many of them that remain will endure as long as our tongue spoken. 223 and turns them into glowing pictures of and triumphant victory." or " England expects every man this day to do his duty. wedded to grand melodies. like " Rule Britannia. Britannia. has patriotic reason be save the pioneer of proud of its own the music.THE SONG. " Hearts of Oak. and they depict the joys and sorrows of Poor Jack. With little pretension to literary merit. progress. the hearty. this kind.

" In our own tongue the tenderness. The lyric muse seems peculiarly adapted to give expression to the manifold phases of the tender flame. be speof our nature. The social and fraternal feelings engendered by the gregarious instinct in man. are reproduced in every son and daughter of Eve. have found expression in all ages in jovial.. and it is marvellous to contemplate the infinite variety of expression in which it has been clothed in all countries and in all times and yet we are ever eager to welcome every fresh wreath that is laid upon the shrine of "all conquering Eros. There is a strong flavour of usquebaugh about most of them.—THE LOVE SONG. 224 0R THOMETR Y. . 3." edited by William Watson (Macmillan & Co. of cially mentioned." edited by George Saintsbury (Percival & Co. and it would be invidious to particularise names and examples in a slight notice of this kind.* 4. and a : . more or less Bacchanalian in character. Amongst modern poets Burns. * The reader is referred to the most recent Anthologies " Love " Seventeenth Lyrics. boisterous songs.—THE CONVIVIAL SONG. the glow and grace of the love lyrics of our Elizabethan poets can never be surpassed. The common feelings which the love of the sexes is predominant. and the Brownings may.) Century Lyrics. without fear of offence.). and the jingling of rhymes fitly harmonises with its wayward fancies. Moore.

break" and Miss Proctor's "Lost Chord" typical examples. they are as antiquated in sentiment to-day as the political squibs of Swift and the Tory sneers of the Anti-Jacobin. and is devoid. The it political song requires mention here.—THE POLITICAL SONG. Elliott.* In addition to the varieties of songs already enumerated.: THE SONG. of noble and generous thoughts. Auld Lang Syne may be taken as a typical example. for the most part. while Burns and Moore must be considered as our joint kings of the "flowingbowl " minstrels. there are others that can only be classed under such a vague heading as purely Sentimental. however. though merits only the rank of verse as distinct from poetry. may be cited as another variety in which the narramore prominent than the lyrical tive element of such. Moore.) 4 . of which Tennyson's " Break. 225 sonorous refrain seems to be an almost essential addendum. break." edited by George Saintsbury (Percival & Co. We 5. to admit our inferiority to the Germans in this particular form of poetic expression. It is essentially ephemeral and partisan in character. and Mackay in recent times have written some political verses that deserve to live. Song-Ballads. "Auld Robin Gray. are not ashamed." and there is is • Then See " Political Verse. Though several of the Jacobite songs breathe forth a spirit of devoted loyalty.

embracing solo. it seems necessary to say a few words respecting those more complex compositions of the kind that are specially designed for elaborate musical treatment. And. and recitative. there is the Comic Song. no doubt solely on account of its subject matter.Fishers" and "Sands o' Dee" are specimens. duet. the former. resemble each other in nearly every other respect. always secular. the librettos of the Oratorio. the Opera." is rapidly becom- ing a popular favourite. which.226 ORTHOMETRY. In both. in these days of "penny dreadfuls. It gives expression to the is The Cantata . chorus. The Oratorio. The latter is always acted. trio and chorus. and depict changing scenes and continuous action. is rendered with the picturesque effects of sound only but no one can listen to an adequate representation of such an oratorio as Mendelssohn's Elijah without mentally realising the dramatic situations as though they were visibly before him. the narrative portion being rendered in . Both are essentially dramatic: they have separate characters with distinct roles. Kingsley's " Three . and embellished with all the accessories of a regular drama. and the Opera. and the Cantata. recitative. usually devoid of the dramatic element altogether. the lyrical element takes the form of song. viz. Before concluding this brief notice of lyric art.. always sacred in its theme. lastly. also.

now frenzied or jubilant. 227 varied emotions that arise in the contemplation of now pensive and mournful. heroic deeds and lofty ideals.— THE SONG. . Several of our noblest odes which partake of this character have already been clothed in melody and harmony that at once add to their intrinsic beauty and widen the field of their appreciators. The adaptation this to our own tongue of works of kind composed in other languages for they — are susceptible of great variety of treatment affords excellent scope for the exercise of the purely technical side of the Art of Versification.

While we're together We'll chat and rhyme. in their leisure moments. * It would be next to sacrilege to class Pope's Rapt of the Lock under this heading. we won't repine. . for instance. in throwing off these metrical playthings. In this chapter we wish to direct the student's by-paths of the garden of poesy where grow innumerable wild flowers with pretty blossoms and polished berries. as momentary thought or passing incident suggested the occasion.' " ! : POETIC TRIFLES. O lady mine Sprinkling the lawn with crystals fine But." Poets and scholars in all ages and countries have taken delight. are known as Social or Occasional verses* It may be said that they stand in the same relation to the higher forms of poetry that a pyrotechnic display does to "the immortal Jove's dread clamours. for want of a more suitable name. which. Here. and kiss and dine. by the gods. but it is undoubtedly the most brilliant Occasional poem in the language. are some verses tossed off " in the ten minutes before dinner footsteps into those : Fast falls the snow. Defying weather.

And the same cultured taste leads also to the turning of our own poetic beauties into other Social verse has been aptly described as " the belong to society. just to they had retained their old skill in verse! making tongues. These minor efforts may result in original experiments. and of thought. mine : And let Pour 'Tis those sea-green eyes divine I their love-madness into don't care whether rain or shine. and pour the wine. and who. who have a with the lightsome tone and airy keen sympathy who are not disturbed by the jesting of fashion flippances of small talk. or even parodies of favourite passages from other writers. When society becomes refined. it begins to dread the exhibition of strong feeling. How many scores of times have Horatian gems been adapted to passing circumstances by busy men see if of the world in their leisure moments. on the contrary. or If we're together. So stir 220. of sentiment that breaks into humour. amid the froth of society. or in translations. can poetry of . the fire. men who see the gracefulness of which it is capable. feel that there are depths in our nature which even in all the gaiety of drawing-rooms cannot be forgotten. lest it should be too solemn. which. Mortimer Collins. breaks into laughter. no matter whether real or simulated. It is the poetry of bitter-sweet.POETIC TRIFLES. adaptations. nevertheless. but. snow or sun. In such an atmosphere emotion takes .

nor need the treatment advance much beyond the conventional limits of social usages their measure should run smoothly. * Tha reader is referred to the " Lyra Elegantiarura. and passion hides itself in scepticism of passion. men busily engaged in the affairs of the it world. should peep out. Prior. is . These trifles should always be refined and graceful. we shall hide it again as quickly as possible. beyond reproducing a few typical specimens. a bit of . while their ingenuity and wit have turned them —over their cakes Perhaps it and ale —into things of beauty. . while a playful warmth should be perceptible throughout. but with a keen zest for leisured culture." * This kind of verse has rarely been produced by the professional poet of recluse habits and deep thought . " by Frederick Locker-Lampson. the tone should not be pitched too high. Herrick. Little more need be added at present. Their fancy and sense of humour have seized upon those incidents and situations of moving life most fitted for poetic treatment. such as Suckling.23° OR THOMETR Y. because there is an after-dinner flavour about many of these miniature poems that coarseness occasionally disfigures their beauty. are not going to wear our hearts We upon our sleeves. have succeeded best. and Landor. Swift. and laugh at the exposure as a good joke. humorous rather than witty. refuge in jest. and debars their racy wit from wider appreciation. perchance. rather than that we shall pretend to have no heart at all and if. and the rhymes ring out clearly.

THE HEADACHE. Why so? More we enjoy it. My head doth ache. If not enjoyed. . POETIC TRIFLES.: :. doth so well become her For every season she hath dressings fit. take Thy fillet And bind the pain. Or bring some bane To kill it. spring. it sighing cries I Heigh ho Daniel. not full. in her attire doth show her wit. My Love It : For winter. O Sappho. nor fasting. Jove hath made it of a kind. Not well. Love is 231 a torment of the mind. But less that part Than my poor heart Now is One sick kiss from thee Will counsel be And physic. and summer. No beauty she doth miss When all her robes are But Beauty's self on she is When all her robes are gone. A tempest everlasting And. Herrick. more it dies. Anon.

. a horse. this. That from the nunnery Of your chaste breast and quiet mind. Sweet. Tho' I deplore her change. For still the charmer I approve. As you too shall adore could not love thee. In hours of bliss we oft have met. so much. The first foe in the And. TO LUCASTA ON GOING TO THE WARS. To war and arms I fly. a new mistress now field. I chase. And am If it like to love three more * t — prove fine weather. There had been at least. False tho' she be to me and love. They could not always last the present I regret. ere A dozen in her place. * * # Had it any been but she. Dear. I have loved Three whole days together. Yet I this inconstancy is such . True. with a stronger faith embrace A sword. ' 23 a ORTHOMETRY. Loved I not Honour more. I am unkind. a shield. Tell me not. And that very face.. And though I'm grateful Congreve. Suckling. I'll not pursue revenge . Out upon it. Lovelace. for the past.

sleep while you may Praed. cows. asses. occasions To try Job's constancy and patience. took his health . Coleridge. took his wealth. Short-sighted devil. He He took his honour. . Tory and Radical. Sat up together many a night. So modest ease in beauty shines most bright Unaiming charms with edge resistless fall. no doubt But now I've sent the poor old lass to bed. Earl Nugent. Aaron Sly Beelzebub took all Hill. S. Simply because my fire is going out. Speaker. His servants. that you should in your chair Louder and louder still they grow. Aye and No . not to take his spouse. oxen. . ! As lamps burn silent with unconscious light. Speaker. His servants. Sleep.: —— : . cows. 'Twere perjury to love thee now. all he had before. 233 My muse and I ere youth and spirits fled. If 'tis only fair you mayn't in your bed. took his children. But cunning Satan did not take his spouse. And likes to disappoint the devil. beautiful and kind. camels. horses. And plighted an eternal vow So altered are thy face and mind. Mr. I loved thee. POETIC TRIFLES. Colman. Had predetermined to restore Two-fold. . G. But Heaven that brings out good from evil. Mr. ON SEEING THE SPEAKER ASLEEP. Talking by night and talking by day Sleep. And she who means no mischief does it all. T.

Peacock. . RICH AND POOR. No one would have missed her. T. . SAINT AND SINNER. —— . — — EPITAPH ON FREDERICK PRINCE OF WALES. The poor man's sins are glaring In the face of ghostly warning He is caught in the fact Of an overt act Buying greens on Sunday morning. : a 34 OR THOME TR Y. rather his brother. The rich man's sins are hidden In the pomp of wealth and station And escape the Of the sight children of light. Had it been Still better than another Had it been his sister. Here lies Fred. Had it been had much his father. Aldrich. OR. Dr. L. Who are wise in their generation. There are five reasons we should drink Good wine a friend or being dry Or lest we should be by-and-by Or any other reason why. . alive Who was I and is dead.— . . The rich man has a cellar And a ready butler by him The poor must steer For his pint of beer Where the saint cannot choose but spy him. If all be true that I do think.

— ! . ." Unmindful of the knave of shades. 235 Had it been Still the whole generation. J. Anon. Who was alive and is dead. Say I'm weary. We set our hearts on clubs. you Jumping from the chair she sat thief. . Jenny kissed me when we met. There's no more to be said. Who steals the common from the goose. The sexton and his subs . who love to get Secrets into your list. — . or who is king. E. Say that health and wealth have missed me Say I'm growing old. How foolishly we play our parts Our wives on diamonds set their hearts. but add Jenny kissed me. God bless us all —that's quite another thing. Time. Sydney Smith. Elliott. God bless—no harm in blessing—the Pretender But who pretender is. I mean the faith's defender. Leigh Hunt. : POETIC TRIFLES. God bless the King. Byrom. The law But locks up the man or Who steals a goose from off the woman common lets the greater villain loose. in put that in. better for the nation. 'tis But since only Fred. say I'm sad. Thoughtless that " all thafs brightest fades.

Two Harveys had a mutual wish To please in different stations The one invented *' sauce for fish. But wives will seldom brook this straightened life They must have two besides her Jack each Jill.— : !: : — . Miss Bessie and I went fishing. Tell me. Reserve thy frowns for mine. I've lost nay I S. ROSE'S BIRTHDAY. : THE TWO HARVEYS. In spite of law and gospel. thou away ! Rose's natal day. W. One morning when Spring was in her teens— A morn to a poet's wishing All tinted in delicate pinks and greens. has her Will." Each had his pungent power applied To aid the dead and dying That gave relish to the sole when fried. R." The other " Meditations. portmanteau in it pity your grief. Is there no flower to twine ? Away. . Landor. All I my sermons are pity the thief. This saved the soul from frying. Anon. Simpson. perverse young year so drear ? Why is 'Tis the moon churl. The law allows one husband to one wife. A FISHING EXPEDITION. 236 ORTHOMETRY.

