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Obstetric complications cannot be predicted or prevented but can be managed by timely provision of life saving services.

Emergency Obstetric Care is defined as a set of critical life saving functions commonly called signal functions provided by a health facility, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Among the obstetric complications, many can be dealt by basic EmONC services and few will need comprehensive EmONC facilities, while a majority of the newborn emergencies may also be dealt with at the basic EmONC level. Definition of Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care Services: The provision of Basic EmONC services includes but is not limited to: intravenous and intra-muscular administration of drugs such as antibiotics, oxytocin and anticonvulsants; assisted vaginal delivery; manual removal of placenta; manual removal of retained products of an abortion or miscarriage; and stabilization and referral of obstetric emergencies not managed at the basic level. In terms of newborn emergencies, the required services at the basic EmONC level include management of neonatal infection, very low birth weight infants, complications of asphyxia and severe neonatal jaundice, (skills and supplies for intravenous fluid therapy, thermal care including radiant warmers, Kangaroo Mother Care, oxygen, parenteral antibiotics, intragastric feeding, oral feeding using alternative methods to breast feeding and breast feeding support. The provision of Comprehensive EmONC service s includes all of the services provided at the basic level, plus cesarean section, blood transfusion services, and newborn special care at the advanced level, such as intensive care neonatology units. The current status of under-five child mortality is 105 per 1,000 live births. It has shown a steady albeit not rapid improvement over the years. The major causes of death in children under 5 are perinatal causes (18%), Diarrhea (18%), ARI (18%), Measles (7%), Malaria (6%) and others (32 %). Thus capacity building of health care workers in management of above conditions is planned in this activity. Ministry of Health has approved and adopted National Child Survival Strategy which clearly defines all interventions required at home, referral and facility level for promoting growth and development of a healthy child and

optimal care of sick child. The recommendations of National Survival Strategy for purpose of this PC-1 have been incorporated in different components (EmONC, essential newborn care, Immunization plus, nutrition counseling and IMNCI). New Born Care: A recent compilation of available information on the pattern of newborn deaths and IMR in Pakistan indicate that while there has been steady decline in IMR over the last 20 years corresponding with the implementation of the “child survival” programs there has not been a proportional decline in newborn mortality. Infections, birth asphyxia, and preterm/low birth weight account for 86 percent of newborn deaths, and most occur during the first hours and days of life. Researchers estimate that approximately 70 percent of newborn deaths could be averted through the use of proven, costeffective interventions. These interventions are surprisingly simple, ranging from ensuring clean delivery, to treating infections with antibiotics, to promoting immediate and exclusive breastfeeding. As outlined in The Lancet Series on Newborn Survival, just strengthening family community and outreach services, including health education to improve home care practices and preventive services such as tetanus vaccination coverage, can reduce newborn deaths by up to 40 percent. As a result of various studies it is shown that in our communities across the nation the main risk factors identified being responsible for a high mortality and morbidity during newborn/perinatal age are:

     

Tetanus Meconium aspiration Jaundice Other infections Congenital problems Inappropriate breast feeding

   

Delivery conducted by untrained attendant Birth interval of less then 24 months More than six pregnancies Illiterate mother and/or father

In hospital based studies the major causes of newborn & perinatal mortality/morbidity identified in the country:

 

Birth asphyxia and birth trauma Low birth weight or premature babies

There is sufficient evidence available that introducing integrated newborn packages at clinical, outreach and community level brings down newborn mortality by 40%, 25% and 30% respectively. Emergency newborn care: Improved care of ill babies especially infections, complications of preterm birth and of birth asphyxia could be provided as a part of Comprehensive EmONC services in selected facilities identified in the National MNCH Program. In addition, newborn resuscitation and immediate newborn care protocols already developed under Women’s Health Project will be provided to 7000 labor rooms in public sector and 3000 maternity homes in the private sector. Community based low cost and low tech interventions will be scaled up through LHWs and CMWs. This would include Community IMNCI, Community Case Management and Behavior Change Communication. Integrated Management of Newborn & Childhood Illnesses (IMNCI): The Government of Pakistan is fully committed to implementation of the IMNCI strategy in Pakistan and a pilot project is implemented since 1998. This is approach is also present in National Child Survival Strategy with emphasis on diseases causing most of the child mortality i.e. Diarrhea and ARI. Now with the experience gained from implementation of the pilot IMNCI program the decision is to increase coverage to the entire country. Out of the three components of IMNCI: the first component of improving the skills of the health workers at the facilities and the second component of improving access and referral will be covered under this PC1. The third component of community IMNCI will be covered by the National Program for Family Planning and Primary Health Care as it has the necessary workers available in the field to support implementation of the strategy. Creation of IMNCI Task Force The commitment to implement IMNCI will be formalized and

