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# Rec. ITU-R P.

1411-4

1

RECOMMENDATION ITU-R P.1411-4 Propagation data and prediction methods for the planning of short-range outdoor radiocommunication systems and radio local area networks in the frequency range 300 MHz to 100 GHz

(Question ITU-R 211/3) (1999-2001-2003-2005-2007)

Scope This Recommendation provides guidance on outdoor short-range propagation over the frequency range 300 MHz to 100 GHz. Information is given on path loss models for line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) environments, building entry loss, multipath models for both environments of street canyon and over roof-tops, number of signal components, polarization characteristics and fading characteristics.

The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that many new short-range (operating range less than 1 km) mobile and personal communication applications are being developed; b) that there is a high demand for radio local area networks (RLANs) and wireless local loop systems; c) that short-range systems using very low power have many advantages for providing services in the mobile and wireless local loop environment; d) that knowledge of the propagation characteristics and the interference arising from multiple users in the same area is critical to the efficient design of systems; e) that there is a need both for general (i.e. site-independent) models and advice for initial system planning and interference assessment, and for deterministic (or site-specific) models for some detailed evaluations, noting a) that Recommendation ITU-R P.1238 provides guidance on indoor propagation over the frequency range 900 MHz to 100 GHz, and should be consulted for those situations where both indoor and outdoor conditions exist; b) that Recommendation ITU-R P.1546 provides guidance on propagation for systems that operate over distances of 1 km and greater, and over the frequency range 30 MHz to 3 GHz, recommends 1 that the information and methods in Annex 1 should be adopted for the assessment of the propagation characteristics of short-range outdoor radio systems between 300 MHz and 100 GHz where applicable.

2

Rec. ITU-R P.1411-4

Annex 1

1 Introduction

Propagation over paths of length less than 1 km is affected primarily by buildings and trees, rather than by variations in ground elevation. The effect of buildings is predominant, since most short-path radio links are found in urban and suburban areas. The mobile terminal is most likely to be held by a pedestrian or located in a vehicle. This Recommendation defines categories for short propagation paths, and provides methods for estimating path loss and delay spread over these paths. 2 Physical operating environments and definition of cell types

Environments described in this Recommendation are categorized solely from the radio propagation perspective. Radiowave propagation is influenced by the environment, i.e. building structures and heights, the usage of the mobile terminal (pedestrian/vehicular) and the positions of the antennas. Four different environments are identified, considered to be the most typical. Hilly areas, for example, are not considered, as they are less typical in metropolitan areas. Table 1 lists the four environments. Recognizing that there is a wide variety of environments within each category, it is not intended to model every possible case but to give propagation models that are representative of environments frequently encountered. TABLE 1 Physical operating environments – Propagation impairments

Environment Urban high-rise Description and propagation impairments of concern – Urban canyon, characterized by streets lined with tall buildings of several floors each – Building height makes significant contributions from propagation over roof-tops unlikely – Rows of tall buildings provide the possibility of long path delays – Large numbers of moving vehicles in the area act as reflectors adding Doppler shift to the reflected waves Urban/suburban low-rise – Typified by wide streets – Building heights are generally less than three stories making diffraction over roof-top likely – Reflections and shadowing from moving vehicles can sometimes occur – Primary effects are long delays and small Doppler shifts Residential – Single and double storey dwellings – Roads are generally two lanes wide with cars parked along sides – Heavy to light foliage possible – Motor traffic usually light Rural – Small houses surrounded by large gardens – Influence of terrain height (topography) – Heavy to light foliage possible – Motor traffic sometimes high

Propagation from this BS is mainly over the roof-tops. this case is called NLoS1. . Table 2 shows typical velocities for these scenarios. propagation is mainly within street canyons. 3. For these two applications the velocity of the mobile is quite different yielding different Doppler shifts. In these cell types. TABLE 3 Definition of cell types Cell type Micro-cell Dense urban micro-cell Pico-cell Cell radius 0. TABLE 2 Physical operating environments – Typical mobile velocity Environment Urban high-rise Urban/suburban low-rise Residential Rural Velocity for pedestrian users (m/s) 1.5 1. 2. In the following. both ends of the link can be assumed to be below roof-top level. 1) is described by Fig. Base station BS2 is mounted below roof-top level and defines a dense urban micro. Table 3 lists the typical cell types relevant for outdoor short-path propagation. Base station BS1 is mounted above roof-top level.Rec.) 3 3. mounted below average roof-top level Indoor or outdoor (mounted below roof-top level) (Note that “dense urban micro-cell” is not explicitly defined in Radiocommunication Study Group 8 Recommendation. heights of some surrounding buildings may be above base station antenna height Outdoor. 1.5 km Up to 50 m Typical position of base station antenna Outdoor.1 Propagation over rooftops. For mobile-to-mobile links.1.5 Velocity for vehicular users Typical downtown speeds around 50 km/h (14 m/s) Around 50 km/h (14 m/s) Expressways up to 100 km/h (28 m/s) Around 40 km/h (11 m/s) 80-100 km/h (22-28 m/s) The type of propagation mechanism that dominates depends also on the height of the base station antenna relative to the surrounding buildings. and the models relating to BS2 may be used. non-line-of-sight (NLoS) The typical NLoS case (link BS1-MS1 in Fig.5 1.05 to 0.5 1. ITU-R P.1 Path categories Definition of propagation situations Four situations of base station (BS) and mobile station (MS) geometries are depicted in Fig.or pico-cellular environment. mounted above average roof-top level.05 to 1 km 0. The corresponding cell is amicro-cell.1411-4 3 For each of the four different environments two possible scenarios for the mobile are considered. Therefore the users are subdivided into pedestrian and vehicular users.