And I her nose tipped vice versd. POETIC TRIFLES. cannot write a verse. my pulses boil. take away thine Owl. Where And All the she like Simon Peter. And let us have a Lark instead. I'm sick of Song. . my sight is foul. And a hamper for lunching recesses And the sheen of her golden tresses. And pour it on a lobster salad. . dreamily watched and waited But the fish were cunning and would not rise. I zyi in my rongh and easy clothes. And . with my rod. . take the midnight oil. And the baiter alone was baited. My brain I is dull. and Ballad.. — . Then. My temples throb. Hood. Anon. or read. the white pond lilies teeter set to fishing like quaint old Ike. So. my reel. Pallas. The bag was as flat as a flounder But Bessie had neatly hooked her game A hundred and eighty pounder. Thyrsis. morn I lay in the light of her eyes. and my hooks. face at the sunshine's With my mercy She with her hat tipped down to her nose. and Ode. She with the bait of her comely looks So we I sat down on the sunny dyke. (Attributed to John Bright. And when the time for departure came.

And hail my fitful intervals of speech Or bid the bald disjointed tale rehearse. And Heaven only knows where that will end Some people won't have left a single friend. Or drink harsh numbers mellowing into verse : Who still. The next resource will certainly be asses. And said. each day. linked for ever to a lettered life. with joy. Rev. Mathews. these pages brim Who. with pride. And grown from soft to strong. the child to teach. from fair to sageFlower of my youth and jewel of my age ! To Thee these lays I bring. Hast forme borne the light. BIPPQPHAGY. my love. and with me shared the grave.. your rage is past. who bending o'er my table's rim Has marked these measures flow. " What Christian could be meek You know.' ' . if Sure of thy suffrage. " A saint you might provoke. " Dedication of his Translation of the Iliad." Said Sam. the rage I've spent. dull. mid cares sedate. Chas. 238 ORTHOMETRY. Content to guide the house. C. since Monday last But now. If horseflesh won't suffice to serve the masses. TO MY WIFE. . Dear Sam. in sorrows brave. Hast drawn the dubious lot of student's wife Kept hush around my desk." Lover. of none beside. " : . nor grudg*d me still . you see. 'twas Passion week / And so. On Easter Sunday Lucy spoke. Merivale. ceaseless rustling of my quill. The long. To Thee. I see. ! Was not my own— 'twas only Lent.

i$q Armagh. wirh a chapter on the The Canterbury Poets. for verse construction upon the models of the old Provencal poets of France and it speaks well for the spread of culture and taste amongst us. by Gleeson White. The first in paucity of thought surpassed. and therefore afford ample scope for the taste. .* The restrictions as to the number of lines.. Three colonels Sligo. Selected. The next in poverty. and much of this fugitive verse is being collected. in both the last The force of nature could no further go To make the third she shaved the other two. and patience of the versifier. that so much interest is taken in a refined amusement of this kind. Scott. We •" Ballades and Rondeaus. Z>. IMITATION OF DRYDEN. and already quite an imposing anthology of this kind of verse has been formed. in three distant counties born. A .) . and Lincoln did adorn. (Walter Lond. amongst the minor poets of the day and literary amateurs. 1887. — POETIC TRIPLES. Of late years the cultivation of this species of poetic composition has greatly spread both in this country and in America our magazines and reviews furnish an ever-increasing crop. the number and arrangement of rhymes. judgment." various forms. many of the specimens being extremely beautiful. &c. and deservedly so. fashion has also sprung up in permanent form. and recurrence of refrains imposed by these quaint models are even greater than in the sonnet. This new fashion is certainly not much more than a quarter of a century old in this country. OConnell.

For me the blithe ballade ! O'er some. the villanelle. 240 ORTHOMETRY. — . I. . Doth its enchanting spell With lines recurring throw .—THE BALLADE. But would I choose them —no. or Princess. Of all the songs that dwell Where softest speech doth Some love the sweet rondel. concluding with an envoy* of four or five There must be only three rhymes in each lines.! . Gay triolets make them glad But would I choose them ? no. and in the same order. and to give specimens of the chief varieties. and the same three. FOR ME THE BLITHE BALLADE. — For me the blithe ballade • The envoi is a kind of invocation or dedication of the poem. stanza. must obtain throughout and each stanza as well as the envoy has the same refrain. Some weighed with wasting woe. And some the With rhymes bright rondeau. that tripping go ? In mirthful measures clad . Sire. and used to commence with the title of the person to whom it was addressed It forms the peroration or climax to the vsrses. That sets the heart aglow. and should more clearly express the sentiment or feeling embo44»d io the poem. proceed to explain the build. The Ballade consists of three stanzas of eight or ten lines. flow.

As vesper tolling low. O The passion that persistently Makes all my pulses beat With unassuaged desire that we Some day may come to meet This August night outspread serene. if What mean they not that we Some day may come to meet. of water that unseen incessantly.. ! Clinton Scollard. Love.? About your window bowered in green The night wind wanders free. where breaks the sea In ripples at my feet all. to these songs a -row The Muse might endless add But would I choose them ? no. .. choose them ! ? — no. Yet ever hope to see The memory that might have been. And dream. The fall Moans on That line of fire. For me the blithe ballade — . 241 On cnant of stately swell. whom I have never seen. but not of me. The hope that yet may be . me the blithe ballade Envoi. As grave as minster bell. : POETIC TRIFLES. . While out into the night you lean. With measured feet and slow. Do some their praise bestow Some on sestinas sad But would For I . BALLADE. Prince. The scent of flower and tree.

while the dew yet hung. . next day. and lea The harvest moon is sweet. Did your grandmother he found her. dream of you who flee my dream complete The shadow of the day when we Some day may come to meet.' "Love in Idleness. as I declare How many more And your forehead is it going to be ? all hid in a cloud of hair that I can see ! Tis nothing but folly. if they chanced And shrink from a patch or a darn ? to tear ? not we I For pleasure. do you think— not she churn and the pails among ? Or your grandfather like her the less ? not he But things have altered since I was young. for the doctor's fee But things have altered since I was young. perhaps. Another new gown. j Stuff. . That's to break and share how your grandfather courted me. and a drive to the fair A keepsake bought in a booth on the lea. A sixpence." Princess. while yet on lawn GRANDMOTHER.! . As now I Before Envoi. The yellow gig. Ere August die. —— — . who knows but we Some day may come to meet. Or a mushroom hunt. The maidens of nowadays make too free To right and to left is the money flung We used to dress as became our degreeBut things have altered since I was young. was made to wear Gowns we had never but two or three Did we fancy them spoilt. a gossiping dish of tea. 34* ORTHOMETRY. in my time. the 1 . And no need. I When blush.

THE WANDERER. .—THE RONDEL. -'The old. to his vacant dwelling. Love comes back Austin Dobs on. With a rush of tears to our eyelids welling. He fain would lie as he lay before . Love comes back to his vacant dwelling. to his vacant dwelling. forbidden lore ! we doubt in our hearts once more. \ Love comes back The old. as in the specimen below. 243 you pout. The Rondel is the old form of the more popular rondeau into which it ultimately grew. with only two rhymes. With his great eyes sad. Child ! ! May Probyn. It was much used as far back as the fourteenth century. old ! He makes as though in our arms repelling. 2. Love that we knew of yore We see him stand by the open door. and you urge your plea Better it were that you held your tongue Maids should learn at their elders' knee But things have altered since I was young. Envoi. and his bosom swelling. old Love that we knew of yore 1 Ah > who shall That sweet E'en as help us from overspelling.—— — — — POETIC TRIFLES. It consisted originally of two four or five line stanzas. but in the hands of Charles d' Orleans (1 391 -1466) its form was changed. forgotten.

RONDEL. say it with a sigh And How But half confessed and low. whispers ebb and flow . ! ! . I shall not change my mind Say what you please. is it you and I Are always meeting so ? John Cameron Grant. if you wish it. RONDELETS. ? How • is it you and I Are always meeting so Still I thoughts to thoughts reply. But know. I cannot say spell that I know The '.— 244 ORTHOMETRY. Say what you please May Probyn. on your knees And. Even. " Relent ? I — I He never will—unless I die And then. " Which way he went ? " know not how should I go spy Which way he went ? " only know him gone. what will it signify ! Which way he went ? Say what you please. when you hear me next defined As something lighter than the wind. draws us nigh. ' How is I it you and I Are always meeting so? see you passing by Whichever way I go.

Reflect. I feared. and became popularised by Voltaire. and rhymed on two !— Ah. and five verses each. hapless plight • ranged aright.— — ! ! . RONDEA U. would fright My easy Muse.—THE 245 RONDEAU. . You bid me try. till you But thirteen lines "Refrain. of The poem consists of thirteen octosyllabic lines. ! : POETIC TRIFLES. three. — — . light— ' ! — You " bid me try " ! WITHOUT ONE KISS. what can't we do Behold The Rondeau— tasteful. What Some forthwith ? —To-night 'tis ? • skill I ! have.' When maids command. arranged in three stanzas of five. 3. They did. who wrote many charming specimens it. true . The port's in sight 'Tis all because your eyes are bright Now just a pair to end in 00." Without one kiss she's gone away. In spite of all that I could say. The Rondeau has gradually grown out of the older form given above. • ! You bid me try " That makes them eight. Blue-eyes. to write ! • A Rondeau. The first example we quote is a clever adaptation of one of the great Frenchman's best. with two rhymes only throughout. Still there are five lines These Gallic bonds. and a refrain recurring at the end of the second and third group. And stol'n the brightness out of day With scornful lips and haughty brow She's left me melancholy now.'' as well.

IN ROTTEN ROW. — To-day ? To-day is With here :—come crown to-day Spring's delight or Spring's despair. D. And my whole life shall bloom and bear : To-day. Without one kiss Yet all my wildered brain is can pay My questioning. To-day. My Persuasion may And Love may never more injured sweet to sail but to pray my speech endow. what is there in the air ? That makes December seem sweet May There are no swallows anywhere. And hail you down my garden way. with no regret For all the tumult that had been. awhile I stay Beneath this blown acacia bough. Last night the full moon's frozen stare Struck me. And so. perhaps or did you say Really. Charles O. Nor crocuses to crown your hair. — ! 246 ORTHOMETRY. Marzials. to guess as best I may What angered her. .. sweet friend and fair . The distances were still and green. Theo. ! Love cannot bide old Time's delay Down my glad gardens light winds play. Roberts. allow away Without one kiss. In Rotten I sat Row a cigarette and smoked. you'd come. CARPE DIEM.

With craft of delight and with cunning of sound unsought. jewel of music fear is carven of all or of aught of Love. — POETIC TRIFLES.— — . laughter. or mourning— remembrance to rapture or That fancy may fashion hang in the ear of thought.—THE ROUNDEL. A horse or two there The soundless sand . and a refrain at the end of the first and third group. A Roundel is wrought as a ring or a starbright sphere. A man may very well forget In Rotten Row. Henley. linked together with but two rhymes. So moves the device whence. W. con- sisting of three stanzas of three lines each. birds among the boughs were met So love and song were heard and seen 247 In Rotten Row. round as a pearl or tear. Algernon Charles Swinburne. That the heart of the hearer may smile if to pleasure his ear A Its roundel is wrought. E. Fair flowers and falling leaves between. While clocks are chiming clear and keen. THE ROUNDEL. And Two Two streaked with shadows cool and wet sweethearts on a bench were set. As a bird's quick song runs round. . and the hearts in us hear Pause answers to pause. 4. and again the same strain caught. The Roundel is a variation of the rondeau. A roundel is wrought. was to fret but work and debt.

Some Yet surely God hath placed before our feet sweeter sweetness and completer bliss. Man is for woman made. As to night the serenade. And woman made for man : As the spur is for the jade. Be she widow. As the scabbard for the blade. And woman made for man. wife. Be she wanton. As for pudding is the pan. I Soothly know not : —when the live lips kiss There is no more that our prayers shall entreat. Be she well or ill arrayed. And woman made for man. And woman made for man. As the sceptre to be sway"d. A RONDELAY. NOTHING SO SWEET. be she staid. for . or maid. So man's for woman made. ywis.248 ORTHOMETRY. • * • • So man's woman made. And something that shall prove more truly meet. Perhaps there is as this Nothing so sweet. So man's for woman made. Charles Sayle. Nothing so sweet in all the world there is is Than this —to stand apart in Love's retreat as that. And gaze at Love. As for liquor is the can. As to cool us is the fan. There Nothing so sweet. Save only Death.

There are only two rhymes throughout. And all the love and life that sleepers may. POETIC TRIFLES. . . and the terminal words of each stanza are the same all through. . Swinburne — SESTINA. And knew not as men waking. Shut up with green leaves and a little light Because its way was as a lost star's way. A world's not wholly known of day or night. though in different order. vogue in Italy as well as France. Among soft leaves that give the straight its way wings but not its eyes with light So that it knew. as one in visions may. As a bird sleeping in the nest of night. I saw my soul at rest upon a day. But such life's triumph as men waking may It might not have to feed its faint delight Between the stars by night and sun by day.: . 5. Some writers claim for it the supreme place in poems of fixed form above the sonnet even.—THE SESTINA.. 249 The Sestina dates from and was in the thirteenth century. of delight. To touch Nor part But in the large lordship of the light in a secret moon-beholden way Had all its will of dreams and pleasant night. being used by Dante and Petrarch. Here is a beautiful specimen by Mr. This was the measure of my soul's delight It had no power of joy to fly by day. It is made up of six six-line stanzas and one of three lines.

