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HUMAN FACTORS

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS (CAP 715 & 716 )

Questions 1 10 1. Accidents and engineering faults are significant and increasing insignificant and increasing insignificant and decreasing Human error is a causal factor in what percentage of aviation accidents and incidents? 60% 25% 80% Murphy's law is perpetuated mainly by poor aircraft design violations complacency Murphy's law can be regarded as the notion 'If something can go wrong, it will' 'It can never happen to me' 'If something goes wrong I am certain to get the blame A company's safety policy should be defined in the Maintenance Schedule CAP 716 the Maintenance Organization Exposition Which of the following is least associated with the study of human factors? Ergonomics Health and Safety Human error

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The incident where a 737 lost oil from both engines is a direct result of poor design human error engine vibration If a 737 had both engines serviced and lost oil from both engines in flight. This would be a direct result of human error can be considered an acceptable probability can be expected to happen statistically due to the number of aircraft in service What do you do when someone is hypothermic? Give them a drink because of dehydration Feed them sweet things because of their diabetes Warm them up The percentage of accidents attributable to aircraft maintenance and inspection causes is now less significant due to more advanced maintenance practices significant and rising now less significant due to the introduction of more sophisticated aircraft

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Answers for Questions 1 10 1. significant and increasing Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.2.5 CAP 716 App.G pg.2 Para 1.3.1 80% Comment/Reference: CAP 716 CH 8 pg 2 middle of page & CAP 718 CH 1 para 4.3 complacency Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.3.1 'If something can go wrong, it will' Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.3.1 the Maintenance Organization Exposition Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Ch.2 Health and Safety Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.9 (1st Para.) human error Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Ch.4 Para.5.4.2 and App.F Para.1.7 would be a direct result of human error Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.F Para 1.7 Warm them up Comment/Reference: Hypothermia is dangerously low body temperature significant and rising Comment/Reference: CAP 718 Ch.1 Para.1 and 4. CAP 716 App.G Para.1.3.1.

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Questions 11 20

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What happened to contribute towards the incident in 1995 where a Boeing 737 lost oil pressure and had to divert? Both warning indications were faulty, due to crossed connections The boroscope inspection had been inadequate The HP rotor drive covers of both engines had not been refitted after a boroscope inspection What is the most common cause of in-flight engine shutdown? Foreign object damage Improper fault isolation, inspection or test Incomplete installation Most engineering related incidents are due to installing dirty connectors installing worn or old components installing components incorrectly What causes the most aircraft accidents? Misunderstanding between ATC and pilot on approach Communication Technical faults What is meant by a 'mind set'? You have preconceived ideas about something You are unsure of a situation You are unwilling to change your mind about something 70 - 80% of the total focusing ability of the eye is carried out by the iris cornea lens At what distance should a person without hearing difficulties be able to hear an average conversational voice in a quiet room 3 meters (9 feet 2 meters (6 feet) 1 meter (3 feet) A perforated ear drum could occur if you were subjected to intermittent noise above 25 kHz you were subjected to continuous noise below 8 kHz you blew your nose excessively

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How long is the short term memory good for remembering 7 items? Up to 30 seconds 30 to 60 seconds Above 60 seconds What is white finger? A skin disorder caused by extensive contact with oils and solvents A reaction when the white blood cells die and contaminate the fingers A disorder of the finger which may occur through continuous use of pneumatic tools because of reduced blood flow

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Answers for Questions 11 20 1. The HP rotor drive covers of both engines had not been refitted after a boroscope inspection Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.6 App.F Para.1.7 or CAP715. Ch.1 Para. 2.6.1 4th incident. Incomplete installation Comment/Reference: In a Boeing study of 276 in-flight shutdowns, 94% of were due to incomplete, improper installation, damage on installation, equipment not installed - FOD was a contributing factor. installing components incorrectly Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.2 Communication Comment/Reference: Deduced from CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.2.2 since 'inadequate cross check' is a communication problem. You are unwilling to change your mind about something Comment/Reference: cornea Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.2 2 metres (6 feet) Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Para.3.5 and CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.10.1 you were subjected to continuous noise below 8 kHz Comment/Reference: Normal audible range is 20 - 20,000 Hz (CAP 715 Ch.5 Para.1.1). 8 kHz is high frequency. Anything below that can cause damage if sound level is too high. Up to 30 seconds Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.5. A disorder of the finger which may occur through continuous use of pneumatic tools because of reduced blood flow Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.5 Para.5.2.

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Questions 21 30 21. When someone is working in an enclosed space (such a fuel tank), another person should be outside the space in constant communication to provide instructions to the tradesman for safety reasons ensure compliance with the maintenance manual The scientific study of measurements of the human body is known as anthropometrics physiology ergonomics How long can the aural reflex protect the ear from loud noise? 15 seconds 15 minutes 5 seconds What part of the eye controls the amount of light that is allowed to enter the eye? The pupil The cornea The iris Learning of a routine by repeated practice is known as motor programming episodic memory cognitive learning The ear is used to detect acceleration neither acceleration nor speed speed Light enters the eye through the visual cortex cornea retina To focus on a near object, the lens of the eye must be flattened be thickened be widened Which type of memory is most susceptible to interference from external influences? Long term Ultra short term Short term Peripheral vision is detected by the rods cones fovea

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Answers for Questions 21 30

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for safety reasons Comment/Reference: CAP715 Ch.5 Para. 6 This is the normal procedure for the safety of the tradesman anthropometrics Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.1.4.4 From the Greek 'Anthropos' meaning 'a man' and 'Metron' meaning 'measurement' 15 minutes Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.3 The iris Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.3 motor programming Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.6 acceleration Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.1.1 cornea Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.1 be thickened Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.4 Short term Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.8.8 rods Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.5.1