ITU-R P.1411-4 FIGURE 2 Definition of parameters for the NLoS1 case .4 Rec.

and pico-cells in urban low-rise environments. NLoS2 is the predominant path type in urban high-rise environments for all cell-types and occurs frequently in dense urban micro. 5 The NLoS1 case frequently occurs in residential/rural environments for all cell-types and is predominant for micro-cells in urban/suburban low-rise environments.Rec. The relevant parameters for this situation are: w1 : street width at the position of the BS (m) w2 : street width at the position of the MS (m) x1 : distance BS to street crossing (m) x2 : distance MS to street crossing (m) α: is the corner angle (rad). 3. ITU-R P. . the determination of w and ϕ requires a two-dimensional analysis of the area around the mobile. NLoS Figure 3 depicts the situation for a typical dense urban micro-cellular NLoS-case (link BS2-MS3 in Fig. The parameters hr. In the following. this case is called NLoS2. The determination of all parameters for the NLoS2 case requires a two-dimensional analysis of the area around the mobile.1.2 Propagation along street canyons. 1). However.1411-4 The relevant parameters for this situation are: hr : average height of buildings (m) w : street width (m) b : average building separation (m) ϕ: hb : hm : l: d: street orientation with respect to the direct path (degrees) BS antenna height (m) MS antenna height (m) length of the path covered by buildings (m) distance from BS to MS. b and l can be derived from building data along the line between the antennas. Note that l is not necessarily normal to the building orientation.

4. These data can be used in conjunction with street vector information in order to extract street orientation angles. The most accurate information can be derived from high-resolution data where information consists of: – building structures. suburban. Data formats can be both raster and vector.3 Line-of-sight (LoS) paths Rec. different types of data can be used. The type of the model depends also on the frequency range. 4 Path loss models For typical scenarios in urban areas some closed-form algorithms can be applied. Depending on the definition of land-use classes (dense urban.1.1411-4 The paths BS1-MS2 and BS2-MS4 in Fig. The height accuracy for both data formats should be of the order of 1 to 2 m. The recommended resolution for the raster data is 1 to 10 m. Additional attenuation by oxygen and hydrometeors has to be considered in the latter frequency range. – relative and absolute building heights.1. 1 are examples of LoS situations. The corresponding propagation situations are defined in § 3. can be characterized by two slopes and a single breakpoint. as defined by Recommendation ITU-R P.2 Data requirements For site-specific calculations in urban areas. etc. The same models can be applied for both types of LoS path. The location accuracy of the vector data should be of the order of 1 to 2 m.) the required parameters can be assigned to these land-use classes. Different models have to be applied for UHF propagation and for mm-wave propagation. 3. basic transmission loss. ITU-R P. In mm-wave propagation LoS is considered only. . – vegetation information. urban. These propagation models can be used both for site-specific and site-general calculations. In the UHF frequency range LoS and NLoS situations are considered.6 3. An approximate lower bound is given by: $ !20 log10 ! ! LLoS.l = Lbp + # ! !40 log10 ! " * d ( ( Rbp ) * d ( ( Rbp ) ' % % & ' % % & for d ≤ Rbp (1) for d > Rbp where Rbp is the breakpoint distance and is given by: Rbp ≈ 4 hb hm λ (2) where λ is the wavelength (m). low-resolution land-use data (50 m resolution) are recommended. If no high-resolution data are available.341.1 LoS situations within street canyons UHF propagation In the UHF frequency range.

Hence hs depends on the traffic on the road. Heavy traffic corresponds to 10-20% of the roadway covered with vehicles. This distance. ITU-R P. road traffic will influence the effective road height and will thus affect the breakpoint distance.1411-4 An approximate upper bound is given by: $ !25 log10 ! ! LLoS. The roadway was 27 m wide.45 15.6 (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) 4 8 4 8 4 8 1.4 (1) The breakpoint is beyond 1 km. .5% of the roadway and less than 0. Rbp.75 (1) (2) hs (m) hm = 1. for path lengths up to about 1 km. defined as: ' * λ2 % Lbp = 20 log10 ( ( 8 π hb hm % & ) (4) SHF propagation up to 15 GHz At SHF.6 1. is estimated by: Rbp = 4 (hb − hs ) (hm − hs ) λ (5) where hs is the effective road height due to such objects as vehicles on the road and pedestrians near the roadway.35 8.7 3.001% of the footpath occupied. hs (heavy traffic) Frequency (GHz) hb (m) hm = 2.3 1. corresponding to heavy and light traffic conditions. and 0. respectively.6 1.1-0.u = Lbp + 20 + # ! !40 log10 ! " * d ( ( Rbp ) * d ( ( Rbp ) ' % % & ' % % & for d ≤ Rbp 7 (3) for d > Rbp Lbp is a value for the basic transmission loss at the break point.2-1% of the footpath occupied by pedestrians.Rec.6 1. TABLE 4 The effective height of the road. The hs values given in Tables 4 and 5 are derived from daytime and night-time measurements. including 6 m wide footpaths on either side. Light traffic was 0. No breakpoint exists.