Algernon Charles Swinburne. The Triolet is. have thy day and take thy fill of light Before the night be fallen across thy way Sing while he may. with rigid and very It little is thought. 6. sleeping by the way.—THE TRIOLET. nor strength nor knowledge of the day Nor closer touch conclusive of delight. alike The first repeated as the fourth and seventh. and the second and the eighth are When first we met. There shall he dwell. and dreams and sounds and gleams of night it all music that such minstrels may. a poetic morsel. rules indeed. . beholding night as day. And all they had they gave it of delight But in the full face of the fire of day What place shall be for any starry light. man hath no long delight. . we did not guess That Love would prove so hard a master Of more than common friendliness . nor more of light. v Nor more of song than they. 2 50 All loves OR THOMETR Y. What part of heaven in all the wide sun's way ? Made Yet the soul woke not. Shall care no more to fare as all men may. But be his place of pain or of delight. And sought.: . Watched as a nursling of the large eyed night. Nor mightier joy nor truer than dreamers may. For who sleeps once and sees the secret light Whereby sleep shows the soul a fairer way Between the rise and rest of day and night. room to expand even a single an eight-line stanza with two line is rhymes. Song.

The Villanelle consists of five three-line stanzas and one of four. I intended an Ode But Rose crossed the road . intended an Ode. -1 . sun. with only two rhymes throughout. daffodils are The Come out. I In her latest new bonnet.: — ' POETIC TRIFLES. And it turned out a Sonnet. sweetheart. began & la mode. inevitable disaster. " Love in Idleness" 7. *$\ When first we met we did not guess Who could foretell The the sore distress. R. I intended an Ode. on the lea and bless the sun The birds are glad. the two refrains occurring in eight of the nineteen lines VILLANELLE. Under the Said Solomon. When first we met ? we did not guess That Love would prove so hard a master. Austin Dobson. Under the sun There's nothing new . And It it turned out a Sonnet.—THE VILLANELLE. said true. Poem or pun. And he Under the sun There's nothing new. Bridges. and so are we.

Now your May-time is nigh .— — . sweetheart. This morn a throstle piped to me. And building of the nests begun The birds are glad. an' you will. I saw you last.— How fast the time goes i And a life. You said. The marriage tokens March has spun daffodils are on the lea birds are glad —and so are we SAW YOU ! May Probyn. and winter The daffodils are on the lea. sweetheart the signs agree. WHEN When I LAST. When I saw you last. to ? How The sigh you birds are glad change be free " Changes need we none— and sd are we ? " ! ! Come The The out. You were only so high . ROSE. Yet. You just peeped at the sky. your petals unclose. I — . yellow smocked. Rose.—bethink you " It shall be When. their gold to see. How fast the time goes ! Like a bud ere it blows. — — — 252 ORTHOMETRY." won— I Come out. how it grows You were scarcely so shy.'' ! — done. Rose f Now. and so are we. Rose. When I saw you last. " 'Tis time that mates were wooed and The daffodils are on the lea.

. When I saw you last.! ! . In your bosom it 253 shows There's a guest on the sly How fast the time goes Cupid ? Who knows Yet you used not to sigh. Rose Is it ! . How fast the time goes Austin Dohson. POETIC TRIFLES.

The discovery of nature's laws and the application of her forces to the physical needs of humanity may be regarded as practically illimitable. as the man of science begins his work.DEVELOPMENT OF VERSIFICATION. or the Madonna of a master-hand. The progress of art. unlike that of science. What artist in marble. does not present an almost unbroken triumphal march from the earliest times to the present day. The divinely gifted masters who have appeared in the world at rare intervals. or a symphony by Beethoven i . The achievements of the " maker " in one age are not the starting-points of advance in the next. No poet commences his song with the accumulated knowledge and mastery of forces achieved by his predecessors. or sound nowadays dreams of rivalling the beauty of a mediaeval cathedral. have produced models of perfection beyond which we dare not hope to advance nor even emulate. but it is not so with respect to the requirements and aspirations of the aesthetic side of human nature. colours. and of the loftier conceptions of our intellectual and emotional nature have already been attained and embodied in concrete forms which satisfy our finite capacities. Ideals of sensuous beauty of eye and ear.

and the silvery ring of the Elizabethan so it sublime lyric. but they had within them those sterling characteristics which have enabled them to develop into the foremost nation of modern times. began to mellow into softness by the admission into them of the sentiment of patriotism. Our mother tongue was brought over from the lowlands of North Germany by our Teutonic forefathers when they conquered and dispersed the Celts of South Britain. 255 And Milton's is in word-composition also. embellishments necessary to the production of melodious verse. Shakspere's mellifluous rhythmic flow. love of home and its surreadily lised . and began to settle down to peaceful and civimodes of life.D. They were a fierce. They embraced Christianity in the seventh century. is. 450 to 600. but. though still full of deeds of daring and prowess. To try to analyse the methods of genius. Their language was as rugged and harsh as their habits. Their crude verses.DEVELOPMENT OF VERSIFICATION. or to frame rules for the production of a work of art like a poem. on the face of it. and heathen race. and settled there. absurd all we aim at here is to trace briefly the process of smoothing the harsh elements of our tongue. they strung together in it and sang rude verses in praise of their warriors and gods. from A. like most semi-barbarous people. melody. warlike. We learn this of them as soon as history records their existence. and the grafting upon it of the various . remain for all times standards of excellence which succeeding songsters can only attempt to imitate and combine into new varieties.

and contains four accented syllables. Each line is broken up into two short sections by a pause. in which the thought in the first case is repeated in the second with slight modification. and in one in the second half. the same inititial sound occurring in two emphatic words of the first half. the number at first. and occasionally towards the end of the period the verses are made to rhyme together. Metrical versions of Biblical narratives began to take the place of descriptions of strife and bloodshed. roundings. This is the form of Anglo-Saxon and Early English verse from the sixth to the fourteenth century. therewhich rings out. written by Langin In the following extract lande as late as 1362. the peculiarities of the old verse are preserved Piers the Plowman's Vision. Gradually we find one or two additional accented syllables introduced. of the unaccented ones not being counted The two half-verses are connected together by alliteration. " like the sharp blows of a hammer upon an anvil. and the unaccented ones arranged with greater regularity. and the elevating influences of religion. all . and even later for although the influence of the French Trouveres is fore. as has been said. There is a marked rhythm. ible. ." Metaphor and striking compounds are freely used. discernible in the poetry of the thirteenth century. and improvements in the form as well as in the matter of the verses gradually become percept- The structure of Anglo-Saxon verse is peculiar. and there is a good deal of that parallelism which is so marked a feature in Hebrew poetry.256 ORTHOMETRY.

first of it. fragment of the story of Judith and (iv) Holofernes. all of which were upon the model described above. with the Christian element introduced about the eighth century. (ii) The Deeds of Beowulf. I jlumberde in a jlepynge Hit jownede so murie. (11. 670. from A. (iii) Caedmaris metrical version of parts of the Old and New Testament history. Bede says that all who heard it recited thought it was divinely given. are as follows In the first to 1066.D. 257 from this poem some idea may be formed of the language and verse under consideration : I was weori of wandringe. sung by wanwho seem to have been true Bohemians. — — DEVELOPMENT OF VERSIFICATION. 600 is known as Anglo-Saxon.. prior to the conquest of Britain. and afterwards wrought into the form that has come down to us. an epic of some five (i) dering minstrels. from warnings issued to the clergy against them by King Edgar. A 8 . the chief poetical compositions. from the Apocrypha. which : Fragments of Gleemen's Songs.) period of our literature. thousand lines. to reste <5rod And went me Undur a danke Bi a dourne syde And And as I /ay and /eonede /okede on the watres. It was probably written in detached odes in the fifth century. 13 —20. This is the native-born poem in the language.

forefathers at King Many sea and battle pieces. to supersede the old tongue of the conquered Norman-French in its was made the language of the court. and Ellis. . it remained at the people. the universities. inas• Great attention has been given by scholars of late years to our early poetry. in all main features. The its mightiest conqueror can no more change the speech of a people than can an Act of Parliament make them moral. attributed to Alfred. 1802. 1066. An exhaustive treatise on our early poetry. and made themselves lords ol Angle-land. and brought about great changes in the vocabulary and inflection of the Old English speech.* When the Normans subdued our (vii) Hastings. are to be found in the works of Kemble. Copious extracts from the poems mentioned above. was issued Dec. which took place in his reign. the last being by Professor Earle in 1892. The Consolations of Boethius.258 (v) (vi) ORTHOMETRY. down to the accession of Alfred. The story of King Lear and his Daughters. there was a deliberate attempt made stead. Thorpe. while Latin was the tongue of the Church. and of all foreign intercourse but although this effort was persisted in for two hundred years. end of that time substantially as Teutonic. Turner. amongst the many changes introduced by the new masters. No fewer than six different versions of Beowulf have appeared since the one by Kemble in 1837. and the courts of law. and that the severance of the French possessions from the English Crown. as well as other fragments. was an unmixed blessing to the English nation. Brooke. as at the beginning. Macaulay has pointed out that King John was probably the first monarch after the Conquest that conversed in the vernacular. by Stopford A. and to substitute The latter . Conybeare.

uncouth vernacular. with four accents and occasional rhymes.— DEVELOPMENT OF much as it VERSIFICATION. but such of it as there was is — native born. with certainty be said that by the middle of the fourteenth century the various causes that had long been at fostering a work in common interest. written about 12 15 in seven-accent metre. (i) Layamoris "Brut. It is in the old alliterative metre. and is marked by . 1066 1400. a Norman trouvere of the legendary history of the early British kings. a metrical version of parts of the Gospels." written about A. 259 greatly contributed to the blending of the two races. the Northern. it has not more than sixty non-Saxon words in all its thirty thousand short lines. had succeeded in amal- gamating the conquerors and the conquered into one great nation. however. It may. it was the Midland dialect that they assisted in polishing into modern English.) . unrhymed. there was a dearth of poetic composition. (ii) The Ormulum. These operated in a variety of ways upon the harsh. The chief were at poems of this time are 1200. our native tongue became differentiated into three clearly marked dialects. In the portion of it that exists. a time of unrest and turmoil. while the upper classes spoke and wrote in Latin and French. * This is not the place to enter into details respecting the growth and development of the Queen's English. (See Oliphant's Standard English. all the characteris- the foreign influences that tics mentioned above work hardly affected it at all. the Southern.* During this semi-Saxon period. Although it is a metrical adaptation from the French of Wace.D. speaking that marvellous composite English tongue that is now the medium of communication in every part of the civilised world. and the Midland. During the transition period we are now considering. and when in the long run the masters were obliged to adopt the speech of their serfs.

260

ORTHOMETRY.

about twenty thousand lines, there are a few newly introduced Latin ecclesiastical terms, but not more than five French words, and the arrangement of the words is not very unlike the English of to-day. (iii) Piers Plowman's Vision, 1362, alluded to above, is an allegory of deep religious feeling and sentiment, which produced a profound impression at the time, as it appeared while the country was devastated by the terrible " Black Death." There are a large number of French words in its thirty thousand lines, but it adheres to the Anglo-Saxon inflections, which had already begun to give way, and preserves the old alliterative form of verse. It
is

the earliest great original

poem

that

we

possess

in English.

Besides these three important poems of the period, important mainly from a philological point of view,
there were numerous translations from the French romantic poetry which dealt chiefly with the legends
of

King Arthur and Charlemagne.

In these

we

find plainly discernible the influence of the speech

of the upper classes

the harsh-sounding
of use, their place.

upon the vernacular. Many of Saxon words began to drop out

and more euphonious Romance words took Alliteration gradually gave way to the sweetness of rhyme, and as this required words with accent at the end, French words took the place of Saxon ones that bore the accent on the In translating these French earlier syllables. rhyming words were ready to hand, romances the and on this account alone, hundreds of Romance words were grafted upon the Teutonic framework

DEVELOPMENT OF
of the language.
in use

VERSIFICATION.

261

In proof of the mixture of lanabout the middle of the fourteenth century, Gower (1328 1408), the immediate predecessor of Chaucer, wrote his three important poems, one in French, one in Latin, and the Confessio Amantis in English. Our native tongue was in this transition state when Wiclif and Chaucer found it the former's prose Translation of the New

guages

;

Testament, 1384, did much to fix it in form, but it was the latter's masterly

its

present
that

hand

polished and stamped it with the marks of permanency. By his judicious selection of conflicting grammatical forms, and the blending of foreign and native words, he moulded and stereotyped our tongue into that English which, with slight modifications, we speak and write to-day. Chaucer (1328 or 40 1400), the prince of storytellers in verse and the Father of English poetry,' was well fitted to weld the varied elements of our mediaeval tongue into harmonious unity. Fully con-


'

versant with the literature of Rome, Italy, and France, he was, moreover, a typical Englishman of the middle class, and a man of the world. His matchless Canterbury Tales remained for two hundred years the one great poem of the language, and is still unique in portraiture of character, simple descriptive beauty, and metrical sweetness. Nearly
all the tales

are composed in

rhymed

heroics,

i.e.

in

iambicpentameter arranged in continuous couplets.* During the next hundred years, embracing the whole of the fifteenth century the period of the

*

See the opening

lines of the Prologue, p. 113.

262

OR THOMETR Y.