1. Therefore under this program a systemic effort to repair all the labor rooms. it is assumed that majority of the districts and tehsils hospitals would not require a complete set of equipment as it is available from the regular provincial budget and other sources. However for chemical disposal of hospital waste         To provide 24/7 Comprehensive EmONC services at all DHQ Hospitals and selected THQ Hospitals. 0. Second Family Health program in addition various development partners under the technical guidance of the MoH are also focusing their inputs in specific districts for provision of EmONC service like UNFPA. X-ray.strengthened through the Technical Advisory Group. available.0 million per THQ providing Comprehensive EmONC services. These inputs with regards to equipment. Rs. Strategic guidelines for advocacy and program implementation will be prepared and be part of district social sector plans. the recurrent costs shall be met from the regular budget of the hospital. All hospitals will need to be equipped with laboratory support. Maternity and Child wards will be undertaken.2 million per DHQ Rs. The procurement committee will conduct the tendering process and issue rate contracts for the equipment. Provision has been made for service contracts for electrical equipment. The attached list covers all the essential equipement for DHQ/THQ hospitals for comprehensive EmONC services. Rs 0. On the other hand. Details on these inputs are in the Provincial Chapters. repairable and new required. Provision of 24/7 EmONC services in DHQ and THQ Hospitals: Infrastructure requirements: The infrastructure at the DHQ hospitals has sufficient capacity to enable provision of EmONC services. Similarly. The Federal MNCH PIU will conduct a standardization exercise and finalize the specifications of the equipment and issue a call for tenders.. Objectives of the Implementation . newborn care units. Similarly. however the state of repair of the buildings is open to question. This exercise should take maximally six months to complete and the detailed compilation of this information should be available at the Provincial MNCH Cell directorate within 9 months of launch of the program. To provide 24/7 Basic EmONC services at all Rural Health Centers and selected THQs. UNICEF. Balochistan has very limited capacity at the DHQ hospitals and thus the nine hospitals will be targeted for strengthening at the regional level. In addition Rs 0. The steering committees of MNCH will review implementation and achievements annually. Moreover.3 million per RHC and 0. To provide Resuscitation and Immediate Newborn Care protocols in all labour rooms of the country. the hospitals will conduct a review of available equipment in comparison with the list of equipment proposed and categorize it into three parts. The equipment package proposed for these hospitals is given on page117. THQ and RHC’s in their own designated districts. Training of various cadres of Health Care Providers in Essential Newborn Care.4 million per RHC providing Basic EmONC services. The amount has been estimated at an average cost of Rs.1 million per BHU for repair of residential accommodations for female staff.g. This amount can be reallocated within the district by the provincial MNCH cell based on a proposal having a detailed needs assessment presented by the EDO Health in consultation with the district government. equipment for these health facilities for comprehensive EmONC services is not costed in the MNCH PC-1. On the other hand it would not be feasible or practical to start construction of new hospitals / health facilities with these funds and as such they will only be used for strengthening the existing health infrastructure. The THQs hospitals will be dealt with on a case by case basis. It is also proposed to provide these hospitals with incinerators to dispose of hospital waste through the Hepatitis B program. Sindh and NWFP have a majority of equipment available for MNCH and therefore only some additional equipment will be provided to these hospitals. Community newborn survival interventions including community IMNCI and Community Case Management ( linkages with LHWs program) To improve referral through development of linkages at the community level and health facilities To develop linkages of secondary health facilities with tertiary care facilities through technical assistance form tertiary hospitals and rotation of Post graduate students at secondary health facilities. UNFPA is also providing all the essential equipment to DHQ. PAIMAN-USAID . Equipment: The hospitals in Punjab. 10 THQ’s and 10 RHC’s in their designated districts. Funds for repair of RHC are already available with Punjab under the Health sector reform program and therefore these are not duplicated. The supply orders will be issued by the provinces/ districts as per requirement. To provide 8/6 preventive obstetric and child care services at all Basic Health Units. a lupsum amount for equipment for comprehensive EmONC services is allocated in this PC-1 for the provinces. Blood Bank. However. Operation Theatre and Anesthesia. The activities will be coordinated by the DPC program under supervision of Program Manager MNCH. Newborn Care units at health facilities providing Comprehensive EmONC: Newborn care units would be added to all facilities providing comprehensive and basic emergency obstetric care services.6 million per THQ. Women Health Project. infrastructure and trainings have been taken into consideration for planning and as a consequence they are not duplicated in the inputs being proposed for provision of comprehensive EmONC services. All the DHQ hospitals will be provided with funds for repair and maintenance. The equipment will be provided under warranty and service contract will be made with the supplier to perform at least one maintenance visit every four-six months. There has been a considerable investment in infrastructure for the hospitals through various government programs e. Piaman project is providing comprehensive EmONC equipment in 10 DHQ’s. 1.