59 (1) (2) (2) (2) (2) 0. Millimetre-wave propagation At frequencies above about 10 GHz. the approximate values of the upper and lower bounds of basic transmission loss for the SHF frequency band can be calculated using equations (1) and (3).43 (1) 0.7 3. . Attenuation by atmospheric gases and by rain must also be considered. When hm > hs.35 8.2.45 15.8 Rec.1411-4 TABLE 5 The effective height of the road. The breakpoint is beyond 1 km. l = Ls + 30 log10 ( (R ) s ' % % & ' % % & (7) The approximate upper bound for d ≥ Rs is given by: * d LLoS .75 (1) (2) hs (m) hm = 1.6 0. hs (light traffic) Frequency (GHz) hb (m) hm = 2.74 (1) No measurements taken.23 (1) 4 8 4 8 4 8 0. the approximate lower bound for d ≥ Rs is given by: * d LLoS . but the area distant from the BS has propagation characteristics in which the attenuation coefficient is cubed. Hence the power distance decay-rate will nearly follow the free-space law with a path-loss exponent of about 2. ITU-R P. with Lbp given by: $ λ2 ! ! Lbp = 20 log10 # . the breakpoint distance Rbp in equation (2) is far beyond the expected maximum cell radius (500 m). u = Ls + 20 + 30 log10 ( (R ) s (8) The basic propagation loss Ls is defined as: * λ Ls = 20 log10 ( ( 2πR s ) ' % % & (9) Rs in equations (7) to (9) has been experimentally determined to be 20 m. The area near the BS (d < Rs) has a basic propagation loss similar to that of the UHF range. Therefore. when hm ≤ hs no breakpoint exists. This means that no fourth-power law is expected in this frequency band. ! 8π(hb − hs ) (hm − hs ) ! " + (6) On the other hand.

The model is valid for: hr: ∆hb: ∆hm: hb : hm: f: w: d: any height m 1 to 100 m 4 to 10 (less than hr) m hr + ∆hb m hr ! ∆hm m 0. to replace the multi-screen model. the roof-top height to use in the model is the average roof-top height.2. as described in Recommendation ITU-R P.1.526. .676. Propagation for urban area Models are defined for the two situations described in § 3. If the roof-top heights vary by much more than the first Fresnel-zone radius. 4.Rec. This section develops models that relate to diffraction mechanisms. this Recommendation is intended for distances only up to 1 km. For NLoS situations. The models are valid for: hb: hm: f: d: 4 to 50 m 1 to 3 m 800 to 5 000 MHz 2 to 16 GHz for hb < hr and w2 < 10 m (or sidewalk) 20 to 5 000 m.2 Models for NLoS situations NLoS signals can arrive at the BS or MS by diffraction mechanisms or by multipath which may be a combination of diffraction and reflection mechanisms. 2). a preferred method is to use the highest buildings along the path in a knife-edge diffraction calculation. (Note that although the model is valid up to 5 km.1 Propagation over roof-tops for urban area The multi-screen diffraction model given below is valid if the roof-tops are all about the same height.) Propagation for suburban area Model is defined for the situation of hb > hr described in § 3. this Recommendation is intended for distances only up to 1 km. ITU-R P.1411-4 9 Gaseous attenuation can be calculated from Recommendation ITU-R P. Assuming the roof-top heights differ only by an amount less than the first Fresnel-zone radius over a path of length l (see Fig. multipath reflections and scattering will be the most likely signal propagation method.1.530.8 to 20 GHz 10 to 25 m 10 to 5 000 m (Note that although the model is valid up to 5 km.) Millimetre-wave propagation Millimetre-wave signal coverage is considered only for LoS situations because of the large diffraction losses experienced when obstacles cause the propagation path to become NLoS. 4. and rain attenuation from Recommendation ITU-R P.

2 – 10 log10 ( w) + 10 log10 ( f ) + 20 log10 (∆hm ) + Lori $ – 10 + 0. which takes into account the effect of roof-top-tostreet diffraction into streets that are not perpendicular to the direction of propagation (see Fig. the diffraction loss from roof-top to street Lrts and the reduction due to multiple screen diffraction past rows of buildings.10 Rec.5 + 0. $ Lbf + Lrts + Lmsd LNLoS1 = # " Lbf The free-space loss is given by: for Lrts + Lmsd > 0 for Lrts + Lmsd ≤ 0 (10) Lbf = 32. below or above building heights.114(ϕ – 55) " for 0° ≤ ϕ < 35° for 35° ≤ ϕ < 55° for 55° ≤ ϕ ≤ 90° (12) (13) where: ∆ hm = hr – hm (14) Lori is the street orientation correction factor. Lbf. The multiple screen diffraction loss from the BS due to propagation past rows of buildings depends on the BS antenna height relative to the building heights and on the incidence angle.354ϕ ! Lori = #2. 2). A criterion for grazing incidence is the “settled field distance”.075(ϕ – 35) !4. 2) for roof-tops of similar height. while Lmsd is dependent on whether the base station antenna is at.1411-4 In the model for transmission loss in the NLoS1-case (see Fig. In this model Lbf and Lrts are independent of the BS antenna height.4 + 20 log10 (d / 1 000) + 20 log10 ( f ) (11) where: d: f: path length (m) frequency (MHz). Lmsd. The calculation for Lmsd uses the following procedure to remove any discontinuity between the different models used when the length of buildings is greater or less than the “settled field distance”. The term Lrts describes the coupling of the wave propagating along the multiple-screen path into the street where the mobile station is located.0 – 0. ITU-R P. 2): ∆hb = hb – hr (16) λd 2 2 ∆hb (15) For the calculation of Lmsd. . ds: ds = where (see Fig. Lrts = – 8. It takes into account the width of the street and its orientation. the loss between isotropic antennas is expressed as the sum of free-space loss. ds is compared to the distance l over which the buildings extend.

