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# MatLAB SimPowerSystems

## Modelling and Simulation

System is often so nonlinear that only way to understand it is through simulation. SimPowerSystems and SimMechanics are Physical Modelling tools for MATLAB 7.1 Simulink to model electrical, mechanical, and control systems. Simulink is also a software design tool. Real Time Workshop allows to generate C language code for microcontrollers.

## Simulation models are useful for...

component selection in design control system tuning and adjustments including adjustments of protection system design of model-based control diagnosis and fault location accident reconstruction further developments

## Modelling of control circuits

Modern microprocessor-based protection systems often use sensors and feedbacks that include nonlinearities. Saturation block is used for modelling of measurement range of sensors and amplifiers Most frequently used Rate-Limiter block implements ideal low-pass filter characteristics of measurement amplifiers.

Saturation

Rate Limiter

Relay

## Where are equations ?

Simple elements and systems can be described by differential equations. There are ready-blocks that include equations of nonlinear elements. Simulink allows assembling of very complicated equation-systems as a detailed graphical blockdiagrams.
U a ( s ) = E ( s ) + ( Ra + sLa ) I a ( s ) E ( s ) = k ( s ) ( s ) Tem ( s ) = k ( s ) I a ( s ) k ( s ) = f (I e ( s ) ) Tem ( s) = TS ( s) + sJ ( s) U e ( s) = ( Re + sLe ) I e ( s) U a ( s ) = k TM u a ( s ) U e ( s ) = k TM u e ( s ) (3.44) 1 I a _ juh (s ) = k K 1 + s ( juh (s )) K 1 u a (s ) = k AV 1 + (I a _ juh (s ) I a (s )) AV s 1 I e _ juh (s ) = k E 1 + (E juh ( juh ) (s ) k (s )) Es 1 u e (s ) = k EV 1 + s (I e _ juh (s ) I e (s )) EV

Controlable components
g 1 m 2

Passive components

Ideal Switch
g s + C E m

Signal outputs
+ i -

## Series RLC Branch2

Current Measurement
+ v -

s + -

IGBT/Diode
+ g A

## Series RLC Branch3

Voltage Measurement

## Controlled Voltage Source

Universal Bridge 1
g + A B C

## Series RLC Branch4

Connections
Signal Power

Universal Bridge 2

## Dynamic Node Technique

Circuit is described using transfer functions Capacitances and Inductances can be described as Integrator functions Nonlinearities of varistors and inductors can be included to functions Low-pass filter models can be included Resistances can be described as voltage drops or additional loads Active components can be modeled as controllable sources or switches

## Dynamic Node Technique

Circuit diagram of DC intermediate circuit of IGBT frequency converter or chopper
K3
MR

R charge

C 14

## Simulation model using transfer functions and subsystems

5 Lineswitch 3 Chargeswitch 1 U_line Switch_K3 0 Constant Gain4 R_charge Gain3
u_L

I_line 2

1/L

1 s

i_L

i_C

1/C Gain

1 s Integrator_C
u_C

## Gain2 Integrator_L Switch_LS2 Rchoke Switch_LS1

1/Rdisc

Gain_R1

U1 I2 buck

I1 U2 U I

1 U_dc Resistor

4 Br_control 2 I_dc

Converter

SimPowerSystems example
DC intermediate circuit of IGBT frequency converter or chopper
K3
MR

Rcharge

C 14

## Simplified SImPowerSystems simulation model

2 Br_buck 1 Switch 2 Input Series RL Branch Choke DC-bus
g 1 m 2 g C m E

Ideal Switch

## IGBT Brake resistor

Parallel RC Branch

3 Ground

Solvers
Integration algorithms (Solvers) that exist in MatLAB SIMULINK are applicable. These include solvers that are using fixed time-step or variable time-step.