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Questions 31 40 31. Extreme discomfort experienced by a maintenance engineer due to working in a confined space is known as claustrophobia agoraphobia acrophobia What part of the eye is colour sensitive? The rods The cones The iris What type of lens is used to overcome short sightedness? Convex Bi-focal Concave The type of memory which is most easily influenced by a person's expectations of what should have happened is the long term memory episodic memory semantic memory The inability for the eyes to accommodate sufficiently is known as Hypermetropia Presbyopia Myopia An aircraft maintenance engineer who wears glasses or contact lenses should not require their duties to be restricted providing they wear their glasses/contact lenses at all times they carry out their duties have their duties restricted accordingly. not require their duties to be restricted providing they have frequent checks to ensure the adequacy of their glasses/contact lenses. Ultra short term memory has a duration of about 80 - 100 milliseconds 10 to 20 seconds 2 seconds What type of lens is used to correct long sightedness? Bi-focal Convex Concave Visual Acuity is the ability to detect objects in the peripheral vision to differentiate between different colours of the eye to discriminate sharp detail at varying distances

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The 'working memory' is ultra short term memory long term memory short term memory

Answers for Questions 31 40 1. claustrophobia Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.5.1.1 The cones Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.5.1 Concave Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.7.2 episodic memory Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.8 Presbyopia Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.7.4 not require their duties to be restricted providing they have frequent checks to ensure the adequacy of their glasses/contact lenses. Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.12.2 and Ch.6 Para.3.3 2 seconds Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.4 Convex Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.7.1 of the eye to discriminate sharp detail at varying distances Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.4 short term memory Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.3

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Questions 41 50 41. Colour defective vision affects almost 1 in 10 of women more women than men almost 1 in 10 of men At lower light levels, the visual sensing is performed mainly by the cones fovea rods If an image formed on the retina of the eye is inverted relative to the viewers normal perception of the image, the viewer will consciously mentally revert the image so as to make sense of his/her surroundings become disoriented and dizzy behave and feel normal People with colour defective vision usually have difficulty differentiating between blue and yellow blue and green red and green The 'cocktail party effect' is descriptive of focused attention divided attention selective attention Hypermetropia is the medical name for long sightedness deafness short sightedness What range of sound is usually impaired first with the onset of presbycusis? Mid range sound Low pitch sound High pitch sound The amount of light which is allowed to enter the eye can vary by a factor of 5:1 500:1 50:1 Presbyopia often affects the eyes of people after the age of 70 40 55 From what age does hearing ability normally begin to decline? 40 30 50

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Answers for Questions 41 50

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almost 1 in 10 of men Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.11.2 rods Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.5.1 behave and feel normal Comment/Reference: CAP 715 CH 2 para 4.3.8, The lens of the eye inverts the image, which is subconsciously reverted by the brain. red and green Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.11.2 selective attention Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.3.3 long sightedness Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.7.1 High pitch sound Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.9 5:1 Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.3 40 Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.7.4 30 Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.9

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Questions 51 60 51. A person with 20/40 vision has better eyesight than a person with 20/20 vision worse eyesight as a person with 20/20 vision the same eyesight as a person with 20/20 vision Long term memory capacity is usually 12 months unlimited 4 - 8 years The inability for the eyes to accommodate sufficiently is known as hypermetropia presbyopia myopia Ultra short term memory has a duration of about 2 seconds 10 to 20 seconds 80 - 100 milliseconds The memory can be aided by mind logging memory checking a checklist In AWN 47 what is the recommended hearing test? The ability to hear an average conversation voice at a distance of 6 feet The ability to hear an average conversation voice at a distance of 10 feet The ability to hear a certain noise at 8 feet Iconic memory stores visual information and lasts up to 2 seconds stores visual information and lasts up to 1/2 second stores sounds and lasts up to 2 seconds The first stage in information processing is memorizing decision perception Information, if not rehearsed is lost in 1 minute 30 - 40 seconds 10 - 20 seconds In AWN 47, what is the standard hearing test? The ability to hear a conversation in a quiet room at 10 metres The ability to hear a conversation in a quiet room at 2 metres The ability to hear a conversation in a noisy room at 2 metres

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Answers for Questions 51 60

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worse eyesight as a person with 20/20 vision Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.6.3 unlimited Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.7 presbyopia Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.7.4 2 seconds Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.4 a checklist Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.6 Para.4.5 ('appropriate guidance material') The ability to hear an average conversation voice at a distance of 6 feet Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Par.3.5 stores visual information and lasts up to 1/2 second Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.2 perception Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.3.8 10 - 20 seconds Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.5 & 4.5.6 The ability to hear a conversation in a quiet room at 2 metres Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Para.35

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Questions 61 70 61. Information in the short term memory not rehearsed will be lost in 2 - 3 weeks 1 - 3 months 10 - 20 seconds What is the CAA standard for vision? Acceptable uncorrected vision 18/20 vision Acceptable corrected vision In the human eye most of the refraction required to bring an image into focus on the retina is accomplished by the lens iris cornea The average capacity of the working memory is about 12 chunks of information 7 chunks of information 4 chunks of information The retina is situated in front of the cornea behind the cornea with the lens at the back of the eye with the optic nerve Motor programme refers to motivational computer software a task that becomes programmed into short term memory a task that has been carried out so many times that it becomes automatic Memory which can be influenced by a persons expectations of what should have happened is semantic episodic echoic Information in the long term memory is easily transferred to the short term memory is only available under hypnosis is easily lost How many things can be stored in the short term memory? 0-5 No limit 9 15 In the eye, the cones are used mainly in bright light levels and they give poor colour vision low light levels and they give poor colour vision bright light to give fine detail