French wars, and the Wars of the Roses no poet of note arose in England, though north of the

Tweed

several writers kept alive the roll of
;

lish verse

the Robin

EngHood ballads, and Chevy Chase

are the chief native productions. In the early part of the sixteenth century the revival of classical learning and the study of Italian models rekindled the

young England, just awakening The Earl of Surrey enlarged the field of versification by the introduction of the Sonnet* form, which soon became a general favourite, and by composition in Blank verse,f which was
poetic instincts of
into intellectual vigour.

quickly developed into the highest form of poetic Sackville at once introduced it into the drama, Marlowe improved it, while Shakspere and Milton used it with a perfection never
expression.
since equalled.

the time of Shakspere the vocabulary of language had greatly changed and increased. our About one-fifth of the old English words had become obsolete, but the eight or ten thousand words that constituted our speech at the end of the fourteenth

By

century had grown to thirty thousand. Of these our great dramatist, to express his all-embracing thoughts, makes use of about fifteen thousand,

though

it

should be remarked that

many

of these,

chiefly of Latin origin, occur not

more than once or

twice. No succeeding poet has approached this exuberance of utterance. The minor poets of the age of Shakspere and
* For a
f
full

account of the Sonnet, see p. 303.

See

p. 184.

DEVELOPMENT OF
rung
all

VERSIFICATION.

263

may be said to have the changes of metrical combinations possible, and to have well-nigh exhausted the varieties of rhythm and poetic embellishment of which our
Milton, in their lyrical efforts

language
little

is

capable, leaving to their successors

more than imitation as far as the form of verse goes. Dryden and Pope smoothed and polished the Heroic measure to the verge of monotony, and since their time but little originality has been possible in the art of versification beyond the
experiments made with the classic metres.*
* See p. 264. Coleridge, in his beautiful fragment, Christabel, made use of what he terms a new principle, the verse consisting of lines varying in length from seven to twelve syllables, but always having four accents. There is nothing strikingly new in this beyond the carrying of it out systematically.

.

——

:

CLASSICAL METRES.
The
verse of the Latin and Greek poets is based upon quantity, and its structure is regulated by rules much more rigorous than the easy canons of English rhythm. In English verse time is an accessory merely, and all attempts to string together English words upon that basis only have resulted in what is neither verse nor English, for the words have to lose their proper pronunciation. Here are three lines of English words arranged on the principle of the Latin hexameter by Sir Philip Sidney

That

my advance ment their wisdoms have me a based . Well may a pastor plain but a. las his plaints be n5t esteemed Oppress'd with ruin ous con ceits by the aid 6f an
t5
|
|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

;

|

!

|

|

.

|

|

j

|

I

|

|

|

outcry

|

Spenser made similar experiments, and with William Webbe, who wrote a " Discourse on English Poetry" in 1586, translated Virgil's First Georgic into hexameters, but with this important and necessary difference, he substituted accent for quantity. If this be done some approach to metrical effect may be attained, as
like results.


CLASSICAL METRES.
will

265

be seen later on.
;

of six feet, dactyls

An hexameter verse consists and spondees intermixed, and

no others the number of syllables varies from seventeen to thirteen, and the beats are six, though one may be weak. Latin word may have two, three, or four consecutive long syllables, whereas English words have very rarely more than one syllable accented. It is therefore a difficult thing to construct a succession of perfect hexameter lines of English words without the skilful use of monosyllables. And when lines so constructed are read aloud all trace of quantity disappears, and the metrical accent is given to such of the long syllables as subserve the rhythmic effect,

A

i.e.

the spondees are turned into iambs or trochees

at will.

Of our modern poets Cowper and Southey were
the
first

to experiment with the Classic metres

of course on the basis of accent> not quantity

—and

Coleridge, Arnold, Whewell, and Tennyson have

amused themselves by making English hexameters and pentameters. Kingsley's Andromeda, a poem of some five hundred lines, is in hexameters, and so are Longfellow's Evangeline, and Courtship of
Miles Standish. Evangeline is the only really successful production of the kind. Dr. Whewell has
translated

some

of Schiller's

poems

into Elegiacs,

in imitation of Ovid, and Longfellow has framed Cowper, original verses in the same measure. Southey, and Canning have imitated Horace's Sapphics, while Tennyson has tried his hand upon Alcaics and Hendecasyllabics. It would be well,

;

266

ORTHOMETRY.
all

however, to regard

such attempts to introduce

mere literary amusements and curiosities. Here are the schemes of these various metres, with examples of each.
exotics like these into our verse as

i.—HEXAMETERS.

Fair was she
(

|

to

be

|

hold, that

|

maiden of

|

seventeen

|

summers
| |

Black were her eyes as the by the wayside
|

berry that

|

grows on the

|

thorn

Black, yet
|

how
|

|

softly
|

they
|

gleamed be
breath of

|

neath the brown
kine that

|

shade of her

tresses

!

Sweet was her
the
|

breath as the

|

|

|

feed in

meadows.
Evangeline.

sackcloth and ashes they came, both the king and his people, Cametothe mountainof oaks.tothe houseof the terrible

Fasting in

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

sea gods.

Andromeda.

2.— PENTAMETERS.

These lame
|

hexam Homer!
| |

|

eters the

|

strong winged

|

music of
ment.
of

|

No—but a
When was

most bur
|

|

lesque

||

barbarous
|

|

experi
|

|

a

harsher

|

sound ever
croak

heard, ye

Muses
|

|

England ? When did a frog coarser
|

|

||

upon

|

our Heli

con

?

Tennyson.

:

;

:

CLASSICAL METRES.
Come,
all
I

267
|

ye weary and sighing—
| |

|

worn, ye
Christ

|

heavily

laden and
|

Come ye, oh,
I

come ye to

|

II

—Saviour,

|

Comforter,
|

King.
F. B. R.

3.—SAPPHICS.

Thrice repeated, followed by

Man

disa

|

vows and
| |

|

Dei

|

ty dis
|

|

owns me
|

Hell might afford my miser ies a shelter, Therefore hell keeps her ever hungry mouths
|
| [

|

all

Bolted a
j

gainst me.

Cowper.
Cold was the
|

night wind,
|

|

drifting
|

|

fast the

|

snow

fell,

Wide were

the
|

downs and
|

shelter
|

|

When

a poor

wand'rer

struggled

Weary and

j

naked, on her journey waysore. Southey. " The Widow."
less
|
|

and

The two following
Jacobin,
in

stanzas are from the Antiof

parody

Southey's

matter

and

manner
Needy Rough
|

knife grind
I

is

the road,
|

Bleak blows

whither are you going ? your wheel is out of order the blast your hat has got a hole So have your breeches.
|

er,

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

|

in't,

|

" The dactyl and trochee in the first and third foot respectively would be inadmissible in classic verse. The specimens are scanned in such a manner as to give them every chance of being considered rhythmical.

| Spiritless outcast Canning. | of wrongs can bate. | God gift ed or | I gan voice to re of Eng | Milton a name sound to ages. . 4. de rouse to Sordid. repro | graded. | give thee six Wretch whom | pence I no sense vengeance. land. Repeated and followed by O O might I y mouth'd | | in | | ventor of or | | harmonies. skilled to sing I | of Time | E | ternity. | unfeel | ing.— ALCAICS. Tennyson. ! | | will | | see thee | hanged | first.— ! — 268 I ORTHOMETRY.

by which is meant a resemblance. 'Tis not . buzz. stun. chatter. In this oft-quoted passage from the Essay on Pope sounds the note of. but at the same time the mimetic origin of a large number of words is undoubted. and the words move slow Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain. as coo. for instance. thud. When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw. that the sounds of words bear to the sense they convey. and attempts to " illustrate. True ease in writing conies from art. smash. IMITATIVE HARMONY.. no longer seriously held by philological authority. or " is Bow-wow " theory of the origin of language. . whizz. The hoarse rough verse should like the torrent roar. scream. real Criticism or fancied. what is known as " Imitative Harmony in language. And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows But when loud surges lash the sounding shore. tingle. Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently blows. howl. . and skims along the main. The any Onomatopcetic. As those move easiest who have learned enough no harshness gives offence The sound must seem an echo to the sense. murmur. hiss. pop. crash. Flies o'er the unbending corn. gurgle. squeak. to dance. bang. bump. The line too labours. not chance. Such forms.

and a pleasing . and many fruitless attempts have been made to show that there may be an actual resemblance between the rhythm of verse and the things described but it will be found. and a host of others. are plished. Two famous examples of this sound and sense resemblance have often been quoted. bubble. is quite enough to induce writers of verse to avail themselves of such limited embellishment as this Imitative Harmony affords. whose chief concern is with the form and dress of their thoughts. assistance which the similarity of sound gives to all that have been really accomThis. both in ancient and modern times. exhibit a correspondence between sound and sense which is unmistakable. As language is made up of sounds which are more or less expressive of actions and things. should avail themselves of any such correspondence between their ideas and expressions as could enhance the impressiveness of their Much has been written upon this subject verses. however. after a careful examination of the most noted experiments that have been made. we need not wonder that poets especially. the hoofs of a horse j .: : 270 0RTH0METRY. the one from Homer Afinc 'tireira irsSovSe kvMvSito \&as 'avaiStjc— the other from Virgil Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula Catnputn : the first mountain side describing a heavy stone rolling down a the second. the sense. that a general suitableness of diction.

and the words move slow. and many a groan. IMITATIVE HARMONY. quite rhythm of the verses. . impetuous downward roll. unbending corn. of course. If.: — . what can we say of the other? Pope's adaptation of the Greek passage describing the labour of Sisyphus is well worth quoting dissimilar. 271 galloping over a hardened plain. is exactly the same. Up the high hill he heaves a huge round stone The huge round stone resulting with a bound. which is supposed to imitate them. we to represent swift somewhat disappointed in what is intended and rapid motion for. to the middle of the third line we have the slow laboured motion upward imitated. one more than the usual number but when we come to consider the next we have . the one is to be praised for its imitative truthfulness. In the well-known couplet from the passage at the beginning of this chapter : Up When Ajax The strives line too labours some rock's vast weight to throw. and smokes along the ground. each of the two lines having six accents. Thunders impetuous down. slowness of motion expressed by a slow succession of syllables. in fact. yet the : With many a weary step. Now the sounds of these two movements would be. couplet Not so when Flies o'er the swift Camilla scours the plain. have the full number of accents and rather we are . then. and skims along the main. and then the rapid.

' Here are the swiftness of the rapid pace." And then he adds. Johnson's " Life of Pope.: 272 ORTHOMETRY. he praises ungrudgingly in a passage from Cowley : He who defers his river's Does on a work from day to day. and energy divine.'"* What he here criticises in Pope. for ever shall run on. it runs. The long majestic march. more than the usual number of long syllables. in my opinion. "The desire of discovering frequent adaptations of the sound to the sense has produced. but Dryden taught to join The varying verse." . He declares the last line to be versification "an example perhaps of representative which no other English line can equal. he tried another experiment upon sense and sound. " When Pope had enjoyed for thirty years the praise of Camilla's lightness of foot. the full resounding line. Dr. and as stream that stopp'd shall be gone. and produced ' this memorable triplet Waller was smooth. and the march of slow-paced majesty exhibited by the same poet in the same sequence of syllables. many wild conceits and imaginary beauties." Enough has perhaps been said to actual correspondence between * show that the sense and sound. Johnson is rather severe upon this and other instances of a similar character: he says. bank expecting stay Till the_ whole Which runs. except that the exact prosodist will find the line of swiftness by one time longer than that of tardiness.

And in this harsh world draw thy breath in$ain.e. and the hissing J and all the syllables but one are long. the Prince conjures his friend Horatio. The composition for it is of the third line is remarkable. And on your eyelids crown the god of sleep. In Hamlet (v. for it does not admit of a quick or easy pronunciation. the utterance of the verse is made to resemble the sense. still to live. consonants following the vowel. Absent thee from felicity awhile. two . In Henry IV. who was desirous of dying with him. iii. By this artificial structure. This is plainly discernible in some at least of the following examples. in 273 even the most noted examples of it.: : IMITATIVE HARMONY. Charming your blood with pleasing heaviness. clogged with consonants. If ever thou didst hold me in thine heart. part I. 1.. To tell my story. and the aspirate. And rest your gentle head upon her lap. . is more Still there can be no question that the skilful grouping and management of sounds in poetry may greatly contribute to the sensuousness of description and the appropriateness of the rhythm. either by quantity or position. Glendower translates his daughter's wishes to her husband Mortimer in these words She bids you Upon the wanton rushes lay you down. And she will sing the song that pleaseth you. i. His words are fanciful than real. 2).

. some are unaccented . i. the middle of it then. has separated all the lines. : 274 ORTHOMBTRY. This alone was enough this. As is the difference betwixt day and night.. to attain his purpose. to produce monotony but beside the single pause which he has admitted into every line is generally in. : Till. which is an invitation to rest and sleep. The author. In Dryden's tragedy of Edipus there is a verse which we look upon as expressing very happily the sense by the measure but whether so or not. being the most proper movement to accompany and express their meaning. The hour before the heavenly-harness'd team Begins his golden progress in the east. . Making such difference betwixt wake and sleep. except the eighth. or near. . which. By these means the verses have the expression which Shakspere undoubtedly designed to give them. . accented on the second syllable. There is not one foot of two accented syllables on the contrary. The most obvious their character of these lines if is they had been upon a different subject. The speaker announces the death of a person whose days had run on to a great length.e. but by far the greatest number are regular. by a stop at the end of each. like a clock. They were framed to run evenly and uniformly along that monotonous flow. the verse is eminently beautiful. would have been a fault but in this case it was designed. worn out with eating time. The wheels of weary life at last stood still. the feet are all such as contribute to smooth versification.

