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N A VI - E NGLISH D ICTIONARY v. 12.

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Compiled by Mark Miller (Mark) and Corey Scheideman (Tirea Aean) www.LearnNavi.org Last updated: December 9th , 2011

This is the denitive dictionary for Navi, the language created by Dr. Paul Frommer for James Camerons lm, Avatar. The words within come directly from, or are derived from, Dr. Frommer. Some notes: The traditional Navi transcription in use by Dr. Frommer has been maintained throughout: the IPA transcription is given as well. Compound non-inected words and loan words from English have been noted. Some lenited words have been included if in the ofcial corpus. Some inected words are included here, if their inclusion is deemed particularly useful. Note that adpositions are free if before their modier, but are bound as a sufx if situated after it. Bold indicates Navi word. Italics indicate English denition. Plain text indicates grammatical categorization: parentheses such as x represents an inx, where tpre-rst1ar2on are the positions: Included are periods in the IPA to mark syllable divisions, and mid-dots to show inx positions (for beginners), as in [ta.Ron]. Irregular inxes are marked with (ii). Transitivity is marked if known: words marked v. are either unattested or ambitransitive, or their transitivity is unable to be deduced. Known modal verbs and verbs known to use modal syntax are marked with vim, vtrm, or vm, depending upon transitivity according to the previous note. Knowledge of lenition and other sound changes will be assumed. Monosyllabic words are not noted for having a single primary stress in the IPA; if an enclitic as added, the root will be assumed to have primary stress. Note also that allomorphs, where specied, are subject only to personal preference, and not syntactic or morphological rules. There are several useful appendices that hold further information. Abbreviations: = morpheme boundary + = leniting morpheme boundary = inx morpheme adj. = adjective adp. = adposition adv. = adverb conj. = conjunction c.w. = compound word dem. = demonstrative intj. = interjection inter. = interrogative n. = noun nfp. = not for people num. = number ofp. = only for people part. = particle ph. = phrase pn. = pronoun prop. n. = proper noun v. = verb svin. = stative intransitive verb vtr. = transitive verb vin. = intransitive verb vm. = modal verb vim. = intransitive modal verb vtrm. = transitive modal verb

An English - Navi dictionary, and a Dictionary Categorized by Parts of Speech are provided, and may be helpful when searching fails. Translations are also available in Estonian, German, Hungarian, Portugus and Swedish. There are also other, unnished translations in other languages available.

Sources
We have sourced every word as best as we could. This sourcing is placed in a subscript after the IPA transcription and reveals the source of each word. For historical interest, this dictionary was originally based on an initial list of around 500 words provided by Dr. Frommer in early March, 2010. As the language has continued to develop, additional vocabulary has been added as it appears in communications from Dr. Frommer via his blog and emails. Dr. Frommer has solicited the LearnNavi.org community to help come up with new vocabulary via the Lexical Expansion Project. This project continues and many suggested words now appear in the cannon lexicon presented in this dictionary. Other sources are words modied by unproductive afxes that are included here if Dr. Frommer has used them and words that have a modied semantic meaning due to a productive afx. Order of canonicity, from most to least: PF = Dr. Paul Frommer M = The Movie JC = James Cameron G = the Avatar Games ASG = The Survival Guide PND = Pandorapedia.com

The Activists Survival Guide, a key early source of words, contained many words which are illegal - these are in the appendix. However, the plant names and songs are distinctly Frommerian, and are thus included in the dictionary proper. James Cameron himself made up many words, which Dr. Frommer then legalized. Dr. Frommer legalized some pronunciation errors made during lming: these, like osss, are now canon. Finally, Dr. Frommer has approved several constructions made by learners as good words, and so, occasionally there are extra sources. These sources are as follows: CP for CCH Pounder, LA for Laz Alonso, Prr for Prrton, RL for Richard Littauer, SW for Sigourney Weaver, ZS for Zo Saldana, CM for Carla Meyer and Skxawng. LN is for LearnNavi, specied when the original sourcing has been lost or is ambiguous. Regarding the IPA, there are some other possible interpretations. Open syllables always use a tense [u] pronunciation, but closed syllables can be either tense [u] or lax [U]. There is no > > rule for which to use in closed syllables. So tsun, for example, can be either [tsun] or [tsUn], but lu is always [lu], never [lU]. Also, an alternate method of transcribing the diphthongs [Ej], [aj], [Ew], and [aw], not used here (for Frommer prefers the former), is [EI], [aI], [EU], and [aU]. Concerning syllables, where not made clear by Dr. Frommer, the divisions have been split in accordance with the Maximum Onset Principle. Also note that stress and ejective markers can be difcult to differentiate. One example is the word atxkxe which is described as [at."kE]. Please note the subtle difference between the characters for ejective, and "for stress. This dictionary is a work in progress and is likely to have errors. Rutxe, if you note any, let us know here or by email to mark@learnnavi.org, and we will correct them. As for version number, well change the rst digit when there is a big change. Well update .0x0 when we make a signicant, but not large change. Finally, Well edit the .00x number when weve made tiny edits. Refer to the Changelog for explanation. 2

We would like to take this opportunity to recognize those who have been instrumental in the creation and maintenance of this dictionary. First, thanks to Dr. Paul Frommer for his monumental effort in creating this amazing language. Eternal thanks to Richard Littauer for originally creating and maintaining this document. Thanks also to Tuiq, who applied signicant time and skills to put this dictionary into an online database to help other translators and to make the process of updating this dictionary much easier. Finally, thanks to everyone in the community on the Learn Navi web site who are helping Navi to bloom! - Mark Miller (Mark), et alia

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P aaw: ["Pa.Paw] P F adj. a few, several (Used with countable nouns in the singular form) akra: ["Pak.ra] P F n. soil (fertile) aku: ["Pa.ku] P F vtr. remove, take away, take off ali: [Pa."liP.] P F n. collar / choker ampi: ["Pam.pi] P F vtr. touch ango: ["Pa.No] P F adj. soft (of a sound) are: ["Pa.RE] P F n. poncho, cape, shawl aw: [Paw] P F num. one awkx: [Pawk] P F n. cliff awlie: [Paw."li.E] P F adv. once (in the past) awlo: ["Paw.lo] P F adv. once awm: [Pawm] P F n. camp awnm: [P"aw.nIm] P F vtr. avoid (c.w. from awn remain and alm distance) awpo: ["Paw.po] P F pn. one individual awsiteng: [Paw.si."tEN] P F adv. together (c.w. from aw one and teng same, equal) awstengyem: [Paw.stEN."jEm] P F vtr. join two things together (ii) (c.w. from awsiteng together and yem put) awve: ["Paw.vE] P F adj. rst (ordinal) (derived from aw one) : [PP] P F intj. oops! nsyem: [Pn."sjEm] P F adj. complete rp: ["P.RIp^] P F vtr. move eal: ["PE.Pal] P F adj. worst efu: ["PE.fu] P F vtr. feel, sense, perceive eko: ["PE.ko] P F vtr. attack ekong: ["PE.koN] P F n. beat (rhythmic) em: [PEm] P F vtr. cook emyu: ["PEm.ju] P F n. cook, cooker (derived from em cook) en: [PEn] P F n. guess, informed guess, hunch, intuition engeng: ["PEN.EN] P F adj. level en si: ["PEn "si] P F vin. make an informed guess (derived from en guess) eoio: ["PE.o.i.o] P F adj. ceremonious etnaw: ["PEt.naw] P F n. shoulder evan: ["PE.van] P F n. boy (colloquial) (derived from evengan boy) eve: ["PE.vE] P F n. girl (colloquial) (derived from evenge girl) eveng: ["PE.vEN] P F n. child evengan: ["PE.vE.Nan] P F n. boy (derived from eveng child) evenge: ["PE.vE.NE] P F n. girl (derived from eveng child) evi: ["PE.vi] P F n. kid (affectionate form of eveng child) ewan: ["PE.wan] P F adj. young ewll: ["PE.wl] P F n. plant " eylan: ["PEj.lan] P F n. friend eyng: [PEjN] P F v. answer, respond eyt: [PEjt^] P F n. the symbol 8 (not the value eight) ia: ["PiP.a] P F vin. end, conclude ia: ["Pi.a] P F vin. lose oneself (spiritual sense) it: [Pit^] P F n. bit, a small amount itan: ["Pi.tan] JC,P F n. son ite: ["Pi.tE] JC,P F n. daughter > itetsyp: ["Pi.tE.tsjIp^] P F n. little daughter (term of endearment) (derived from ite daughter) awn: [PI."Pawn] P F vin. remain, stay heyu: [PI."hE.ju] P F n. spiral n: [PIn] P F vin. be busy, be occupied o: [PoP] P F adj. bringing fun, exciting ok: [Pok^] P F n. remembrance okrol: [Pok."Rol] P F n. history (ancient) (derived from ok remembrance and rol sing) okvur: [Pok."vuR] P F n. history (non-ancient) (derived from ok remembrance and vur story) om: [Pom] P F adj. violet, purple, magenta ompin: ["Pom.pin] P F n. violet, purple, magenta (derived from om purple) ong: [PoN] P F v. unfold, blossom ongokx: ["Po.Nok] P F vin. be born (c.w. from ong unfold and nokx give birth to) opin: ["Po.pin] P F n. color, colour ora: ["Po.Ra] P F n. lake otxang: [Po"taN] P F n. musical instrument (generic term) u: [Pu] P F n. thing (object, fact, abstraction) uo: ["Pu.o] P F pn. something upe: ["Pu.pE] P F inter. what (thing) (c.w. from u thing and pe inter. marker) upxare: [Pu."pa.RE] P F n. message

A a: [a] P F sbd. which, that a: [a] P F afx adjectival attribution and subordination marker akrrmaw: [a."kr.maw] P F conj. after (temporal) " allomorph of mawkrra (c.w. from krr time and maw after) akrrta: [a."kr.ta] P F conj. since (temporal) allo" morph of takrra (c.w. from krr time and ta from) alaksi: [a."lak.si] P F adj. ready alm: [a."lIm] P F adv. far away, at a distance (derived from lm far, be far) alo: ["a.lo] P F n. time, turn, instance, one of a number of repeated or recurring actions alu: ["a.lu] P F conj. that is, in other words (derived from a subordinator and lu be) (Used for adpositions) alunta: [a."lun.ta] P F conj. because, from the reason ama: [am."Pa] P F n. doubt apxa: [a."pa] P F adj. large asim: [a."sim] P F adv. nearby, at close range (derived from sim near, be near) atan: [a."tan] JC n. light ie: [."i.E] P F n. vision (spiritual) o: [".o] P F adp. below txle: [."t.lE] P F n. request E eampin: ["E.am.pin] P F n. blue, green (derived from ean blue, green) ean: ["E.an] P F adj. blue, green ekxan: [E."kan] P F n. barricade, obstruction eltu: ["El.tu] P F n. brain eltu lefngap: ["El.tu lE."fNap^] P rr n. computer (c.w. from eltu brain and lefngap metallic) eltur ttxen si: ["El.tuR tI."tEn si] P F vin. be interesting, intriguing (derived from eltu-r brain (dative) and ttxen awakeness) eltu si: ["El.tu si] P F vin. pay attention, quit goong off (derived from eltu brain) emrey: [Em."REj] P F vin. survive emzau: [Em."za.Pu] P F vtr. pass (a test), overcome (c.w. from zau come) eo: ["E.o] P F adp. before, in front of (place) etrp: ["Et.RIp^] auspicious
PF

atanvi: [a."tan.vi] P F n. ray (derived from atan light) atxkxe: [at."kE] P F n. land atxkxerel: [at."kE.REl] P F n. map (c.w. from atxkxe land and rel picture) au: ["a.u] JC n. drum (made of skin) au: [a."u] LA intj. exclamation of consternation aungia: [a."u.Ni.a] P F n. sign, omen awnga: [aw."Na] P F pn. we (derived from ayoeng we) ayfo: [aj."fo] or ["aj.fo] P F pn. they (derived from po he, she) aylaru: [aj."la.Ru] P F pn. to the others (contraction of ay+laheru) aynga: [aj."Na] P F pn. you all, you (pl.) (derived from nga you) ayoe: [aj."o.E] P F pn. we, us (exclusive) (derived from oe I) ayoeng: [aj."wEN] P F pn. we, us (inclusive) (derived from oe I) (ayoenga base for sufxes) ayu: [a."ju] P F n. things (derived from u thing) (never plural u)

txle si: [."t.lE "si] P F vin. request (with tsn clause for object) (derived from txle request)

adj. favourable, favorable,

eyawr: [E."jawR] P F adj. correct, right eyk: [Ejk^] JC,P F vtr. lead eyktan: ["Ejk.tan] eyk lead)
JC

n. leader (derived from

F fa: [fa] P F adp. with, by means of fahew: [fa."hEw] P F n. smell fay+: [faj] P F prex these (c.w. from f this and ay+ plural) fayluta: [faj."lu.ta] P F n. these words (contraction of fay+lut a, patientive case) fpa: ["f.pa] P F n. top fe: [fEP] P F adj. bad fekem: ["fE.kEm] P F n. accident (c.w. from fe bad and kem action) few: [fEw] P F adp. across, aiming for the opposite side of fewi: ["fE.wi] P F vtr. chase > fewtusok: ["fEw.tsok^] P F adj. opposite, on the opposite side (derived from few across) f: [fI] P F prex this fu: [fI."Pu] P F pn. this (thing) (derived from u thing) ffya: [fI."fja] P F adv. this way, like this (derived from fyao path) fkem: [fI."kEm] P F pn. this (action) (derived from kem action, deed) fpo: ["fI.po] P F pn. this one (person or thing) (derived from po he, she) ftrr: [fI."tr] P F adv. today (derived from trr day) "> ftsap: [fI."tsap] P F adv. each other (c.w. from po this one and tsapo that one) > ftseng(e): [fI."tsEN(E)] P F adv. here, this place (derived from tseng place) ftxan: [fI."tan] P F adv. so, to such an extent (derived from txan great, much) ftxon: [fI."ton] P F adv. tonight (derived from txon night) fkarut: ["fka.Rut^] P F v. peel fkay: [fkaj] P F adj. hateful fkew: [fkEw] P F adj. mighty fkeytok: ["fkEj.tok^] P F vin. exist (derived from kifkeyti tok be in the world) fkip: [fkip^] P F adp. up among fko: [fko] P F pn. one, they (singular usage) (unspecied agent) fkxake: ["fka.kE] P F v. itch fkxen: [fkEn] P F n. vegetable (food) fkxile: ["fki.lE] P F n. bib necklace : [fl] P F vin. succeed ew: [flEw] P F n. throat : [flI] P F adj. thin, nfp. 7 nutx: [flI."nut] P F n. thickness (c.w. from thin and nutx thick) fmal: [fmal] P F vtr. sustain fmawn: [fmawn] P F n. news, something to report fmawnta: [fmawnta] P F n. that news (contraction of fmawnit a) fmetok: ["fmE.tok^] P F v. test fmi: [fmi] P F vtrm. try, attempt (with the subjunctive) fmokx: [fmok] P F n. jealousy, envy fnan: [fnan] P F vtr. be good at fnawe: [fna."wEP] P F adj. cowardly fnawetu: [fna."wEP.tu] P F n. coward (derived from fnawe cowardly) fne: [fnE] P F prex kind, type (derived from fnel kind, type) fnel: [fnEl] P F n. kind, type fnepe: ["fnE.pE] P F inter. which kind allomorph of pefnel fngap: [fNap^] P F n. metal fnu: [fnu] P F v. quiet, be quiet fo: [fo] P F pn. they (derived from ay+ deleted plural leniting morpheme and po he/she) fpak: [fpak^] P F v. hold off, suspend action fpe: [fpEP^] P F vtr. send fpeio: [fpE."i.o] P F n. challenge (ceremonial) fpi+: [fpi] P F adp. for the sake of, for the benet of fpl: [fpIl] P F vtr. think fplfya: ["fpIl.fja] P F n. thought pattern, way of thinking (c.w. from fpl think and fyao path) fpom: [fpom] P F n. well-being, peace, happiness fpomtokx: [fpom."tok] P F n. health (physical) (c.w. from fpom well-being and tokx body) fpxkm: ["fp.kIm] P F v. enter frau: ["fRa.Pu] P F pn. everything (derived from u thing) frakrr: ["fRa.kr] P F adv. always, all the time (derived from" krr time) fralo: ["fRa.lo] P F adv. every time, every instance, each time (derived from alo time) frapo: ["fRa.po] P F pn. everyone (derived from po he/she) frato: ["fRa.to] P F part. superlative marker than all (behaves like an adp.) fratrr: [fRa."tr] P F adv. daily, every day (derived " from trr day)