Establishment Of Well Baby Clinics At All Health Facilities There are currently a number of different interventions for child health being implemented in the health system either through vertical programs or as part of the regular health system interventions. while incentive for the LHV aready posted will be provided from the MNCH program as well as renovation of the residence of the LHV at the BHUs. The THQ hospitals shall be provided with a package of equipment based on the need. IMNCI package of medicines. This number is essential to ensure 24hours a day 7days a week services. provision including availability of posts. IMNCI package of medicines. and gynecology ward. The concept of a well baby clinic is to bring together all the interventions at one place and thus allow the care  Strengthening the THQ Hospital The provision of comprehensive EmONC services in the hospital requires a functioning MNCH wing comprising minimally of a labor room. Most of the RHCs have provision for 20 beds for inpatients and have an Operation Theater and X-ray. Post natal visits. Basic newborn care kit. clean delivery kits. number of cases of complicated pregnancy referred to higher level. however the patchy nature of implementation of these activities does not allow full benefit from the resources being used. Equipment: Provision of equipment and supplies to meet requirement for basic EmONC package including Laboratory support and functioning of minor OT. a proposal to establish the newborn units shall be sent to the provincial MNCH Directorate/Cell. Medicines. Standard designs and specifications would be developed by an experts committee and followed in all districts and facilities. operation theaters and indoor facilities. The allocation will be decided along side the allocation for comprehensive EmONC facilities. in addition to a newborn intensive care unit. equipment and space at the health facility. ANC visits per pregnant woman. The proposed equipment and supplies for these units would be procured as required. Physical Infrastructure The provision of basic EmONC services in the hospital requires a functioning MNCH wing comprising minimally of a labor room. The minimum staffing requirement for comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care is outlined below. and basic equipment) Human Resource needs: There is a complement of staff posts sanctioned at the THQ and RHC. Provision Of Basic EmONC Services The package of basic EmONC services is designed for facilities with less human resource and infrastructure available but is serviced by an ambulance service and has the provision of transferring the patient to a higher level facility providing comprehensive EmONC services if required. In addition at the THQs a newborn intensive care unit. ORS distribution. one MO/WMO specifically for the unit in addition to at least two staff nurses to run the unit (included in the minimum staff requirement for 24/7 EmONC services). There will be a provision of providing performance based incentives at these BHUs. Staff requirement: The newborn unit will require minimally the presence of a pediatrician. All the facility staff handling deliveries would be trained in essential newborn care. labour ward. Physical infrastructure: Establishment of newborn care units would require necessary renovation and construction work.preferably near to the labour room and maternity ward. operation theater. This will be done simultaneously with the renovation/ construction under establishing 24/7 comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in the first year of the project. for this purpose there is already a complement of staff available at the RHC and this will be supplemented to enable service provision for 24 hours through existing posts in the health system. labour ward. clean delivery kits. BHUs are expected to be equipped through the regular health budget of the province to provide preventive obstetric care services and for this the primary ingredient is availability of LHV at the BHUs. Under this program it is proposed to establish Well baby Clinics in all health facilities (DHQ/THQ/RHC/BHU). Human Resource needs: The DHQ/THQ hospitals already have an existing structure that can be utilized to improve service . All the RHCs shall be strengthened to provide 24/7 Basic EmONC services. The proposal is to place an additional WMO and LHV at these health facilities to improve the availability of staff and allow for 24 hours coverage for Basic EmONC. Basic newborn care kit. Providing Preventive MNCH services at RHC/BHU It is Assumed that the BHU’S are being strenghtned under respective Health Sector Reforms in the provinces. Supplies (contraceptives. A list of equipment is provided on page 122. proportion of children immunized in the catchment area. child intensive care unit and children ward will be provided.All facilities providing comprehensive EmONC services will have functional newborn units. and basic equipment) will be provided to identified BHUs. The hospitals THQ/RHC shall be provided with funds for repair/ renovation of the health facility and not for new construction. which are already scaling up MNCH activities. operation theater. child intensive care unit and children ward. However. FP clients in catchments area. Staff would be given specialized training for the purpose and will be permanently deployed in the unit rather than on rotation (especially the nursing staff). Once the district has conducted a situation analysis of availability of staff. for emergency newborn care specialized units would be established with adequate staff and equipment. number of normal deliveries assisted. The provision of services will not require new civil works and there will be a need for some renovation at these RHCs. gynecology ward. These BHUs can be linked with the CMWs and LHWs to promote institution based delivery. however these are sub optimally staffed. the performance measures shall include the number of patients seen for Antenatal care. The provision of Basic EmONC services at these facilities will not entail deployment of additional staff and the existing posts can be utilized with the provision of an incentive from the program. and intensive care unit. medicines.

