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Question bank for human anatomy and physiology I year B pharmacy syllabus (KUHS)

Introduction general anatomy and physiology and tissues Anatomy (with the help of a neat labeled diagram where ever necessary) 1) Classify the elementary tissues of the body and add a note on their location characteristics and functions of it? 2) Explain the structure of a cell and add a note on its function? 3) Out line the gross and microscopic structure of skeletal muscle? Add anote on its function? 4) Write short notes on 1. Cell junction 2. ion channels Physiology 5) Write short notes on 1) Transport mechanisms across the cell membranes? 2) Homeostasis 3) Second messengers 6) Out line the physiology of skeletal muscle contraction? 7) Explain the diff: in structure and functions on three types of muscle? 8) Excitation contraction coupling 9) Microsomes 10) What is Connective tissue and describe the classifications with diagram and egs? 11) Mitochondria Human skeletal system 1) Classify joints? Mention the functions of joints and add a note on the major disorders of joints? 2) Functions of skeletal system? 3) Structure and functions of bone? 4) Types of movements in joints? 5) Disorders of joints 6) Short note on mandibles, femur , humerus, synovial joints, hip joints 7) Diff: between the three types of muscles? 8) Excitation contraction coupling 9) Myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, myalgia, myositis, muscular atrophy 10) Isotonic and isometric contrations 11) All or none law

Body fluids and blood 1) Enumerate the functions of blood? 2) Functions of platelets, leucocytes? 3) Sig: of blood group? / blood Transfusion? 4) 5) 6) 7) Explain the mechanism of coagulation? and disorders on clotting? Jaundice? Explain the functions of lymphatic system? Briefl out line the mechanism of hemostasis. Add a note on anticoagulants?/ disorders of bleeding? 8) How the carbon dioxide is transported in blood? 9) Anti coagulants? 10) Rh system? 11) Hypoxia? 12) How Hb is metabolized in the body? 13) ABO and Rh system of blood grouping? 14) Describe the details of WBCs with neat diagrams and write its sig:? 15) Give an account of spleen? 16) Anaemia 17) Hypoxia 18) RBC 19) Hb 20) Functions and composition of Lymph 21) Spleen and its fuctions? 22) Hodgkins disease

Cardio vascular system Anatomy 1) Explain the anatomy of heart with a neat labeled diagram? 2) Describe the branches of aorta? 3) Write a note on the organization of blood vessels and histology of blood vessels? 4) Explain the histology of heart? Physiology 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Explain the cardiac cycle? Explain electro cardio gram and its correlation with cardiac cycle? Write a note on conduction system in heart? Define heart rate and explain its regulation? Define cardiac out put and explain its regulation? Define blood pressure (arterial pressure) and explain its regulation?

7) Define different types of BP and its importance? 8) Write a note on pulmonary circulation / coronary circulation? 9) Define the following Rheumatic heart diseases Hypertention CCF Angina pectoris Cardiac arrhythmias Arteriosclerosis MI 10) Explain the factors maintaining blood pressure? 11) Discuss in detail about the conduction system in heart with neat diagram? 12) A short note on Cardiac muscle. Radial pulse Normal ECG Heart sounds and its sig.? Rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Urinary system Anatomy 1) Explain the structure of Nephron with the help of a neat labeled diagram? 2) Explain the structure of kidney with the help of a neat labeled diagram? Physiology 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Functions of the Kidney Explain the physiology of urine formation? Explain the physiology of conc: urine formation? Explain the physiology of dil: urine formation? GFR and its regulation and sig:? Micturition reflex Define the following 1. Glomerulonephritis 2. Renal calculi 3. Renal failure 4. Urinary incontinence 8) Role of kidney in acid base homeostasis? 9) Juxta glomerular apparatus DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Anatomy 1) Explain the anatomy of stomach with a neat labeled diagram? 2) Explain the anatomy of alimentary canal? 3) Structure of tooth?