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Answers for Questions 61 70

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10 - 20 seconds Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.5 & 4.5.6 Acceptable corrected vision Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Para.3.4 cornea Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.2 7 chunks of information Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.5 Short term memory (aka working memory) is also known as the 7 +/-2 memory at the back of the eye with the optic nerve Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.1 a task that has been carried out so many times that it becomes automatic Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.6 episodic Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.8 is easily lost Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.7 - 8 & CAP 719 Ch 3 para 2.5 9 - 15 Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.5.5 7+/-2 makes 5 or 9, but 9 - 15 is considered correct due to memory enhancement techniques (grouping). bright light to give fine detail Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.5.1

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Questions 71 80 71. A person suffering from presbyopia would normally have defective colour vision and not be allowed to carry out maintenance work on cable looms wear spectacles when reading or carrying out close detail work be short sighted and need to wear spectacles to see objects more than 30 cm away Noise signals are carried to the brain by the Eustachian nerve sensory nerve auditory nerve Poking sharp objects into the ear should be avoided as it is likely to result in conductive hearing loss tinnitus ringing tympanic membrane perforation Attention Getters are designed to to gain the operators attention whilst allowing them to continue with the task in hand to make the operator focus his/her attention fully on the task in hand to get the operators full attention At what maximum frequency does the human ear hear? 8 kHz 20 kHz 16 kHz Motor programmes are behavior subroutines require conscious thought to engage are stored as working rules in long term memory The pupil of the eye grows smaller to focus the fovea in condition of increased light in condition of reduced light Conductive deafness can be caused by damage to the semi circular canals cochlea otoliths Detail is best sensed by the ______ and movement best sensed by the ______ the periphery and the periphery the periphery and fovea the fovea and periphery

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If a person is colour blind, which colours would be most difficult to see? Yellow and red Red and green Blue and red

Answers for Questions 71 80

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wear spectacles when reading or carrying out close detail work Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.7.4 auditory nerve Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.4 tympanic membrane perforation Comment/Reference: Tympanic membrane www.hearingcenteronline.com/diction_stu.shtml

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to get the operators full attention Comment/Reference: Attention Getters are used in advertisements and posters etc to grab the operators full attention. 20 kHz Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.5.1 are stored as working rules in long term memory Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch 2 para 4.6 in condition of increased light Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 para 2.3 cochlea Comment/Reference: I think Cochlea is the wrong answer, Conductive deafness is a outer or middle ear problem and the cochlea is in the inner ear. www.encylopedia.com/doc/1E1-deafness.html the fovea and periphery Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 para 2.5 Red and green Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 para 2.11.2

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Questions 81 90 81. Myopia is _______ and a ______ lens is needed to correct it short sightedness and convex long sightedness and concave short sightedness and concave The Otoliths detect both angular and linear acceleration angular acceleration linear acceleration The nose warms the air into the lungs filters, warms and moistens the air into the lungs filters the air into the lungs The most common cause of myopia is a shortened eyeball an elongated eyeball weak accommodation It is generally true that group decisions are ___________ than the average individual decision within a group. more prone to error worse better Whose decision must be obeyed? That of the most experienced person That of the most forceful person That of the person with the higher status Whose responsibility is it to minimise human factors incidents in your company? The accountable manager's The Manager's Everyone's What is peer group pressure? 89. Our behaviour influenced by our friends and colleagues. The influence an individual has over a group of people The influence the House of Lords have over the House of Commons

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Which of the following statements best defines peer pressure? Your girlfriend wants to go to a dance, but you have to do overtime Your manager is telling you to hurry up and get a job finished Your colleagues are telling you to hurry up as when you finish your job, you can all go home

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A regular behavior of an individual is known as habit the norm culture

Answers for Questions 81 90

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short sightedness and concave Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 para 2.7.2

linear acceleration Comment/Reference: look under Function here www.tchain.com/otoneurology/disorders/bppv/otholiths.html#orientation 3. filters, warms and moistens the air into the lungs Comment/Reference: www.britannica.com/ebc/article-205723 an elongated eyeball Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 para 2.7.2 better Comment/Reference: That of the person with the higher status Comment/Reference: Everyone's Comment/Reference: Our behavior influenced by our friends and colleagues. Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.4.1 Your colleagues are telling you to hurry up as when you finish your job, you can all go home Comment/Reference: habit Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Par.2.5.2.

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Questions 91 100 91. In a discussion, the person who is most likely to be agreed with is the most argumentative person the person who repeats the point most times the person with the highest status An engineer who has developed his own way of performing a task is in regular violation should be commended for his resourcefulness is improving maintenance efficiency The aim of human factors programs within an organizations is to safeguard the health and safety of maintenance personnel by reducing accidents in the workplace to optimize the relationship between maintenance personnel and systems with a view to improving safety, efficiency and well-being to reduce costs by increasing efficiency, safety and quality and decreasing waste through human error An aircraft engineer who has 'responsibility' are liable to be called to account as being in charge or control of, or answerable for something must be licensed on the particular type of aircraft is in a management position within their company hierarchy The impact of human factors and human error is most important to It is equally important to technicians, engineers, planners and managers technicians and engineers planners and managers Where are the responsibilities of Licensed Aircraft Engineers laid down? The Air Navigation Order CAP 715 AWN 3 Diffusion of responsibility may occur with certain people whether they are working in a team or alone to an individual working as a member of a team to an individual working alone 'Risky shift' is the name given to an inadequate shift handover the tendency for a group of workers to arrive at a course of action which is riskier than that which any individual member might pursue the probability of being assigned to a work task which involves some element of risk or physical danger To ensure that a technician remains reasonably current on the aircraft types to which they hold authorizations, they are required that they are involved in at least 6 months of actual aircraft maintenance experience in any 2 year period and they have appropriate continuation/refresher training they have appropriate continuation/refresher training only they are involved in at least 6 months of actual aircraft maintenance experience in any 2 year period only. The difference between what a person 'can' do and what he 'will' do is largely determined by his motivation education and training physical and mental health