On a sudden open fly.: : : . The infernal doors . IMITATIVE HARMONY. On golden hinges turning. being pure iambics. lulla. lullaby. Keats describes the gliding motion of the clouds by the use of liquid consonants : And let the clouds of even and of morn hills. With impetuous recoil and jarring sound. the stop and ceasing of the motion. in Milton's description. is expressed Sing . and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder. so it would be if the vowels in the last foot were long. short vowels. of is opening of the gates of Heaven and of Hell remarkable Heaven opened wide the very Her ever-during gates. harmonious sound. and the expression lost . Float in voluptuous fleeces o'er the And by the soothing nature of a lullaby Shakspere in a similar way Philomel with melody in one sweet lullaby Lulla. which is admirably composed to represent. The contrast. and accents. proceed regularly and evenly on till they are contrasted by the fifth. Change the order The wheels of words thus of weary is life stood still at last. 275 The first four feet of this line. by its consonants.

Voluminous and vast. the ice was there. thunder down. down-dashed. The ice was all around. the arch-fiend But ended foul. Pope imitated heaven's of two words : artillery by the skilful use If And stunned us word-painting Tumbling nature thundered in our opening ears with the music of the spheres. Pope. Here are further instances of this attempted sound Disparting towers. huge in length. and the maddening wheels Unwieldy bulk and shape these words O'er all is depicted by Milton in the dreary coasts lay. loud thundering to the moon. brayed Horrible discord. clashing. No modern poet is more conspicuously ingenious in this kind of word-painting than Tennyson.. all precipitate Deep echoing groan the thickets brown Rustling. He . in many a scaly fold.: : : 276 ORTHOMETRY. crashing. and roared and howled Like noises in a swound. Dyer. It cracked and growled. Rattling around. So stretched out. Coleridge. of battle in the old The sound is modes of warfare represented thus Arms on armour Of brazen fury raged. crackling. The ice was here.

Thridding the sombre boskage of the wood." As thunder drops ." . fall on a sleeping sea Sudden I heard a voice that cried.: . She locked her Toward the morning star. " Idylls of the King. # # » : lips she left me where I stood " Glory to God." she sang. : IMITATIVE HARMONY. and past afar. pictures the roaring of the seas of the letter r : 2"tf by the reiteration Those wild eyes that watch the wave. The effect of varied sounds and movements is picturesquely given in two stanzas from the Dream of Fair Women full : Her slow words sank thro' the silence drear. * # . The description of Arthur leaving Guinevere prefigure to the sense as cannot be surpassed sents a picture of such a masterly adaptation of word and in the whole range of English poetry And more and more. Tennyson. and made him gray And grayer. moving ghostlike to his doom. till himself became a mist Before her. That I may look on thee. The moony vapour rolling round the king Who seemed the phantom of a giant in it. *' Come here. In roarings round the coral reef the sense ot chill cheerlessness by such harsh rhythm as And ghastly through the drizzling rain On the bald street breaks the bleak day. Enwound him fold by fold.

* * Hear the loud alarum bells Brazen bells I What a tale of terror now their turbulency tells In the startled ear of night How they scream out their affright Too much horrified to speak. bells From the jingling and the * # # tinkling of the bells. And always descending. tinkle. time. And so never ending. bells. tinkle.! ! . bells. Out of tune. stars that oversprinkle foretells I How In the icy air of night While the All the heavens seem to twinkle With a crystalline delight Keeping time. and splashing and clashing. subject The may be fittingly closed from Southey's How the by examples Water comes down at Lodore and Poe's Bells. shriek. and bumping and jumping. bells. Sounds and motions for ever and ever are blending.— — . To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells From the bells. All at once Southey. bells. And this and all o'er With a mighty uproar way the water comes down at Lodore. And dashing and flashing. Bells. And thumping and plumping. They can only shriek. Hear the sledges with Silver bells the bells What a world of merriment their melody they tinkle. time. . ! ! — 278 OR THOMETR Y. In a sort of Runic rhyme.

! ! IMITATIVE HARMONY. . . bells. bells. it Cn the bosom Yet the ear fully knows. And a By resolute endeavour. Pot. bells. In a mad expostulation with the deaf and frantic fire. and roar horror they outpour of the palpitating air. bells. And the wrangling. bells. Leaping higher. In the clamour and the clangour of the bells. sit Now—now to or never the side of the pale-faced moon. Bells. bells. bells. Yet the ear distinctly In the jangling. With a desperate desire. What a tale their terror tells How they clang. the sinking or the swelling in the anger of the bells Of the bells— the bells. higher. flows . How By Of the danger sinks and swells. What a Of despair and clash. Oh the bells. Z-jq In a clamorous appealing to the mercy of the fire. How the danger ebbs and tells. By the twanging. And the clanging. bells. higher.

" Our King James I. but it will be found sufficiently comprehensive to guide the reader who wishes to advance beyond an elementary knowledge of the subject. " Ane schort some reulis and cautelis to be observit and eschewit . It was written "to stirre up some other of meete abilitie to bestow travell on the matter. although many of the views there expressed have long since been abandoned. who published a Discourse of English Poetry in 1586. in 1584. be this chapter the attention of the student will directed to what has been written upon the subject of verse and poetic criticism." In that discourse. after treating of poetry in general. published in Scotland. It does not aim at furnishing an exhaustive of such works. The first English writer* that occurs to notice is William Webbe. he singles out Spenser from the English poets for his especial commendation. WORKS ON In VERSIFICATION. containing in Scottis Poesie. since the rise of the Gay Science towards the end of the sixteenth century. more copious extracts from them are given. and takes the Shepherd's Calendar published about list * Treatise.BIBLIOGRAPHY. And as the older works are difficult of access.

. which hath not some poetical ditties framed according to the numbers to as : thereof. " Of the kinds of English verses which differ in number of syllables. and composing in hexameter. our author was one of those who fancied that English poetry would be greatly improved by adopting Greek and Latin measures." But notwithstanding this abundant variety. which I think would have been impossible.BIBLIOGRAPHY. had not been owned by him). and therefore not possible to be framed with any good grace after their use . To avoid therefore tediousness. or distinction of the staves." Having quoted several passages to prove this assertion. which differ either in length. or rhyme. seeing they may be altered many forms as the poets please neither is there any tune or stroke which may be sung or played on instruments." but this he . and other ancient forms. sapphic. He says. which may well serve to bear authority in this matter. " I shall avoid the tedious rehearsal of all the kinds which are used. for the subject of his remarks on English Versification. he adds. " There are in this work twelve or thirteen sundry sorts of verses. He was aware. of the objection " that our words are nothing resemblant in nature to theirs. there are almost infinite. I will repeat only the different sorts of verses out of the Shepherd's Calendar. pentameter. indeed. It was a project that had already been set on foot by some of high literary reputation and he endeavoured to advance it by his advice and example. 281 seven years before (but which. it seems.

Instruction concerning the making of Verse or Rhyme in English in an edition of his works published in This sensible treatise. to serve his purpose. by one who was a poet himself. and it is amusing to hear him relate his distress.282 ORTHOMETRY. however." when. and such as would naturally become the speech best. he translated two of Virgil's Eclogues into English hexameters. and transformed a part and of the Shepherd's Calendar into sapphics these pieces make a conspicuous portion of his book. by " excepting against the observance of position. the conclusions are neither singular nor and though from the dates the whole might be expected to have acquired an obsolete character." to avoid breaking his Under all these discouragements. and again in 1587. when composing in the new fashion. cise . they should have been short he wanted " some direction for such words as fall not within the compass of Greek or Latin rules. and thereof he had great miss." He was forced " to omit the best words. Latin rules. forced. it still retains such a just proportion of fact with the precepts forming a close alliance to the natural order of our language. The next was George Gascoigne. is certainly one of the earliest attempts in our language to establish It is confixed rules for the modulation of verse. 1575. that while we hesitate to . "he found most of our monosyllables to be long. and certain other of their rules. He included Certain Notes of : . proposed to surmount. an eminent poet of the same age." Still there remained various difficulties.

. position. the reading of these notes may be suggested not of advantage to poetical com- The more remarkable passages in Gascoigne's work are these. says he. the most ancient English words are of one syllable so that the more monosyllables you use. as entering into verse. one is directly opposed to Gascoigne. he . in the middle those of fourteen.: : : : ."* Respecting the caesura. after the eighth. Also. as and in * There are two critics of later times who have given their judgment upon the use of polysyllables in English verse. as it is Amid my bale | I bathe in bliss. Concerning for finding a rhyme. In lines of ten syllables. BIBLIOGRAPHY. the other agrees with him. after the fourth. the truer English you shall seem. or long. Of these. if like trammels for genius. the admission of polysyllables into verse. words of many syllables do cloy a verse. | although my grief be great. than those of two syllables of which. In those of twelve syllables. and the less you shall smell of the inkhorn. elevate." He gives rules for . He speaks of no other feet. he gives " I warn you that you thrust as few this direction rhyming and — words of many syllables into your verse as may be and hereunto I might allege many reasons first. observes that " in lines of eight syllables best in the middle. . as I smile sometimes. to which allusion has already been made. or short the second. " the first is depressed. and make it unpleasant. and. appears to be right. upon the whole. . 283 recommend anything shaped as instructive. or pause in a verse.

was a regular treatise. . either in their measures or their pronunciation and perchance will seem in us a presumptuous part to attempt considering also it would be hard to find many men to like of one man's choice in the limitation of times and quantities of words. but every ear is to be pleased and made a particular judge it being most truly said. " is the commonest sort of verse which we use nowadays. that the art may become vulgar for all Englishmen's use. on the Art of English Poesy. | Divorce me now. thus " Peradventure with us Englishmen it may be somewhat too late to admit a new invention of feet and times that our forefathers never used.e. although in this particular he mani. he condemns this sort of versification as a frivolous and ridiculous novelty." In conclusion. good death. that a multitude or commonalty is hard to please." This author was of a different opinion from Webbe in respect to the introduction of Greek and Latin measures into English poetry and he says." says he {i. such as the last here quoted). but written some time before." But a more celebrated work on the subject. with good judgment. . that other was my wife. * These examples are taken from his own poems. from love and lingering life That one hath been my concubine. " Lines of twelve and fourteen syllables alternate. : : . published in 1589. and easy to offend. But. with which not one.* | . He says he writes it " to help the courtiers and the gentlewomen of the court to write good poetry. nor never observed till this day. by Puttenham.284 ORTHOMETRY.

He has. He who shall peruse Puttenham may collect from him some information concerning the state of poetry in his day and may understand what kind of verse was censured or praised. a chapter on " English numbers in general. . fested his 285 good sense. Warton* says of in this book." vol. that the English tongue will receive eight several kinds of numbers proper to itself. in the shape of altars. The eight : numbers which he mentions are be understood. U. in some other points he fell in with the whimsical fancies of his time such as . Another work was published " Observations in the 1602. 10. some of them. which are all in this book set forth. but he must not expect much instruc. of combinations of verses and stanzas. by any man.BIBLIOGRAPHY. nor yet altogether of verses taken singly." by which he means the feet admissible into English several kinds of to * Warton's " History of English Poetry. Art of English Poesie. but. that title. and what degree of estimation former English poets were then held in. tion upon the it art itself. and his acquaintance with the latter art appears by some remarkable passages in his book." during part of the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James he was also a composer of music. not of feet. Campion was a poet and physician attempted. and were never before this time. making poems and the like. pyramids. indeed. by Wherein it is demonstratively proved. remained long as a rule of criticism. with this Thomas Campion. and by example confirmed.

" which brought forth an answer from a writer of a superior order to Campion. in 1603. who. and he reduces them to two. that it " is but an iambic turned over and over. indeed. This was Samuel Daniel. Of him he says " This detractor is a man of fair parts. is all in blank verse. except . both in verse and prose. he falls as short as his antagonist.286 poetry. Our rhyme is likewise number and harmony of words. even from his own essential." Campion might have shown. nature that is above all art. that the poetical part : . which both custom and nature doth most powerfully defend custom that is above all law. asserted. wrote a Defence of Rhyme. the iambic and the trochee." This is. that rhyme is the fittest harmony of words that comports with our language. against Campion's " Observations. consisting of an agreeing sound in the last syllables of several verses. giving both to the ear . and that he wishes to discard entirely from our poetry what he is pleased to call " the fatness of rhyme . of which he gives this strange account. ORTHOMETRY. and therefore the reproach forcibly cast from such a hand may throw down more at once than the labours of many shall in long time build up again. and good reputation." "wherein is demonstratively proved. poetry. but in proofs and demonstration. as being and giving character and name to two different species of verse. if he had not disgraced our rhyme. We could well have allowed of his numbers. that our language can receive other num- bers than he has enumerated tains little that is new but his book conor extraordinary. viz.