Physiology 1) write short notes on 1) liver(anatomy and function) 2) pancreas (,,) 3) GI hormones (name and function) 4) bile 5) Gall bladder. 6) Salivary glands 7) GI glands 8) Taste buds 9) Larynx 10) Tongue 11) Exocrine secretions in GIT? 12) Large intestine 13) Small intestine 14) Jaundice 15) Peptic ulcer 2) Explain the different phases of gastric acid secretion? 3) Explain the mechanism of gastric acid secretion, its composition and functions? 4) How protein is digested and absorbed? 5) How carbohydrate is digested and absorbed? 6) How fat is digested and absorbed? 7) Write in detail the functions of GI enzymes? 8) Write briefly on movements of small intestine and large intestine? 9) Explain in detail Digestion of food? 10) How blood sugar level is maintained? 11) Explain the functional anatomy of GIT. Add a note on peristalsis? / haustral churning? 12) Explain the exo and endocrine functions of pancreas? 13) Composition and functions of saliva? SENSE ORGANS Anatomy 1) ANATOMY of eye and ear Physiology 1) Explain the physiology of vision and visual pathway? 2) Explain the physiology of hearing?/traveling wave theory of hearing? 3) Explain the physiology of balancing? 4) Explain the physiology of gustation? 5) Explain the physiology of olfaction? 6) Trace the pathway of touch sensation? 7) Explain the cause of refractive errors of eye and its correction?

8) Explain the different types of balance of body and the organs involved in it? 9) Taste buds? 10) Out line the anatomy of retina? 11) Visual pathway 12) skin RESIPIRATORY SYSTEM Anatomy 1) Explain the anatomy of lungs with the help of a neat labeled diagram? 2) Write a note on anatomy of respiratory path way? Physiology 1) Explain the mechanism of respiration? 2) Write a note on regulation of respiration? 3) Write a note on respiratory centers? 4) Write briefly on modified respiration? 5) Explain the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide? 6) Lung volumes and capacities 7) Vital capacity 8) Periodic breathing 9) Artificial respiration 10) Spirogram 11) Surfactants 12) Explain the roles of blood, lungs and kidney in acid-base homeostasis? 13) Neural and chemical regulation of respiration? 14) Write short notes on Asthma, TB, CPR REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Anatomy Anatomy of male and female reproductive system Physiology 1) Spermatogenesis 2) Oogenesis 3) Sex differentiation 4) Out line the functions of ovary and testis 5) Ovulation 6) Physiology of menstruation? 7) Graffian follicles 8) Lactation 9) Out line the hormonal changes during uterine cycle?

CENTERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Anatomy 1) Trace the corticospinal tract and mention the diff: between pyramidal and extrapyramidal tract? 2) Neuron Physiology 1) Reflex action 2) Reflex arc 3) Functions of cerebellum, hypothalamus, basal ganglia 4) Nerve action potentials 5) Out line the functions of cranial nerves? 6) Name the descending tract of the spinal cord. Trace the pyramidal tract? 7) Electroencephalogram 8) CSF 9) Functions of brain 10) Write short notes on 11) Meningitis, narcolepsy, epilepsy, parkinsonism, hemiplegia stroke 12) Classify the nerves and add anote on its properties 13) Neuroglia ANS Anatomy Anatomy of ANS Physiology 1) Out line the physiology and functions of ANS 2) Functions of sympathetic NS 3) Resting membrane potential 4) Neuromuscular transmission 5) Neurotransmitters ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Anatomy Pancreas Physiology 1) How blood sugar level is maintained? 2) Ovarian hormones 3) Functions of growth hormones 4) How blood calcium level is maintained? 5) Functions of thyroid hormones. Add a note on myxoedema and cretinism? 6) Enumerate the hormones of anterior pituitary gland and their functions? 7) Thyroxin 8) Thymus 9) insulin 10) Enumerate the hormones of posterior pituitary gland and their functions? 11) Enumerate the hormones of adrenal gland and the functions of catecholamine? 12) Parathormone

13) Enumerate the endocrine hormones and their functions? 14) Acromegali 15) Goiter 16) Addisons disease 17) Cushings syndrome, pheochromocytoma, diabetic mellitus, diabetic insipidus, Prepared by Arun K Thomas Dept. of Pharmacology