> fratseng: ["fRa.tsEN] P F adv. everywhere (derived from tseng place) fratxon: [fRa."ton] P F adv. every night (derived from txon night) frawzo: [fRaw."zo] P F intj. all is well, everything is ne or OK (derived from frau everything and zo be well) frp: [fRIp^] P F vtr. bite frrfen: ["fr.fEn] P F vtr. visit " frrtu: ["fr.tu] P F n. guest, visitor " ftang: [ftaN] P F vim. stop ftawnemkrr: [ftaw."nEm.kr] P F n. past (c.w. " from ftawnem pass by (passive participle form) and krr time) ftr: [ftR] P F adj. left (not right) fte: [ftE] P F conj. so that, in order to (with subjunctive verb in dependant clause) fteke: ["ftE.kE] P F conj. so that not, lest (c.w. from fte so that and ke not) (with subjunctive verb in dependant clause) ftem: [ftEm] P F vtr. pass by (something) ftia: [fti."a] P F vtr. study ftu: [ftu] P F adp. from (direction) ftue: ["ftu.E] P F adj. easy, simple ftxavang: ["fta.vaN] P F adj. passionate ftxey: [ftEj] P F vtr. choose ftxey: [ftEj] P F conj. whether, or ftx: [ftI] P F n. tongue ftxlor: [ftI."loR] P F adj. delicious, good tasting (c.w. from ftx tongue and lor beautiful) H ha: [ha] P F adv. so, in that case hangir: [haP."NiR] P F n. afternoon hahaw: ["ha.haw] P F vin. sleep ham: [ham] P F adj. previous hamalo: [ha."ma.lo] P F adv. last time (c.w. from ham previous and alo time) hangham: ["haN.ham] P F vin. laugh hapx: [ha."pI] P F n. part hapxtu: [ha."pI.tu] P F n. member (derived from hapx part) hasey: [ha."sEj] P F adj. done, nished hasey si: [ha."sEj "si] P F vin. accomplish, bring to a conclusion (derived from hasey done, nished) hawl: [hawl] P F v. prepare hawng: [hawN] P F n. overabundance 8

ftxv: [ftI."vP] P F adj. bad tasting (c.w. from ftx tongue and v noisome) ftxoz: [fto."z] P F n. celebration, happy occasion ftxoz si: [fto."z si] P F v. celebrate (derived from ftxoz celebration) fu: [fu] P F conj. or fuke: [fu."kE] P F conj. or not (c.w. from fu or and ke not) fula: ["fu.la] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from ful this (agentive) and a subordinator) furia: ["fu.Ri.a] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from furi this (topical) and a subordinator) futa: ["fu.ta] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from fu-t this (patientive) and a subordinator) fwa: [fwa] P F pn., sbd. that (subordinate clause marker) (c.w. from fu this (subjective) and a subordinator) fwefwi: ["fwE.fwi] P F vin. whistle fwel: [fwEl] P F adj. broken fwew: [fwEw] P F vtr. look for, seek, search fyao: ["fja.Po] P F n. path, way, manner fyape: ["fja.pE] P F inter. how allomorph of pefya fyawntxu: [fja.wIn."tu] P F vin. guide (with dative of thing guided) (c.w. from fyao path and wntxu show) fyeyn: [fjEjn] P F adj. ripe, mature, adult fyeyntu: ["fjEjn.tu] P F n. adult person (derived from fyeyn ripe, mature)

hawngkrr: ["hawN.kr] P F adv. late (c.w. from " hawng overabundance and krr time) > hawntsyokx: [hawn."tsjok] P F n. glove (c.w. from hawnu protect and tsyokx hand) hawnu: ["haw.nu] P F vtr. protect, shelter hawnven: [hawn."vEn] P F n. shoe (c.w. from hawnu protect and venu foot) hawre: [haw."REP] P F n. hat (c.w. from hawnu protect and reo head) > hawtsyp: ["haw.tsjIp^] P F n. nap (derived from hahaw sleep) hay: [haj] P F adj. next hayalo: [ha."ja.lo] P F adv. next time (c.w. from hay next and alo time) hek: [hEk^] P F vin. be curious, odd, strange, unexpected

hermeyp: [hER."mEjp^] P F n. snow urry (derived from herw snow and meyp weak) hertxayo: ["hER.ta.jo] P F n. snow eld (derived from herw snow and txayo eld) herw: ["hER.wI] P F n. snow herwva: ["hER.wI.va] P F n. snowake (derived from herw snow and lva ake) hewne: ["hEw.nE] P F adj. soft (of an object) heyn: [hEjn] P F vin. sit hiyk: ["hi.jIk^] P F adj. funny, strange hang: ["hI.PaN] P F n. insect (c.w. from hi small and ioang animal) hi: ["hI.Pi] P F adj. small, little (in size) hkrr: ["hI.kr] P F n. second, very short time (c.w. from hi" little, small and krr time) hm: [hIm] P F adj. small (in quantity) hmpx: [hIm."pI] P F n. minority, least, small part hmtxampe: [hIm."tam.pE] P F inter. how much allomorph of pmtxan I ien: ["iP.En] JC n. stringed instrument

hmtxan: [hIm."tan] P F n. amount (c.w. from hm small and txan much) hno: [hI."no] P F adj. ne, detailed, precise, intricate (of things) htxoa: [hI."to.a] P F intj. excuse me (derived from hi small and txoa forgiveness) hol: [hol] P F adj. few holpxay: [hol."paj] P F n. number (c.w. from hol few and pxay many) holpxaype: [hol."paj.pE] P F inter. how many (c.w. from holpxay number and pe how) hrrap: ["hr.ap^] P F n. danger " hu: [hu] P F adp. with (accompaniment) hufwa: [hu."fwa] P F conj. although hufwe: [hu."fwE] P F n. wind > hufwetsyp: [hu."fwE.tsjIp^] P F n. zephyr (derived from hufwe wind) > hultstxem: [hul."tstEm] P F vtr. hinder hum: [hum] P F vin. leave, depart

ioi: [i."o.i] P F n. adornment, or ceremonial apparel (item of) inan: [i."nan] P F vtr. read (e.g. the forest), gain ioi si: [i."o.i si] P F vin. adorn (derived from ioi knowledge from sensory input (stress moves adornment) to rst syllable with inxation) irayo: [i."Ra.jo] JC n., intj. thank you, thanks io: ["i.o] P F adp. above irayo si: [i."Ra.jo "si] P F vin. thank, give thanks ioang: [i."o.aN] P F n. animal, beast (derived from irayo thanks)

: [I:] P F ller um, er l+: ["I.l] or [I."l] P F adp. by, via, following ley: [I."lEj] LA intj. war cry K ka: [ka] P F adp. across, covering thoroughly kakrel: [kak."REl] P F adj. blind (derived from rel image, picture) kalin: [ka."lin] P F adj. sweet kaltx: [kal."tI] P F intj. hello kaltx si: [kal."tI "si] P F vin. say hello, greet (derived from kaltx hello) kam: [kam] P F adp. ago kame: ["ka.mE] P F vtr. see, see into, understand, know (spiritual sense) kan: [kan] P F vtrm. aim 9 kann: ["kan.PIn] P F vtr. focus on, specialize in, be particularly interested in (derived from n be busy) kanfpl: ["kan.fpIl] P F vin. concentrate, focus ones attention (c.w. from kan aim and fpl think) kangay: [ka."Naj] P F adj. valid (cognate with ngay true) kanu: ["ka.nu] P F adj. smart, intelligent (for a person) kar: [kaR] P F vtr. teach lva: ["Il.va] P F n. ake, drop, chip pxa: [I."pa] RL,P F n. fern

karyu: ["kaR.ju] P F n. teacher (derived from kar teach) kato: ["ka.to] P F n. rhythm kavuk: [ka."vuk^] P F n. treachery kavuk si: [ka."vuk^ "si] P F vin. betray (derived from kavuk treachery) kawit: [kaw."Pit^] P F adv. at all, not at all (see ke...kawit not...at all) (c.w. from ke aw not one and it bit) kawkrr: ["kaw.kr] P F adv. never (c.w. from ke " aw not one and krr time) kawng: [kawN] P F adj. bad, evil kawnglan: ["kawN.lan] P F adj. malicious, bad hearted (c.w. from kawng bad, evil and txelan heart) kawngsar: ["kawN.saR] P F vtr. exploit > kawtseng: ["kaw.tsEN] P F adv. nowhere (c.w. from ke aw not one and tseng place) kawtu: ["kaw.tu] P F pn. no-one (c.w. from ke aw not one and tute person) kay: [kaj] P F adp. from now (in the future) kaym: [kajm] P F n. evening (before twilight), late afternoon k: [k] P F vin. go krp: [k."P.RIp^] P F vtr. push (c.w. from k go and rp move) kmakto: [k."mak.to] P F v. ride out (c.w. from k go and makto ride) kpx: [k."pI] P F n. rear (part or section) (c.w. from k go and hapx part) > ksatseng: [k."sa.tsEN] P F adv. out there (c.w. from k go and tseng place) kteng: ["k.tEN] P F vin. spend time with, hang out with ke: [kE] P F adv. not keaw: [kE."Paw] P F adj. divided, torn apart, strife-ridden (c.w. from ke not and aw one) keu: ["kE.Pu] P F pn., adv. not a thing, nothing at all, not at all (c.w. from ke not and u thing) kea: ["kE.a] P F adj. no (before a noun) keftxo: [kE."fto] P F adj., intj. unhappy, upset, How sad! kefyak: [kE."fjak^] P F,P rr part. isnt it?, right? (c.w. from kefya not the way and srak question marker) kehe: ["kE.hE] P F part., intj. no kekem: ["kE.kEm] P F pn., adv. no action or activity (c.w. from ke not and kem activity)

kelfpomtokx: [kEl."fpom.tok] P F adj. unhealthy (c.w. from ke not and fpomtokx health) kelku: ["kEl.ku] P F n. home, house kelku si: ["kEl.ku "si] P F vin. live, dwell (derived from kelku home) > keltsun: [kEl."tsun] P F adj. impossible (c.w. from ke not and tsun be able) kem: [kEm] P F n. thing (action), deed kemlu: ["kEm.lI.Pu] P F n. verb (c.w. from kem action and lu word) kemluvi: ["kEm.lI.Pu.vi] P F n. inx (derived from kemlu verb) kempe: ["kEm.pE] P F inter. what (action) allomorph of pehem (c.w. from kem action, deed) kem si: ["kEm "si] P F vin. do (derived from kem action, deed) keng: [kEN] P F adv. even, so much as kenong: ["kE.noN] or ["kE.noN] P F v. model, represent, exemplify (ii) (c.w. from ke not and nong follow) kerusey: ["kE.Ru.sEj] P F adj. dead (c.w. from ke not and rusey alive (participle inx)) keteng: ["kE.tEN] P F adj. different (c.w. from ke not and teng same, equal) > > ketsuktswa: [kE.tsuk."tswaP^] P F adj. unforgettable (derived from tswa forget) ketuwong: ["kE.tu.woN] P F n. alien kew: [kEw] P F num. zero kewong: ["kE.woN] P F adj. alien key: [kEj] P F n. face keyawr: [kE."jawR] P F adj. incorrect, not right (c.w. from ke not and eyawr correct) keyeung: [kE."jE.PuN] P F n. insanity keyrel: ["kEy.REl] n. facial expression (c.w. from key face and rel image) ki: [ki] P F conj. but rather, but instead kifkey: [ki."fkEj] P F n. world (physical, solid) kilvan: [kil."van] P F n. river kin: [kin] P F vtr. need kinam: [ki."nam] P F n. leg kinamtil: [ki."nam.til] P F n. knee (c.w. from kinam leg and til joint) kin: ["ki.n] P F num. seven kintrr: ["kin.tr] P F n. week (derived from kin " seven and trr day) kintrram: ["kin.tram] P F n. last week (derived " from kintrr week)

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kintrray: ["kin.traj] P F n. next week (derived " from kintrr week) kip: [kip^] P F adp. among kive: ["ki.vE] P F adj. seventh (ordinal) (derived from kin seven) kong: [kI."PoN] P F adj. slow km: [kIm] P F v. spin kmar: [kI."mar] P F adj. in season (of foods, vegetable or animal) kng: [kIN] P F n. thread ktee: [kI.tE."PE] P F n. service ktee si: [kI.tE."PE "si] P F vin. serve (derived from ktee service) kllfro: [kl."fRoP] P F vin. be responsible " kllk: [kl."k] P F v. descend (c.w. from k go) kllkulat:" [kl."ku.lat^] P F vtr. dig up " kllkxem: [kl."kEm] P F v. stand " kllpa: ["kl.pa] P F n. bottom " [kl."pIl.tu] kllpxltu: P F n. territory " kllte: ["kl.tE] P F n. ground > " klltseng: ["kl.tsEN] P F n. position (derived from " tseng place) kllvawm: ["kl.vawm] P F adj. brown (c.w. from " kllte ground and vawm dark) Kx kxa: [ka] P F n. mouth kxam: [kam] P F n. middle, midpoint kxaml: ["kam.l] P F adp. through (via the middle of) (derived from kxam middle) kxamtrr: ["kam.tr] P F n. mid-day, noon (c.w. " from kxam middle and trr day) kxamtrrmaw: ["kam.tr.maw] P F n. the time " immediately after noon, early afternoon (c.w. from kxamtrr noon and maw after) > kxamtseng: ["kam.tsEN] P F n. center, place in the middle (c.w. from kxam middle and tseng place) kxamtxomaw: ["kam.to.maw] P F n. after midnight (c.w. from kxamtxon midnight and maw after) kxamtxon: ["kam.ton] P F n. midnight (c.w. from kxam middle and txon night)

ko: [ko] P F part. solicit agreement koak: ["ko.ak^] P F adj. old, aged (for living things) koaktan: ["ko.ak.tan] P F n. old man (derived from koak old, aged) koakte: ["ko.ak.tE] P F n. old woman (derived from koak old, aged) koaktu: ["ko.ak.tu] P F n. old person (derived from koak old, aged) kop: [kop^] P F adv. too, also koren: [ko."REn] P F n. rule, guideline kosman: [ko."sman] P F adj. wonderful, terric, fantastic krr: [kr] P F n. time " krrnekx: [kr."nEk] P F v. take/consume time (ii) " (c.w. from krr time and nekx consume) krrpe: ["kr.pE] P F inter. when allomorph of pe" hrr (c.w. from krr time) kuup: ["ku.Pup^] P F adj. heavy (physical weight) kulat: ["ku.lat] P F vtr. reveal, bring forth, uncover (literally and metaphorically) kurakx: [ku."Rak] P F vtr. drive out

kxangangang: ["kaN.aN.aN] P F intj. boom (onomatopoeic) kxan: ["ka.nI] P F adj. forbidden kxawm: [kawm] P F adv. perhaps, maybe kxayl: [kajl] P F adj. high kxener: ["kE.nER] P F n. smoke > kxetse: ["kE.tsE] P F n. tail kxeyey: ["kE.jEj] P F n. error, mistake kxitx: [kit] P F n. death kxll: [kl] P F n. charge, running attack kxll si: "["kl "si] P F vin. charge (derived from " kxll charge) kxu: [ku] P F n. harm kxuke: ["ku.kE] P F adj. safe (c.w. from kxu harm and ke not) kxukx: [kuk] P F vtr. swallow kxutu: ["ku.tu] P F n. enemy (derived from kxu harm)

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L lahe: ["la.hE] P F adj. other, else lam: [lam] P F vin. seem, appear lapo: ["la.po] P F pn. other one (person or thing) (c.w. from lahe other, else and po he, she) laro: ["la.Ro] P F adj. clean latem: ["la.tEm] P F vin. change (leykatem vtr. change) > latsi: [la."tsi] LA v. keep up with someone law: [law] P F adj. clear, certain lawk: [lawk^] P F vtr. discourse on, talk about, say something concerning lawr: [lawr] P F n. melody law si: ["law "si] P F vin. make clear (derived from law clear) layompin: [la."jom.pin] P F n. black (derived from layon black) layon: [la."jon] P F adj. black le: [lE] P F adjective deriving afx leaw: [lE."Paw] P F adj. only leen: [lE."PEn] P F adj. speculative, intuitive (of an action, not a person) (derived from en guess) lefkrr: [lE.f"kr] P F adj. current (derived from " fkrr this time) lefngap: [lE."fNap^] P F adj. metallic (derived from fngap metal) lefpom: [lE."fpom] P F adj. happy, peaceful, joyous (not for people), pleasant (derived from fpom happiness, peace) lefpomtokx: [lE."fpom.tok] P F adj. healthy (derived from fpomtokx health) lehawng: [lE."hawN] P F adj. excessive (derived from hawng overabundance) lehawngkrr: [lE."hawN.kr] P F adj. late (derived from hawngkrr late) " lehrrap: [lE."hr.ap^] P F adj. dangerous (derived from hrrap" danger) lek: [lEk^] P F v. heed, obey lekin: [lE."kin] P F adj. necessary (derived from kin need) lekoren: [lE.ko."REn] P F adj. lawlike (derived from koren rule) lekyeung: [lEk."jE.PuN] P F adj. insane, crazy (derived from keyeung insanity) lelfya: [lE."lIP.fja] P F adj. concerning language, regarding language (derived from lfya language) lemrey: [lEm."REj] P F adj. surviving (e.g. of entities from a group some of whom have died) (derived from emrey survive) lemweypey: [lEm."wEj.pEj] P F adj. patient (derived from maweypey be patient) len: [lEn] P F vin. happen, occur leNavi: [lE."naP.vi] P F adj. having to do with the Navi, the People (derived from Navi the People) leno: [lE."no] P F adj. thorough, detail-orientated (of a person) lenomum: [lE."no.mum] P F adj. curious (derived from newomum be curious) lepwopx: [lEp."wop] P F adj. cloudy (derived from pwopx cloud) lerk: [lE."RIk^] P F adj. leafy (derived from rk leaf ) leronsrel: [lE."Ron.sREl] P F adj. imaginary (derived from ronsrelngop imagine) lertu: ["lER.tu] P F n. colleague lesar: [lE."saR] P F adj. useful (derived from sar use) leskxir: [le"skiR] P F adj. wounded (derived from skxir wound) lesngi: [lE."sN.Pi] P F adj. original, existing at or from the start, rst in a series (derived from sngi begin) letam: [lE."tam] P F adj. sufcient (derived from tam sufce) letokx: [lE."tok] P F adj. bodily, physical (derived from tokx body) letrr: [lE."tr] RL adj. daily (derived from trr day) " letrrtrr: [lE."tr.tr] P F adj. ordinary (derived " from trr day) " > letsim: [lE."tsim] P F adj. original, unique, not derived from another source (derived from tsim source) > letsranten: [lE."tsRan.tEn] P F adj. important (derived from tsranten matter) > letsunslu: [lE."tsun.slu] P F adj. possible (derived from tsunslu may, be possible) letwan: [lEt."wan] P F adj. dodgy, sneaky (of a person) (derived from tute person and wan hide) letxi: [lE."ti] P F adj. hurried, frenzied (derived from txi hurry)