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Answers for Questions 91 100 1. the person with the highest status

Comment/Reference: No reference found in CAP 715 or 716, but this is one of the problems found with pilots 'steep cockpit status gradient' 2. is in regular violation Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4.5 to optimize the relationship between maintenance personnel and systems with a view to improving safety, efficiency and well-being Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.S Para.2.2 and CAp 715 Ch.1 Para.1.4.3 are liable to be called to account as being in charge or control of, or answerable for something Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.2.1 It is equally important to technicians, engineers, planners and managers Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.S Para.3.1 AWN 3 Comment/Reference: AWN 3 to an individual working as a member of a team Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.2.5.2 the tendency for a group of workers to arrive at a course of action which is riskier than that which any individual member might pursue Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.2.5.5 they are involved in at least 6 months of actual aircraft maintenance experience in any 2 year period and they have appropriate continuation/refresher training Comment/Reference: EASA Part-145, 66 and AWN 3 and CAP 716 Ch.4 Para.4.3 "; motivation Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.3.1

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Questions 101 110 101. Whose responsibility is it that an engineer remains current on new technology and procedures? The organization's The engineer's The CAA's According to Maslow, safety needs (protection from potentially dangerous objects or situations) is the most primal need of humans is the last need of human after all other needs have been satisfied. is second only to physiological needs (food drink, oxygen etc.) The symptoms of de-motivation are very similar to the symptoms of mental illness stress tiredness The desire of an individual to 'conform' to a group by allowing one's opinions, attitudes and actions to be affected by prevailing conditions is known as esteem needs culture issues peer pressure 'Confirmation bias' is an inspection of work carried out by an independent inspector or supervisor error in work carried out by a supervisor who has also inspected and signed for his own work the subconscious attention to evidence which confirms an engineer's beliefs, and inattention to evidence which contradicts his beliefs A person with low self-esteem is Conformity to peer pressure is not affected by level of self-esteem more likely to conform to peer pressure less likely to conform to peer pressure Motivation is a reward or punishment designed to increase work rate the thing that drives someone to do something a reward or punishment designed to reduce errors Peer pressure is the perceived pressure to conform to what you believe your colleagues expect of you. the perceived pressure to carry out a task in the same way your colleagues would typified by the expression The eyesight of an engineer is the responsibility of the optician the engineer the Quality Manager A good team is one where every member has an opinion a job an input

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Answers for Questions 101 110

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The engineer's Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.7 Para.3.4 is second only to physiological needs (food drink, oxygen etc.) Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.3.4 stress Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.3.5.3 peer pressure Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.4.3 the subconscious attention to evidence which confirms an engineer's beliefs, and inattention to evidence which contradicts his beliefs Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.5.7 more likely to conform to peer pressure Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.4.4.4 the thing that drives someone to do something Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.3 the perceived pressure to conform to what you believe your colleagues expect of you. Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.4.1 the engineer Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.12.4 an input Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.6.1.1

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Questions 111 120 111. AWN 47 states that the engineer is responsible for the work he has signed for does not report for work if unfit is responsible for health and safety An effective group work is when everyone has a job to do everyone discusses ideas and opinions everyone contributes in some way Which of the following defines a peer pressure situation? Your girlfriend telling you to go out with her Your colleagues pressuring you to work faster so they can go home Your supervising manager pressuring you to complete the current task on time Successful working teams have the following attributes: All the team members work in isolation and therefore provide highly individual solutions to the same problems All the members participate in team activities and discussions Members participate in team activities but retain their own individual requirements Good aircraft maintenance supervisory judgment is usually based upon the evidence available and forceful management ability knowledge and experience and reference to course notes knowledge and experience and reference to approved data Organizational culture (whether good or bad) is best described as written procedures 'the way we do things around here' team resource management In an organization which practices human factors there is a no blame culture no blame unless there is a deliberate violation punishment for all violations A person can be said to be motivated if they are on a productivity bonus they cut corners to get the job done quickly they are taking action to achieve something Group polarisation can result in a group making a better decision than the individual members of the group not talking to one another a group making a more cautious or extreme decision Who is most likely to deviate from standard procedure? Young, inexperienced man Old tired man Over confident, young man

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Answers for Questions 111 120

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does not report for work if unfit Comment/Reference: AWN 47 everyone contributes in some way Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para 6.1.1 Your colleagues pressuring you to work faster so they can go home Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.4 Members participate in team activities but retain their own individual requirements Comment/Reference: Closest reference found to this is CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.6 knowledge and experience and reference to approved data Comment/Reference: Closest reference found to this is CAP 715 Ch.6 Para.4.5 'the way we do things around here' Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.1.2 no blame unless there is a deliberate violation Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.E they are taking action to achieve something Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.3 a group making a more cautious or extreme decision Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.3 Para.2.5.5 Over confident, young man Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.R Para.1.2

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Questions 121 130

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The ideal behavior of a professional aircraft engineer is goal directed rather than person directed both person and goal directed neither person or goal directed If a written handover is complicated, but an overstressed engineer makes an extra effort to complete it without compliance with Rules and Regulations of the maintenance organization. This is a Maintenance Organization Rule motivation initiative What is the main effect of having hypertension? Migraine Angina Stroke Information on drugs and alcohol can be found in BCARs AWN 47 AWN 3 When a person gets older, their reactions decrease and become less accurate increase and become more accurate decrease and become more accurate Slow wave sleep is also known as paradoxical sleep stages 3 and 4 sleep REM Which of the following is a reason that the body requires oxygen? To combat impurities in the blood To help digest food To produce carbon dioxide If you have been prescribed new medicine by your doctor you should give the new medication a 24 hour trial take 3 days off work to try out the new medication continue with your normal shift pattern After a general anaesthetic you should return to work as soon as possible not return to work for at least 24 to 48 hours (depending on the individual) take at least 7 days off work Your doctor has prescribed you tranquillizers as you are suffering from depression. You should not work at all when taking the tranquillizers not tell your employer and carry on work as normal tell your employer and carry on work as normal