Rec.1411-4 11 The overall multiple screen diffraction model loss is given by: $ * log(d ) − log d bp ' % ⋅ (L1msd (d ) − Lmid ) + Lmid !− tanh ( for l > d s and dhbp > 0 ( % χ ! ) & ! ! ! * log(d ) − log d bp ' % ⋅ (L 2 msd (d ) − Lmid ) + Lmid !tanh( for l ≤ d s and dhbp > 0 ( % χ ! ) & ! = # L 2 msd (d ) for dhbp = 0 ! ! L1 (d ) − tanh* log(d ) − log d bp ' ⋅ L − L ( % upp mid − Lupp + Lmid for l > d s and dhbp < 0 ( % ! msd ζ ) & ! ! ! * log(d ) − log d bp ' ! ( % ⋅ (Lmid − Llow ) + Lmid − Llow for l ≤ d s and dhbp < 0 ! L 2 msd (d ) + tanh( % ζ ) & " ( ) ( ) Lmsd ( ) ( ( ) (17) ) where: dhbp = Lupp − Llow ζ = ( Lupp − Llow ) ⋅ υ (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) Lmid = ( Lupp + Llow ) 2 Lupp = L1msd dbp ( ) Llow = L2msd (d bp ) d bp = ∆hb l λ and (23) υ = [0.1] where the individual model losses. ITU-R P. are defined as follows: Calculation of L1msd for l > ds (Note this calculation becomes more accurate when l >> ds.0417] χ = [0. L1msd(d) and L2msd(d).) L1msd (d ) = Lbsh + k a + k d log10 (d / 1000) + k f log10 ( f ) − 9 log10 (b) (24) where: $ – 18 log10 (1 + ∆hb ) Lbsh = # "0 for hb > hr for hb ≤ hr (25) .

f ≤ 2 000 MHz and d < 500 m (26) (27) $− 8 ! ! kf = #− 4 + 0.2.35 % & ) ) & = 10 (31) (32) and δhu δhl = (33) (34) 0. This figure indicates that the composition of the arriving waves at the MS changes according to the BS-MS distance.1411-4 is a loss term that depends on the BS height: $71.8∆hb !54 − 1.00023b 2 − 0.6∆hb d / 1000 " $18 ! ∆h kd = # 18 – 15 b ! hr " for hb > hr for hb ≤ hr for for for for for for hb > hr and f > 2 000 MHz hb ≤ hr . .12 Rec.06923 4. f > 2 000 MHz and d < 500 m hb > hr and f ≤ 2 000 MHz hb ≤ hr .6∆h d / 1000 ! b ka = # 54 ! !54 − 0.2 Propagation over roof-tops for suburban area A propagation model for the NLoS1-Case based on geometrical optics (GO) is shown in Fig. f ≤ 2 000 MHz and d ≥ 500 m hb ≤ hr . ITU-R P.5( f / 925 – 1) " Calculation of L2msd for l < ds for f > 2 000 MHz for medium sized city and suburban centres with medium tree density and f ≤ 2 000 MHz for metropolitan centres and f ≤ 2 000 MHz (28) In this case a further distinction has to be made according to the relative heights of the BS and the roof-tops: 2 L 2 msd (d ) = –10 log10 QM ( ) (29) where: 0.000781b + 0. 2.9 $ * ∆hb b ' !2.7( f / 925 – 1) ! !− 4 + 1.938 + 0.4 !73 − 0. A direct wave can arrive at the MS only when the BS-MS distance is very short.35 ( % ( d ! λ% ) & !b ! QM = # !d 1 ' λ *1 ! b ( – ( θ 2π + θ % % ! 2πd ρ ) & ! " for hb > hr + δhu for hb ≤ hr + δhu and hb ≥ hr + δhl for hb < hr + δhl (30) and * ∆h ' θ = arctan ( b % ) b & 2 ρ = ∆hb + b 2 * b ' log (d ) 10 * b ' % −log( ( λ % − 9 + 9 log( 2. f > 2 000 MHz and d ≥ 500 m hb ≤ hr .4978 (log( f ))2.1827b − 9.8∆hb !73 − 1.