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letxiluke: [lE."ti.lu.kE] P F adj. unhurried (c.w. from txi hurry and luke without) lew: [lEw] P F n. cover, lid lewte: [lE.w."tE] P F adj. disagreeable, argumentative (of an agent) (derived from wte argue) lew si: ["lEw "si] P F vin. cover (derived from lew cover) leyapay: [lE."ja.paj] P F adj. foggy, misty (derived from yapay fog) leyekrr: [lE."jEP.kr] P F adj. early (derived from yekrr early) " leyn: [lEjn] P F vtr. repeat, do again li: [li] P F adv. already lisre+: ["li.sRE] P F adp. by, before, up to but not after (c.w. from li already and sre+ before) lfya: ["lIP.fja] P F n. language (c.w. from lu word and fyao way) lfyaolo: ["lIP.fja.o."loP] P F n. language group, language users (c.w. from lfya language and olo clan) lfyavi: ["lIP.fja.vi] P F n. expression, bit of language (derived from lfya language) lu: ["lI.Pu] P F n. word lupam: ["lI.Pu.pam] P F n. accent, pronunciation (c.w. from lu word and pam sound) M ma: [ma] P F part. O (vocative marker) makto: ["mak.to] P F vtr. ride masat: ["ma.sat] P F n. breastplate (armor) maw: [maw] P F adp. after (time) mawey: [ma."wEj] CM adj. calm maweypey: [ma."wEj.pEj] P F svin. be patient (ii) (c.w. from mawey calm and pey wait) mawkrr: ["maw.kr] P F adv. after, afterwards " (c.w. from maw after and krr time) mawkrra: [maw."kr.a] P F conj. after (temporal) " allomorph of akrrmaw (c.w. from krr time and maw after) mawl: [mawl] P F n. half may: [majP] P F vtrm. try, sample, evaluate, check out, test-drive mkxu: [m."ku] P F vtr. interrupt, throw out of harmonious balance (derived from kxu harm) meem: [mE."PEm] P F adj. harmonious

lupe: [lI."Pu.pE] P F inter. what (word, utterance) allomorph of pelu lm: [lIm] P F svin. far, be far lng: [lIN] P F vin. oat in the air, hover lok: [lok^] P F v. approach lok: [lok^] P F adp. close to lom: [lom] P F adj. missing, missed (as an absent person who is longed for) lomtu: ["lom.tu] P F n. missed person (derived from lom missing, missed) lonu: [lo."nu] P F vtr. release, let go lor: [loR] P F adj. beautiful, pleasant to the senses (for things or parts of a person) lrrtok: ["lr.tok^] P F n. smile lrrtok si:" ["lr.tok^ "si] P F vin. smile (derived " from lrrtok smile) lu: [lu] P F vin., svin. be, am, is, are (predicative copula, existential verb) (signies possession with dative of possessor) luke: ["lu.kE] P F adp. without lukpen: [luk."pEn] P F adj. without clothing, naked (c.w. from luke without and pen clothing (plural)) lumpe: ["lum.pE] P F inter. why allomorph of pelun lun: [lun] P F n. reason

mefo: ["mE.fo] P F pn. they, those two (derived from me+ dual marker and po he/she) mekre: ["mEk.RE] P F n. supplies melo: ["mE.lo] P F adv. twice (derived from me+ dual marker and alo time) menari: [mE."na.Ri] P F n. eyes (two) (derived from me+ dual and nari eye) meoauniaea: [ mE.o.a.u.ni.a."E.a] P F n. harmony, living at one with nature meuia: [mE."u.i.a] P F n. honor (honour) meuianga: [mE."u.i.a.NaP^] P F adj. honourable, honorably (derived from meuia honour, honor and nga contain) meyam: [mE."yam] P F vtr. hug, embrace, hold in ones arms meyp: [mEjp^] P F adj. weak mi: [mi] P F adv. yet, still, as before > miktsang: ["mik.tsaN] P F n. earring (c.w. from mikyun ear and tsang piercing) mikyun: ["mik.jun] JC n. ear

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mip: [mip^] P F adj. new m+: [mI] P F adp. in, on mfa: ["mI.fa] or [mI."fa] P F n., adv. inside mftxele: [mI."ftE.lE] P F adv. in this regard, related to this matter mkam: [mI."kam] P F adp. between mn: [mIn] P F vin. turn, spin mnyu: ["mIn.ju] P F n. turner (derived from mn turn) mso: [mI."so] P F adv. away (position) (derived from m in) mllan: [ml."Pan] P F vtr. accept " mllte: [ml."tE] P F v. agree " moe: ["mo.E] P F pn. we two, us two (exclusive) (derived from me+ dual and oe I) mok: [mok^] P F vtr. suggest mokri: ["mok.Ri] P F n. voice mowan: [mo."wan] P F adj. pleasing, enjoyable (physically, sexually) mrr: [mr] P F num. ve " mrrtrr: ["mr.tr] P F n. ve day work week (deri" " ved from mrr ve and trr day) mrrve: ["mr.vE] P F adj. fth (ordinal) (derived " from mrr ve) N na: [na] P F adp. like, as narng: ["naP.RIN] P F n. forest naer: [na."ER] P F n. drink, something able to be drunk nafu: [na.fI."Pu] P F adj. such (c.w. from na as and fu this) nang: [naN] P F part. surprise, exclamation, encouragement (mirative) nari: ["na.Ri] P F n. eye nari si: ["na.Ri si] P F vin. watch out, be careful (derived from nari eye) natkenong: [nat."kE.noN] P F conj. for example, as an example (c.w. from na like, as and tkenong example) nawm: [nawm] P F adj. great, noble nawmtu: ["nawm.tu] P F n. great person (derived from nawm great) nayn: [najn] P F n. the symbol 9 (not the value nine) nk: [nk^] P F vtr. drink ne: [nE] P F adp. to, towards (direction)

mui: [mu."i.] P F adj. proper, fair, right, justied muni: [mun."Pi] P F v. cut mune: ["mu.nE] P F num. two munge: ["mu.NE] P F vtr. take, bring mungwrr: [muN."wr] P F adp. except muntrr: ["mun.tr] P F" n. weekend (derived from " mune two and trr day) muntrram: ["mun.tr.am] P F n. last weekend (de" rived from muntrr weekend) muntrray: ["mun.tr.aj] P F n. next weekend (de" rived from muntrr weekend) muntxa: [mun."ta] P F adj. mated, married muntxa si: [mun."ta "si] P F vin. mate (with someone), marry (derived from muntxa mated) muntxatan: [mun."ta.tan] P F n. husband, male spouse (derived from muntxatu spouse) muntxate: [mun."ta.tE] P F n. wife, female spouse (derived from muntxatu spouse) muntxatu: [mun."ta.tu] P F n. spouse (derived from muntxa mated) muve: ["mu.vE] P F adj. second (ordinal) (derived from mune two) muwntxu: [mu.wIn."tu] P F vtr. introduce, present (derived from wntxu show)

nem: [nE."PIm] P F adv. back (direction) nef: [nE."f] P F adv. up (direction) nekll: [nE."kl] P F adv. down (direction) " nekx: [nEk] P F vtr. burn, consume nemfa: ["nEm.fa] P F adp. into, inside (c.w. from ne towards and mfa inside) nemrey: [nEm."REj] P F adv.,intj. in a fashion as if ones life were at stake (derived from emrey survive) neto: [nE."to] P F adv. away (direction) (derived from ne to) netrp: ["nEt.RIp^] P F adv. luckily, happily new: [nEw] P F vtrm. want newomum: [nEw."o.mum] P F vin. be curious, want to know (c.w. from new want and omum know) neympin: ["nEjm.pin] P F n. light color (derived from neyn light, shade of white) neyn: [nEjn] P F adj. light colors, shades of white ni: [ni."] P F vtr. grab nikre: ["nik.RE] P F n. hair

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nikroi: [nik."Ro.i] P F n. hair adornment (c.w. from nikre hair and ioi adornment) nim: [nim] P F adj. timid, shy ninan: ["ni.nan] P F adv. by reading (derived from inan read) nitram: [nit."Ram] P F adj. happy (of people) n: [nI] P F adverbial deriving afx naw: [nI."Paw] P F adv. only (derived from aw one) nawtu: [nI."Paw.tu] P F adv. alone (as one person) (c.w. from aw one and tute person) nawve: [nI."Paw.vE] P F adv. rst (derived from awve rst) nen: [nI."PEn] P F adv. making an informed guess, acting on intuition (derived from en guess) neng: [nI."PEN] P F adv. equally, on the same level (derived from engeng level) neoio: [nI."PE.o.i.o] P F adv. ceremoniously (derived from eoio ceremonious) neveng: [nI."PE.vEN] P F adv. like a child, immaturely (derived from eveng child) neyng: [nI."PEjN] P F adv. back, in response, in answer (derived from eyng answer) nia: [nI."PiP.a] P F adv. nally, at long last (derived from ia end) nit: [nI."Pit^] P F adv. a bit, a small amount (abstract) (derived from it bit, a small amount) no: [nI."PoP] P F adv. in a manner which is enjoyable, enjoyably (derived from o exciting) nul: [nI."Pul] P F adv. more nawnomum: [nI.aw."no.mum] P F adv. as you know, as is known (casual speech [naw."no.mum]) (derived from awn passive participle inx and omum know) nayoeng: [nI.aj."wEN] P F adv. like us, as we do (casual speech [naj."wEN]) (derived from ayoeng us (inclusive)) nfe: [nI."fEP] P F adv. badly (derived from fe bad) nfkrr: [nI."fkr] P F adv. lately, currently (deri" ved from fkrr this time) nfmokx: [nI."fmok] P F adv. jealously, enviously (derived from fmokx jealousy) nfrakrr: [nI."fra.kr] P F adv. as always (derived " from frakrr always) nftue: [nI."ftu.E] P F adv. easily (derived from ftue easy)

nftxan: [nI."ftan] P F adv. so, to such an extent (derived from ftxan so, to such an extent) nftxavang: [nI."fta.vaN] P F adv. passionately, with all heart (derived from ftxavang passionate) nfwefwi: [nI."fwE.fwi] P F adv. by whistling, in a whistling manner (derived from fwefwi whistle) nfyao: [nI."fja.Po] P F adv. in a manner (derived from fyao way) nfyeyntu: [nI."fjEjn.tu] P F adv. like an adult, maturely (derived from fyeyntu adult) nhawng: [nI."hawN] P F adv. too, excessively (derived from hawng overabundance) nhay: [nI."haj] P rr adv. next (derived from hay next) nhek: [nI."hEk^] P F adv. strangely, oddly (derived from hek be curious, odd) (sentence, not manner, adverbial) nhol: [nI."hol] P F adv. few, not many (derived from hol few) nkong: [nIk."PoN] P F adv. slowly (derived from kong slow) nkanu: [nI."ka.nu] P F adv. intelligently, in a smart way (derived from kanu smart) nkeftxo: [nI.kE."fto] P F adv. unfortunately, sadly (derived from keftxo unhappy) nkmar: [nIk."mar] P F adv. in the right season, opportunely (derived from kmar in season) nksman: [nIk."sman] P F adv. wonderfully (derived from kosman wonderful) nlam: [nI."lam] P F adv. apparently (derived from lam seem) nlaw: [nI."law] P F adv. clearly (derived from law clear) nli: [nI."li] P F adv. in advance (derived from li already) nlkeftang: [nIl.kE."ftaN] P F adv. continuously, incessantly, without stopping (c.w. from luke without and ftang stop) > nltsan: [nIl."tsan] P F adv. well (derived from sltsan good) nlun: [nI."lun] P F adv. of course, logically, following common sense nmun: [nI."mun] P F adv. again nmwey: [nIm."wEj] P F adv. calmly, peacefully (derived from mawey calm) nmweypey: [nIm."wEj.pEj] P F adv. patiently (derived from maweypey be patient)

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nn: [nIn] P F vtr. look at nNavi: [nI."naP.vi] P F adv. like the Navi, Navi-ly (derived from Navi the People) nnk: [nI."nk^] P F adv. by drinking, in a liquid way (derived from nk drink) nngay: [nI."Naj] P F adv. truly (derived from ngay true) nngong: [nI."NoN] P F adv. lethargically, lazily (derived from ngong lazy) nno: [nI."no] P F adv. in detail, expansively, thoroughly nprrte: [nI."pr.tEP] P F adv. pleasurably, wel" come (assumed zolau), gladly, with pleasure (derived from prrte pleasurable) npxay: [nI."paj] P F adv. many, manily (derived from pxay many) npxi: [nI."pi] P F adv. especially, pointedly, unambiguously (derived from pxi sharp) npxim: [nI."pim] P F adv. erectly, rightly (derived from pxim erect, upright) nrangal: [nI."Ra.Nal] P F adv. wish (contrary to fact, with perfect or imperfective subjunctive) (derived from rangal wish) nronsrel: [nI."Ron.sREl] P F adv. in imagination, by imagination (derived from ronsrelngop imagine) nslele: [nI."slE.lE] P F adv. by swimming (derived from slele swim) nsngi: [nI."sN.Pi] P F adv. originally, at rst (derived from sngi begin) nsngum: [nI."sNum] P F adv. worryingly, fretfully (derived from sngum worry) nsteng: [nI."stEN] P F adv. similarly (derived from steng similar) nsti: [nI."sti] P F adv. angrily (derived from sti be angry) nsung: [nI."suN] P F adv. besides, additionally, furthermore (derived from sung add) nswey: [nI."swEj] P F adv. optimally, best (derived from swey best) nsyayvi: [nI."sjaj.vi] P F adv. by chance or coincidence (derived from syayvi luck) nsyen: [nI."sjEn] P F adv. lastly (derived from syen last) ntam: [nI."tam] P F adv. enough (after an adjective) (derived from tam sufce) nteng: [nI."tEN] P F adv. too, also, as well, likewise (derived from teng same, equal)

ntengfya: [nI."tEN.fja] P F adv. as, same way as (similar action) (derived from tengfya as, same way as (conj.)) ntrrtrr: [nI."tr.tr] P F adv. on a daily basis, regu" " larly (derived from trr day) > ntsim: [nI."tsim] P F adv. originally, in an original way, with originality (derived from tsim source) > ntssy: [nI."tsI.syI] P F adv. by whispering, in a whisper (derived from tssy whisper, v.) ntut: [nI."tut^] P F adv. continually (derived from tut continuation marker) ntxan: [nI."tan] P F adv. much (abstract), very (derived from txan much) ntxi: [nI."ti] P F adv. hurriedly, in a frenzied way (derived from txi hurry) ntxiluke: [nI."ti.lu.kE] P F adv. unhurriedly, leisurely (c.w. from txi hurry and luke without) nvingkap: [nI."viN.kap] P F adv. by the way, incidentally (derived from vingkap occur to one, pop into ones mind) nwan: [nI."wan] P F adv. secretly, in hiding, by hiding (derived from wan hide) nwawe: [nI.wa."wE] P F adv. meaningfully, signicantly (derived from wawe meaning, signicance) nw: [nI."w] P F adv. on the contrary, conversely nwte: [nI.w."tE] P F adv. disagreeably, begrudgingly (derived from wte argue) nwin: [nI."win] P F adv. fast (derived from win fast) nwok: [nI."wok^] P F adv. loudly (derived from wok loud) nwotx: [nI."wot] P F adv. all (of), in toto, completely (derived from wotx totality, whole) nzawnong: [nI."zaw.noN] P F adv. safely (derived from awn passive participle inx and zong save) nokx: [nok] P F vtr. give birth to nong: [noN] P F v. follow, proceed after nu+: ["nu.] P F adp. beyond nulkrr: [nul."kr] P F adv. longer (time) (derived " from krr time) nulnew: [nul."nEw] P F vtrm. prefer (ii) (derived from new want) nume: ["nu.mE] P F v. learn numeyu: ["nu.mE.ju] P F n. student (derived from nume learn)

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> school) numtseng: ["num.tsEN] P F n. school (c.w. from nutx: [nut] P F adj. thick nume learn and tseng place) > numtsengvi: ["num.tsEN.vi] P F n. classroom, division of a school (derived from numtseng Ng nga: [Na] P F pn. you nga: [NaP^] P F vtr. contain > ngatsyp: ["Na.tsjIp^] P F pn. little you, you little (derived from nga you) ngawng: [NawN] P F n. worm ngay: [Naj] P F adj. true ngaytxoa: [Naj."to.a] P F intj. sorry, my apologies (acknowledgment of guilt and regret) (c.w. from ngey your and txoa forgiveness) ngng: [NN] P F n. stomach ngzk: ["N.zIk^] P F adj. difcult, hard ngenga: [NE."Na] P F pn. you (honoric (honouric) form) (derived from nga you) ngeyn: [NEjn] P F adj. tired ngian: [Ni."an] P F,SW adv. however ngim: [Nim] P F adj. long (physical length) O oe: ["o.E] P F pn. I, me oeng: ["wEN] P F pn. we two, us two (dual inclusive), you and I (derived from oe I) > oetsyp: ["wE.tsjIp^] P F pn. little me, little I (derived from oe I) oeyk: [o."Ejk^] P F n. cause oeyktng: [o."Ejk.tIN] P F v. explain (why) (ii) (c.w. from oeyk cause and tng give) ohakx: [o."hak] P F adj. hungry ohe: ["o.hE] P F pn. I (deferential or ceremonial form) P > pamtseo: ["pam.tsE.o] P F n. music (c.w. from pam sound and tseo art) pak: [pak^] P F part. disparagement > pamtseo si: ["pam.tsE.o "si] P F vin. play music pam: [pam] P F n. sound (with fa for instrument played) (derived from pamrel: [pam."REl] P F n. writing (c.w. from pamtseo music) > pam sound and rel image) pamtseotu: ["pam.tsE.o.tu] P F n. musician (depamrelfya: [pam."REl.fja] P F n. spelling (deririved from pamtseo music) ved from pamrel writing and fyao way) pan: [pan] P F n. third, one third pamrel si: [pam."REl "si] P F vin. write (derived pate: ["pa.tE] ZS v. get to a place, arrive from pamrel writing) pawm: [pawm] P F v. ask pao: ["pa.Po] P F n. side 17 osss: [o.I"s:] LA intj. angry snarl, watch it! olo: [o."loP] P F n. clan oloeyktan: [o.lo."PEjk.tan] JC n. clan leader (c.w. from olo clan and eyktan leader) omum: [o."mum] P F vtr. know (stress moves to rst syllable with inxation) > ontsang: ["on.tsaN] P F n. nose ring (c.w. from ontu nose and tsang piercing) ontu: ["on.tu] JC n. nose ngimpup: [Nim."pup^] P F n. length (derived from ngim long and pup short) ngong: [NoN] P F adj. lethargic, lacking sufcient energy, lazy ngop: [Nop^] P F vtr. create ngopyu: ["Nop.ju] P F n. creator (derived from ngop create) ngrr: [Nr] P F n. root " ngrrpongu: [Nr.po.Nu] P F n. grassroots move" ment (c.w. from ngrr root and pongu party) ngul: [Nul] P F adj. grey, drab ngulpin: ["Nul.pin] P F n. grey (derived from ngul grey, drab) nguway: ["Nu.waj] P F n. howl, viperwolf cry (derived from way song)

pay: [paj] P F n. water, liquid pay+: [paj] P F prex plural inter. marker (from pe+ and ay+) payfya: ["paj.fja] P F n. stream (c.w. from pay water and fyao way) payva: ["paj.I.va] P F n. drop of water (derived from pay water and lva drop) paynga: ["paj.NaP^] P F adj. moist, humid, damp (derived from pay water and nga contain) payoang: [paj."o.aN] P F n. sh (c.w. from pay water and ioang animal) phem: ["p.hEm] P F vin. arrive pngkxo: [pN."ko] P F vin. chat, converse, have a conversation pngkxoyu: [pN."ko.ju] P F n. chatter, converser (derived from pngkxo chat) pngkxoyu lekoren: [pN."ko.ju lE.ko."REn] P F n. lawyer (c.w. from pngkxoyu chatter and lekoren lawlike) pnu: ["p.nu] P F n. promise pnutng: ["p.nu.tIN] P F vtr. promise (a thing to someone) (ii) (c.w. from pnu promise and tng give) pe+: [pE] P F afx inter. marker peun: ["pE.Pun] P F vtr. decide pefnel: [pE."fnEl] P F inter. which kind allomorph of fnepe pefya: [pE."fja] P F inter. how allomorph of fyape pehem: [pE."hEm] P F inter. what (action) allomorph of kempe (c.w. from kem action, deed) pehrr: [pE."hr] P F inter. when allomorph of krr" pe (c.w. from krr time) pelu: [pE."lI.Pu] P F inter. what (word, utterance) allomorph of lupe pelun: [pE."lun] P F inter. why allomorph of lumpe peng: [pEN] P F vtr. tell peseng: [pE."sEN] P F inter. where allomorph of tsengpe pesomwew: [pE.som."wEw] P F inter. what temperature? (derived from somwew temperature)

pesu: [pE."su] P F inter. who allomorph of tupe peu: [pE."u] P F inter. what (thing) allomorph of upe pewn: [pEwn] P F n. neck pey: [pEj] P F v. wait, wait for piak: [pi."ak^] P F adj. open, clear (for cloudless skies) piak si: [pi."ak^ si] P F vin. open (derived from piak open) pil: [pil] P F n. facial stripe pizayu: ["pi.za.ju] P F n. ancestor pmtxan: [pIm."tan] P F inter. how much allomorph of hmtxampe pwopx: [pI."wop] P F n. cloud pllngay: [pl."Naj] P F vin. admit " plltxe: [pl."tE] P F v. speak " pn. he, she po: [po] P F poan: [po."an] P F pn. he (no plural form: use (ay)fo) (derived from po he, she) poe: [po."E] P F pn. she (no plural form: use (ay)fo) (derived from po he, she) polpxay: [pol."paj] P F inter. how many (c.w. from holpxay number and pe how) pom: [pom] P F vtr. kiss pongu: ["po.Nu] P F n. group of people, party (derived from po he/she) prrkxentrrkrr: [pr.kEn.tr.kr] Skxawng n. day ti" " " me smoking pleasure, vibrating tongue (Navi idiom) (c.w. from prrte pleasurable, kxener smoke, trr day and krr time) prrnen: ["pr.nEn] P F n. infant, baby prrnesyul: " ["pr.nE.sjul] P F n. bud (c.w. from prrnen baby" and syulang ower) prrte: ["pr.tEP] P F adj. pleasurable (of an activi" ty) prrwll: ["pr.wl] P rr n. moss (c.w. from prrnen " " baby and ewll plant) pukap: ["pu.kap^] P F num. six pum: [pum] P F pn. one (place-holder pronoun referring to a previously mentioned noun or pronoun) pup: [pup^] P F adj. short (physical length) puve: ["pu.vE] P F adj. sixth (ordinal) (derived from pukap six)