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Answers for Questions 121 130

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both person and goal directed Comment/Reference: motivation Comment/Reference: The stress is the motivation for the non-compliance. Stroke Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Comment/Reference: AWN 47 decrease and become more accurate Comment/Reference: Assuming this is within a person's normal working age, i.e. reactions are slower but hand skills and general technical aptitude is greater stages 3 and 4 sleep Comment/Reference: To help digest food Comment/Reference: give the new medication a 24 hour trial Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Para.3.7 and CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 not return to work for at least 24 to 48 hours (depending on the individual) Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Para.3.9 not work at all when taking the tranquillizers Comment/Reference: AWN 47 App.1 Para.1 (ii

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Questions 131 140

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Due to our circadian rhythms, maintenance errors are more likely to occur when the body temperature reaches its lowest point is mid-way between its highest and lowest point reaches its highest point The use of 'pep' pills by an aircraft engineer can only be used if prescribed by your doctor should never be done (except for coffee) is recommended only when working late or on night shift as they stimulate the senses and make you less prone to accidents You are taking SUDAFED to relieve nasal congestion. You should avoid making engineering decisions or performing licensed duties stay away from work until you no longer require the SUDAFED continue to take them at work because SUDAFED has no side effects Absenteeism is an indication of stress. It is what type of reaction? Active coping Cognitive coping Passive coping What is slow wave sleep? Stage 2- 4 sleep Paradoxical sleep REM Phase 3/4 sleep occurs only once per sleep cycle is most beneficial for the body's restoration can be induced by alcohol Human error can be caused by normal body temperature low body temperature high body temperature What meal is most recommended after a long shift? High carbohydrates Low carbohydrates High protein Long shift work will initially decrease your diagnostic and maintenance ability but eventually increase your diagnostic and maintenance ability as you get used to it always decrease your diagnostic and maintenance ability always increase your diagnostic and maintenance ability

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The circadian cycle body temperature varies by 1.5F does not vary varies by 1.5C

Answers for Questions 131 140

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reaches its lowest point Comment/Reference: should never be done (except for coffee) Comment/Reference: AWN 47 App.1 Para.1 (v) and CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 avoid making engineering decisions or performing licensed duties Comment/Reference: AWN 47 App.1 Para.1 (ix) and CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 Passive coping Comment/Reference: Stage 2- 4 sleep Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.1.3. is most beneficial for the body's restoration Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.1.3 low body temperature Comment/Reference: Both high and low body temperature can cause error. The answer here is taken from CAP 716 App.K Para.4.2 High carbohydrates Comment/Reference: Carbohydrates replace blood sugar levels most quickly always decrease your diagnostic and maintenance ability Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Ch.4 Para.3 varies by 1.5F Comment/Reference: Body temperature varies from 98.5 deg.F (daytime) and drops to about 97 deg.F (at about 3-4am)

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Questions 141 150

141.

Acute stress is a frequently reoccurring stress or of long duration typically intense but of short duration intense stress of long duration Chronic stress is intense stress of long duration typically intense but of short duration a frequently reoccurring stress or of long duration Smoking cannabis subtly impairs performance for up to 24 hours has only a short term affect upon performance has a noticeable affect on a persons behaviour and performance for up to 24 hours Performance is directly proportional to the individuals state of arousal inversely proportional to the individuals state of arousal greatest only at one optimum level of arousal but diminishes as arousal decreases or increases Missing a break in an effort to get a job done within a certain time frame can be done by those actually doing the job providing the supervisors take regular breaks can be done providing adequate rest period is available at the end of the shift can be counterproductive, as fatigue diminishes motor skills, perception, awareness and standards. Tiredness causes visual acuity to Visual acuity is not affected by tiredness decrease increase Narrowing of attention occurs at low levels of arousal both high and low levels of arousal high levels of arousal The blood/alcohol limit is 20 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood for commercial aircrew, air traffic controllers and maintenance engineers 20 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood for commercial aircrew, air traffic controllers and 80 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood for maintenance engineers 40 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood Paradoxical sleep is also known as Stage 3 sleep Stage 4 sleep REM sleep When taking medicine for the first time consult a doctor if you need to carry out any duties absent yourself from work for the duration of use of the medicine take the first dose at least 24 hours before any duty to ensure that it does not have any adverse effects

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typically intense but of short duration Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.2.3.1 a frequently reoccurring stress or of long duration Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.2.3.1 subtly impairs performance for up to 24 hours Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.5.2 greatest only at one optimum level of arousal but diminishes as arousal decreases or increases Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.4.3.1 can be counterproductive, as fatigue diminishes motor skills, perception, awareness and standards. Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.6 Para.1.2.5 decrease Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.4 high levels of arousal Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.4.3.2 20 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood for commercial aircrew, air traffic controllers and 80 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood for maintenance engineers Comment/Reference: AWN 45 Para 6.2 REM sleep Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.1.2 take the first dose at least 24 hours before any duty to ensure that it does not have any adverse effects Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Para.3.7 (b)

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Questions 151 160

151.