" such as have ever been familiarly used among us and the like of his other positions. in the best proportion of music. and cannot subsist. . without a close. . and to the memory a deeper impression of what is delivered therein for as Greek and Latin verse consists of the number and quantity of syllables. but runs wildly on. . " that to his own ear. he proceeds in a similar against the rest of Campion's book.. likewise : ." Having thus defended the use of rhyme. like a tedious fancy. however. measure." he acknowledges. He expresses a wish. 287 an echo of a delightful report. strain asserting "that of all his eight several kinds of new promised numbers. BIBLIOGRAPHY. and harmony is . and harmony. we have only what was our own before . number so that the English verse then hath number. as when it is met and combined with a like sounding accent which seems as the jointure. without which it hangs loose. yet it most religiously respects the accent and as the short and the long make number. . it seems not to satisfy nor breed that delight. so doth the English verse of measure and accent and though it doth not strictly observe long and short syllables. so the acute and grave accent yield harmony. " that there were not that multiplicity of rhymes as is used by many in sonnets . those continual cadences of couplets used in long and continued poems are very tiresome and unpleasing ." and he confesses that his " adversary had wrought so much upon him. But be the verse never so good. never so full. as to think a tragedy would best comport with a blank verse.

he means introduced irregularly. By rhymes uncertainly mixed. a homicide convented. himself thus respecting the odes which he calls pindaric " The numbers are various and irregular.: 288 ORTHOMBTRY. as that there are not above two couplets in that kind in all his poem of the Civil Wars that he " held feminine rhymes to be fittest for ditties." more particularly noticed here. is an example A tyrant loath'd. and sometimes (especially some of the long ones) seem harsh and uncouth. and signify—the first. are taken from the French. and either to be certain. inform his readers that the verses are intended and framed to represent the things described by their imitative harmony. saving in the chorus. of two." He says too. may be joined with these authors not indeed for any formal work upon the subject. or The opinions of Daniel are set by themselves. disgraced. as applied to verse. he had always so avoided. . . if the just measures and cadences be not observed in the pronunciation. ever since he was warned of that deformity by a kind friend. and dispense with rhyme. rhymes of one syllable—the other. that he thinks it wrong to mix uncertainly feminine rhymes with masculine. from the First Book of his Civil Wars. which he calls certain. viz. because his versifi. So that almost all their sweetness and numerosity : * The terms masculine and feminine. In his preface he expresses cation is Another . not recurring in the stanzas at set distances. poet. equal to the best of his times.* which. who valued himself upon his skill in numbers. Poison'd he dies. but for certain notes made by him upon The purport of those notes is to his own verses. Cowley. and unlamented. or where a sentence shall require a couplet. which we now call double rhymes and of which this character of King John.

to which he refers. D. Which does to rage begin. In 1679. the choicest epithets and phrases. The title was the English Parnassus. And this steep hill would gallop up with violent course 'Tis an unruly and a hard-mouth'd horse.D. not so much for anything remarkable in his criticism. is this Stop. my Muse. if if I roughest. and Hymns and in the preface made certain observations on the structure of English verse. in the in a manner I wholly at the mercy of the reader. yet the undertaker will find it otherwise. stop. rightly repeated) lies mistake not. published a Paraphrase on the Canticles. have briefly described the nature of these verses in the ode entitled The Resurrection . Kindled at a hint so great. * and though the liberty of them may incline a man to believe them easy to be composed. or a Help to English Poesie . (which is 289 to be found. : : BI&LIOGRAPHY. comprising some principles of versification. and anon flies o'er the place i Disdains the servile law of any settled pace Conscious and proud of his own natural force 'Twill no unskilful touch endure. allay thy vigorous heat. together with an assistance towards making English verse. Hold thy Pindaric Pegasus closely in. But flings writer and reader too that sits not sure. with some general forms upon all occa* The passage in the Ode on the Resurrection. e . impatient of the spur or bit Now prances stately. of Milton's Paradise Lost . as for his high commendation. though he would rather " it had been composed in rhyme " . Fierce and unbroken yet.: : ! . Samuel Woodford. About the same time another work came out.. containing a collection of all the rhyming monosyllables. which are mentioned. at the period.

by a plentiful magazine. or Dictionary of Rhymes. in 1702. detailed part relating to prosody is : chapters. The notice . Of the several sorts of poems and compositions in verse. it continued for above half a century to be a popular book. D. It also provided a further help to verse-makers. but it was a posthumous publication. The number of poets from whom he professes to have formed . This work appears to have been the foundation of another. 2 QO OR THOMBTR Y. it is sufficiently by the title. by way of preface.A. The bulk of his performance was made up of a " Col. The author was Joshua Poole. alphabetically digested sions. he will be found to deserve little commendation. published an Art of English Poetry.. agreeable. that are to be found in the best English poets " but if the execution of this part be compared with the promise of its title." His manner of treating these topics is plain. built on the same plan. Cambridge . . and noble Thoughts.. &c. who. Of rhyme. of Clare Hall. but neither methodical nor comprehensive it presents. The author was Edward Bysshe. . and though perhaps no versifier of the present day may seek from this author " Rules for making English Verse " (for so he entitles this portion of his volume). The preface is subscribed it contains no matter worthy of particular J. under these heads English verses. some useful information. M. subjects together with a short institution to English Poesie. however. and for the book itself. and themes. — — contained in three " Of the structure of lection of the most natural. but considerably enlarged.

Stepney. Ellis. published Observations on Poetry. a great friend of the author. and others. Tate. Indeed he appears to have had very little knowledge of our poets. is to justify and extol that regularity which. Dr. Here is another he affirms that " we have no proof of the same entire works composed in verses of twelve syllables . him with at least three-fifths of the whole. and Dryden. or of no distinguished reputation in poetry. not one of whom is mentioned in Bysshe's catalogue. in an instance or two. occasioned by the late poem on Leonidas. in his Speci- mens of the Early English Poets. is . The sixth section of the and Observations is upon the principles of verse here his singular notions. 1738. Cowley. 29 Of these.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY. Stafford. viz. as Walsh." he must therefore have been unacquainted : with Drayton. done without foundation. his selection. in part. The versification of that poem is very regular and the design : of the observations. Harvey. all irreguHe asserts that no irregular composition larity. more than a third part are either men of no name. have furnished Dennis. has given extracts from upwards of forty authors in the reigns of Charles the First and Second. might startle and discourage a young poet. Butler's Hudibras. that three of his number. and the severe rules he would establish. . are forty-three. Not long after Glover's Leonidas appeared. Then the selection is made so unequally. even of those who lived and wrote but fourscore years before himself. . He disallows all licence. especially epic. Pemberton. as Stonestreet.

The lines he means are. much less three times to- gether. which. Jousted in Aspramont. as in this instance And all who since. b. b. I. The foregoing censure on Milton may warrant the mention here (though not exactly in chronological order) of Tyrwhitt's Essay on the Versification of Chaucer. Leon. a .: : 292 of feet is OR THOME TR Y. . which. who withstood the power. And of the contrary sort. baptized or infidel. or wanting dignity. he would not have admitted so frequently. or Trebisond. Damasco. Paradise Lost. advances some positions that are very . 1. such as this : Here swallow' d up in endless misery. such as these variety : O Muse. 1. With the same rigour he pronounces upon the last and commends Glover for syllables of verses closing his lines with a firm and stable syllable. b. the deeds and glorious death Of that fam'd Spartan. in Glover. questionable. he says. it A close of the line. Paradise Lost. Rehearse. or Montalban. and which Milton designedly neglected. is necessary to support the dignity of the verse. by any means necessary towards that which is required in the longest work. in Milton. had he thought negligent. or Morocco. to say the least of passage: "on them as in this the tenth or rhyming syllable. which contains much learned research into the nature and origin of our poetical measures but which. in regard to the structure of our verse.

.: : BIBLIOGRAPHY." is to condemn the practice of our most Pope. through negligence. 62- . book iii. the fourth being (almost always) one of them. however. Sing. Milton. that on the secret top Of Oreb. . is to doubt whether an unaccented syllable in the fourth place of he was not grossly . whose mortal taste Brought death int5 the world and all our woe. p. 413. 586 . 36. scruple. • See Paradise Lost. his line. it seems necessary that at least two more of the even syllables should be accented. &c. 293 strong accent is in all cases indispensably required and in order to make the line tolerably harmonious. Essay. Again. either by negligence or design. book v. tion to his set ment respecting Milton is to show very little attenmanner of versification and to put it . negligent in that point throughout his poem since he has done so no less than three times within the first seven lines Of man's first disobedience. 750." * To make this state. till one greater man Restore us. to affirm that " a strong accent is in all cases indispensably required on the rhyming syllable. and regain the blissful seat. heavenly Muse. he has frequently put an unaccented syllable in the fourth place. and the fruit Of that forbidden tree. without correct and approved authors. 874. Sr of Sinai. admitted an unaccented syllable to rhyme for instance. has not subjected his verse even to these rules and particularly. as a doubt whether he did not. With loss of Eden.

unseen. wrote two chapters on English prosody and the mention of them is introduced here. as for directing the public attention to Shakspere's skill and excellence in them." And swell the pomp of dreadful sacrifice. " Eloisa to Abelard. deserves notice. should we submit to Tyrwhitt's authority. These are Tucker (under the name of Edward Search) on Vocal Sounds. of The same subject has employed the pens certain writers in the northern part of our island. ary. 1783. by Webbe. 1779. Dr. Trussler's Dictionary oj Rhymes. as well for some judicious remarks on our poetical measures." That guilt is doomed to sink in infamy. To a few. the end of the last century there still remain whom it will be sufficient to specify by their names and the titles of their books. 294 orthometry. The treatise on Painting and Poetry. ." So that. Useless. Walker's Rhyming Diction1775. as lamps in sepulchres. we must renounce some of the most established and allowed licences. Steel's Prosodia Rationalis. Foster. in English versification. "Essay on Satire. but rather to caution him against trusting to what is there said upon the subject.— . not for any material information which they will afford to the reader. if they are so to be called. in his celebrated Essay on Accent and Quantity. 1773. "Elegy on an Unfortunate Lady.

who all are by no means to be omitted for they are men of high rank. A list of the chief writers upon the subject fitly during the present century. and (with one exception) of would form a catalogue . Lord Glenbervie. and Prosody of the English Language "( 1803) Haslewood. The first. Shakspere. by his Elements of Criticism the third. and Lord Glenbervie not that they challenge our notice by their rank. here given. by his volumes on the Origin and Progress of Language Dr. Mitford. Accents. They are King James the Sixth of Scotland the lords Kaimes and Monboddo Dr. 295 . Beattie by his Essays and lastly. will conclude this treatise. New editions of all our chief poets are produced year after year.. Shelley and the early English writers. . and Societies have been find increasing demand. and at length English poetry is a recognised subject of study and repetition in every course of national instruction. . and has attracted the attention of some of the first scholars of the day. translation of the Poem of Ricciardetto. . by his " Reulis and Cautelis to be observit and eschewit in Scottis Poesie . "Art of English Poesy" . by the Notes on his spirited : . . but by the merit of their writings. Royal and Noble Authors. BIBLIOGRAPHY. formed to advance the study of Chaucer. Beattie . " Enquiry into the Principles of Harmony in Language and of the Mechanism of Verse " (1804) Okell. the study of the art of versi- and of poetry generally has vastly increased. "Essay on the Elements." the second. and fication especially within the last thirty years. During the present century.

Mar. 1877) Angus. Longmuir. and what may be called the common-sense method of spanning is vindicated. * A work of great research and a storehouse of examples. " English Composition and Rhetoric " (Longmans. t A scholarly and original work. Sydney Walker. E. Brown. Mayor.S.. " Englische Metrik" (Bonn. " Handbook of English Literature Gilbert Conway. . "Treatise on English Versification" (1827). but his theories as to the structure of modern verse are erroneous and impracticable. A. " Manual of English Prosody • » . English People " (Parts of English Prosody. B. with a compendious Dictionary of Dowden. 1888) R. 1869). Dr. H. " Shaksperian. "Lectures on the English Language " (Murray. of the English Language. Ruskin.) J.Ems " Earl y Ellis. .R. ORTHOMETRY. E. Bain. 1884). masterly argumentative treatise on the subject of metre. F. A J. (Longmans. J. 1870) Dr. Marsh. Guest.-Oct. enlarged " edition. 1892). "The Structure of English Verse " (1884) J. Crowe. in which X the d priori theories of Dr. 1880). " Geo. Sylvester. Schipper. Wadham. 296 (1815) . 1869). Carey. " The Laws of Verse. "Chapters on English Metre " J (1886). Stedman. " Shakspere Primer " (MacRhymes " (1877) millan. II. Dr. Brewer. .. Witcomb. F. . ." for use in St. and III. or Principles of Versification. 1866 . George's School (1880) Sydney Lanier." Part IV. " Notes on Shakspere's Versifi(1883) cation " (Boston. Abbott. "Versification of Shakspere" (1854). Mag. C. " Essentials of Phonetics " (1847) English Pronunciation. .. 1882) Canon Daniel. J. &c. " Practical English Prosody and Versification" (1816). Abbott are successfully demolished. "History of English Rhythms"* (1838). 1863) ." Part III. Guest and Dr.. " Treatise and of the English Tongue " on Versification " t (Longmans. C. . Grammar " (Macmillan) Abbott and Seeley. Preface to the Later Editions of Walker's " Rhyming Dictionary " Tom Hood. (1869) W. " Grammar. 1878).. Dr. . " Rules of Rhyme. a Guide to Versification. ** The Nature and Elements of Poetry " {Cent. " The Science of English Verse" (New York. A . Exemplified in Metrical Translations " (Longmans. " English Lessons for . but lacking method and arrangement. "Elements . "English Versification" (Longmans. The notes fill up as much space as the text. .

A RHYMING DICTIONARY. .