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Px pxan: [pan] P F adj. worthy pxask: ["pa.sIk^] P F intj. screw that!, no way! (vulgar) pxasul: ["pa.sul] P F adj. fresh, appealing as food pxaw: [paw] P F adp. around pxawpa: ["paw.pa] P F n. perimeter, circumference, border (c.w. from pxaw around and pao side) pxawpxun: ["paw.pun] P F n. armband (c.w. from pxaw around and pxun arm) pxay: [paj] P F adj. many (used with singular or plural noun forms) pxel: [pEl] P F adp. like, as pxelo: ["pE.lo] P F adv. thrice, three times (derived from pxe+ trial marker and alo time) pxen: [pEn] P F n. functional clothing (item of) pxey: [pEj] P F num. three pxeyve: ["pEj.vE] P F adj. third (ordinal) (derived from pxey three) pxi: [pi] P F adj. sharp pxim: [pim] P F adj. erect, upright R ral: [Ral] P F n. meaning ralpeng: [Ral."pEN] P F vtr. interpret (ii) (c.w. from ral meaning and peng tell) ram: [Ram] P F n. mountain > ramtsyp: ["Ram.tsjIp^] P F n. hill (derived from ram mountain) ramunong: [Ra."mu.noN] P F n. well rangal: ["Ra.Nal] P F vin. wish raspu: [Ra."spuP] P F n. leggings (used in war) rawke: ["Raw.kE] P F intj. alarm cry, call to defense r: [R."P] P F part. do not (for negative imperatives, commands only) reo: ["RE.Po] P F n. head rel: [REl] P F n. image, picture > reltseo: ["REl.tsE.o] P F n. visual art (c.w. from rel image and tseo art) > reltseotu: ["REl.tsE.o.tu] P F n. artist (derived from reltseo art) reng: [REN] P F adj. shallow (physically) renten: ["REn.tEn] P F n. goggles, (made from insect wings, carved from wood, etc) renu: ["RE.nu] P F n. pattern rewon: ["RE.won] P F n. morning rey: [REj] P F vin. live reyeng: [REj."PEN] P F n. the Balance of Life (derived from rey live) reypay: ["REj.paj] P F n. blood (c.w. from rey live and pay water) rikx: [Rik] P F vin. move, shift position rim: [Rim] P F adj. yellow rimpin: ["Rim.pin] P F n. yellow (derived from rim yellow) rina: [Ri."naP] P F n. seed (derived from atokirina seeds of the great tree) rr: ["rIP.Ir] P F n. reection rr si: ["rIP.Ir si] P F vin. reect, imitate (derived from rr reection) rk: [RIk^] P F n. leaf rkean: ["RI.kE.an] P F adj. leaf green (c.w. from rk leaf and ean green) ro+: [Ro] P F adp. at (locative) rofa: ["Ro.fa] P F adp. beside, alongside pximaw: [pi."maw] P F adp. right after (c.w. from maw after (time) and pxi sharp) pxiset: [pi."sEt^] P F adv. right now (c.w. from set now and pxi sharp) pxisre+: [pi."sRE] P F adp. right before (c.w. from sre before (time) and pxi sharp) pxiswawam: [pi.swaw."am] P F adv. just a moment ago (c.w. from swaw moment and am past) pxiswaway: [pi.swaw."aj] P F adv. in just a second from now (c.w. from swaw moment and ay future marker) pxiyern: [pi."jEP.RIn] P F adv. immediately (not as soon as pxiswaway) (c.w. from yern soon and pxi sharp) pxm: [pIm] P F adv. often pxor: [poR] P F vin. explode pxorpam: ["poR.pam] P F n. ejective consonant (c.w. from pxor explode and pam sound) pxun: [pun] P F n. arm pxuntil: ["pun.til] P F n. elbow (c.w. from pxun arm and til joint)

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rol: [Rol] P F v. sing (reykol play music, make to sing (poetic)) rolun: [Ro."lun] P F intj. Eureka! Ive found it! ronsem: ["Ron.sEm] P F n. mind ronsrel: ["Ron.sREl] P F n. something imagined (derived from ronsrelngop imagine) ronsrelngop: ["Ron.sREl.Nop^] P F vtr. imagine, envision (c.w. of ronsem mind, rel S sanok: ["saP.nok^] P F n. mother (from saatenuk C ) sanu: ["saP.nu] P F n. mum, mommy (affectionate form of sanok mother) > sanutsyp: ["saP.nu.tsjIp^] P F n. little mommy (used for young girls) (derived from sanu mommy) sasem: ["saP.sEm] P F n. parent or set of parents (derived from sanok mother and sempul father) saa: ["sa:] LA intj. threatening cry salew: [sa."lEw] P F v. proceed, go san: [san] P F adv. saying, quote sang: [saN] P F adj. warm sar: [saR] P F vtr. use sat: [sat^] P F pn. that (lenited form of tsat, irregularly lenited after ftu from) sau: [sa."u] LA intj. exclamation upon exertion, urgh sayrp: ["saj.RIp^] P F adj. handsome, good looking (normally used for men) s: [s] P F prex instrumental noun (c.w. from snume teaching and sspxin disease) so: ["s.Po] P F n. tool, utensil sfpl: [s."fpIl] P F n. idea (derived from fpl think) smyam: [sm."yam] P F n. hug, embrace (derived from meyam hug) snume: [s."nu.mE] P F n. teaching, instruction (derived from nume learn) snumvi: [s."num.vi] P F n. lesson (derived from snume teaching) somum: [s."o.mum] P F n. (piece of) information (derived from omum know) splltxe: [s.pl."tE] P F n. statement " splltxevi: [s.pl."tE.vi] P F n. comment (deri" ved from splltxe statement)

picture, ngop create, casual pronunciation ["Ron.sREw.Nop^] ) rum: [Rum] P F n. ball run: [Run] P F vtr. nd, discover rusey: [Ru."sEj] P F adj., n. alive, living, living thing (c.w. from rey live and us active participle inx) rutxe: [Ru."tE] P F intj. please

spom: [s."pom] P F n. kiss (derived from pom kiss) sspxin: [s."spin] P F n. disease, sickness, illness (derived from spxin sick) > sspxintsyp: [s."spin.tsjIp^] P F n. minor ailment (derived from sspxin illness) ssrtx: [s."srt] P F n. annoyance (derived from srtx annoy) ssuln: [s."su.lIn] P F n. hobby, pleasureyielding activity (derived from suln be busy (positive sense)) > stssy: [s."tsI.syI] P F n. whisper (derived from tssy whisper, v.) swte: [s.w."tE] P F n. point of contention, source of argument, thing disputed (derived from wte argue) szrp: [s."z.RIp^] RL,P F n. face lead, rein (derived from zarp pull) sekrr: ["sE.kr] P F n. present (c.w. from set now " and krr time) sempu: ["sEm.pu] P F n. daddy (affectionate form of sempul father) sempul: ["sEm.pul] P F n. father set: [sEt^] P F adv. now sevin: [sE."vin] P F adj. pretty (primarily of females, for people only) seykxel: [sEj."kEl] P F adj. strong (emotionally, spiritually, not physical), condent seyri: ["sEj.Ri] JC n. lip > seysonltsan: [sEj.so.nIl."tsan] P F intj. well done! (derived from hasey soli nltsan accomplished well) si: [si] P F auxiliary verb, postpositional nonbound verb do, make deriving afx sim: [sim] P F svin. near, be near s: [sI] P F conj. and (connects two things, can be attached as s: for clauses use ulte and) sk: [sIk^] P F adv. unquote

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slpey: [sIl."pEj] P F vin. hope (with tsn for thing hoped, unless in independent clause) (ii) (c.w. from sltsan good and pey wait) slronsem: [sIl."Ron.sEm] P F adj. clever, smart (thing) (c.w. from sltsan good and ronsem mind) > sltsan: [sIl."tsan] P F adj. good (of its kind), well done sn: [sIn] P F adp. on, onto skaa: [ska."Pa] P F vtr. destroy skepek: ["skE.pEk^] P F adj. formal skien: ["ski.En] P F adj. right (not left) skxakep: ["ska.kEp^] P F adj., adv. probable, probably skxawng: [skawN] P F n. moron, idiot skxir: [skiR] P F n. wound skxir si: ["skiR "si] P F vin. wound (derived from skxir wound) > skxirtsyp: ["skiR.tsjIp^] P F n. cut, bruise, minor wound (derived from skxir wound) skxom: [skom] P F n. chance, opportunity > slatsu: ["slaP.tsu] P F vtr. describe sl: [sl] P F conj. but slele: ["slE.lE] P F vin. swim sleyku: [slEj."ku] P F vtr. produce (derived from slu become and eyk causative inx) sloan: [slo."an] P F vtr. pour slu: [slu] P F vin. become (noun predicate with ne in ambiguous constructions) smar: [smaR] P F n. prey, hunted thing smon: [smon] P F vin. be familiar, be known (with dative) snaytx: [snajt] P F vtr. lose sngap: [sNap^] P F vtr. sting sngi: ["sN.Pi] P F vim. begin, start sngikrr: ["sN.Pi.kr] P F n. beginning, starting " time (c.w. from sngi begin and krr time) sngiyu: ["sN.Pi.ju] P F n. beginner (derived from sngi begin) sngel: [sNEl] P F n. garbage, trash, rubbish > sngeltseng: ["sNEl.tsEN] P F n. rubbish place, garbage dump (c.w. from sngel garbage and tseng place) sngum: [sNum] P F n. worry sno: [sno] P F pn. his own, her own, its own (reexive, genitive form sney) snumna: ["snu.mI.na] CP adj. dim ofp. (refers to a dim person)

soaia: [so."a.i.a] P F n. family (irregular genitive form soai) sok: [sok^] P F adj. recent som: [som] P F adj. hot somwew: [som."wEw] P F n. temperature (derived from som hot and wew cold) somwewpe: [som."wEw.pE] P F inter. what temperature? (more common) (derived from somwew temperature) sop: [sop^] P F vin. travel sopyu: ["sop.ju] P F n. traveller (derived from sop travel) spaw: [spaw] P F vtr. believe sp: [sp] P F v. jump spee: [spE."PE] P F vtr. capture speetu: [spE."PE.tu] P F n. captive (derived from spee capture) speng: [spEN] P F v. restore spule: ["spu.lE] P F vtr. propel spuwin: ["spu.win] P F adj. old (not for people), former spxam: [spam] P F n. mushroom, fungus spxin: [spin] P F adj. sick srak(e): ["sRak(E)] P F part. inter. marker for yes or no questions sran: [sRan] P F part., intj. yes (colloquial) srane: ["sRa.nE] P F part., intj. yes sraw: [sRaw] P F adj. painful srtx: [srt] P F vtr. annoy, bother sre+: [sRE] P F adp. before (time) sre: [sREP] P F n. tooth srefey: [sRE."fEj] P F vtr., vin. expect (c.w. from sre+ before and pey wait) srekamtrr: [sRE."kam.tr] P F n. the time before noon (c.w. from sre "before and kxamtrr midday) srekamtxon: [sRE."kam.ton] P F n. before midnight (c.w. from sre before and kxamtxon midnight) srekrr: [sRE."kr] P F adv. before, already, ahead of " time (c.w. from sre before and krr time) sresea: [sRE.sE."Pa] P F v. prophetize, prophesize, prophesy (c.w. from sre+ before and tsea see) sresrrong: [sRE.sr."PoN] P F n. before dawn (c.w. from sre before" and trrong dawn) sretonong: [sRE.ton."PoN] P F n. dusk, evening before sunset (c.w. from sre before and txonong night-fall)

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srew: [sREw] P F vin. dance srung: [sRuN] P F n. help, assistance srung si: ["sRuN "si] P F vin. help (derived from srung help) starsm: ["staR.sIm] P F vtr. gather, collect stawm: [stawm] P F vtr. hear stn: ["stP.nI] P F vtr. catch steftxaw: [stE."ftaw] P F vtr. examine, check steng: [stEN] P F adj. similar steyki: [stEj."ki] P F vtr. anger, make someone angry (derived from sti be angry and eyk causative inx) sti: [sti] P F vin. anger (intransitive), be angry sto: [sto] P F v. refuse (to do something) stum: [stum] P F adv. almost stxeli: ["stE.li] P F n. gift stxenu: ["stE.nu] P F n. offer (c.w. from stxeli gift and lonu release) stxenutng: ["stE,nu,tIN] P F vtr. offer (derived from stxenu offer, n.) stxong: [stoN] P F adj. strange, unfamiliar, unknown suln: ["su.lIn] P F vin. be busy (positive sense), be engrossed in something one nds especially pleasant and energizing (derived from n be busy) T ta: [ta] P F adp. from (locative), from (temporal sense with other time words) taem: [ta."PEm] P F adv. from above taleng: ["taP.lEN] P F n. skin talengean: ["taP.lE.NE.an] P F adj. skin blue (c.w. from taleng skin and ean blue) tafkip: [ta."fkip^] P F adp. from up among (c.w. from ta from and fkip up among) tafral: [ta."fRal] P F adv. therefore, because of that takip: [ta."kip^] P F adp. from among (c.w. from ta from and kip among) takrra: [ta."kr.a] P F conj. since (temporal) allomorph of "akrrta (c.w. from krr time and ta from) takuk: ["ta.kuk^] P F vtr. strike talun(a): [ta."lun(a)] P F conj. because, from the reason (c.w. from ta from and lun reason) tam: [tam] P F vin., intj. that will sufce, that will do, OK

sung: [suN] P F vtr. add sunu: ["su.nu] P F vin. be pleasing or likeable, bring enjoyment sutx: [sut] P F vtr. track, follow, lock up swaw: [swaw] P F n. moment > swawtsyp: ["swaw.tsjIp^] P F n. little moment, second (derived from swaw moment) swey: [swEj] P F adj. best sweylu: ["swEj.lu] P F v. should (derived from swey best and lu is) swir: [swi."R] P F n. creature swizaw: [swi."zaw] P F n. arrow swok: [swok^] P F adj. sacred swotu: ["swo.tu] P F n. sacred place syaw: [sjaw] P F vin. call syay: [sjaj] P F n. fate syayvi: ["sjaj.vi] P F n. luck, chance (derived from syay fate) sy: ["sj.P] P F adj. bitter syen: [sjEn] P F adj. last, nal syep: [sjEp^] P F vtr. trap syo: [sjo] P F adj. light (physical weight), lightweight syulang: ["sju.laN] P F n. ower syuve: ["sju.vE] P F n. food (collective noun, cannot be pluralised)

tam tam: ["tam "tam] M intj. calm, be content, there there tangek: ["ta.NEk^] P F n. trunk (of a tree) tanh: [tan."hI] P F n. star, bioluminescent freckle taron: ["ta.Ron] JC,P F vtr. hunt taronyu: ["ta.Ron.ju] JC,P F n. hunter (c.w. from taron hunt and yu agent sufx) > taronyutsyp: ["ta.Ron.ju.tsjIp^] P F n. little hunter (derived from taronyu hunter) tatep: ["ta.tEp^] P F vtr. lose track, lose awareness of something tatlam: [tat."lam] P F adv. apparently (derived from lam seem) taw: [taw] P F n. sky taweyk(a): [ta."wEjk(a)] P F conj. because, based on the cause tawng: [tawN] P F vin. duck, dive tftxu: [t."ftu] P F vtr. weave tftxuyu: [t."ftu.ju] P F n. weaver (derived from tftxu weave and yu agent sufx)