For a man to maintain his fitness and health the conducive maximum recommended alcohol intake is 28 units per day 3 - 4 units per week 28 units per week Human Circadian rhythms cycle on a 25 hour timescale 8 hour timescale 24 hour time scale Removal of alcohol from the blood stream cannot be speeded up can be speeded up by drinking strong coffee can be speeded up by sleeping For a person with normal Circadian rhythms, the body temperature will be lowest at midday upon waking between 4 and 6 o'clock in the morning If a maintenance engineer has a cold or flu he should absent himself from duty until fully recovered, regardless of other factors only absent himself from duty if his work contract includes sickness pay only absent himself from duty if there are no staff shortages at his workplace or within his work team Consumption of alcohol increases mental and physical reaction times decreases mental and physical reaction times has no affect upon mental and physical reaction times Alertness and performance is reduced when the body temperature is above normal below normal either above or below normal A good rule of thumb for an adequate amount of sleep is one hour of high quality sleep is good for two hours of activity two hours of high quality sleep is good for one hour of activity one hour of high quality sleep is good for one hour of activity

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Finding that familiar tasks (such as programming the video recorder) seems more complicated than usual, could be an early indication of a cold or flu acute stress chronic fatigue The only permitted stimulant is caffeine amphetamine bromine

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Answers for Questions 151 160

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28 units per week Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.1.6.1 25 hour timescale Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.2.1 cannot be speeded up Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.3.2 between 4 and 6 o'clock in the morning Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.2.3 absent himself from duty until fully recovered, regardless of other factors Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.1.5.5 increases mental and physical reaction times Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.3.1 Please think about the wording very carefully below normal Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.2.3 one hour of high quality sleep is good for two hours of activity Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.5.1 chronic fatigue Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.5.4 caffeine Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 and AWN 47 App. Para.(v)

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Questions 161 170 161. Large amounts of caffeine can reduce anxiety and stress improve alertness and increase awareness cause anxiety, headaches and stress The symptoms of stress are violence, sickness, absence from work, drug and alcohol abuse irritability, forgetfulness, sickness, absence from work, drug and alcohol abuse indications of improved work performance Sleeping tablets can slow reaction and dull the senses increase alertness after waking the following morning help REM sleep and realign circadian rhythms Information for certifying staff when medically unfit is found in AWN 47 ANO AWN 3 What effect would the consumption of 3 - 5 units of alcohol? Loss of quality of sleep Low REM sleep A drop in body temperature Long shift work increases the ability to recognize defects has no effect on the ability to recognize defects decreases the ability to recognize defects Circadian Rhythms control body temperature sleeping patterns urine output Cycles of sleep repeat approximately 20 minutes approximately each 4 hours approximately each 90 minutes A stimulant allowed to be taken without a doctor's prescription is antihistamine caffeine bromine The conditions laid down in AWN 47 are applicable to aircraft engineers when under the influence of drink or drugs for their safety at work who sign for work completed

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Answers for Questions 161 170

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cause anxiety, headaches and stress Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 irritability, forgetfulness, sickness, absence from work, drug and alcohol abuse Comment/Reference: AWN 47 and CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.2.3.4 slow reaction and dull the senses Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 AWN 47 Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Loss of quality of sleep Comment/Reference: Alcohol produces a loss of quality sleep. decreases the ability to recognize defects Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.1 Para 1.5 body temperature Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.2.1 approximately each 90 minutes Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.1.4 caffeine Comment/Reference: AWN 47 App. Para (v) and CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 when under the influence of drink or drugs Comment/Reference: AWN 47 Paras 2.1 and 2.2

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Questions 171 180 171. Consumption of 3 - 4 units of alcohol before sleep can increase REM sleep decrease the quality of sleep lower the body temperature The cycles of body temperature, sleep requirement and alertness are called ecto - meridian cycles circadian rhythms earth cycles The intake of caffeine in moderate quantities can result in a temporary increase in the ability to sustain vigilance and increased alertness anxiety, headaches and negative mood states lack of sleep and subsequent disruption to the circadian rhythms Working excessively long shifts during unsociable hours can lead to increased ability to detect defects during aircraft maintenance decreased ability to detect defects during aircraft maintenance an increased immunity to stress In theory, human error is most likely to occur when the body temperature is at its lowest when the body temperature is stable during very hot weather An individual suffering from stress when confronted with a task within his capability is likely to think the task is someone else's responsibility not demanding enough too demanding AWN 47 does not mention pep's sudafed melatonin 3 - 4 units of alcohol taken before sleep reduces both quality of sleep quantity of sleep Which is important in sleep? Quantity Quality Both Stressors in the environment of noise and heat will cause a total loss of attention no loss of attention a loss of attention and a distraction

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Answers for Questions 171 180

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decrease the quality of sleep Comment/Reference: Alcohol has no beneficial qualities (as far as work and sleep is concerned anyway). circadian rhythms Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.2 a temporary increase in the ability to sustain vigilance and increased alertness Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 ('Pep' pills) decreased ability to detect defects during aircraft maintenance Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.5.4 when the body temperature is at its lowest Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.2.3 someone else's responsibility Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.2.6 One defence strategy of a person under stress is to avoid additional stressors, by (for example) shifting responsibility. melatonin Comment/Reference: Melatonin is mentioned in CAP 715, Ch.4 Para.6.4.4 (even though the section is a transcript from AWN47). both Comment/Reference: Both Comment/Reference: a loss of attention and a distraction Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.5