or three-time) reflected waves. the loss due to the distance between isotropic antennas can be divided into three regions in terms of the dominant arrival waves at the MS. ITU-R P. which have a relatively strong level.1411-4 13 The several-time (one-. When the BS-MS separation is long. can arrive at the MS when the BS-MS separation is relatively short. $ * 4πd ' ! 20 ⋅ log( λ % & ) ! ! ! ! L0n ! ! LNLoS1 = # ! ! !32.1⋅ log* d ' + L ( % d (d % n ! ) n& ! ! ! " for d < d0 (Direct wave dominant region) for d 0 < d ≤ d n (Reflected wave dominant region) (35) for d > d n (Diffracted wave dominant region) $2 n=# "3 (0. n −1) !when d k < d ≤ d k +1 ! L0n = # ! L + Ld k +1 − Ld k ⋅ (d − d ) k ! dk d k +1 − d k " dk = $2 n=# "3 (36) 1 ⋅ Bk 2 + (hb − hm )2 sin ϕ (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) $ 4πd kp Ld k = 20 ⋅ log # k . the several-time reflected waves cannot arrive and only many-time reflected waves.8 GHz ≤ f < 5 GHz ) (5 GHz ≤ f < 20 GHz ) where: $ (k = 0. arrive at the MS. These are the direct wave. two-.8 GHz ≤ f < 5 GHz ) (5 GHz ≤ f < 20 GHz ) (0.4 ⋅ λ + d kp = 1 ⋅ Ak 2 + (hb − hm )2 sin ϕk Ak = Bk = w ⋅ (hb − hm )⋅ (2k +1) 2 ⋅ (hr − hm ) w ⋅ (hb − hm )⋅ (2k +1) − k ⋅w 2 ⋅ (hr − hm ) *B ' ϕk = tan −1( k ⋅ tan ϕ % (A % ) k & (42) . Based on these propagation mechanisms.Rec. reflected wave. The loss in each region is expressed as follows based on GO. and diffracted wave dominant regions. " 0.!. which have weak level beside that of diffracted waves from building roofs.

. The path loss characteristics can be divided into two parts: the corner loss region and the NLoS region.86 α 3. Lcorner is given as 20 dB in an urban environment and 30 dB in a residential environment. LNLoS 2 = −10 log10 10 − Lr /10 + 10 − Ld /10 where: Lr : reflection path loss defined by: Lr = 20 log10 ( x1 + x2 ) + x1x2 f (α ) * 4π ' + 20 log10 ( % w1w2 ) λ & ( ) dB (43) dB (44) where: f (α ) = 3.2 with the corner angle α = π/2 rad is derived based on measurements at a frequency range from 2 to 16 GHz.14 4. This is illustrated by the typical curve shown in Fig.2.3 Rec. 3). In equation (49). ITU-R P.2. Using x1.1. as shown in Fig. β is given by 6 and dcorner is 30 m in both environments. The NLoS region lies beyond the corner loss region. The corner loss region extends for dcorner from the point which is 1 m down the edge of the LoS street into the NLoS street. diffracted and reflected waves at the corners of the street crossings have to be considered (see Fig.1( 90 − α % + 20 log10 ( % π & ) ) λ & *x ' * x ' π0 * 40 ' 3 Da = ( % 1arctan( 2 % + arctan( 1 % – . the overall path loss (LNLoS2) beyond the corner region (x2 > w1/2 + 1) is found using: LNLoS 2 = LLos + Lc + Latt Lcorner $ {1 − log10 (x2 − w1 2)} ! Lc = #1 − log10 (1 + d corner ) !L " corner Latt $ * x1 + x2 !10β log10 ( ( x +w 2+d =# 1 corner ) 1 !0 " ' % % & (48) x2 ≤ w1 2 + 1 + d corner x2 > w1 2 + 1 + d corner (50) (49) x2 > w1 2 + 1 + d corner x2 ≤ w1 2 + 1 + d corner where LLoS is the path loss in the LoS street for x1 (> 20 m). where a coefficient parameter (β) applies. 3. The corner loss (Lcorner) is expressed as the additional attenuation over the distance dcorner. In equation (50). where hb < hr and w2 is up to 10 m (or sidewalk).1411-4 Propagation within street canyons for frequency range from 800 to 2 000 MHz For NLoS2 situations where both antennas are below roof-top level.6 < α [rad] < π. Ld : diffraction path loss defined by: 180 ' * * 4π ' Ld =10 log10 [x1x2 ( x1 + x2 )]+ 2 Da − 0.1. 4. x2.4 dB (46) dB (47) Propagation within street canyons for frequency range from 2 to 16 GHz The propagation model for the NLoS2 situations as described in § 3.5 dB (45) where 0. (w % (w % 2 ) 2π & 2 ) 2& ) 1& / 4. as calculated in § 4. and w1.

With a high base station antenna in the small macro-cell. the effects of diffraction over roof-tops are more significant. The model includes the statistics of location variability in the LoS and NLoS regions. and the statistical variability predicted by the model. owing to the presence of alleys and gaps between the houses. the path loss does not increase monotonically with distance.Rec. and models the rapid decrease in signal level noted at the corner between the LoS and NLoS regions. 4. Figure 5 illustrates the LoS. . Consequently. ITU-R P. and provides a statistical model for the corner distance between the LoS and NLoS regions. It includes both LoS and NLoS regions.1411-4 FIGURE 4 Typical trend of propagation along street canyons with low base station height for frequency range from 2 to 16 GHz 15 In a residential environment. NLoS and corner regions.3 Propagation between terminals located below roof-top height at UHF The model described below is intended for calculating the basic transmission loss between two terminals of low height in urban environments. the propagation characteristics do not depend on the corner loss. and thus the coefficient parameter may be lower than the value in an urban environment.