.

as do also laugh. plainly represent the sound: labour most and saviour will like. while its improved arrangement will tend to facilitate reference. staff. and must be looked under the e. the spelling : of the words being of no consequence thus. slightly altered. . pious. pearl. Rhyme whirl. under ES.g. dough. coalesce. . depends upon similarity of sound only. of existing They work of the same kind. cough. effervesce. The collection will be found to be more complete and varied than any that the compiler has been able to consult. harmonious. The lists of words comprising the Rhyming any Dictionary annexed have been compiled with care and method.INTRODUCTION. with a view to the selection of nearly all words suitable for Verse-Making the end of the nineteenth century. stand in no harmonious relation to each other whatever. are classed together as to their ending sounds letters that only. and the under US . curl. rhyme perfectly. are not a reprint. therefore. but the result of a new and comprehensive at overhauling of our English vocabulary. &c. Copious references. photograph whereas dough. be found under OR. The words for in this dictionary.

less. These. es. applies to most words which end in /.300 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. to words in ble. made to keep the book within reasonable may be pointed out. words are given which rhyme sound of the to assist more or heading . preceded by die. Other omissions. very few of which find place here. do his utmost Examples of licences in rhyme taken by our standard poets are introduced here and there. rather than to imitate. inasmuch as they are nearly all derivative words formed from nouns. ing. with each other. or very nearly so. rhyme perfectly. and all unemphatic monosyllables ought never to conclude a rhyming verse. ness. such as the plurals of nouns. printed in italics. the liquid that i. At the end of these. less imperfectly with the normal but no attempt has been made the student to find words that he ought to to avoid. Under each heading type. when triple given. the participles and gerunds of which verbs.e. will be found amongst the foot-notes. cle. and adjectives by the The same remark suffixes er. and ly. and in the order of the number of their syllables. Single rhymes only are given the inclusion of double this part of the and rhymes would have swelled limits. but these should be regarded by the modern versifier as models to shun. Instead . volume out beyond due without corresponding advantage. . e mute. which have been limits. and and also to numerous class of nouns ending in ion. est. Besides. and they are arranged a few typical alphabetically. verbs. for the most part. the list of words printed in ordinary which has been made as complete and suggestive as possible. double rhymes can be easily constructed from the single ones. lists however. are given throughout to that nearly cor- respond with each other.

to discriminate. Norfolk-Howard A curious instance of the uncertainty of the sound of proper names is furnished by the word Ralph. bow. in a few cases. as English rhymesters can is afford to reject any material that at all suitable to their it purpose. a salutation. between sounds that closely assimilate . OW." &c. Leveson (lewson). " should I be done out of my If" — ! . are given. as bow. IVE. Y. and provincial words. Tennyson insisted. however. it is given in each list. he can go much farther than this and change his name altogether with very little trouble as a Mr. is No word . repeated on account of its several acceptations but in those few cases in which a word has two different sounds as well as different meanings. however. troublesome enough in ordinary words. of lists 30 is of such words. Colquhoun (cohoon). Belvoir (bever). (iees). had occasion to use the word several times. Space has been found respectability. Smith wishes to call himself Smythe. Wemyss (weetns). fit many such cases. It seems to be an inalienable right in every man to pronounce his name as he likes. Proper names. with greater precision than usual. a few instances of which are subjoined : Dillwyn (dillon). OVE. It has. been deemed desirable. Tennyson's seat. hence double in lists of words EW. has been deemed or credentials of for to add short notes of explanation. &c. " But. as well as a and unobjectionill sprinkling of slang terms that are current able. become absolutely bewildering in proper names." a gentleman of that name might ask. are omitted for obvious reasons. for shooting. John (sinjon). Caius Cholmondeley (chumley). with some vigour. and Some few obsolete . Bug did some years ago by advertising in The Times that henceforth he desired to be known as Mr. have been In inserted. that it should be sounded as half. St. Beauchamp (bcecham). Knollys (nowls). their fitness indicated by the phrase "also the preterites of verbs in uk. Not very long ago a lady visitor at Aldworth.— 1 INTRODUCTION. In fact. If Mr. also a limited * The vagaries of pronunciation.* both of persons and places. there is no power on earth to prevent him. and pronounced is as rhyming with safe. why.

false has none valse is near it. but the t spoils it. though I fully expect to be told that laugh. but the French accent disqualifies waltz is also near it. Fugue has no rouge. A few more words rhyming to love are greatly wanted. and Ulf the minstrel. nor has gulf. and at the same time ensure himself many gratuitous advertisements if he were to select a word that rhymes to one of the many words in common use that have very few rhymes or none at all. Starve has no rhyme except ( O irony ) carve. S. Revenge and avenge have no rhyme but Penge and Stonehenge. . Gamboge has no rhyme but it Tube would be rhymeless but for cube and jujube. Scarf has no rhyme. unless we fall back on Cardinal Pandulph." I — . calf and half are admissible which they certainly are not.* * Mr. writing some time ago in a humorous letter to the Dramatic Review on the paucity of rhymes in our tongue. Scalp has no rhyme but Alp. Gilbert. says. rhyme at all. A zimuth has only doth. technical number of and foreign words with which most Englishmen are familiar. coif has no rhyme at all. W.— 302 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. "I should like to suggest that any inventor who is in need of a name for his invention would confer a boon on all rhymsters.

A asthma compare ER. OR .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

304 slab DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. .

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. lace 305 .

so wonderfully made. to agree. Obsolete. To live in concord or amity . R. Till on his life the sickness weigh'd. Tennyson. spade trade ADGE badge cadge fadge ft vade || milkmaid parade * In genial spring beneath the quivering shade. as on the higher hades. A flat low piece of ground a dale a valley. for the leg From gambado. *T . Employed by Drayton. Drayton. me. as a child just learning to walk to walk slowly or unsteadily. Employed by Spenser. Browning. as prey'd. . to fadge together. They shall be made. than from their mother trip. a cover worn over other clothing a gaiter. Clothes To be suitable to suit . Then Let to the still small voice I said. he plied his trade. . Beaumont and Fletcher. Drayton. eigh. . spite of antipathy. To lead. |i Obsolete. applied to a bundle of sticks . a bannock. Since when a boy. No sooner taught to dade. The descent of a hill. ft Obsolete. to go hastily or rapidly. sleigh'd. J Obsolete. as a child just beginning to go alone. is In Scotland it is still sometimes used. to awake. to fit. dainty clover grows. . What is f Obsolete. I must get . 3o6 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. Where curling vapours breathe along the mead.— — — . me not cast to endless shade. Em- ployed by Spenser. this fashion will not fadge with . The § Obsolete. ey. Pope. To vanish To arouse to pass away . and a covering of rough leather. . ** Obsolete. Milton. ADE* aid abraid If afraid persuade pervade relaid tirade fusilade bade blade braid cade dadef fade glade arcade blockade brigade brocade cascade unlade upbraid accolade gasconade lemonade marmalade masquerade overlade palisade ambuscade barricade bastinade chamade cockade crusade decade degrade dissuade evade facade pasquinade renegade retrograde grade hade J jade lade cannonade cavalcade centigrade colonnade esplanade serenade made maid raid bad bead head shade slade§ gambade *• grenade invade Also the preterites of verbs in ay. On the lower lees. a leather case attached to a stirrup.

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. 307 AFE chafe .

3o8 mirage DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. .

chain 309 .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

And . eir . AIRS—ARES theirs unawares the plurals of nouns and the third persons singular of verbs in are. air. as mares. repairs.3io DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

Wi' heart-struck anxious care. rake. and flush her cheek. While Jenny hafflins is afraid to speak it's . enquires his name. There in two sable One gave new beauties ringlets taught to break. Weel pleased the mother hears.DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. predicate profligate 3*1 prognosticate recriminate regenerate reiterate propagate regulate reprobate confederate congratulate considerate inveterate inviolate legitimate. nae wild worthless Burns. to the snowy neck. Pope. contaminate co-operate corroborate debilitate matriculate necessitate participate precipitate predestinate ruminate rusticate reverberate subordinate unfortunate separate stipulate degenerate deliberate subjugate suffocate denominate depopulate disconsolate discriminate effeminate elaborate predominate premeditate prevaricate procrastinate weight height heat bet syndicate terminate t£te-a-tete titivate AITH. tolerate triturate emancipate emasculate equivocate eradicate ATH * (see EATH) vindicate violate AKE ache bake brake break cake drake fake flake compare take EAK abominate accelerate accentuate accommodate accumulate adulterate affectionate annihilate anticipate articulate evaporate exaggerate exasperate expectorate expostulate exterminate facilitate illiterate wake awake bespake betake corn-crake forsake keepsake illuminate hake lake mandrake mistake immoderate importunate inanimate initiate assassinate capacitate capitulate make quake rake sake namesake partake overtake snowflake undertake chalybeate coagulate insatiate intemperate intimidate intoxicate commiserate communicate invalidate compassionate investigate commemorate shake snake spake stake steak rack neck weak check Sparkle in Jenny's e'e. .

bawl'd. mortal naval partial Also the preterites of verbs in awl . piebald interval liberal literal emerald call'd.3'2 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. AL< principal imperial intellectual mallt pal shall capital cardinal carnival prodigal rational seneschal several sepulchral original poetical political cabal canal comical conjugal cordial corporal criminal critical cymbal dismal dual equal feudal final temporal terminal tragical problematical prophetical reciprocal rhetorical satirical whimsical colloquial decimal festival dogmatical equinoctial equivocal formal legal loyal martial medal metal mettle funeral general genial hospital inimical initial hymeneal sempiternal schismatical tyrannical all ale ALD bald scald all. as littoral pedal portal rival madrigal magical medical mineral municipal musical mystical natural nocturnal regal royal rural total trivial admiral animal annual arsenal octagonal pastoral pedestal personal physical autumnal cannibal .

313 ALL awl ball small sprawl squall stall tall bawl brawl call caul crawl thrall drawl fall trawl wall appal enthral football install gall hall haul mall pall waterfall windfall scrawl cabal shawl ALM {see ARM) ALT fault .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

.3i4 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

3»5

3i6
remnant
servant supplant tenant transplant

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.
miscreant
petulant

poignant
protestant recreant

adamant
arrogant

recusant

combatant
complaisant consonant conversant cormorant covenant
disputant dissonant

ruminant termagant
vigilant visitant

exorbitant

extravagant inhabitant

predominant
significant

dominant
elegant elephant ignorant
jubilant lieutenant militant

want font
can't

upon't

faint
tent

haunt

AP
cap

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

317

AR'
are

3i8

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

ARF

(see

AFF)

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

319

AF

3*o
taste

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

3*1

AW
chaw

322

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

AZE
CRE,
E,

{see

AISE)
league
[see

EAGUE

CHRE
EA
{see

ER)

EE)

EACE, EASE*
cease geese grease
fleece

decease decrease
increase release

lease niece

surcease
frontispiece less

peace
piece apiece caprice

lace

miss
lees

EACH
beach
bleach breach

reach teach

impeach
beech etch

each peach preach

EAD

{see

EDE and EED)
{see

EAF

IEF)

DICTIONAR Y OF RHYMES. leal 323 .

3*4 .

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. 325 EARCH (see ERCH) ERD) URL) EARD EARL (see (see EARN EART (see ERN) ART) (see EARTH— ERTH * berth birth worth swarth hearth breath north dearth earth mirth EASTf beast east feast least .

.326 heath DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

DICTIONARY OB RHYMES. second list) key knee lea lee free me ne plea sea glee gree he . fed fled 327 tread see wed abed behead homestead instead head lead read red said misled o'erspread shed shred sped spread stead thread ilead blade maid oiey'd EDE (see EED) EDGE edge fledge compare AGE. IDGE wedge allege hedge kedge ledge pledge sedge knowledge age privilege porridge EE* bee dree t flea flee (set Y.

328 heed DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. .

smell 329 .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

330 sharpen DICTIONARY OF RHYM&S. .

tend 33 .1 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

.332 condiment DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

purr sir 333 pepper slur spur stir whirr aver barber blister brother cadger caper cipher cloister clover codger coster cruiser dapper daughter dempster f deter differ douceur foster ginger heifer hunger inter lawyer leather ledger leper lobster lover lubber martyr master miller miser mitre murmur nadir ogre oyster pauper .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

ERF scurf .334 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

vert 335 .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

divest infest regret nest pest inquest invest molest obtest protest request quest rest test vest suggest unrest interest west abreast arrest attest manifest overdrest bequest contest detest digest palimpsest past paste beast Also the preterites of verbs in ess .. as express'd ET. 336 guest jest lest DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. . bet ETTE cadet carpet coquet coquette corset couplet cricket debt fret get jet let met net set cygnet diet sweat threat dulcet fidget forget wet whet yet abet gazette hamlet leaflet banquet basket beget beset blanket bracelet brunette magnet pamphlet picket piquette quiet quartet quintet .