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Questions 181 190

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When going from day shift to night shift, efficiency stays the same will drop off in the first four weeks will drop off after the first four weeks When working on aircraft, the consumption of alcohol you cannot work on aircraft even 8 hours after consuming large quantities of alcohol is permissible providing the drink driving limit is not exceeded a certain amount is permissible Drinking 3 - 4 units of alcohol before sleeping results in loss of non-REM sleep loss of quality sleep a drop in body temperature What effect does alcohol have on sleep? Decreases quantity of sleep Both Decreases quality of sleep Narrowing of attention occurs in states of high arousal optimum arousal low arousal Hypoxia can cause a person to slip into a coma if they are not quickly warmed up again improve the night vision of the cones of the eyes impair the sensitivity of the rods and hence have a detrimental effect on eyesight You are taking prescribed drugs. Do not carry out aircraft maintenance Carry on working, as long as you know the primary and secondary side effects Carry on as normal Which of the following is an acceptable substance, with regard to aircraft maintenance? Penicillin Caffeine Beta Blockers Circadian Rhythms have a cycle of 24 Hours 23 Hours 25 Hours Which of the following statements is true regarding human performance? Human performance is better with less stress, and in the morning Human performance is better with less stress, irrespective of the time of day Human performance is better with less stress, and in the afternoon

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Answers for Questions 181 190

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will drop off in the first four weeks Comment/Reference: you cannot work on aircraft even 8 hours after consuming large quantities of alcohol Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.2 (1/2 drink-drive limit) and Para.6.3.3 loss of quality sleep Comment/Reference: Both Comment/Reference: high arousal Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.4.3.2 impair the sensitivity of the rods and hence have a detrimental effect on eyesight Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.8 Carry on working, as long as you know the primary and secondary side effects Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4 Caffeine Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.6.4.3 'Pep' pills and AWN 47 25 Hours Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 Para.5.2.1 Human performance is better with less stress, and in the afternoon Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch 4 para.5.2.3

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Questions 191 200 191. After drinking alcohol, absorption is dependant on age weight time An engineer has a body mass index of 28. This would normally be classed as underweight with no real risk of developing health problems a healthy weight with no real risk of developing health problems overweight and at a risk of developing health problems One unit of alcohol is equivalent to two pints of beer one pint of beer half a pint of beer If an average adult has consumed the equivalent of four units of alcohol, how long will it take for this level to drop to two units eight hours two hours four hours How many stages of sleep are there? 5 3 4 REM sleep can also be referred to as paranormal sleep paradoxical sleep slow wave sleep The presence of something damaging to ones health would be an example of a psychological stressor reactive stressor physical stressor Aircraft engineers can take common sense steps to maintain their fitness and health. These are known as positive self-improvement positive measures self-improvement measures The amount of stress experienced with a particular task is dependent on the perceived demand and perceived ability the actual demand and actual ability the perceived demand and actual ability To minimise the chances of heart disease, it is recommended that a minimum amount of exercise should be 5 times a week with the heart rate doubling the normal rate for at least 20 minutes 3 times a week with the heart rate doubling the normal rate for at least 20 minutes once a day for thirty minutes

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Answers for Questions 191 200

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time Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.R Para.1.1 overweight and at a risk of developing health problems Comment/Reference: Good BMI is 17 - 22 (men). 28 is considerably overweight. See External website... for more details half a pint of beer Comment/Reference: IAS Fact Sheet Pg.1 two hours Comment/Reference: IAS Fact Sheet Pg.4 5 Comment/Reference: CAP 715 chapter 4 page 11 paradoxical sleep Comment/Reference: CAP 715 chapter 4 page 11 physical stressor Comment/Reference: CAP 715 chapter 4 page 4 positive measures Comment/Reference: CAP 715 chapter 4 page 3 1.6 Positive Measures the perceived demand and perceived ability Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 para 2.3 3 times a week with the heart rate doubling the normal rate for at least 20 minutes Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.4 para 1.6.1

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Questions 201 210 201. Long shift work will increase your diagnostic and maintenance ability initially decrease your diagnostic and maintenance ability but then you will get used to it decrease your diagnostic and maintenance ability Phase 3 and 4 sleep can be induced by alcohol is most beneficial for the bodies recovery occurs only once per sleep cycle Clinical insomnia can be caused by a change of environment jet lag caffeine The normal recovery for Circadian dysrhythmia is at a rate 2.5 hours a day at a rate 2 hours a day at a rate 1.5 hours a day When comparing noise levels on Human Performance noise has no effect on the number of errors or the speed of performance of an individual noise is directly proportional to the number of errors and the speed of performance of an individual an individual can find noise levels annoying but still perform well indefinitely Environmental stresses are not normally cumulative caused by noise, fumes, heat and vibration tolerated by everyone equally Employers must provide their employees with personal ear protectors if the noise level reaches 85 dB 70 dB 60 dB The maximum allowable noise dose is 85 dB any combination of noise and time which exceeds 90 dB TWA 90 dB for 24 hours 'Environmental capture' is a type of error possible when an engineer does the same job repeatedly but on different types of aircraft in a short timescale on the same type of aircraft In the UK, an air-side ramp vehicle driver is most likely to go deaf in both ears the right ear the left ear

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Answers for Questions 201 210

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decrease your diagnostic and maintenance ability Comment/Reference: is most beneficial for the bodies recovery Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch 4 para 5.1.3 caffeine Comment/Reference: at a rate 1.5 hours a day Comment/Reference: 1 day per time zone is quoted here noise is directly proportional to the number of errors and the speed of performance of an individual Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 para 3.6 caused by noise, fumes, heat and vibration Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch. 5 & Ch.4 Para.2.3.2. 85 dB Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.7.2 any combination of noise and time which exceeds 90 dB TWA Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.7.4 on the same type of aircraft Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.5.4 the right ear Comment/Reference: Because he usually has the window open

