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Strong acid Acid that completely ionise in water to produce H+ Exp: HCl, H2SO4

Acid Substance that dissociates in water to produce hydrogen ion, H+

Weak acid Acid that partially water to produce H+ Exp: CH3COOH ionise in

Monoprotic Substance produced hydrogen 1 mol H+ ions when ionise in water. Example: HCl H+ + Cl-

Diprotic Substance produced hydrogen 2 mol H+ ions when ionise in water. Example:
H2SO4 2H+ + SO42-

Triprotic Substance produced hydrogen 3 mol H+ ions when ionise in water. Example:
H3PO4 3H+ + PO43-

H+ CH3COOH CH3COOCH3COOH CH3COOH H+ CH3COO CH3COOH

Properties of acid Taste sour Turn blue limus paper to red pH < 7 conduct electricity

Chemical Properties

Uses of acid Sulphuric acid Making electrolyte in car battery Methanoic acid Coagulate of latex Ethanoic acid Food preservatives Carbonic acid Making soft drink

A cid+ Alkali
H2SO4 + NaOH

salt + H2O
Na2(SO4) + H2O

Acid + metal oxide


HCl + ZnO

salt + H2O
MgSO4 + H2O

Asid + reactive metal


HCl + Mg MgCl2 + H2

Salt + H2

Acid + metal carbonate


HCl + CaCO3

Salt + CO2 + H2O

CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Base Strong alkali Alkali that can ionize completely in water to form high concentration of hydroxide ion, OHExample: NaOH, KOH KOH K+ + OHUses of alkali Properties of alkali Taste bitter and slippery Turns red limus paper to blue pH > 7 conduct electricity Dissolve in water

Chemical compound that react with acid to form salt and water only

Weak alkali Alkali that can ionize partially in water to produces low concentration of hydroxide ion, OHExample: ammonia, NH3
NH3 NH4+ + OH-

Alkali Substance that dissociates in water to produce hydroxide ion, OH+

Sodium hydroxide Making soap/detergent Magnesium hydroxide Making toothpaste Calcium hydroxide Making cement Ammonia Prevent coagulation of latex

Chemical Properties Alkali + Acid H2SO4 + NaOH salt + H2O Na2(SO4) + H2O

Alkali + ammonium salt salt + H2O + NH3 NaOH + NH4Cl NaCl + H2O + NH3

H 2O Role of water in acid water help acid ionize to produced H+ ions With water Molecules in acids will ionise to hydrogen ions HCl(aq) H+ + ClThe presence of hydrogen ions are the causes the show acidic properties Has free mobile hydrogen ions There are free H+ ions
H+ ClH+ ClH+

Without water/in organic solvent/glacial acid does not show acid properties acids remain in the form of molecules no free mobile hydrogen ions no acid properties
HCl HCl HCl HCl

There are no free H+ ions

H 2O Role of water in alkali water help alkali ionize to produced OH- ions With water Molecules in alkali will ionise to form hydroxide ions NaOH(aq) Na+ + OHThe presence of hydroxide ions are the causes the show alkaline properties Has free mobile hydroxide ions There are free OHions Na+
OH
-

Without water/in organic solvent/glacial acid does not show alkaline properties Alkali remain in the form of . molecules no free mobile hydroxide ions No conduct electricity

NaOH

NaOH

NaOH

NaOH

There are no free OHions

Na+
OH-

Na+

Concentration of H+ ions increases Concentration of OH-

ions increases

Why At same concentration, the pH value of a weak acid lower than strong acid? Because the concentration of OH- ions weak alkali is lower. Weak alkali ionises partially but a strong alkali ionizes completely.

pH Scale Strong acid: pH 1 -2 Weak acid : pH 3-6 Strong alkali pH 13 -14 Weak alkali : pH 8-12

X Mr

Concentration in mole dm-3 (M) Mr No. of mole of solute Molarity (M) = Volume of solution ( dm3) n = MV 1000 =

Concentration in g dm-3

pipette

Mass (g) Volume of solution(dm3)

M1 V1= M2 V2 Dilution Preparation standard solution M1 Molarity before dilution V1 Volume before dilution M2 Molarity after dilution V2 Volume after dilution

1 2 3 4 5 6

Weigh the mass of sodium hydroxide Transfer the solid sodium hydroxides into beaker contain distilled water and stirred Solution from beaker poured into volumetric flask Rinsed beaker and filter funnel into volumetric flask Add distilled water until graduation mark Shake the volumetric flask

Neutralization
-reaction accur between acid and base to form salt and water In neutralization , hydrogen ion in acid react with hydroxide ion from alkali. H 2O H+ + OH

Hydrochloric acid

Example 1: 3.25 g of zinc, Zn reacted completely with hydrochloric acid, HCl with molarity of 0.5 mol dm-3.Calculate volume of acid used. (RAM Zn = 65) Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Zn + 2HCl 3.25 g 0.5 moldm-3 No. mole: 3.25/65 = 0.05 Zn : HCl Ratio mole 1 : 2 No.of mole 0.05 0.05 x 2 = 1 Molarity, M = no.of mole Volume (dm-3) Volume : 0.1 / 0.5 = 0.2 dm3 / 200 cm3 ZnCl2 + H2

Potassium hydroxide solution + phenolphthalein indicator End Point when all hydrogen ions from acid react completely with hydroxide ions from alkali to form water. Colour in Colour ion Colour in Indicator alkali neutral acid Phenolphtalein Pink Colourless Colourless Methyl orange Yellow orange Red Example 2: What is the volume of 1.0 moldm-3 sodium hydroxide solution which can neutralize 25 cm3 of 1.0 moldm-3 sulphuric acid H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + H2O 1.0 moldm-3 1.0 moldm-3 Volume? 25 cm3 No. mole: 3.25/65 = 0.05 H2SO4 : NaOH Ratio mole 1 : 2 No.of mole 0.025 0.025 x 2 = 0.5 Molarity, M = no.of mole Volume (dm-3) Volume : 0.5 / 1.0 = 0.5 dm3 / 500 cm3

Step 4

Step 1

Application of neutralization Slake lime reduced soil acidity Toothpaste Mg(OH)2 neutralise acid in mouth Baking powder cure bee sting Magnesium hydroxide treat gastric pain

Step 2 Step 3

Step 4