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ttxaw: [t."taw] P F vin. return te: [tE] JC part. used in full names tel: [tEl] P F vtr. receive telem: [tE."lEm] P F n. cord tem: [tEm] P F vin. shoot temrey: [tEm."REj] P F n. survival (derived from emrey survive) teng: [tEN] P F adj. same, equal tengfya: ["tEN.fja] P F conj. as, same way as (situational similarity) (c.w. from teng same, equal and fyao path) tengkrr: [tEN."kr] P F conj. while, same time as " (c.w. from teng same, equal and krr time) teri: [tE."Ri] P F adp. about, concerning terkup: ["tER.kup^] P F vin. die teswotng: [tE."swo.tIN] P F vtr. grant (ii) (c.w. from tng give) tete: ["tE.tE] P F adj. dull (as a blade) tewng: [tEwN] P F n. loincloth tewti: ["tEw.ti] P F intj. wow, expression of surprise and pleasure teya: [tE."ja] P F adj. full teya si: [tE."ja "si] P F vin. ll (with dative of thing lled) (derived from teya full) teynga: ["tEjN.a] P F n. that answer (contraction of teyng a) teyngla: ["tEjN.la] P F n. that answer (agentive) (contraction of teyngl a) teyngta: ["tEjN.ta] P F n. that answer (patientive) (contraction of teyngit a) teyr: [tEjR] P F adj. white teyrpin: ["tEjR.pin] P F n. white (derived from teyr white) til: [til] P F n. joint, hinge tinan: ["ti.nan] P F n. reading (derived from inan read) tirea: [ti."RE.a] P F n. spirit tireafyao: [ti."RE.a. fja.Po] P F n. spirit path (c.w. from tirea spirit and fyao path) tireaioang: [ti."RE.a.i. o.aN] P F n. spirit animal (c.w. from tirea spirit and ioang animal) tireapngkxo: [ti."RE.a.pN. ko] P F v. commune (c.w. from tirea spirit and pngkxo chat) tawm: [tI."Pawm] P F n. camping (derived from awm camp) tawm si: [tI."Pawm "si] P F vin. camp (derived from awm camp) tawpo: [tI."Paw.po] P F n. individuality (negative connotation), selshness (derived from

awpo one individual) tefu: [tI."PE.fu] P F n. feeling (derived from efu feel) tem: [tI."PEm] P F n. the art of cooking (derived from em cook) teylan: [tI."PEj.lan] P F n. friendship (derived from eylan friend) teyng: [tI."PEjN] P F n. answer, response (derived from eyng answer) tiavay: [tI."PiP.a.vaj] P F adv. until the end (c.w. from ia end and vay until) to: [tI."PoP] P F n. fun, excitement (derived from o exciting) tong: [tI."PoN] P F n. blooming, unfolding (derived from ong bloom) tfkeytok: [tI."fkEj.tok"] P F n. state, condition, situation (derived from fkeytok exist) tfmetok: [tI."fmE.tok^] P F n. test (derived from fmetok test) tfnu: [tI."fnu] P F n. quiet, silence (derived from fnu quiet) tftang: [tI."ftaN] P F n. stopping, the glottal stop (derived from ftang stop) tftang si: [tI."ftaN s] P F vin. stop (derived from tftang stopping) tftia: [tI.fti".a] P F n. study (derived from ftia study) tftia kifkey: [tI.fti".a ki."fkE.j] P F n. science, the study of the physical world (c.w. from tftia study and kifkey world) tftxavang: [tI."fta.vaN] P F n. passion (derived from ftxavang passionate) tftxey: [tI."ftEj] P F n. choice (derived from ftxey choose) tfyawntxu: [tI.fja.wIn."tu] P F n. guidance (derived from fyawntxu guide) tfyeyn: [tI."fjEjn] P F n. ripeness, maturity, full fruition (derived from fyeyn ripe, mature) thawl: [tI."hawl] P F n. preparations, plan (derived from hawl prepare) thawnu: [tI."haw.nu] P F n. protection (derived from hawnu protect, shelter) thawnu si: [tI."haw.nu "si] P F vin. protect (derived from thawnu protection) tkn: [tIk."PIn] P F n. free time, the absence of business (derived from n be busy) tkan: [tI."kan] P F n. aim, goal, purpose, target (derived from kan aim)

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tkangkem: [tI."kaN.kEm] P F n. work (derived from kem action, deed) tkangkem si: [tI."kaN.kEm "si] P F vin. work (derived from tkangkem work) tkangkemvi: [tI."kaN.kEm.vi] P F n. project, piece of work (derived from tkangkem work) tkanu: [tI."ka.nu] P F n. intelligence (derived from kanu smart) tkawng: [tI."kawN] P F n. evil (derived from kawng bad) tkenong: [tI."kE.noN] P F n. example (derived from kenong model) tketeng: [tI."kE.tEN] P F n. difference (c.w. from ke not and teng same) tkin: [tI."kin] P F n. need (derived from kin need) tkusar: [tI.ku."saR] P F n. teaching (the act) (derived from kar teach) tkxey: [tI."kEj] P F n. incorrectness, mistakeness (derived from kxeyey mistake) tkxey si: [tI."kEj "si] P F vin. mess up, foul, do wrong (derived from tkxey incorrectness) tlam: [tI."lam] P F n. appearance (derived from lam seem) tlen: [tI."lEn] P rr n. event, happening (derived from len happen) tlor: [tI."loR] P F n. beauty (derived from lor beautiful) tm: [tIm] P F adj. low tmeem: [tI."mE.PEm] P F n. harmony (general sense) (derived from meem harmonious) tmllan: [tI.ml."Pan] P F n. acceptance (derived " from mllan accept) tmok: [tI."mok^] P F n. suggestion (derived from mok suggest) tmuntxa: [tI.mun."ta] P F n. mating, marriage (derived from muntxa mated) tmweypey: [tIm."wEj.pEj] P F n. patience (derived from maweypey be patient) tn: [tIn] P F n. activity that keeps one busy (derived from n be busy) tng: [tIN] P F vtr. give tngay: [tI."Naj] P F n. truth (derived from ngay true) tngzk: [tI."N.zIk^] P F n. difculty, problem (derived from ngzk difcult) tng lawr: [tIN lawr] P F vin. sing wordlessly, give out a tune or melody (derived from lawr melody)

tng mikyun: ["tIm "mik.jun] P F vin. listen (derived from tng give and mikyun ear) tng nari: ["tIN "na.Ri] P F vin. look (derived from tng give and nari eye) tngong: [tI."NoN] P F n. lethargy, laziness (derived from ngong lazy) tngop: [tI."Nop^] P F n. creation (derived from ngop create) > tng tseng: ["tIN "tsEN] P F vin. back down, give ground (derived from tng give and tseng ground) tno: [tI."no] P F n. thoroughness, attention to detail tnomum: [tI."no.mum] P F n. curiosity (derived from newomum be curious) toeyktng: [tI."o.Ejk.tIN] P F n. explanation (derived from eyk cause (root)) (Pronounced [tI."wEjk.tIN] in casual speech) tohakx: [tI.o."hak] P F n. hunger (derived from ohakx hungry) tomum: [tI."o.mum] P F n. knowledge (derived from omum know) tpawm: [tI."pawm] P F n. question (derived from pawm ask) tphem: [tI."p.hEm] P F n. arrival (derived from phem arrive) tpngkxo: [tI.pN."ko] P F n. conversation, discussion (derived from pngkxo chat) > tpngkxotsyp: [tI.pN."ko.tsjIp^] P F n. little conversation (derived from tpngkxo conversation) tpeun: [tI."pE.Pun] P F n. decision (derived from peun decide) tprrte: [tI."pr.tEP] P F n. pleasure (derived from prrte"pleasurable) tran: [tI."Ran] P F vin. walk trey: [tI."REj] P F n. life (derived from rey live) trol: [tI."Rol] P F n. song (vocal) (derived from rol sing) tronsrel: [tI."Ron.sREl] P F n. imagination (derived from ronsrelngop imagine) tskaa: [tI.ska."Pa] P F n. destruction (derived from skaa destroy) > tslatsu: [tI."slaP.tsu] P F n. description (derived from slatsu describe) tsnaytx: [tI."snajt] P F n. loss (derived from snaytx lose) tsom: [tI."som] P F n. heat (derived from som hot)

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tsop: [tI."sop^] P F n. journey (derived from sop travel) tspee: [tI.spE."PE] P F n. capture (derived from spee capture) tspxin: [tI."spin] P F n. the state of being ill, sickness (derived from spxin sick) tsraw: [tI."sRaw] P F n. pain (derived from sraw painful) tsraw seyki: [tI."sRaw sEj."ki] P F vtr. hurt (someone or something) (c.w. from tsraw pain and seyki make (causative)) tsraw si: [tI."sRaw "si] P F vin. hurt, be painful (derived from tsraw pain) tsresea: [tI."sRE.sE.Pa] P F n. prophecy (derived from sresea prophetize) tsti: [tI."sti] P F n. anger (derived from sti be angry) tsung: [tI."suN] Lance n. addition, post script (P.S.) (derived from sung add) ttaron: [tI."ta.Ron] P F n. hunting (derived from taron hunt) > ttslam: [tI."tslam] P F n. understanding, intelligence (derived from tslam understand) > ttstew: [tI."tstEw] P F n. courage, bravery > ttstewnga: [tI."tstEw.NaP^] P F adj. courageous, brave (derived from ttstew courage, bravery) nfp. (e.g. a brave deed) > ttstunwi: [tI."tstun.wi] P F n. kindness (derived from tstunwi kind) > ttsyr: [tI."tsyr] P F n. rejection (derived from tsyr reject) ttusaron: [tI.tu."sa.Ron] P F n. hunting (derived from taron hunt) ttxanew: [tI."ta.nEw] P F n. greed (derived from txanew greedy) ttxen: [tI."tEn] P F n. awakeness, the state of waking (derived from txen awake) ttxula: [tI."tu.la] P F n. construction, constructed thing (derived from txula build) ttxur: [tI."tuR] P F n. strength, power (derived from txur strong) tvawm: [tI."vawm] P F n. darkness (derived from vawm dark) tvng: [tI."vN] P F n. thirst (derived from vng thirsty) tvek: [tI.vEP."kI] P F n. hatred (derived from vek hate) twan: [tI."wan] P F n. obfuscation, cover up (derived from wan hide)

twte: [tI.w."tE] P F n. dispute, argument (derived from wte argue) twew: [tI."wEw] P F n. coldness, cold (derived from wew cold) twusem: [tI.wu."sEm] P F n. ghting (derived from wem ght) tyawn: [tI."jawn] P F n. love (derived from yawne beloved) tyawr: [tI."jawR] P F n. correctness (derived from eyawr correct) tyora: [tI.jo"RaP] P F n. victory, a win (derived from yora win) tyusom: [tI.ju."som] P F n. eating (the act) (derived from yom eat) to: [to] P F part. comparative marker than (behaves like an adp.) tok: [tok^] P F vtr. be at, occupy a space tokx: [tok] P F n. body tolel: [to."lEl] P F intj. Eureka! I found it! I understand! (synonym: tslolam) toltem: [tol."tEm] P F vtr. shoot tompa: ["tom.pa] P F n. rain tompameyp: [tom.pa."mEjp^] P F n. drizzle (derived from tompa rain and meyp weak) tomperw: ["tom.pER.wI] P F n. sleet (derived from tompa rain and herw snow) tompva: ["tom.pI.va] P F n. raindrop (derived from tompa rain and lva drop) tor: [toR] P F adj. last, ultimate, terminal (derived from toruk last shadow) toruk makto: ["to.Ruk^ "mak.to] JC n. toruk rider (c.w. from toruk leonopteryx and makto ride) trr: [tr] P F n. day " trrawve: [tr."Paw.vE] P F n. Sunday (c.w. from " trr day and awve rst) trrong: [tr."PoN] P F n. dawn, sunrise (c.w. from " trr day and ong unfold) trrongmaw: [tr."PoN.maw] P F n. dawn after " sunrise (c.w. from trrong dawn and maw after) trram: [tr."am] P F adv. yesterday (derived from " trr day and ham previous) trray: [tr."aj] P F adv. tomorrow (derived from " trr day and hay next) trrkive: [tr."ki.vE] P F n. Saturday (c.w. from trr " day and kive seventh) trrmrrve: [tr."mr.vE] P F n. Thursday (c.w. from " " trr day and mrrve fth)

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trrmuve: [tr."mu.vE] P F n. Monday (c.w. from " trr day and muve second) trrpeve: [tr."pE.vE] P F inter. which day (derived " from trr day and pe interrogative marker and ve ordinal number marker) trrpuve: [tr."pu.vE] P F n. Friday (c.w. from trr day and "puve sixth) trrpxeyve: [tr."pEj.vE] P F n. Tuesday (c.w. from " trr day and pxeyve third) > trrtsve: [tr."tsI.vE] P F n. Wednesday (c.w. from " trr day and tsve fourth) trrtxon: [tr.ton] P F n. the day and night cycle of " Pandora (c.w. from trr day and txon night) tukru: [tuk."Ru] P F n. spear tul: [tul] P F vin. run tumpin: ["tum.pin] P F n. red, orange (derived from tun red, orange) Ts > tsa: [tsa] P F prex that > tsau: ["tsa.Pu] P F dem. that (thing) (c.w. from tsa that and u thing) > tsafya: [tsa."fja] P F adv. that way, like that (c.w. from tsa- that and fyao way) > tsa-hey: ["tsa."hEj] ZS intj. expression of warning or frustration, crap!, ah, hell! > tsaheyl si: [tsa."hEjl "si] P F vin. bond with, establish a neural connection (derived from tsaheylu bond) > tsaheylu: [tsa."hEj.lu] JC,P F n. bond (neural connection) > > tsakem: ["tsa.kEm] or [tsa."kEm] P F dem. that (action) (derived from tsa- that and kem action) > tsakrr: [tsa."kr] P F dem. then, at that time (deri" ved from tsa- that and krr time) > tsakrrvay: [tsa."kr.vaj] P F adv. until then, in the meantime (c.w." from tsakrr then and vay up to) > tsal: [tsal] P F pn. that, it (transitive subject) > tsalsungay: [tsal.su."Naj] P F adv. nevertheless, even so > tsam: [tsam] P F n. war > tsamopin: ["tsa.mo.pin] P F n. warpaint (c.w. from tsam war and opin color) > tsampongu: ["tsam.po.Nu] P F n. war party (c.w. from tsam war and pongu party)

tun: [tun] P F adj. red, orange tung: [tuN] P F v. allow tungzup: [tuN."zup^] P F vtr. drop (ii) (c.w. from tung allow and zup fall) tup: [tup^] P F conj. instead of, rather than tupe: ["tu.pE] P F inter. who allomorph of pesu tut: [tut^] P F part. continuation marker tut: [tu."tE] P F n. female (person) (derived from tute person) tutan: [tu."tan] P F n. male (person) (derived from tute person) tute: ["tu.tE] P F n. person tuteo: ["tu.tE.o] P F pn. somebody, someone (derived from tute person) tuvon: ["tu.von] P F v. lean

> tsamsiyu: ["tsam.si.ju] P F n. warrior (derived from tsam si make war and yu agent sufx) > tsang: [tsaN] P F n. a piercing > tsapalute: [tsap."Pa.lu.tE] P F n. apology > tsapalute si: [tsap."Pa.lu.tE "si] P F vin. apologise (apologize) (derived from tsapalute apology) > tsapo: ["tsa.po] P F pn. that one (for people only) (c.w. from tsa that and po he/she) > tsaria: ["tsa.Ri.a] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from tsau-ri that (topical) and a subordinator) > tsat: [tsat^] P F pn. that, it (as object) > tsata: ["tsa.ta] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from tsau-t that (patientive) and a subordinator) > > > > tsatseng: [tsa."tsEN] or ["tsa.tsEN] P F dem. there, that place (c.w. from tsa that and tseng place) > tsatu: ["tsa.tu] P F dem. that person (c.w. from tsa that and tute person) > tsaw: [tsaw] P F dem., pn. that, it (as intransitive subject) > tsawa: ["tsa.wa] P F pn., sbd. that (c.w. from tsau that (subjective) and a subordinator) > tsawke: ["tsaw.kE] P F n. sun > tsawl: [tsawl] P F adj. big (in size), tall > tsawlh: [tsawl."hIP] P F n. size (c.w. from tsawl big (in size) and hi small (in size)) > tsawl slu: ["tsawl "slu] P F vin. grow (c.w. from tsawl big and slu become)

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> tsay+: [tsaj] P F prex those (c.w. from tsa that and ay+ plural) > ts: [tsP] P F v. squirt > tse: [tsE] P F part. well (conversation starter) > tsea: [tsE."Pa] P F vtr. see (physical sense) > tseng(e): ["tsEN(E)] P F n. place > tsengo: ["tsE.No] P F pn. somewhere (derived from tseng place) > tsengpe: ["tsEN.pE] P F inter. where allomorph of peseng > tseo: ["tsE.o] P F n. art > tsewtx: [tsEwt] P F adj. dirty > tsim: [tsim] P F n. source > tsng: [tsIN] P F num. four > tssy: ["tsI.syI] P F vin. whisper > tsve: ["tsI.vE] P F adj. fourth (ordinal) (derived from tsng four) > tskalep: ["tska.lEp^] P F n. crossbow > tsko: [tsko] P F n. bow (weapon) > tsko swizaw: ["tsko swi."zaw] P F n. bow and arrow (c.w. from tsko bow and swizaw arrow) > > tskxaytsyp: ["tskaj.tsjIp^] P F n. hail (derived from tskxepay ice) > tskxe: [tskE] P F n. rock, stone > tskxekeng: ["tskE.kEN] P F n. training, exercise > tskxekeng si: ["tskE.kEN "si] P F vin. exercise, train (derived from tskxekeng training) > tskxepay: ["tskE.paj] P F n. ice (derived from tskxe stone and pay water) > tslam: [tslam] P F vtr. understand > tsleng: [tslEN] P F adj. false > tslolam: [tslo."lam] P F intj. get it, I understand (derived from tslam understand and ol perfect aspect inx) > tsmm: [tsmIm] P F n. animal track > tsmuk: [tsmuk^] P F n. sibling > tsmukan: ["tsmu.kan] P F n. brother (derived from tsmuk sibling) > tsmuke: ["tsmu.kE] P F n. sister (derived from tsmuk sibling) > tsmuktu: ["tsmuk.tu] P F n. sibling (derived from tsmuk sibling) > tsngal: [tsNal] P F n. cup > tsngan: [tsNan] P F n. meat > tsngawvk: ["tsNaw.vIk^] P F vin. cry, weep > tsn: [tsnI] P F sbd. that (function word) (with subjunctive verb in dependant clause)

> tsop: ["tso.pI] P F n. lung > tspang: [tspaN] P F vtr. kill > tsranten: ["tsRan.tEn] P F vin. matter, be of importance > tsray: [tsRaj] P F n. village > tsrei: ["tsRE.Pi] P F vtr. throw > tstal: [tstal] P F n. knife > tstew: [tstEw] P F adj. brave > tstu: [tstu] P F adj. closed, shut, overcast (for cloudy skies) > tstunwi: ["tstun.wi] P F adj. kind, thoughtful, considerate > tstu si: ["tstu "si] P F vin. close (derived from tstu closed) > tstxo: [tsto] P F n. name > tstxolu: ["tsto.lI.Pu] P F n. noun (c.w. from tstxo name and lu word) > tsuk: [tsuk] P F prex able to (c.w. from tsun able and fko one) > tsuksm: ["tsuk.sIm] P F n. chin > > tsuktswa: [tsuk."tswaP^] P F adj. forgettable (derived from tswa forget) > tsukyom: [tsuk."jom] P F adj. edible (derived from yom eat) > tsulf: [tsul."f] P F n. mastery > tsulf si: [tsul."f "si] P F vin. master (derived from tsulf mastery) > tsulftu: [tsul."f.tu] P F n. master of an art, craft, or skill, expert (derived from tsulf mastery) > tsun: [tsun] P F vim. can, be able > tsunslu: ["tsun.slu] P F vin. may, be possible (c.w. from tsun be able and slu become) > tsurokx: [tsu."Rok] P F v. rest > tswa: [tswaP^] P F vtr. forget > tswayon: ["tswaj.on] P F vin. y > tswin: [tswin] P F n. queue, braid > > tswintsyp: ["tswin.tsjIp^] P F n. little queue (derived from tswin queue) > tsyafe: ["tsja.fE] P F adj. mild, moderate, comfortable > tsyal: [tsjal] P F n. wing > tsyr: [tsyr] P F vtr. reject > tsyo: [tsjo] P F n. our > tsyokx: [tsjok] P F n. hand > tsyosyu: ["tsjo.sju] P F n. food made from our (c.w. from tsyo our and syuve food)