Jew knew 337 .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

33§ vice DlCTlONAR Y OF RHYMES. sacrifice prognostic quixotic realistic dyspeptic eccentric advice concise device entice precise suffice jaundice edifice epidemic hieroglyphic idiomatic kiss rhetoric demise size fleece romantic schismatic splenetic antiseptic morganatic paleocrystic paradise panegyric peripatetic antagonistic arithmetic prognostic like ICH {see ITCH) / beatific cabalistic leak ICK brick chick catholic*"-^ choleric didactic ICT strict kick lick nick pick quick sick stick thick tick trick attic dogmatic domestic dramatic electric emetic emphatic erratic euphonic exotic forensic heretic arctic antic caustic iambic fantastic lunatic chronic colic comic critic lymphatic magnetic majestic cynic drastic hectic mechanic mimetic memphitic narcotic physic picnic plastic rustic acrostic nomadic pacific pathetic phlegmatic plethoric poetic politic agnostic aquatic artistic bucolic prophetic .

y. and sigh'd. as died. IDES Ides besides .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. IDE bide bride chide glide gride * 339 beside bestride collide confide guide hide nide t pied % pride ride side slide stride tide decide deride divide misguide preside provide reside subside parricide regicide subdivide suicide infanticide wide abide aside astride bead bid betide Also the preterites of verbs in it. defied.

IERCE IES (see SREE) ISE) sift adrift thrift tiff'd snowdrift spendthrift (see IS. whiff't IG IEST (see EAST) big dig snig sprig IEVE (see EAVE) fig swig twig gig grig Jig whig wig whirligig IF. cliff IFF caliph dandriff Pig png ng league fatigue skiff sniff stiff tiff midwife plaintiff IGE oblige (no rhyme) sheriff siege whiff caitiff hieroglyph fife IGH IFE' fife (see Y. first (see list) strife IGHT IGN ITE) knife life wife cliff (see INE) rife leaf IGUE IFT drift rift (see EAGUE) ?ift lift .340 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

still. The following are exceptions : edile.g. as in juvenile. reconcile." wind for wind. e. exile. shrike spike strike 341 dislike pensile leak antique lick alike ILD child mild wild ile . to cheat. pensile. . it is advisable to give the long sound to i in all such words. In reading poetry. ILE in ile with the accent on the penultimate have the final i short generally as kostile (hostll. however. deceive. puerile : exceptions camomile. Addison. antepenultimate the same rule generally holds good. revil'd. " fertile vales.— — DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. f Vulgar. says he. O Sisyphus. gentile. you don't bilk me. Both sounds. form passable rhymes. stands Ixion rests upon his wheel. Dryden.. Words terminating aisle bile tile vile chyle file guile isle while awhile beguile compile defile mile pile edile smile stile erewhile exile style gentile * Thy stone. gild build filPd Also the preterites of verbs in as smil'd. . When the accent is on the profile. except when rhyme demands the short one . But be sure.

a farce. || And let me the canahin clink A soldier's a man. a buffoon. rhymes. B. E. Browning." Milton. stilt IMP gimp imp jimp limp •tilt ILTH filth pimp spilth * tilth IMPSE glimpse limps IM brim skim slim trim dim glim t IN bin chin din fin § compare INE griffin grim whim pilgrim him hymn limb limn pseudonym synonym time margin maudlin muffin raisin prim rim team IME chime climb clime crime gin grin inn kin lin ruin sanguine satin tiffin rhyme slime time pin shin sin tocsin virgin thyme sublime maritime overtime grime lime skin spin thin tin urchin welkin cannakin javelin kilderkin mimet prime him twin IMES betimes whin win akin mandolin manikin origin beams palanquin violin sometimes swims Also the plurals of nouns.— 342 quilt spilt DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. . § to be Death forerunneth love. as times." One who mimics. to win Sweetest eyes were ever seen. t Nautical. A life's but a span. then. * begin buskin chagrin codlin dine dean machine a From spill. and the third person singular of verbs in ime . " Scaliger defines a mime J poem imitating any action to stir up laughter. let the soldier drink. Nearly obsolete. A light. " Dowse the glim. used by Shakspere and Browning. Why Shakspere.

INCE mince 343 .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

as drinking. laughing. underling Also the present participles of verbs. INGE cringe .344 suckling yearling DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. and participial adjectives in ing .

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. IRE compare AR. ER dire 345 .

.346 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. ladd Also the preterites of verbs in as hiss'd aphorism barbarism cataclysm criticism bit cit IT commit emit forfeit egotism euphemism euphuism heroism hypnotism vandalism vulgarism witticism chit fit flit anachronism malthusianism mesmerism mysticism chasm grit hit hermit minute omit outwit orbit knit pit quit permit pewit rabbit refit ISP crisp lisp sit split wisp twit remit whit submit transmit benefit Jesuit perquisite 1ST fist wit writ acquit chemist consist desist dentist exist insist admit biscuit list beat bite mist twist bowsprit whist wrist assist artist ITCH bitch ditch fitch flitch linguist papist . ISK brisk disc frisk 347 pessimist pianist pugilist persist resist basilisk obelisk odalisque sophist subsist rhapsodist ritualist risk tamarisk alchemist whisk amethyst annalist analyst satirist socialist vocalist ISM chrism prism schism bigamist dogmatist eucharist exorcist herbalist anatomist antagonist diplomatist evangelist rationalist nepotism organism occultism abysm altruism baptism deism theism truism optimism pantheism pessimism plagiarism radicalism realism socialism solecism stoicism syllogism humourist oculist ic'd slidd optimist organist •ss .

348 hitch DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. .

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. hive 349 .

350 stiletto DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.ORD) (see OST) . braggadocio imbroglio magnifico tobacco tomato tornado torpedo virago volcano innuendo oratorio adagio duodecimo peccadillo seraglio generalissimo quid pro quo OACH broach brooch coach loach encroach reproach $orch notch poach abroach approach much church OAD OAF (see ODE) OFF) (see OAK OAL (see OKE) OLE) (see OAM OAN OAP (see OME) ONE) OPE) (see (see OAR (see ORE) OARD OAST (j«.

Eight times emerging from the flood. Coviper. Nor barns at home. on account of remarkable gogram overalls he wore in bad weather. nor ricks are heaped abroad. " Old Grog " was a nickname for Admiral Vernon of the seventeenth century.DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. J . : Burns. assbock'd. Dryden. It was then applied to a mixture of hot spirits. which he was the first to introduce. 351 OCT decoct concoct cook'd ODGE bodge dodge lodge yok?d podge Also the preterites of verbs in cck. She mew'd to every watery God. bog clog OGUE shog goad load agog prologue catalogue cog mode node ode road rode toad dog grogt demagogue dialogue epilogue incommode ow'd hood hog fog frog jog log prog hod woad abode • fraud pedagogue synagogue rogue prorogue . OFF OD* cod clod rod cough doff off God hod nod odd plod shod sod tod trod trough loaf scoff roof rough wad ode ow'd blood croft OFT soft pod quad quod cough'd oft scoff'd aloft ODEf bode code commode corrode explode forebode a-la-mode episode OG. \ In vain the barns expect their promis'd load. "An honest man's the nobl'st work of God " And certes in fair virtue's heavenly road The cottage leaves the palace far behind What is a lordling's pomp ? a cumbrous load.

352 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. OILf boil coil foil dsepoil embroil recoil as toys. * OICE choice voice rejoice compare OISE vice purloin rejoin fine thine wise toys subjoin sirloin sign OINT OID void avoid amyloid cycloid joint oint point aroynt % disjoint devoid asteroid alkaloid oy : spheroid bide anoint appoint counterpoint disappoint pint Also the preterites of verbs in as buoy'd. and the preterite of verbs in oy . moil oil turmoil employs. OISE§ compare OICE wise noise poise sighs counterpoise tries voice equipoise Also the plurals oi nouns. mile cole soil spoil toil while OIN com foin proin quoin adjoin disjoin groin join loin enjoin .

.DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. M OM Dryden. 353 OKE* broke cloak croak folk OLE f bole coal dole droll foal compare whole cajole OWL yoke yolk awoke bespoke invoke revoke artichoke joke condole console Creole oak poke smoke soak spoke stroke goal hole jole parole pistole rook work walk mole pole role aureole girandole firasole shoal OL doll loll sole stole owl owl full fool alcohol capitol poll carol extol droll hole all OLN stol'n swol'n awl OLD bold cold fold OLT bolt colt dolt holt behold cuckold enfold foretold moult thunderbolt fault gold hold malt mould old scold sold told freehold unfold uphold withhold manifold marigold solve OLVE absolve convolve devolve dissolve involve resolve revolve wold oil. gull'd Also the preterites of verbs in olt. So strong they f The lightnings flash from pole to pole. . Near and more near the thunders roll. R. see UM * There seemed struck. Bruce. Browning. This glory-garland round my soul. This foot once planted on the goal. less force required to fell an oak. bowl'd. owl roll'd.

354 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. OMB see 00M .

atone dethrone 355 .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

356 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. OOK book compare UCK' .

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. 357 OOT boot compare UTE .

.358 sculptor DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

OR] 35$ .biCTIONARY OF RHYMES.

.360 loss blCTlONARY OF RHYMES.

afloat 361 .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

362 denounce pronounce DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. renounce OUND* bound found frown'd around compound confound ground hound expound profound mound pound round sound propound rebound resound surround wound (to wind) wound (woond) abound aground moan'd .

the light burns low. truth youth As bow crow flow low trow smooth mouth which has no rhyme) below bestow billow OVEt As in love dove glove love glow grow callow fallow know low foreknow pillow sallow shallow shove above mow owe row sew sow show slough slow As in prove move groove prove approve clove swallow wallow willow disprove disapprove improve reprove window winnow yellow As in wove strove snow stow strow throw outgrow overflow drove grove throve overthrow wove alcove hove rove stove * As bough bow in now brow behove interwove The low cares of the mouth. slavery mar what else might move Shelley. Burns. that those Who grow together cannot choose but love. as in the sacred grove. — Shelley. 363 OUTH* drouth OWJ blow compare in 00 mouth south (the verb. In hues which. Make their divided streams more bright and rapid now. . The trouble uncouth. &o. Or common custom do not interpose. when through memory's waste they flow. wake thy bosom-melting throe With Shenstone's art. Browning. And such is If faith or t R. To Or I Gray. Tennyson. The shadows flicker to and fro. All gentlest thoughts.DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. know not yet was it a dream or no. paint with Thomson's landscape glow. X That mocks the tear it forced to flow- Amid severest woe. The cricket chirps. Nature's law divine.

.364 cow DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

365 .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

366 snood DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. .

UISE(j«tISE.DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. OOZE) 367 UIT (see UTE) .

.368 plum DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

369 UNE compare OON hewn .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

brochure .37<> DICTIONARY OF RHYMES.

DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. 371 URT .

372 DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. USH blush .

Both. the latter allowably with hi. sigh. as in mile. the former rhyming perfectly with such words as die. set.DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. the long f. . lists of words of the two sounds are given separately. and the short \. are used indiscriminately by all our poets. however. as in mill. As an end 373 letter y has two Bounds. Sec. but for convenience' sake.

as ty in duty ruddy rudely saintly canopy cavalry charity chastity chemistry chivalry . beauty bonnie brandy busy comely cosy crazy crusty curly daily kindly kingly knightly lady lastly saucy scurvy singly lonely lordly lovely simply sleepy clemency colony snappy sorry comedy company constancy cosily manly marry meanly merry misty sunny steady strophe study sweetly tally dainty dally contrary _ courtesy cruelty daintily dairy dandy doubly mouldy nasty neatly nearly dreamy duly tardy thirsty decency destiny diary dignity dusky duty trophy truly trusty empty filly nobly noisy orgie gaily palmy palfrey paltry twenty ugly vainly " drapery drollery gaudy ghastly glory gory drudgery ecstasy elegy vary greedy grumpy guilty party parsley pastry petty wary weary wealthy whisky worthy embassy enemy energy equity pigmy poorly portly happy haughty hearty academy agony amity anarchy apathy artery eulogy euphony factory posy pretty princely heavy homely honey hourly family fallacy fealty proudly pulley purely augury battery fecundity finery flattery humbly hungry hurry jaunty jetty queenly quickly racy rally beggary bigamy bigotry foolery foolishly jerky rarely jockey jury justly lily rosy blasphemy botany bravery bribery brevity gaiety gallantry gallery rocky roughly ruby galaxy granary gravity calumny .374 )[ DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. short.

mutiny mystery nicety noisily symmetry sympathy symphony tapestry calamity capacity captivity generosity geography geometry genealogy gravity gratuity hostility tragedy treachery treasury trinity novelty nunnery nursery penalty penury perfidy perjury piety pillory trumpery tyranny urgency unity catastrophe complexity concavity confederacy conformity congruity conspiracy hospitality humanity humility cosmography credulity curiosity hypocrisy idiosyncrasy usury vacancy vanity verily customary declivity imaginary immensity immorality immortality piracy pleurisy deformity .DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. haughtily history 375 democracy discovery dishonesty dexterity disparity diversity divinity poesy poetry policy victory villainy honesty idolatry votary potency poverty watery wearily industry Injury primary privacy prodigy wantonly infamy infancy infantry jollity womanly worthily absurdity activity progeny prosody purity quality' dormitory doxology duplicity electricity knavery laity adversity affability affinity emergency enormity equanimity eternity laxity quantity raillery legacy leprosy lethargy levity liberty library livery lottery loyalty rectory agility alacrity regency allegory remedy ribaldry rivalry ambiguity etymology extempore extraordinary extremity familiarity fatality anatomy animosity antiquity robbery royalty salary sanctity anxiety lunacy majesty apostasy apostrophe aristocracy fecundity felicity secrecy ferocity fertility malady melody simony slavery sorcery strawberry astronomy austerity authority auxiliary fidelity memory misery freemasonry frivolity modesty monarchy subsidy surgery aviary brevity frugality futurity mummery .

376 immaturity DICTIONARY OF RHYMES. .