calculate the LoS location correction: ∆LLoS ( p ) =1. but are otherwise unspecified. 6.5 + 45 log10 f + 40 log10 (d / 1 000) + Lurban NLoS (54) (53) Lurban depends on the urban category and is 0 dB for suburban.8 dB for urban and 2. The model is based on measurements made in the UHF band with antenna heights between 1. 90 and 99% of locations (frequency = 400 MHz. p (%).1411-4 FIGURE 5 Curves of basic transmission loss not exceeded for 1. values of the LoS correction for p = 1. Step 3: Add the LoS location correction to the median value of LoS loss: LLoS (d . 90 and 99% are given in Table 6. p ) = Lmedian (d ) + ∆LLoS ( p ) LoS Step 4: Calculate the median value of the NLoS loss: Lmedian (d ) = 9. 10.0 m above ground.1774 (51) ( ) with σ = 7 dB (52) Alternatively.3 dB for dense urban/high-rise. suburban) This model is recommended for propagation between low-height terminals where both terminal antenna heights are near street level well below roof-top height.5624σ − 2 ln(1− p /100) −1. It is reciprocal with respect to transmitter and receiver and is valid for frequencies in the range 300-3 000 MHz. .16 Rec. ITU-R P. 50.45 + 20 log10 f + 20 log10 (d / 1 000) LoS Step 2: For the required location percentage. The parameters required are the frequency f (MHz) and the distance between the terminals d (m). 10. Step 1: Calculate the median value of the line-of-sight loss: Lmedian (d ) = 32. 50. and transmitter-receiver distances up to 3 000 m.9 and 3.

90 and 99% are given in Table 6.1%. Alternatively. Alternatively.0 0. 10. The statistics were obtained from two cities in the United Kingdom and may be different in other countries. then L(d. add the NLoS location correction: ∆LNLoS ( p) = σ N −1 ( p /100) with σ = 7 dB (55) N−1(. 90 and 99% are given in Table 6. 50.6 20. p) = LLoS + ( LNLoS − LLoS )(d − d LoS ) / w The width w is introduced to provide a transition region between the LoS and NLoS regions.1411-4 17 Step 5: For the required location percentage. if the corner distance is known in a particular case.Rec.0 9. then L(d. p (%). p) = Lmedian (d ) + ∆LNLoS ( p ) NLoS (56) Step 7: For the required location percentage. TABLE 6 Table of LoS and NLoS location variability corrections p (%) ∆LLoS (dB) –11. 10. ITU-R P. This transition region is seen in the data and typically has a width of w = 20 m. p) c) Otherwise linearly interpolate between the values LLoS(dLoS. p) = LNLoS(d. 50. values of the NLoS location correction for p = 1. Step 8: The path loss at the distance d is then given as: a) If d < dLoS.3 –7. p) and LNLoS(dLoS + w. An approximation to this function. p (%). p) b) If d > dLoS + w. calculate the distance dLoS for which the LoS fraction FLoS equals p: d LoS ( p) = 212[log10 ( p / 100)]2 − 64 log10 ( p / 100) d LoS ( p) = 79.9 0. Step 6: Add the NLoS location correction to the median value of NLoS loss: LNLoS (d . p): LLoS = LLoS (d LoS . p) = LLoS(d.3 –9. p) L(d . p) LNLoS = LNLoS (d LoS + w.2 − 70( p / 100) if p < 45 otherwise (57) Values of dLoS for p = 1.3 ∆LNLoS (dB) –16.1546. set dLoS(p) to this distance.0 16.0 10. good for p between 1 and 99% is given by the location variability function Qi(x) of Recommendation ITU-R P.3 dLoS (m) 1 10 50 90 99 976 276 44 16 10 .) is the inverse normal cumulative distribution function. This model has not been tested for p < 0.

1238.18 4. – propagation over trees.4 Rec. The attenuation is strongly affected by multipath scattering initiated by diffraction of the signal energy both over and through the tree structures. diffraction is the major propagation mode over the edges of the trees closest to the low antenna. Account must also be taken of the incident angle. the following default values are recommended: hr = 3 × (number of floors) + roof-height (m) roof-height = 3 m for pitched roofs = 0 m for flat roofs w = b/2 b = 20 to 50 m ϕ = 90°. 4. . This propagation mode can be modelled most simply by using an ideal knife-edge diffraction model (see Recommendation ITU-R P. It is defined as the difference between the signal levels outside and inside the building at the same height. advice is given in Recommendation ITU-R P. For antenna locations close to the wall. Building entry loss should be considered when evaluating the radio coverage from an outdoor system to an indoor terminal.5 Influence of vegetation The effects of propagation through vegetation (primarily trees) are important for outdoor short-path predictions.) Additional losses will occur for penetration within the building. the dominant propagation mode is one in which signals enter a building approximately horizontally through the wall surface (including windows). It is also important for considering interference problems between outdoor systems and indoor systems. it may also be necessary to consider near-field effects.833. 5 Building entry loss Building entry loss is the excess loss due to the presence of a building wall (including windows and other features). a mechanism that may be modelled by radiative transfer theory. For propagation through trees. and that for a building of uniform construction the building entry loss is independent of height. because it neglects multiple scattering by tree-tops. The experimental results shown in Table 7 were obtained at 5. although the knife-edge model may underestimate the field strength. the specific attenuation in vegetation can be found in Recommendation ITU-R P. The wall thickness was 60 cm and the window-to-wall ratio was about 2:1.1411-4 Default parameters for site-general calculations If the data on the structure of buildings and roads are unknown (site-general situations). typically. The first mechanism predominates for geometries in which both antennas are below the tree tops and the distance through the trees is small. In situations where the propagation is over trees.526). Two major propagation mechanisms can be identified: – propagation through (not around or over) trees. ITU-R P. (When the path length is less than about 10 m.2 GHz through an external building wall made of brick and concrete with glass windows. It is believed that. the difference in free space loss due to the change in path length for the two measurements should be taken into account in determining the building entry loss. while the latter predominates for geometries in which one antenna is elevated above the tree tops.