27

Tx txa: [taP] P F adj. hard txal: [tal] P F n. back (of the body) txampay: [tam."paj] P F n. sea, ocean (c.w. from txan great and pay water) txampx: [tam."pI] P F n. majority, most, large part (derived from txan much) txan: [tan] P F adj. much txanatan: ["ta.na.tan] P F adj. bright, vivid (c.w. from txan very and atan light) txanew: ["ta.nEw] P F adj. greedy (c.w. from txan much and new want) txanfwerw: [tan."fwER.wI] P F n. blizzard (derived from hufwe wind and herw snow) txankrr: [taN."kr] P F adv. for a long time (c.w. " from txan much and krr time) txantompa: [tan."tom.pa] P F n. rainstorm, heavy rain (c.w. from txan much and tompa rain) > txantsan: ["tan.tsan] P F adj. excellent > txantslusam: ["tan.tslu.sam] P F adj. wise (c.w. from txan much and tslusam understand) > txantstew: ["tan.tstEw] P F n. hero (c.w. from txan very and tstew brave) txantur: ["tan.tuR] P F adj. powerful (c.w. from txan much and txur strong) txanwawe: [tan.wa."wE] P F adj. personally meaningful, signicant (c.w. from txan much and wawe signicance) txasom: ["ta.som] P F adj. very hot (derived from txan very and som hot) txawew: ["ta.wEw] P F adj. very cold (derived from txan very and wew cold) txayo: ["ta.jo] P F n. eld, open terrain, plain txrem: ["t.REm] P F n. bone txelan: [tEP."lan] P F n. heart txele: ["tE.lE] P F n. matter (subject) txen: [tEn] P F adj. awake txep: [tEp^] P F n. re txepva: ["tE.pI.va] P F n. ash, cinder (derived from txep re and lva ake) > txeptsyp: ["tEp.tsjIp^] P F n. dear or cute little re (derived from txep re) txepvi: ["tEp.vi] P F n. spark (derived from txep re) txewk: [tEwk^] P F n. club (weapon) txewm: [tEwm] P F adj. scary, frightening txey: [tEj] P F v. halt txi: [ti] P F n. hurry, hurriedness, frenzy txin: [tin] P F adj. main, primary txintn: ["tin.tIn] P F n. occupation, primary role in society (c.w. from txin main and tn activity that keeps one busy) txm: [tIm] P F n. butt, rear end, ass txng: [tIN] P F vtr. leave, abandon txo: [to] P F conj. if txoa: ["to.a] P F n. forgiveness txokefyaw: ["to.kE.fjaw] P F conj. if not, or else, otherwise (c.w. from txo-ke-fyao-aw if not one path) txon: [ton] P F n. night txonong: [ton."PoN] P F,P rr n. night-fall, sunset, dusk, gloaming (c.w. from txon night and ong unfold) txonongmaw: [ton."PoN.maw] P F n. twilight, the time before dark, after sunset (c.w. from txonong sunset and maw after) txonam: [to."nam] P F adv. last night (derived from txon night and ham previous) txonay: [to."naj] P F adv. tomorrow night (derived from txon night and hay next) txopu: ["to.pu] P F n. fear txopu si: ["to.pu "si] P F vin. be afraid (derived from txopu fear) txukx: [tuk] P F adj. deep (physically) txula: ["tu.la] P F v. build, construct txum: [tum] P F n. poison txumnga: ["tum.NaP^] P F adj. poisonous (derived from txum poison and nga contain) txur: [tuR] P F adj. strong (physically)

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U uk: [uk^] P F n. shadow (derived from toruk last shadow) ukxo: [u."ko] P F adj. dry ulte: ["ul.tE] P F conj. and (clausal conjunction) ultxa: [ul."ta] P F n. meeting ultxarun: [ul."ta.Run] P F vtr. encounter, meet by chance (ii) (c.w. from ultxa meeting and run nd) ultxa si: [ul."ta "si] P F vin. meet with someone intentionally (use hu with) (derived from ultxa meeting) unil: ["u.nil] JC n. dream V var: [vaR] P F vim. to persist in a state, to continue to perform an action vawm: [vawm] P F adj. dark vawmpin: ["vawm.pin] P F n. dark color (derived from vawm dark) vay: [vaj] P F adp. up to vaykrr: [vaj."kr] P F conj. until (c.w. from vay " up to and krr time) v: [vP] P F adj. unpleasant to the senses, noisome vng: [vN] P F adj. thirsty vek: [vEP."kI] P F vtr. hate venu: ["vE.nu] P F n. foot venzek: ["vEn.zEk^] P F n. toe (c.w. from venu foot and zekw nger) vewng: [vEwN] P F vtr. look after, take care of, be responsible for vey: [vEj] P F n. food made from animal origin, esh vin: [vin] P F vtr. request, ask for vingkap: ["viN.kap] P F vtr. occur to one, pop into ones mind, strike one W walak: ["wa.lak] P F adj. energetic, active wan: [wan] P F vtr. hide wawe: [wa."wE] P F n. meaning, importance, signicance way: [waj] P F n. song (ancient, ceremonial) way si: ["waj "si] P F vin. sing (derived from way song) waytelem: ["waj.tE.lEm] P F n. song cord (c.w. from way song and telem cord) w+: [w] P F adp. against (as in: ght against) wte: [w."tE] P F vtr. argue, dispute wtu: ["w.tu] P F n. opponent (derived from w- against) wtx: [wt] P F vtr. be bad at vir: [vi."R] P F v. spread, proliferate vitra: [vit."Ra] P F n. soul vol: [vol] P F num. eight volve: ["vol.vE] P F adj. eighth (ordinal) (derived from vol eight) vospx: [vo."spI] P F n. month (derived from vospx twelfth and zst of a year) vospxam: [vo."spI.am] P F n. last month (derived from vospx month) vospxay: [vo."spI.aj] P F n. next month (derived from vospx month) vrrn: ["vr.In] P F vin. be busy (negative sense): be tired" out and overwhelmed by an activity thats keeping one busy (derived from n be busy) vrrtep: ["vr.tEp^] P F n. demon " vul: [vul] P F n. branch (of a tree) vur: [vuR] P F n. story vurvi: ["vuR.vi] P F n. summary, synopsis (derived from vur story) uniltrantokx: [u.nil.tI."Ran.tok] JC,P F n. avatar, dreamwalker body (c.w. from uniltranyu dreamwalker and tokx body) uniltranyu: [u.nil.tI."Ran.ju] P F n. dreamwalker (c.w. from unil dream and tranyu walker) uo: ["u.o] P F adp. behind uran: ["u.Ran] P F n. boat utral: ["ut.Ral] P F n. tree > utraltsyp: ["ut.Ral.tsjIp^] P F n. bush (derived from utral tree) uvan: [u."van] P F n. game, uvan letokx sport uvan si: [u."van "si] P F vin. play (a game) (derived from uvan game)

29

wem: [wEm] P F vin. ght wempongu: ["wEm.po.Nu] P F n. squad, military clan, battle party (c.w. from wem ght and pongu group) wew: [wEw] P F adj. cold weyn: [wEjn] P F v. draw, illustrate win: [win] P F adj. fast win spi: ["win s."pi] P F vin. hurry (c.w. from win fast and spi do (reexive)) Y ya: [ja] P F n. air yafkeyk: ["ja.fkEjk^] P F n. weather (derived from fkeytok exist) yapay: ["ja.paj] P F n. mist, fog, steam (c.w. from ya air and pay water) yawne: ["jaw.nE] P F adj. beloved yawnetu: ["jaw.nE.tu] P F n. loved one (derived from yawne beloved) yawntu: ["jawn.tu] P F n. loved one (derived from yawne beloved) yayayr: [ja."jajR] P F n. confusion yaymak: ["jaj.mak^] P F adj. foolish, ignorant yayo: ["ja.jo] P F n. bird (c.w. from ya air and ioang animal) yn: [jn] P F vtr. fasten, tie down ye: [jE] P F adj. satised, content, satiated, full yekrr: ["jEP.kr] P F adv. early (derived from yern soon "and krr time) yern: ["jEP.RIn] P F adv. soon yehakx: ["jE.hak] P F adj. satised from hunger, full (derived from ye full and ohakx hungry) Z

win si: ["win "si] P F vin. rush something, make something fast (derived from win fast) wiya: ["wi.ja] ZS intj. expression of warning or frustration, damn! wntxu: [wIn."tu] P F v. show wok: [wok^] P F adj. loud wotx: [wot] P F n. totality, whole wrrpa: ["wr.pa] P F n., adv. outside wur: [wuR]" P F adj. cool, chilly > wutso: ["wu.tso] P F n. dinner, served meal

yem: [jEm] P F vtr. put, place yemfpay: [jEm."fpaj] P F n. dipping, immersion (into liquid) (c.w. from yem put and pay water) yemfpay si: [jEm."fpaj "si] P F vin. dip into liquid (derived from yemfpay dipping) yemstokx: ["jEm.stok] P F vtr. put on (clothing), don (c.w. from yem sn put on and tokx body) yevng: ["jE.vN] P F adj. satised from thirst by drink, feeling quenched, slaked (derived from ye satised and vng thirsty) yey: [jEj] P F adj. straight ym: [jIm] P F vtr. bind yol: [jol] P F adj. short (of time) yom: [jom] P F vtr. eat yomtng: ["jom.tIN] P F vin. feed (with dative object) (ii) (c.w. from yom eat and tng give) yora: [jo."RaP] P F vtr. win yur: [juR] P F vtr. wash

vtr. pull (derived zenke: ["zEN.kE] P F vim. must not (ii) (c.w. from zene must and ke not) zerok: ["zE.Rok^] P F v. remember zau: ["za.Pu] P F vin. come zeyko: [zEj."ko] P F vtr. heal, x (derived from zam: [zam] P F num. sixty four zo be well and eyk causative inx) zamunge: [za."mu.NE] P F vtr. bring (derived zmauyu: [zI."ma.Pu.yu] P F n. newcomer, somefrom munge bring) one who has just arrived on the scene zapx: [za."pI] P F n. front (part or section) (derizskrr: ["zI.sI.kr] P F n. season (derived from ved from hapx part) " zst year and krr time) zawng: [zawN] P F vin. scream zst: ["zI.sIt^] P F n. year zekw: ["zEk.w] P F n. nger zo: [zo] P F vin. be well, be intact, be as it should zene: ["zE.nE] P F vim. must be, work correctly or as nature intended zarp: [za."P.RIp^] from rp move)
PF

30

zup: [zup^] P F vin. fall zong: [zoN] P F v. save, defend > zongtseng: ["zoN.tsEN] P F n. safe place, refuge zusawkrr: [zu."saw.kr] P F n. future (c.w. from " zusau coming and krr time) (c.w. from zong save and tseng place) zoplo: [zop."lo] P F n. offence, insult zoslu: ["zo.slu] P F vin. heal, become well, get xed (c.w. from zo be well and slu become)

31

The Number System

The following are charts of Navi numbers, which are adjectives that modify nouns in their singular form, like awa tute. Note that it is not a decimal, but an octal system. Underlining indicates where the stress ought to fall. The numbers 8 and 9 are included for terrestrial number reference, such as in phone numbers. They do not signify the value of 8 or 9. Note that when using numbers in conversational Navi, Dr. Frommer has introduced a grammatical rule, called the Koren Holpxay, or the Number Principle, which states that in referring to the same entity, express number only once per clause. For example, the sentence You two are teachers. in Navi would be Menga lu karyu. and the sentence They are teachers. would be Fo lu karyu.. Navi Numbers: 0 39 1 2 3 vol mevol pxevol volaw mevolaw pxevolaw vomun mevomun pxevomun vopey mevopey pxevopey vosng mevosng pxevosng vomrr mevomrr pxevomrr vofu mevofu pxevofu vohin mevohin pxevohin

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 kew aw mune pxey tsng mrr pukap kin

4 tsvol tsvolaw tsvomun tsvopey tsvosng tsvomrr tsvofu tsvohin

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Navi Numbers: 40 63 5 6 7 mrrvol puvol kivol mrrvolaw puvolaw kivolaw mrrvomun puvomun kivomun mrrvopey puvopey kivopey mrrvosng puvosng kivosng mrrvomrr puvomrr kivomrr mrrvofu puvofu kivofu mrrvohin puvohin kivohin

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Ordinal Numbers Number + -ve 8 volve awve 9 volawve muve 10 vomuve pxeyve 11 vopeyve tsve 12 vosve mrrve 13 vomrrve puve 14 vofuve kive 15 vohive

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

x1 aw mune pxey tsng mrr pukap kin

More Navi Numbers: combining x8 x64 x512 -aw vol zam vozam -mun mevol mezam mevozam -pey pxevol pxezam pxevozam -sng tsvol tszam tsvozam -mrr mrrvol mrrzam mrrvozam -fu puvol puzam puvozam -hin kivol kizam kivozam

x4096 zazam mezazam pxezazam tszazam mrrzazam puzazam kizazam

32

zamtsvosng

Example Number zam + tsvo + sng 64 + 48 + 4 Non-Navi Numbers 8 eyt 9 nayn

100

Time

Here is a list of the Pandoran times of the day, as well as names made for the terrestrial week. Stress is again shown with underlining. Trrtxon trrong trrongmaw rewon srekamtrr kxamtrr kxamtrrmaw hangir kaym sretonong txonong txonongmaw txon srekamtxon kxamtxon kxamtxomaw txon sresrrong trrong dawn after dawn morning before noon noon after noon early afternoon late afternoon before nightfall nightfall after nightfall night before midnight midnight after midnight night before dawn dawn

Days of the Terrestrial Week Sunday trrawve Monday trrmuve Tuesday trrpxeyve Wednesday trrtsve Thursday trrmrrve Friday trrpuve Saturday trrkive

Navi Loan Words

> ngls: ["PIN.lI.sI] P F n. English language (loa- matsa: [ma.tsa] P F n. matsa, crackers (loaned ned from Eng. English) from Hebrew matsa) Rrta: ["Pr.ta] P F,P rr prop.n. Earth (loaned nFranse: [nI."fRan.sE] P F adv. French, in French " (loaned from Eng. French) from Eng. Earth) nToitsye: [nI."to.i.tsjE] P F adv. German, Europa: [E.u."Ro.pa] P F prop.n. Europe (loaned Deutsch (loaned from Deutsch German) from Greek Europe) Pari: [pa.Ri] P F prop.n. Paris (loaned from > hamets: [ha.mE.tsI] P F n. leavened bread (loaFrench Paris) ned from Hebrew chametz) psketpol: [p.skEt.pol] P F n. basketball (loaJakesully: [ZEjksu:li] M n. moron, toruk makned from Eng. basketball) " Eng. Jake Sully) (not nor> toyu (loaned from pts: ["p.tsI] P F n. badge (loaned from Eng. mally allowable under Navi phonotactic badge) rules) plok: [pI."lok^] P F n. blog (loaned from Eng. blog) kunsp: ["kun.sIp^] P F n. gunship (loaned from Eng. gunship) puk: [puk^] P F n. book (loaned from Eng. book) 33

> puktsyp: ["puk.tsjIp^] P F n. pamphlet, booklet (derived from puk book) pxir: [piR] P F n. beer (loaned from Deutsch bier) skxaypxe: ["skaj.pE] P F n. Skype (loaned from English Skype) Sweriye: [swERijE] P F prop.n. Sweden tawsp: ["taw.sIp^] P F n. sky-ship (loaned from Eng. ship) > Toitslan: ["to.i.tslan] P F prop.n. Germany (loaned from German Deutschland) > Toitsye: ["to.i.tsjE] P F adj. German (language) (loaned from German Deutsch)

toktor: ["tok.toR] P F n. doctor (loaned from Eng. doctor) > tsynel: [tsj.nEl] P F n. TV channel (loaned from Eng. channel) > tsyrf: [tsjI.R.fI] P F n. giraffe (loaned from Eng. giraffe) wou: ["wo.u] P F svin. be amazing, fascinating (slang) (loaned from Eng. whoa) Yeysu: [jEj.su] P F prop.n. Jesus (loaned from Italian Jesu) Yu.E.Sey: [ju.E.sEj] P F prop.n. USA (loaned from Eng. USA)

34

Navi Proper Nouns


Newey: [nE."wEj] P F prop.n. female Navi Neytiri: [nEj.ti.Ri] JC prop.n. female Navi of the Omatikaya Ninat: [ni.nat^] JC prop.n. female singer of the Omatikaya Omatikaya: [o.ma.ti."ka.ja] JC prop.n. Blue Flute Clan Otranyu: [ot."Ran.ju] JC prop.n. name Peyral: [pEj."Ral] P F prop.n. female of the Omatikaya Ralu: ["Ra.lu] P F prop.n. male Navi Rini: ["Ri.ni] P F prop.n. female Navi Rongloa: ["RoN.lo.a] JC prop.n. a clan Seze: ["sE.zE] ZS prop.n. Neytiris banshee Silwanin: [sil.wa.nin] JC prop.n. Neytiris sister Sorewn: [so."REwn] P F prop.n. female Navi Swotulu: ["swo.tu.lu] P F prop.n. sacred river (derived from swotu sacred place) Tawtute: ["taw.tu.tE] P F prop.n. Sky-person, human (c.w. from taw sky and tute person) > Tsahk: ["tsa.hIk^] JC prop.n. matriarch, high priestess, interpreter > Tsenu: ["tsE.nu] P F prop.n. female Navi > Tskaha: ["tska.ha] JC prop.n. a tribe or clan > Tsutey: [tsuP."tEj] JC prop.n. male of the Omatikaya > Tsumongwi: [tsu.moN.wi] JC prop.n. original name for the Omatikaya Tuke: ["tu.kE] P F prop.n. female Navi Txew: ["tE.wI] P F prop.n. male Navi Txilte: ["til.tE] P F prop.n. female Navi Uniltaron: [ u.nil."ta.Ron] P F prop.n. Dream Hunt (c.w. from unil dream and taron hunt) Utral Aymokriy: ["ut.Ral aj."mok.Ri.j] JC,P F prop.n. Tree of Voices (c.w. from utral tree and mokri voice)(from utraya mokri J C) Varu: ["vaP.Ru] P F prop.n. male Navi