the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide concrete.3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles . This can be easily done at health facilities which have EPI stocks (cold chain facilities). This would decrease the missed opportunities presenting at the health facilities whereby children who are not immunized present at the health center and due to lack of vaccines are missed out. and billions more people will have the opportunity to benefit from the global economy. This would entail placement of some equipment and coordination of services.  Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women What are the Millennium Development Goals? Adopted by world leaders in the year 2000 and set to be achieved by 2015. The eight MDGs break down into 21 quantifiable targets that are measured by 60 indicators. The following list of trainings is proposed for this component: 1. common end – making sure that human development reaches everyone. 4. However in case of health facilities not having cold chain facilities or not designated as cold chain spots the first priority should be to arrange for the facility to become a storage facility through either provision of a refrigerator or ice liner.1 Under-five mortality rate 4. It is proposed that all LHVs be declared as vaccinators for static centers at their RHC/BHU and be provided with vaccines and syringes on a daily need basis. A well baby clinic can be established in the Female OPD at DHQ and THQ hospitals and in the WMO/LHV room at RHC and BHU. The MDGs also provide a framework for the entire international community to work together towards a  Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Targets Target 4a: Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five    4. If these goals are achieved. 5. everywhere. At the DHQ/THQ. the well baby clinics should have minimally the following services available in one room/section: information this will be achieved through an intensive training program of the health staff. The establishment and functioning of a well baby clinic will be mandatory for provision of incentives to the health care providers working at these facilities and the proportion of facilities having well baby clinics will be part of the assessment criteria for the District MNCH Cell. world poverty will be cut by half. numerical benchmarks for tackling extreme poverty in its many dimensions.  Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 6. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education 8. At the RHC/BHU these services can be offered through the WMO/LHV except for the EPI Plus activities.         EPI plus services CDD/ARI control activities Nutrition counseling Breast feeding counseling and support Malaria control activities Growth monitoring and counseling Deworming (provision of antihelmenthics) Food items through World Food Program (if available) 3.provider to offer the maximum range of interventions.2 Infant mortality rate 4. Attachments at Teaching Hospitals for staff providing EmONC Services Rotation of Postgraduate students at DHQ hospitals Management Trainings for Doctors (one year courses) Post Graduate Trainings for Nurses (BSc Nursing) Essential Newborn Care (ENC) Competency Based Training on Emergency Obstetric Care EmONC Services Integrated Management of Newborn & Child Hood Illness (IMNCI) Integrated Management of Pregnancy and Childbirth (IMPAC) 2. Trainings The delivery of comprehensive EmONC services will require that the staff at the health facilities be reoriented to provide services and be conversant with the latest  7. tens of millions of lives will be saved.

1 Maternal mortality ratio 5.4 Adolescent birth rate 5. by 2015.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate 5. we use our role as coordinator of the UN   5. Target 5b: Achieve.6 Unmet need for family planning    Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS. malaria and other diseases Indicators Target 5a: Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio   Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability  While UNDP is not a specialised expert agency in health. we use our role as coordinator of the UN development system to support the mandates of other agencies. attended by skilled health personnel development system to support the mandates of other agencies. universal access to reproductive health   Goal 5: Improve maternal health 5. While UNDP is not a specialised expert agency in health.2 Proportion of births Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development .5 Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits) 5.

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