s. The wall was 400 mm thick.2 GHz through an external wall made of stone blocks. Cσ and γσ depend on the antenna height and propagation environment.1407.m. The r.1 Multipath models for street canyon environments Characteristics of multipath delay spread for the LoS case in an urban high-rise environment for dense urban micro-cells and pico-cells (as defined in Table 3) have been developed based on measured data at frequencies from 2.75 GHz at distances from 50 to 400 m. can be found in Recommendation ITU-R P. 6 Multipath models A description of multipath propagation and definition of terms are provided in Recommendation ITU-R P. with two layers of 100 mm thick blocks and loose fill between.Rec. as evidenced by the large standard deviation.679 and may be appropriate for the evaluation of building entry for terrestrial systems. delay spread S at distance of d m follows a normal distribution with the mean value given by: a s = Ca d γ a and the standard deviation given by: σ s = Cσ d γ σ ns (59) ns (58) where Ca. TABLE 8 Loss due to stone block wall at various incident angles Incident angle (degrees) Loss due to wall (dB) Standard deviation (dB) 0 28 4 15 32 3 30 32 3 45 38 5 60 45 6 75 50 5 Additional information on building entry loss.5 to 15. 6. Table 9 lists some typical values of the coefficients for distances of 50-400 m based on measurements made in urban and residential areas.1411-4 19 TABLE 7 Example of building entry loss Frequency Residential Office Commercial Mean 5. Particularly at larger incident angles. γa. at incident angles from 0° to 75°. . intended primarily for satellite systems. the loss due to the wall was extremely sensitive to the position of the receiver.2 GHz Standard deviation Mean 12 dB Standard deviation 5 dB Mean Standard deviation Table 8 shows the results of measurements at 5. ITU-R P.

m.51 0. (See Recommendation ITU-R P. ITU-R P. ns (62) .0 2. The energy arriving in the first 40 ns has a Rician distribution with a K-factor of about 6 to 9 dB.32 0.0 From the measured data at 2.1057 for definitions of probability distributions.038.35-15.s.5 6.) 6. More than 10% of locations showed larger than 300 ns differences in r. From the same measurement set.75 3.5 Urban 3.35-15. delay spread S in this environment is given by: Su = exp( A ⋅ L + B ) where A = 0.53 0.35 0. while the energy arriving later has a Rayleigh or Rician distribution with a K-factor of up to about 3 dB.75 6. From the same measurement set. the instantaneous properties of the delay profile have also been characterized. delay spread Measurement conditions Area f (GHz) hb (m) hm (m) Ca as σs γa 0. From the measured data.0 4.1411-4 TABLE 9 Typical coefficients for the distance characteristics of r.6 55 23 10 2. delay spread S. values of r.3.0 3. τ can be estimated as: peak power (dB) decay factor ( ) dB (60) τ = 4 S + 266 ns (61) A linear relationship between τ and S is only valid for the LoS case.20 Rec.9 12 5.7 1.6 0. and L is path loss (dB).32 Cσ γσ 0. the average shape of the delay profile was found to be: P (t ) = P0 + 50 e – t / τ – 1 where: P0 : τ: and t is in ns.26 0.s. for an r.m.39 0.2 Multipath models for over-rooftops propagation environments Characteristics of multipath delay spread for both LoS and NLoS case in an urban high-rise environment for micro-cells (as defined in Table 3) have been developed based on measured data at 1 920-1 980 MHz and 2 110-2 170 MHz using omnidirectional antennas.s. and larger than 2 µs differences in delay interval using 15 dB threshold.1 0.27 0.m.m.77 0. B = 2. delay spread at different frequency bands (190 MHz apart) were compared at each location.48 2.5 GHz.35-8. The median r.m.1 5. delay spread with 25 dB threshold.54 2.s.35 3.45 Residential 3.7 1.0 4.s.5 2.

ITU-R P. TABLE 10 Typical r.m.m. a dominant component plus multipath components) arriving at the receiver.2 GHz band in a suburban environment with a BS antenna height of 20 m. delay spread (ns) 50% 95% Area Suburban * 5.1411-4 21 The distributions of the multipath delay characteristics for the 5.m. delay spread for the 5.s.2 GHz band for cases where the cumulative probability is 50% and 95%. as shown in Fig.8 100-1 000 189 577 Threshold value of 30 dB was used for r.s. delay spread values* Measurement conditions Frequency (GHz) Antenna height hBS (m) hr (m) Range (m) r.s. . The number of signal components can be represented from the delay profile as the number of peaks whose amplitudes are within A dB of the highest peak and above the noise floor.m.2 20 2. and MS antenna height of 2. delay spread calculation. Table 10 lists the measured r.Rec.s. 7 Number of signal components For the design of high data rate systems with multipath separation and synthesis techniques. 6. it is important to estimate the number of signal components (that is.8 m were derived from measurements.