Akwey: [ak."wEj] JC prop.n. male Navi Amhul: [am."hul] P F prop.n. female Navi Ateyitan: [a.tEj.i.tan] JC prop.n. son of Ateyo (derived from Ateyo male name and itan son) Ateyo: [a."tE.jo] JC prop.n. male Navi ayRam aLusng: [aj."Ram a.lu."sIN] P F prop.n. the Floating Mountains (c.w. from ram mountain and lng hover) ayVitray Ramunong: [aj.vit."Ra.j Ra."mu.noN] JC prop.n. Well of Souls (c.w. from vitra soul and ramunong well) nst: ["n.sIt^] P F prop.n. male Navi Entu: ["En.tu] P F prop.n. male Navi Eytukan: ["Ej.tu.kan] JC prop.n. male leader of the Omatikaya Eywa: ["Ej.wa] JC prop.n. world spirit, Gaia (derived from Proto-Indo-European *aiw) RL Eywaeveng: [ Ej.wa."PE.vEN] JC,P F prop.n. Pandora (informal pronunciation [Ej."wE.vEN]) (c.w. from Eywa Gaia and eveng child) Iknimaya: ["ik.ni."ma.ja] JC prop.n. Stairway to Heaven, the rite of passage for young Navi staw: [I."staw] P F prop.n. male Navi Kamun: ["ka.mun] P F prop.n. male Navi (affectionate form Kamtsyp) Kelutral: ["kE.lut.Ral] P F prop.n. Hometree (c.w. from kelku home and utral tree) Liona: [li.Po.na] G,P F prop.n. a clan Loak: ["lo.ak^] P F prop.n. male Navi Moat: ["mo.Pat^] JC prop.n. tsahk of the Omatikaya (also pronounced Moat) Moatite: [mo.Pat.Pi.tE] JC prop.n. daughter of Moat (derived from Moat a woman and ite daughter) Navi: ["naP.vi] P F prop.n. the People, indigenous Pandoran sentient race

35

Flora and Fauna

Flora ampirikx: ["Pam.pi.Rik] P F n. leaf pitcher plant (c.w. from ampi touch and rikx move) o: ["P.Po] P F n. pitcher plant elewll: ["PE.lEP.wl] P F n. thorny paw, cactus " (derived from ewll plant) anheyu: [a.nI."hE.ju] P F n. bonacci, blue spiral plant (c.w. from ean blue and heyu spiral) apxangrr: [a."pa.Nr] P F n. delta tree (c.w. from " apxa large and ngrr root) atokirina: [a.to.ki."Ri.naP] JC n. seeds of the great tree awaiei: [a.wa.i."E.i] P F n. banshee of paradise eanean: ["E.an."E.an] P F n. cheadle, herbaceous plant (c.w. from ean blue) eyaye: [E."ja.jE] P F n. warbonnet fkxakewll: ["fka.kE.wl] P F n. itch plant (c.w. " from fkxake itch and ewll plant) ee: ["flE.flE] P F n. Sols delight, magnetotrophic plant fngapsutxwll: ["fNap.sut.wl] P F n. metalfollowing plant (c.w. from" fngap metal and sutx follow) fwkwll: ["fw.kI.wl] P F n. mantis orchid (c.w. " from fwk mantis and ewll plant) hrumwll: [hI."Rum.wl] P F n. puffer plant " kllpxiwll: [kl."pi.wl] P F n. lionberry (c.w. from " and" pxiwll sharp plant) kllte ground kxaylte: ["kajl.tE] P F n. cillaphant (derived from kxayl high) loreyu: [lo."RE.ju] P F n. helicoradian, beautiful spiral (c.w. from lor beautiful and heyu spiral) mnyu: ["mIn.ju] P F n. turner, twisted lily (derived from mn turn) mulpxar: [mul."paR] P F n. roosterhead plant paliwll: ["paP.li.wl] P F n. direhorse pitcher plant (c.w. from pali" direhorse and ewll plant) > pamtseowll: ["pam.tsE.o.wl] P F n. cat ear, mu" sic plant (c.w. from pamtseo music and ewll plant) paywll: ["paj.wl] P F n. water plant, dapophet " (c.w. from pay water and ewll plant) penghrrap: [pEN."hr.ap^] P F n. binary sunshine, " fringed lamp (c.w. from peng tell and hrrap danger) pxayzekw: [paj."zEk.w] P F n. spiny whips (c.w. from pxay many and zekw nger) pxiut: ["pi.ut^] P F n. razor palm, sharp tree (c.w. from pxi sharp and utral tree) pxiwll: ["pi.wl] P F n. hermit bud plant (c.w. " from pxi sharp and ewll plant) pxorna: ["poR.naP] P F n. episoth, exploding seed (c.w. from pxor explode and rina seed) pxornalor: ["poR.naP."loR] P F n. sari, beautiful exploding seed plant (c.w. from pxorna exploding seed and lor beautiful) rawp: [Rawp^] P F n. bladder polyp rumut: ["Rum.ut^] P F n. ball tree (c.w. from rum ball and utral tree) seze: ["sE.zE] P F,ZS n. blue ower smaoe: [sma."o.E] P F n. phalanxia, heavily thorned plant sngukx: [sNuk] P F n. grub plant somtlor: ["som.tI.loR] P F n. popsicle, hot beauty (c.w. from som hot and tlor beauty) syeptute: ["sjEp.tu.tE] P F n. hyneman, person trapper (c.w. from syep trap and tute person) tautral: ["ta.ut.Ral] P F n. sky tree (c.w. from taw sky and utral tree) > tawtsngal: ["taw.tsNal] P F n. panopyra, sky cup (c.w. from taw sky and tsngal cup) thawnuwll: [tI."haw.nu.wl] P F n. spartan, protection plant (c.w. from" thawnu protection and ewll plant) tompawll: ["tom.pa.wl] P F n. geode, rain plant " (c.w. from tompa rain and ewll plant) torukspxam: ["to.Ruk.spam] P F n. octoshroom, great leonopteryx fungus (c.w. from toruk great leonopteryx and spxam mushroom) > tsawlapxangrr: ["tsawl.a.pa.Nr] P F n. unidelta tree, lit. tall large root (c.w." from tsawl big and ngrr root)(for short, tsawlapx) > tstxaa: ["tsta.Pa] P F n. canalyd > tsyorinawll: [tsjo.Ri."naP.wl] P F n. cycad, our " seed plant (c.w. from rina seed and ewll plant) txllu: ["tl.Pu] P F n. hookagourd " txumpaywll: ["tum.paj.wl] P F n. scorpion " thistle, poison water plant (c.w. from txum poison and paywll water plant)

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> txumtswll: [tum."tsP.wl] P F n. Baja tickler, Vitrautral: [vit."Ra.ut.Ral] P F prop.n. Tree of " Souls (c.w. from vitra soul and utral tree) poison-squirting plant (c.w. from ts squirt and ewll plant) yomhang: [jom."hIP.aN] P F n. small anivfewll: ["v.fE.wl] P F n. Centipede, bad-smell mal/insect eater, dakteron (c.w. from yom eat " v unpleasant and fahew plant (c.w. from and hang insect) smell) vrumut: ["v.Ru.mut^] P F n. vein pod (c.w. yomioang: [jom.i."o.aN] P F n. chalice plant (c.w. from yom eat and ioang animal) from v unpleasant and rum ball) Fauna > angtsk: ["PaN.tsIk^] P F n. hammerhead eltungawng: ["El.tu.NawN] P F n. brainworm (c.w. from eltu brain and ngawng worm) fkio: ["fki.o] P F n. tetrapteron fpxafaw: ["fpa.faw] P F n. medusa fwampop: ["fwam.pop^] P F n. tapirus fwk: ["fw.kI] P F n. mantis ikran: ["ik.Ran] JC n. banshee ikranay: ["ik.Ra.naj] ASG n. forest banshee (Not PF) kaliweya: [ka.liP.wE.ja] ASG n. species of poisonous arachnid kenten: ["kEn.tEn] P F n. fan lizard lonataya: [lo.na.ta.ja] ASG n. medusa nantang: ["nan.taN] JC,P F n. viperwolf Caniferratus costatus, striped armored wolf pali: ["paP.li] P F n. direhorse palulukan: [ pa.lu."lu.kan] JC n. thanator (colloquial [pa."lu.kan]) riti: ["Ri.ti] JC n. stingbat syaksyuk: [sjak."sjuk^] P F n. prolemuris talioang: ["tal. i.o.aN] JC n. sturmbeest (derived from ioang animal) teylu: ["tEj.lu] JC n. beetle larva toruk: ["to.Ruk^] JC n. great leonopteryx, last shadow yerik: ["jE.Rik^] P F n. hexapede zize: [zi."zEP] P F n. hellre wasp

37

Useful Phrases

These are some useful phrases. Often the word order can be changed, although the morphemes are probably invariable. Weve included these not only to show instances where a phrase encapsulates a single semantic meaning, but also to illustrate set common constructions. For this reason we have also included some single words again here. Most of these are taken from Dr. Frommers blog at Naviteri.org. Theyve been included in no specic conversational order, but rather alphabetically. awa swawtsyp: [] P F ph. just a tiny moment, hold on a bit efu ohakx: ["PE.fu o."hak] P F ph. be hungry ivong nkong: [] P F ph. slow is ne n nga fyape nfkrr: [] P F ph. whats been keeping you busy lately? Aytele a ngey hapxm kifkey lu fyape?: [] P F ph. How are things in your part of the world? txle pa(lu)lukanur: [."t.lE pa."lu.ka.nuR] P F ph. Navi idiom: txle si palulukanur tsn smarit livonu; Ask a thanator to release its prey, its a foregone conclusion etrpa syayvi: ["Et.RI.pa "sjaj.vi] P F ph. good luck Eywa ngahu: ["Ej.wa "Na.hu] P F,JC ph. goodbye, Eywa (be) with you fpor syaw fko staw: [] P F ph. this is staw Fnu, ma evi. Sanur leru hawtsyp. Tsivurokx ko.: [] P F ph. Quiet, young one. Mommy is taking a nap. Let her rest. ftia oel lfyati leNavi no nwotx: [] P F ph. studying Navi is a ton of fun for me! ftxey...fuke: [ftEj fu."kE] P F ph. whether...or (derived from ftxey whether and fuke or not) fwk ke fwefwi: ["fw.kI kE "fwE.fwi] P F ph. Navi idiom: a mantis doesnt whistle, its against someones or somethings nature fyape fko syaw ngar?: ["fja.pE fko sjaw NaR] P F ph. what are you called, what is your name hayalo ta oe (oeta): [ha."ja.lo ta "o.E ("wE.ta)] P F ph. next time from me hayalovay: [ha."ja.lo.vaj] P F ph. until next time (c.w. from hayalo next time and vay- until) irayo: [i."Ra.jo] P F intj. thanks, thank you kaltx: [kal."tI] P F intj. hello (casual) kaltx sivi, ma staw: [] P F ph. say hello, staw kea tkin: ["kE.a tI."kin] P F ph. no need (for thanks) kefya srak: [kE."fja "sRak^] P F ph. isnt that so? right? no? ke...kawit: [kE kaw."Pit^] P F ph. not...at all (derived from ke not and kawit at all) ke pxan: [kE pan] P F ph. Im not worthy ke tslolam: [] P F ph. I didnt get that, I didnt understand ke zene win spivi: [] P F ph. take your time, dont rush kyevame: [kI.jE."va.mE] P F intj. good-bye, see you again soon krro krro: ["kr.o "kr.o] P F ph. at times, on occasion > " " kxetse s mikyun kop plltxe: ["kE.tsE sI "mik.jun kop^ pl."tE] LN,P F ph. Navi proverbial phrase: " the tail and ears also speak, body language is important ma frapo, ayngaru oey tsmukit alu Newey: [] P F ph. everybody, please allow me to introduce (to you) my sister, Newey makto zong: ["mak.to zoN] P F ph. take care, travel safely ne kllte: ["nE "kl.tE] P F ph. get down (c.w. from ne to and kllte ground) " nga lpivawk nit nul ko: [] P F ph. tell me a bit more about yourself nga lpivawk nno ko: [] P F ph. tell me all about yourself nga pesuhu kteng ntrrtrr: [] P F ph. who do you normally spend time with? ngari solalew polpxaya zst: [] P F ph. how old are you?, how many years have you passed?

38

ngari txelan mawey livu: ["Na.Ri tEP."lan ma."wEj li."vu] P F ph. dont worry, may your heart be calm ngaru lu fpom srak?: ["Na.Ru lu fpom sRak^] P F ph. How are you? are you well? ngaru lu pefnetxintn ntrrtrr: [] P F ph. what is your primary role in society? ngaru oey lertut: [] P F ph. allow me to introduce my colleague > ngaru tsulf: ["Na.Ru tsul."f] P F ph. to your the mastery ngaru tut: ["Na.Ru tut^] P F ph. and to you? and you? (After a question with a dative subject) nga yawne lu oer: [Na "jaw.nE lu wER] P F ph. I love you, you are beloved to me nga z(ol)au ftu peseng: [] P F ph. where are you from? ngenga lu tupe: [] P F ph. who are you? > ngey kxetse lu oeru: ["NEj. "kE.tsE lu "wE.Ru] P F,JC ph. Navi idiom: your tail is mine!, youre going down! nlun ayioi aeoio ayeyktan lu lor frato: [] P F ph. Of course the ceremonial wardrobes of the leaders are the most beautiful nprrte: [nI."pr.tEP] P F adv. gladly, I did it with pleasure " oe olongokx m sray a txampayri sim, sl set kelku si m Helutral: [] P F ph. I was born in a town near the ocean, but I now live in Hometree oe irayo si ngaru: ["o.E i."Raj.o si "Na.Ru] P F ph. I give thanks to you, thank you oel ngati kameie: [wEl "Na.ti "ka.mE.i.E] P F ph. I see you, hello (familiar) oeri solalew zst apxevol: [] P F ph. I am 24 years old oeru meuia: ["wE.Ru mE."u.i.a] P F ph. an honor to me, it was an honour oeru syaw (fko) Txew: [] P F ph. my name is Txew oeru teya si: ["wE.Ru tE."ja si] P F ph. lls me with satisfaction, joy oeru txoa livu: ["wE.Ru "to.a li."vu] P F ph. please forgive me, may forgiveness be to me oe tskxekeng si ssulnur alu tsko swizaw: [] P F ph. I practice my hobby, which is archery oey txintn lu fwa stn fayoangit: [] P F ph. my central role in society is to catch sh pum ngey: [pum "NE.j] P F ph. yours, I should thank you rutxe lpivawk nit: [] P F ph. please talk a little bit about yourself rutxe liveyn: [] P F ph. could you repeat that please? rutxe tivng mikyun, ma frapo: [] P F ph. Your attention, please, everyone! sfpl asteng tkan ateng: [] P F ph. Navi proverbial phrase: Great minds think alike! seykxel s nitram: [sEj."kEl sI nit."Ram] P F ph. strong and happy!, congratulations smon nprrte: [smon nI."pr.tEP^] P F ph. nice to know you " srake fnan ngal lfyati leNavi: [] P F ph. are you good at Navi? srake smon ngar oey meylan alu Entu s Kamun: [] P F ph. do you know my friends Entu and Kamun? srefereiey nprrte: [] P F ph. looking forward to it stum ke: [stum kE] P F ph. almost not (Note: Use instead of hardly", barelyr scarcely".) taronyut yom smarl: ["ta.Ron.jut jom smaR.Il] P F ph. Navi idiom: the prey eats the hunter, a totally botched situation, chaos tefum oey: [tI."PE.fu.mI "wE.j] P F ph. in my opinion tiavay krr: [tI."PiP.a.vaj "kr.] P F ph. forever, until the end of time " tori peu sunu ngar frato: [] P F ph. what is your favorite (favourite) way to have fun? tknri kempe si nga: [] P F ph. what do you do in your free time? tkangkemri varmrrn oe nwotx: [] P F ph. I was completely swamped at work tkxey ngaru: [tI."kEj "Na.Ru] P F ph. youre wrong tomumm oey: [tI."o.mum.mI wE.j] P F ph. to my knowledge tyawr ngaru: [tI."jawR "Na.Ru] P F ph. youre right tokx eo tokx: ["tok "E.o "tok] P F ph. face to face, in person 39

Tsaluri alu X, ral lu upe: [] P F ph. what does X mean? > tstunwi: ["tstun.wi] P F adj. kind, that was kind of you to say tsun mivkxu hkrr srak: [] P F ph. may I interrupt a moment? tsun nga law sivi nit srak: [] P F ph. could you make that a bit clearer?, could you explain that further? txon lefpom: [ton lE."fpom] P F ph. good night, peaceful night X-()ri peral: [] P F ph. what does X mean? X nNavi (slu) pelu: [] P F ph. how do you say X in Navi? zau neng: ["za.Pu nI."PEN] P F ph. share an interest in common zolau nprrte: [zol."a.Pu nI."pr.tEP] P F ph. come pleasurably, welcome "

