Faculty of Coastal Engineering

BED, BANK & SHORE PROTECTION
Lecturer: PhamThu Huong

Chapter 2

Flow - Loads
(3 class hours)

Content
2.1 Introduction 2.2 Turbulence 2.3 Wall flow 2.4 Free flow 2.5 Combination of wall flow and free flow 2.6 Load reduction

2.1 Introduction forces Structure regular Flow Fluctuation Hour Seconds seconds tides short waves turbulence .

Velocity field in various situations averaged velocity values (ū = Q/A) Chezy's law for uniform flow: ū = C√ (Ri) .

Reynolds dye experiment .

L .mean fluid velocity.fluid density • Laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds numbers (Re<1000) • Turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds numbers (Re>2000) .kinematic fluid viscosity: ν = μ / ρ = 10-6 m2/s (water) ρ .Reynolds number vs .characteristic length (h: water depth) μ .(absolute) dynamic fluid viscosity ν .

2.2 Turbulence Turbulence motion: velocity and pressure show irregular fluctuations Turbulence variations: u = u + u′ v = v + v′ w = w + w′ p = p + p′ .

v and w. such as: 1 2 u ′2 v′2 k = u ′ + v′2 + w′2 .Turbulence variations: u = u + u ′ v = v + v′ w = w + w′ p = p + p′ Turbulence can then be expressed in various ways. rv = . relatively . rw = 2 u u ( ) w′2 u total kinetic energy in a turbulent flow fluctuation intensities of u. ru = .

.Velocity m * a = F ⎛ ∂u ∂u ∂u ⎞ ∂p ∂2u +μ 2 ρ ⎜ +u + w ⎟ =− ∂x ∂z ⎠ ∂x ∂z ⎝ ∂t inertia press. visc.

Reynolds stresses −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− mean values −−−−−−−−− turb. fluctuations . visc.Reynolds stresses: m* a = F ⎛ ∂ u′2 ∂ u ′w′ ⎞ ⎛ ∂u ∂u ∂u ⎞ ∂p ∂ 2u ρ⎜ +u +w + μ 2 −ρ⎜ + ⎟ ⎟=− ⎜ ∂x ⎟ ∂t ∂x ∂z ⎠ ∂x ∂z ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ inertia press.

Exchange of momentum due to turbulence .

expressed as a shear stress. the quadratic terms in equation become dominant and the relation between τ and u becomes quadratic Resistance in laminar and turbulent flow . is proportional with the flow velocity. In turbulent flow.Flow resistance: τ = c f ρ u2 In laminar flow the resistance.

2.3 Uniform wall flow .

Wall flow ' ' τ b = ρ g h I = c f ρ u (= ρ u*2 = ρ ub wb ) 2 ⇒ u= 1 cf ghI u* is the shear “velocity” u* = u g /C Chezy: u =C RI with: C = with: n = R g cf 1/ 6 1 Manning: u = R 2 / 3 I n Nikuradse-Colebrook roughness: cf g C= g κ ln 12 R 12 R ≈ 18 log kr kr ( kr is equivalent roughness ) .

a bed slope of 1/1000 and a roughness of 0.Example 20 m3/s of water flows in a 10 m wide channel with vertical banks.2 m. the Chezy-value. the velocity. the relative turbulence intensity and the relative turbulent shear stress? Assume h R =bh/(b+2h) C=18log(12R/kr) u= C√RI Stop Q* = Q Q* = bhu . What is the depth.

.non uniform flow The growth of a boundary layer when an infinitely thin plate is placed in a flow with u = u0.

Influence of pressure gradient on velocity profile Uniform accelerated Decelerated .

. Due to the increased velocity in the contraction. using the local mean velocity decreases.Turbulence in windtunnel contraction The total amount of turbulent kinetic energy. r. remains approximately constant. k. the relative turbulence.

4 Free flow 50 100 Z Flow.2. velocities and turbulence in mixing layer .

1 x u = um e 2 ⎛ ⎛R⎞ ⎞ ⎜ − 0.5 u0 x B 6.693 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝b⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ .3 u0 x D b = 0.1 x u = um e 2 ⎛ z ⎞ ⎜ − 0.693 ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝b⎠ ⎠ ⎝ Circular jets : um = b = 0.Flow and velocities in jets Plane jets : um = 3.

Turbulent fluctuations in circular jet .

instability of an axisymmetric jet .

effect of strong pressure gradients .

5 Combination of wall flow and Free flow Flow separation around blunt and round body .2.

Vertical constriction and expansion (sill) .

Vertical expansion (backward-facing step) .

Horizontal expansion .

Horizontal constriction and expansion (groyne) .

Detached bodies .

6 Load Reduction .2.

The end Chapter 2 .

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