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# Kinematics Fundamentals

Chapter 2

Definitions
Mechanisms
A device which transform motion to some desirable pattern and typically develop very low forces and transmits little power

Machine
Typically contains mechanism which are design to provide significant forces and transmit significant power

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Kinematics Fundamentals
Degree of Freedom (DOF)
The systems DOF equal to the number of independent parameters(measurement) which are needed to uniquely define its position in space at any time

Kinematics Fundamentals

Types of Motion
Pure translation Pure rotation Complex motion

Kinematics Fundamentals
A link is an rigid body which possesses at least two nodes which are points for attachment to other links

Kinematics Fundamentals
A joints (kinematic pairs) is a connection between two or more links, which allows some motion, or potential motion, between the connected links Classification
Type of contact between the elements, line, point, or surface Number of DOF allowed at the joint

Kinematics Fundamentals
Classification
Type of physical closure of the joint Number of links joined

Type of Contact
Lower pair (full joints)
Describe joints with surface contact

Kinematics Fundamentals
Type of Contact
Lower pair

Kinematics Fundamentals
Type of Contact
Higher pair
Describe joints with point or line contact

Kinematics Fundamentals
Number of DOF allowed Joint
One DOF (full joint)

Kinematics Fundamentals
Number of DOF allowed Joint
Two DOF (half joint/roll-slide)

Kinematics Fundamentals
Type of Physical Closure
Form closed- closed by its geometry Force closed- closed by an external force

Kinematics Fundamentals
Order of the joint: the number of links minus one

Kinematics Fundamentals
Kinematic Chain
An assemblage of links and joints, interconnected in a way to provide a controlled output motion in response to a supplied input motion

Mechanism
A kinematic chain in which at least one link has been grounded, or attached, to the frame of reference

Kinematics Fundamentals
Machine
A combination of resistant bodies arranged to compel the mechanical forces of nature to do work accompanied by determinate motions

Kinematics Fundamentals
Ground
Any link or links that are fixed with respect to the reference frame

Crank
A link which makes a complete revolution and is pivoted to ground

Kinematics Fundamentals
Rocker
A link which has oscillatory (back and forth) rotation and pivoted to ground

Kinematics Fundamentals
Coupler
A link which has complex motion and is pivoted to ground

Kinematics Fundamentals
Determining DOF
DOF or Mobility
The number of inputs which need to be provided in order to create a predictable output The number of independent coordinates required to define its position

Kinematics Fundamentals
Determining DOF
DOF in Planar Mechanisms
Grueblers Equation

M 3L 2 J 3G
where
M = degree of freedom or mobility L = number of links J = number of joints G = number of grounded links

Kinematics Fundamentals
Determining DOF
DOF in Planar Mechanisms
Grueblers Equation

M 3L 2 J 3G
If more than one link is grounded, the net effect will be to create one larger, higherorder ground link. G is always one, therefore

M 3L 1 2 J

Kinematics Fundamentals
Determining DOF
DOF in Planar Mechanisms
Kutzbach Equation
Include full and half joints

M 3L 1 2 J1 J 2
M = degree of freedom or mobility L = number of links J1 = number of 1 DOF (full) joints J2 = number of 2 DOF (half) joints

where

Kinematics Fundamentals

Kinematics Fundamentals

Kinematics Fundamentals
Mechanisms and Structures
The DOF of an assembly of links completely predicts its character
If the DOF is positive mechanism If the DOF is zero structure If the DOF is negative preloaded structure

Kinematics Fundamentals
Number Synthesis
The determination of the number and order of links and joints necessary to produce motion of a particular DOF

Kinematics Fundamentals

Kinematics Fundamentals
Isomers

Kinematics Fundamentals
Revolute joints in any loop can be replaced by prismatic joints with no change in DOF of the mechanism, provided that at least two revolute joints remain in the loop

Kinematics Fundamentals
Any full joint can be replaced by a half joint, but this will increase the DOF by one Removal of a link will reduce the DOF by one The combination of rules 2 and 3 above will keep the original DOF unchanged

Kinematics Fundamentals

Kinematics Fundamentals
Any ternary or higherorder link can be partially shrunk to a lowerorder link by coalescing nodes. This will create a multiple but will not change the DOF at the mechanism

Kinematics Fundamentals
Complete shrinkage of a higher-order link is equivalent to its removal. A multiple joint will be created, and the DOF will be reduced

Kinematics Fundamentals
Intermittent Motion
Is a sequence of motions and dwells
Dwell; is a period in which the output link remains stationary while the input link continues to move Geneva Mechanism

Kinematics Fundamentals
Intermittent Motion
Ratchet and Pawl

Kinematics Fundamentals
Intermittent Motion
Linear Geneva Mechanism

Kinematics Fundamentals
Inversion
An inversion is created by grounding a different link in the kinematic chain

Kinematics Fundamentals

Kinematics Fundamentals
Grashof Condition
Is a simple relationship that predicts the rotation behavior or rotatability of a four linkages inversion based only on the link lengths

S L PQ

Kinematics Fundamentals
Grashof Condition
If the inequality is true, at least one link will be capable of making a full revolution with respect to the ground plane(Class I) If not true, then the linkage is non-Grashof and no link will be capable of a complete revolution relative to any other link (Class II)

S L PQ

Kinematics Fundamentals
Grashof Condition
For the class I case: S+L< P+Q
Ground either adjacent to the shortest link and you get a crank-rocker Ground the shortest link and you will get a double-crank Ground the link opposite the shortest and you will get a Grashof double-rocker

Kinematics Fundamentals
Grashof Condition
For the Class II case: S+L> P+Q
All inversion will be triple-rockers in which no link can fully rotate

## For Class III: S+L=P+Q

All inversion will be either double-cranks, or crank-rocker

Kinematics Fundamentals

Kinematics Fundamentals

Kinematics Fundamentals

Kinematics Fundamentals
C. Barker developed a classification scheme that allows prediction of the type of motion that can be expected from a fourbar linkage based on the values of its link lengths Link ratio formation Letter designation (C), (R) - GCRR

Kinematics Fundamentals
Linkages of More Than Four Bars

Kinematics Fundamentals
Linkages of More Than Four Bars