40

The Alphabet

Kemaweyan, Plumps, Prrton, and Tirea Aean came up with a uniquely Navi way of listing and pronouncing the 33 phonemes (distinct sounds) in the language20 consonants, 7 vowels, 2 pseudo-vowels (ll, rr), and 4 diphthongs (aw, ay, ew, ey). Here is that list. The Alphabet k KeK kx Kxekx l LeL ll Ll m MeM n NeN ng NgeNg o O p PeP px PxePx r ReR rr Rr

a aw ay e ew ey f h i

tFtang A AW AY E EW EY F H I

s t tx ts u v w y z

S TeT TxeTx Ts U V W Y Z

41

Inections

Verbal Inxes alm: [al.m] LN perfective past tense verbal inx in position 1 (PERF. PAST), derived from am + ol: Oe tsngalmawvk. I wept. aly: [al.j] LN perfective future tense verbal inx in position 1 (PERF. FUT.), derived from ay + ol: Oe halyangham. I will have laughed. am: [a.m] LN past tense verbal inx in position 1 (PAST.): Oe tswamayon. I ew. arm: [aR.m] LN imperfective past tense verbal inx in position 1 (IMPF. PAST.), derived from am + er: Oe tsngarmawvk. I was weeping. ary: [aR.j] LN imperfective future tense verbal inx in position 1 (IMPF. FUT.), derived from ay + er: Oe haryangham. I will be laughing. asy: [a.sj] P F future tense with determination verbal inx in position 1 (FUT. D .): Oel tspasyang palulukanit. I will denitely kill the thanator. > ats: [a.ts] LN inferential, indicating uncertainty or indirect knowledge verbal inx in position 2 (INFR .): Oel tspatsang poanit. I killed him (I think.) awn: [aw.n] P F passive participle verbal inx in position 1 (P. PART.): Oe tawnaron-a tte lu. I am a hunted person. ay: [a.j] LN future tense verbal inx in position 1 (FUT.): Oel yerikit tayaron. I will hunt the yerik. ng: [.N] LN pejorative affect verbal inx in position 2 (PEJ .): Oe srngew. I dance (ugh!). p: [.p] P F reexive verbal inx the pre-rst position (REFL .): Oe stpeftxaw. I check myself. ei: [E.i] LN laudative affect verbal inx in position 2 (LAUD .): Oe sreiew. I dance (hooray!). er: [E.R] P F imperfective aspect verbal inx in position 1 (IMPF.): Oe terran. I am walking. eyk: [Ej.k] P F causative verbal inx the pre-rst position (CAUS .): Oel teykerkup pot. I caused him to die. ilv: [il.v] P F present perfective subjunctive verbal inx in position 1 (PRES . PER . SUBJ .): Oe new tslilvam. I want to understand. imv: [im.v] P F past subjunctive verbal inx in position 1 (PAST. SUBJ .): Oey swizaw nngay timvakuk. May my arrow have struck true. irv: [iR.v] P F present imperfective subjunctive verbal inx in position 1 (PRES . IMPF. SUBJ .): Oe new tslirvam. I want to be understanding. iv: [i.v] LN subjunctive mood verbal inx in position 1 (SUBJ .): Ngal new futa oe wivem. You want this thing: for me to ght. iyev: [i.jE.v] P F future subjunctive verbal inx in position 1 (FUT. SUBJ .): Oel kiyevame ngati. I will see you soon. lm: [Il.m] LN perfective recent past tense verbal inx in position 1 (PERF. REC . PAST.), derived from m + ol: Oe tlmtxaw. I just now returned. ly: [Il.j] LN perfective immediate future tense verbal inx in position 1 (PERF. IMM . FUT.), derived from y + ol: Oe hlyahaw. I will have slept soon. m: [I.m] LN recent past verbal inx in position 1 (REC . PAST.): Oe tswmayon. I just ew. rm: [IR.m] LN imperfective recent past tense verbal inx in position 1 (IMPF. REC . PAST.), derived from m + er: Oe trmtxaw. I was just now returning. ry: [IR.j] LN imperfective immediate future tense verbal inx in position 1 (IMPF. IMM . FUT.), derived from y + er: Oe hryahaw. I will be sleeping soon. sy: [I.sj] P F immediate future tense with determination verbal inx in position 1 (IMM . FUT. D .): Oel tspsyang palulukanit. I will denitely kill the thanator soon.

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y: [I.j] LN immediate future tense verbal inx in position 1 (IMM . FUT.): Oel yerikit tyaron. I will hunt the yerik soon. yev: [I.jE.v] P F future subjunctive verbal inx in position 1 (FUT. SUBJ .): Oel kyevame ngati. I will see you soon. ol: [o.l] P F perfective aspect verbal inx in position 1 (PERF.): Oe tolran. I walked (nished action). us: [u.s] LN active participle verbal inx in position 1 (A . PART.): Oe tusaron-a tte lu. I am a hunting person. uy: [u.j] P F honoric (honouric) or ceremonial verbal inx in position 2 (HON .): Naviy, luyu hapx. You are part of The People. Noun Case Inections : [] P F genitive sufx for nouns ending in a everything but a, , e, i and (allomorph of y) (GEN .): Oel yom ikran yerikit. I eat the ikrans yerik. it: [it^] P F patientive sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of t, ti) (PAT.): Oel taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik. l: [Il] P F agentive case sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of l) (ERG .): Ikranl taron yerikit. The ikran hunts the yerik. ri: [IRi] P F topical sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of ri) (TOP.): Fskxawngri tsapalute sengi oe. I apologise for this moron. l: [l] LN agentive case for nouns ending in a vowel (ERG .): Oel taron yerikit. I hunt the yerik. r: [R] LN dative sufx for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of ru) (DAT.): eltur ttxen si intriguing ri: [Ri] P F topical for nouns ending in a vowel (TOP.): Ayngari zene hivum You must leave. ru: [Ru] LN dative sufx for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of ur) (DAT.): Oel syuvet ngaru tng. I give food to you. t: [t^] LN patientive sufx for nouns ending in a vowel (allomorph of it, ti) (PAT.): Oel ngat kame. I see you. ti: [ti] LN patientive for pronouns and nouns (PAT.): Ngati taron torukl. The toruk hunts you. ur: [uR] P F dative sufx for nouns ending in a consonant, dipthong, or pseudo-vowel (allomorph of ru) (DAT.): Ayeylanur oey. To my friends. y: [j] P F genitive for pronouns ending in a or e (casual speech) (GEN .): Ngey toruk sltsan lu. Your toruk is good. ya: [ja] P F,M vocative sufx for collective nouns: Mawey, Naviya. Calm, you Navi. y: [j] LN genitive sufx for nouns ending in a a, , e, i and (allomorph of ) (GEN .): Oel yeiom Neytiriy yerikit. I happily eat Neytiris yerik. (Causes vowel fronting of a in pronouns: may look like ey) Other Inections This is a list of Navi morphemes that can attach to the word that changes some aspect of the meaning. Not all Navi inections are productive. (pro.) indicates complete productivity, where they can be applied to any of the subset of words that Dr. Frommer has indicated they can modify, and would be canonical, even if unattested. They cannot be used on parts of speech that arent specied - for instance, attaching the clusivity marker ng would make no sense on the word for blue, ean. All of the verbal inxes and case markers, above, are entirely productive.

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a: [a] P F (pro.) adjectival attribution and subordination marker: Oel txantsana ikranit aean tswayon. I y the excellent blue ikran. an: [an] LN masculine sufx for certain nouns: Poan tftxuyu lu. He is a weaver. ay+: [aj] P F (pro.) plural for nouns (PL .): Ay+horen . The rules succeed. e: [E] P F feminine sufx for certain nouns: Poe taronyu lu. She is a hunter. fay+: [faj] P F (pro.) these for nouns (THESE): Fayawkx tsawl lu. These cliffs are tall. f: [fI] P F (pro.) this for nouns (THIS): Oel kame fnantangit. I see this viper-wolf. fkeyk: [fkEjk^] P F (pro.) sufx for nouns meaning state, condition: Kilvanfkeyk lu fyape ftrr? Whats the condition of the river today? fne: [fnE] P F (pro.) kind, type for nouns (KIND): Fneutralpe tsau lu? What kind of tree is that? fra: [fRa] P F (pro.) every deriving afx Oel kamame frapot. I saw everyone. kaw: [kaw] P F not one deriving afx Oe kawkrr ke kam. I never went. lo: [lo] P F multiplicative number sufx for aw, mune, pxey: Awlo oe ramol. Once I sang. me+: [mE] LN (pro.) dual for nouns (DU .): Oel new me+orati. I want two lakes. ng: [N] LN clusivity for rst person pronouns (CLUS .): Ayoeng rol. We all sing. o: [o] P F (pro.) indenite sufx, durative sufx: Oel kalmame tuteot ayzsto. I saw someone for years. pay+: [paj] P F (pro.) plural inter. marker: Paystalit ngal tsramei? What knives did you throw? pe+: [pE] LN (pro.) afx inter. marker: pe+hrr nga lrrtok sayi. What time (when) will you smile? pxe+: [pE] P F (pro.) trial for nouns and pronouns (TRI .): Pxoeng Pxe+veng lu. We are three children. (Note that e + e cannot be together, and so ellision occurs, and that oe is a pronoun which often undergoes ellision) > tsa: [tsa] P F (pro.) that for nouns (THAT): Oel kame tsanantangit. I see that nantang. > tsay+: [tsaj] P F (pro.) those for nouns (THOSE): Tsayora txukx lu. Those lakes are deep. > tsyp: [tsjIp^] P F (pro.) diminutive sufx for nouns, pronouns: Zau ftseng, ma itetsyp. Come here, little daughter. ve: [vE] P F (pro.) ordinal sufx for numbers: Koren aawve trusey awsiteng. The rst rule of living together. vi: [vi] P F partitive relationship marker: Oe nume m numtsengvi. I learn in the classroom. Other Inectional Morphology These derivational morphemes are different than the inectional morphemes (in technical speak) above. In other words, the markers here dont just change the meaning - they change the part of speech. Some of these, only Dr. Frommer can use in order to make a canonical word, like t. Others are productive for certain subsets, like yu, which can go on any verb. le: [lE] P F adjective deriving afx Poan lehrrap lu. He is dangerous. nga: [NaP^] P F adjective deriving afx Akra apaynga lu. It is moist soil. n: [nI] LN adverbial deriving afx Oe nNavi plltxe. I speak navi-ly. (Like a Navi.) (Pro. for adjectives only, unproductive for other forms - otherwise modify nfyao with appropriate adjective or relative clause) s: [s] P F instrumental noun deriving afx Oel snumet nume. I learn the teaching. si: [si] LN postpositional verb deriving afx Oe kelku si Kelutralm. I live in Hometree. (lit. I home make in Hometree.) t: [tI] LN noun deriving afx Tngay sltsan lu. The truth is good. t us: [tI us] P F (pro.) gerund (verbal noun) deriving afx Tkusar eltur ttxen si. Teaching is interesting.

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tu: [tu] P F (pro.) person noun from non-verbal stem deriving afx Oe reltseotu lu. I am an artist. yu: [ju] LN (pro.) agent noun deriving afx Oe kea skaayu ke lu. I am no destroyer.

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Non-Frommerian Words

These are words that are not from Dr. Frommer: We have included them as they are in the extant corpus, but they are not to be regarded as Navi words. They are, for the most part, spurious inventions for the Activists Survival Guide, Pandorapedia, or the Avatar Game. None of these words were run by Dr. Frommer before being published, and the general consensus is that they ought to be ignored. They are included here for those who would otherwise not know what their denitions or derivations are. These words are not canonical, and their use is highly discouraged. Many of them out Navi inectional rules or phonotactic constraints. Some include illegal sounds, as illustrated below. h [Ph], b [b], c [k], ch [tS], d [d], g [g], h [hP], ii [i:], j [Z], sh [S], uu [u:] Amanti: [a.man.ti] G prop.n. female of the Tipani Anurai: [a.nu.Ra.i] G prop.n. clan name arlek: [arPlEk^] G n. a seed-bearing plant Beydaamo: [bEjdaPamo] G prop.n. male warrior of the Tipani chantu gorek nuuto: [tSanPtu gorPEk^nuuto] ASG n. stone jar chey: [tSEj] ASG n. possesions rack (derived from Pah sivil chey rack) Eywa ksey nivibrista: [Ejwa kPsEj niviPbriPsta] ASG n. hammock, from Eywa cradles everyone Eywa silivi maskit nivi: [Ejwa sPilivi masPkit^nivi] ASG Ewyas wisdom is revealed to all of us Eywa te _ tansey makta: [Ejwa tEP tanPsEj makPta] ASG n. ikran queue harness, lit. the love of Eywas embrace is gifted to (personal name) feru mpreduk: [fEru mPpREduPk^] ASG n. basket Fmilam: [fmi.lam] G prop.n. female of the Tipani Grolryc: [gRoPlRjc] G prop.n. a series of caves Hukato: [hu.ka.to] G prop.n. male of the Tipani Ikalu: [i.ka.lu] G prop.n. male of the Tipani iveh knivi sdir: [ivEh kPnivi sPdir] ASG n. baby sling ksey nivi: [kPsEj nivi] ASG n. group sleep Kaoli Tei: [ka.o.li. tE.i] G prop.n. the plains of Goliath > Koo Tsura: [ko: tsu.Ra] G prop.n. a Tipani village Kusati: [ku.sa.ti] G prop.n. female warrior of the Tipani Kyuna: [kjuna] G prop.n. female of the Anurai lenayga: [lEnajPga] ASG n. slinger, predatory animal Lompo: [lom.po] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami Lungoray: [lu.No.Raj] G prop.n. shaman of the Tipani mreshtuyu: [mPRESPtuju] or [mPREshPtuju] ASG n. shield Malimi: [ma.li.mi] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami malmoks: [malmoks] G n. rings of stone Marali: [ma.Ra.li] G prop.n. female of the Tipani maskit nivi sanok: [masPkit^nivi saPnok^] ASG mother loom Maweytakuk: [ma.wEj.ta.kuk^] G prop.n. male Navi Mekanei: [mE.ka.nE.i] G prop.n. male of the Tipani Mendala: [mEn.da.la] G prop.n. male of the Tipani mereshti caupla: [mERESPti kauPpla] or [meReshPti kauPpla] ASG n. banshee catcher, bola, lit. nothing to see meshkai huru: [mESPkai huRu] P N D n. cooking pot mreki ulito: [mREki uPlito] ASG n. re pit Mukata: [mu.ka.ta] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami nahla bukne: [naPhla bukPnE] ASG n. direhorse lead, lit. face pull Naalot: [na:.lot^] G prop.n. male of the Tipani Neranak: [nE.RaP.nak^] G prop.n. female of the Tawkami > niktchey: [niktPtshEj] or [niktPtSEj] ASG n. small bit of food, packed lunch nivi: [ni.vi] ASG n. hammock (informal), us (derived from Eywa ksey nivibrista Ewya cradles everyone)

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Nok: [nok^] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami Oloniwin: [o.lo.ni.win] G prop.n. male elder of the Tipani Omati: [o.ma.ti] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami omati sampta: [omati sPampta] ASG n. blue ute Onantu: [o.nan.tu] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami Otamu: [o.ta.mu] G prop.n. male of the Tipani Pah sivil chey: [pPah sPivil tSEj] ASG n. personal belongings rack pxtxawng: [ptawN] JC n. douchebag Raiuk: [Ra.i.Puk^] G prop.n. male of the Anurai Raltaw: [Ral.taw] G prop.n. male hunter of the Tipani Snume: [s.nu.mE] G prop.n. tsahk of the Tipani (derived from snume teaching) Seyvaro: [sEj.va.Ro] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami shah-tell: [Sah.tEl] ASG n. shuttle (loaned from Eng. shuttle) (not normally allowable under Navi phonotactic rules) sushiri tacto sa: [suPshiri tPacto sa] or [suPshiri tPacto sa] ASG n. toy ikran suminsey hulleh: [suminPsEj hulEh] ASG slee" ping outside of the group sumin jiitluy: [sumin ZiitPluy] ASG n. leaf plate Swawta: [swaw.ta] G prop.n. male of the Tipani triti so jahmka: [tPRiti so Zahmka] ASG n. pendulum drum Taantasi: [ta.Pan.ta.si] G prop.n. Tantalus, rocky place on Pandora Tan Jala: [tan jala] G prop.n. male of the Tipani Tasun: [ta.sun] G prop.n. male hunter of the Lona

Tawkami: [taw.ka.mi] G prop.n. a clan (c.w. from taw sky and kame see) Tilikaru: [ti.li.ka.Ru] G prop.n. a Tipani village Tipani: [ti.pa.ni] G prop.n. a clan ttakuk: [tI."ta.kuk^] G n. strike (derived from takuk strike) tmi natsey: [tmi natPsEj] ASG n. bladder lantern, from food here > Tsalaw: [tsaP.law] G prop.n. male of the Tawkami > Tsaro: [tsa.Ro] G prop.n. male of the Tipani > Tsmuke: [tsmu.kE] G prop.n. a Tipani village txei: [tE.i] G n. plain uimi: [u.Pi.mi] ASG n. streamer, pendant Uimi huyuticaya: [uPimi hujutikaja] ASG prop.n. a clan > Ukamtsu: [u.kam.tsu] G prop.n. male of the Tipani > ulivi maritsey makdinito: [Ulivi mariPtsEj makPdiniPto] ASG loom, lit. branches of the tree look to each other for strength, or many branches together are strong ulutah inibsey mulsi: [uluPtah inibPsEy mulsi] ASG n. leaf plate Umkansa: [um.kan.sa] G prop.n. a Tipani village Unipey: [u.ni.pEj] G prop.n. female of the Tipani utral utu mauti: [ut.Ral u.tu ma.u.ti] ASG n. push fruit tree (c.w. from utral tree and utu mauti push fruit) utu mauti: [u.tu ma.u.ti] ASG n. banana fruit, push fruit Vaer Ramunong: [va.PE.R Ra.mu.noN] G prop.n. Vaderas Hollow Vayaha: [va.ja.ha] G prop.n. a Tipani village

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The Changelog
12.331 - Corrected transitivity of rangal as vin. 12.33 - Added new vocabulary from naviteri.org, November 30, 2011 12.323 - Added dative sufx r to noun case inections list. 12.322 - Corrected typo on leniting morpheme boundary marker for nu 12.321 - Corrected a typo, some transitivity markings and a missing word from naviteri.org. Thanks to Plumps for catching these. 12.32 - Added new vocabulary from naviteri.org, October 30, 2011 12.315 - Corrected transitivity marking for hasey si, txng and hum. 12.314 - Corrected IPA for several words. Corrected transitive marking for kan. 12.313 - Corrected entries for adpositions kam and kay. Also corrected IPA for irayo (how did we miss this for so long?) 12.312 - Incredibly, even more typographical and transitivity errors corrected. 12.311 - Typographical errors and transitivity of various words corrected. Credit to Blue Elf and Plumps for these. 12.31 - Added new vocabulary and phrases from naviteri.org, September 24, 2011 post. ampi corrected as vtr., nfp. and ofp. abbreviated markers added. 12.301 - Added contractions from naviteri.org, September 4, 2001 post and corrections suggested by Oma Tirea 12.3 - Added new vocabulary from naviteri.org, September 4, 2011 post. 12.29 - Added lukpen 12.283 - Added loan words Toitslan and Toitsye. Corrected kurakx as vtr. Credit to Plumps for these. 12.282 - Corrected typos in the pronunciation of several words 12.281 - Added mawkrra, corrected denition for sasem 12.28 - Added new vocabulary from naviteri.org, August 3, 2011 post; corrected ngop as vtr. 12.274 - Corrected may as vtrm. Added example for K.Pawls Numbers Principle in the intro to the numbers section. 12.273 - Corrected tftang si as vin., atxkxerel stress marker error and tung as v. 12.272 - Added ftxoz si (thanks to Plumps) and kekem 12.271 - Added sample phrase for hawtsyp 12.27 - Added new vocabulary from naviteri.org, July 24, 2011 post.

Following is a brief record of the most recent revisions...

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