7 1 1.1 2. the differential time delay window for the strongest 4 components with respect to the first arriving component and their relative amplitude is given in Table 13.1411-4 Table 11 shows the results for the number of signal components from measurements in different scenarios for different antenna heights.5 3.7 1 1.5 3.7 1.22 Rec.6 2.6 100-1 600 200-1 500 0-200 0-1 000 150-590 0-480 200-1 500 0-5 000 200-1 500 0-200 0-1 000 150-590 0-200 0-1 000 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 3 2 2 3 5 3 4 3 3 4 2 2 5 5 3 2 1 3 4 4 4 3 4 6 4 4 6 9 13 3 5 5 5 6 8 12 5 10 Residential Suburban Suburban Suburban Urban 20 ns 175 ns 50 ns 100 ns 20 ns 3. . ITU-R P. TABLE 11 Maximum number of signal components Type of environment Time Frequency delay (GHz) resolution Antenna height (m) hb hm Range (m) Maximum number of components 3 dB 80% 95% 5 dB 80% 95% 10 dB 80% 95% Urban Suburban Urban 200 ns 175 ns 20 ns 1.7 1 2.6 2.75 4 For the measurements described in § 6.35 46 12 4 55 1.35 3. environments and for different frequencies.45 4 12 40 12 4 55 Urban 20 ns 15.7 2.2.9-2.67 5.8 8.

6 1.5 0 1.67 4 4 4 55 55 4 40 1.7 0-200 0-1 000 0-200 0-1 000 0-200 0-1 000 150-590 150-590 0-480 0-5 000 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 4 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 5 5 4 4 4 6 3 3 2 3 6 9 6 8 5 10 13 12 3 5 TABLE 13 Differential time delay window for the strongest 4 components with respect to the first arriving component and their relative amplitude Type of environment Frequency Antenna Time (GHz) height delay (m) resolution hb hm Range (m) 1st Excess time delay (µs) 2nd 3rd 4th 80% 95% 80% 95% 80% 95% 80% 95% Urban 200 ns 1.7 100-1 600 0.98 !9 1.74 !8.7 2.6 1.26 !9.35 8.1411-4 23 TABLE 12 Type of environment BS antenna Frequency (GHz) Antenna height (m) hb hm Range m A = 3 dB 80% 95% Maximum number of signal components A = 5 dB 80% 95% A = 10 dB 80% 95% Urban Urban Urban Urban Residential Suburban Low Low Low High Low High 3.7 2.75 3.45 3.9-2. ITU-R P.35 3.3 1.8 Relative power with respect to strongest component (dB) .6 2.43 0 1.5 2.1 !7.7 2.93 !9.35 8.Rec.6 2.35 !9.1 46 1.1 3.45 15.

8. ∆Lmax is the maximum difference in propagation path lengths between components whose level is larger than the threshold. When 2∆f∆Lmax is less than 10 MHz·m.s.1407 in the azimuthal direction in a dense urban micro-cell or picocell environment in an urban area was obtained from the measurement made at a frequency of 8.45 GHz. The receiving base station had a parabolic antenna with a half-power beamwidth of 4°. the received signal levels in LoS and NLoS situations follow Rayleigh and Nakagami-Rice distributions. 10 Fading characteristics The fading depth. angular spread has an average value of 41° (standard deviation of 18°). respectively.1406. and a standard deviation of 3 dB for LoS paths and 2 dB for NLoS paths at SHF. In the LoS situation. the r.310. angular spread has an average value of 30° (standard deviation of 11°). When it is larger than 10 MHz·m. corresponding to a narrow-band fading region. ITU-R P. In the NLoS situation.24 8 Polarization characteristics Rec. . where the fading depth becomes smaller and the received signal levels follow neither Rayleigh nor Nakagami-Rice distributions. and a = !∞ dB represents a NLoS situation.s.m. These median values are compatible with the UHF values for open and urban areas. 7.s. the r. which is defined as the difference between the 50% value and the 1% value in the cumulative probability of received signal levels.m. Measurements indicate a median XPD of 13 dB for LoS paths and 8 dB for NLoS paths. a in decibels is the power ratio of the direct to the sum of indirect waves. it corresponds to a wideband fading region. The antenna heights of the transmitting mobile station and the receiving base station were 2. in Recommendation ITU-R P.1411-4 Cross-polarization discrimination (XPD). as defined in Recommendation ITU-R P.7 m and 4. 9 Characteristics of direction of arrival The r. which is 20 dB lower than the highest level of the indirect waves as shown in Fig.4 m. is expressed as a function of the product (2∆f∆Lmax MHz·m) of the received bandwidth 2∆f MHz and the maximum difference in propagation path lengths ∆Lmax m as shown in Fig. angular spread as defined in Recommendation ITU-R P. respectively. differs between LoS and NLoS areas in an SHF dense urban micro-cellular environment. In this figure.m.

ITU-R P.Rec.1411-4 25 .