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Questions 211 220 211. Up to what proximity to an aircraft with engines running is the use of ear protection recommended for maintenance personnel? 200 - 300 metres 2 - 3 metres 20 - 30 metres Studies have shown that working outside in a temperature of 55F will have what effect on hand dexterity? Around 50% Very slight None When working with bright lights consideration should be given to shadows blurred image glare Which of the following is true? Noise affects the standard of work proportionately with the level of the noise Noise does affect the standard of work with certain people Noise does not affect a person's standard of work The effect on an engineer of environmental noise is it decreases concentration and quality of work it has no affect on concentration of quality of work it improves concentration and quality of work Excess noise in a working environment can not affect performance raise resistance to other stresses lower resistance to other stresses If the temperature is - 15C and you are working on the line, you should stop all maintenance until the weather improves rotate engineers regularly and have a supervisor keep an eye on them carry on regardless of the weather to keep the aircraft flying Studies have shown that working outside in a temperature of 55F will have what effect on hand dexterity? Around 50% reduction Very slight reduction None Cold stress can be influenced by insufficient vitamins in the diet the wind chill factor a drop in body temperature Environmental stresses in an extreme high temperature and noisy environment causes no loss of attention or distraction attention to be disturbed and distributed total loss of attention

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Answers for Questions 211 220

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200 - 300 metres Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.8.2 Around 50% Comment/Reference: Daanen H. Deterioration of manual performance in cold and windy climates. AGARD Conference Proceedings 540 The support of air operations under extreme hot and cold weather conditions 1993 May. Nato; 1993. p. 1-10 glare Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.5 Para.3.4 Noise does affect the standard of work with certain people Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.6.2 and CAP 716 App.K Para.5.2 it decreases concentration and quality of work Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.K Para.5 lower resistance to other stresses Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.K Para 5.5 stop all maintenance until the weather improves Comment/Reference: JAR 145 AMC 145.25(c) and CP 715 Ch.5 Para.4.4 Around 50% reduction Comment/Reference: So studies have shown - but you won't find it in either CAP 715 or 716 the wind chill factor Comment/Reference: Contributory factors of cold stress are temperature, wind speed and wetness. attention to be disturbed and distributed Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.5

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Questions 221 230 221. Which of the following environments is best suited to aircraft maintenance? Working outside, at night, in the rain Working outside, in the direct midday sun Working inside in a well lit, comfortable hangar Intense or loud noise may lead to fatigue will have no physiological effects increases stimulation Facility lighting in a hangar should be no brighter than 10 lux provided by fixed light units giving light to shadow ratio of 3:1 portable so that individual tasks may be well lit When tasks are being designed, the maximum mass an engineer should lift is 32 kg 50 kg 23 kg Sensing and perception errors are most likely to result from poor lighting or noise lack of adequate training distraction of other engineers Task lighting in a hangar is mainly provided by fixed lighting portable so that individual tasks may be well lit provided by fluorescent tubes When someone is working in an enclosed space, a supervisor should stand outside the exit. This is to ensure the job is done in accordance with the Maintenance Manual that the trades-person is advised and instructed that there is communication between the extra supervisor and the tradesman, to ensure safety at all times The most difficult type of ice to detect, by the ground crew is pack ice glaze ice surface ice To perform a visual inspection efficiently, what is the best condition set? Temperature, light and accessibility Torch, mirror and steps Temperature, light and quality equipment When inspecting an airframe structure for small cracks, to avoid a crack being missed you should hold the vision stationary for several seconds on each area to allow the eye to focus correctly. constantly move the eye across and around the area of interest to avoid the crack falling into the eye's natural blind spot. not use a mirror as mirrors absorb and refract light and may obscure a crack

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Answers for Questions 221 230

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Working inside in a well lit, comfortable hangar Comment/Reference: may lead to fatigue Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.3.6.1 provided by fixed light units giving light to shadow ratio of 3:1 Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Appendix L Para.2.2.3 (although no reference can be found for the 3 to 1 bit) 23 kg Comment/Reference: 23 kg or 50 lbs poor lighting or noise Comment/Reference: Sensing and perception are 2 stages in the Information Processing Model (CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.4.1) and affected by lighting and noise. portable so that individual tasks may be well lit Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.5 Para.3.2 and 3.3

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that there is communication between the extra supervisor and the tradesman, to ensure safety at all times Comment/Reference:

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glaze ice Comment/Reference: Temperature, light and accessibility Comment/Reference: constantly move the eye across and around the area of interest to avoid the crack falling into the eye's natural blind spot Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.5.2

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Questions 231 240 231. When a person moves from a poorly lit area to a well lit area, what is the minimum time they should allow for the eyes to adapt? 7 seconds 7 minutes 30 seconds Itemized checklists should be dealt with in any order, provided all steps are completed item by item, in order, to cover every step diligently as memorized The main disadvantage of carrying out critical inspections under very bright artificial light is filtered light glare shadows When carrying out a visual inspection, an engineer is likely to make a parallax error when using precision measuring instruments such as a vernier gauge or AVO meter viewing internal details with a borescope inspecting a component using a 5x or 10x magnifying glass When describing tasks, the term 'complex system' refers to a task involving fault finding which involve decision making rather than practical work which may be broken down into many steps A good scan is best achieved by a steady sweep of the eyes frequent and small eye movement quartering the area During visual scanning the eye movement should be small and infrequent small and frequent large and frequent What constitutes a good work handover? A written documentation of the work done A written and verbal account of the work done A verbal account of the work done A good shift handover should include details of tasks that have been completed; tasks in progress, their status, any problems encountered etc.; tasks to be carried out and general company and technical information. tasks that have been completed; tasks in progress, their status, any problems encountered etc.; tasks to be carried out and tools required to carry out the tasks. tasks that have been completed; persons who carried out the tasks; tasks to be carried out and general company and technical information. Technical communication between two engineers can go wrong if the recipient uses body language to provide feedback to the sender. the sender uses a sketch to augment the information transmittal. the recipient makes an assumption of the meaning of the information being transmitted.

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Answers for Questions 231 240

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7 minutes Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 Para.2.9.1

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item by item, in order, to cover every step diligently Comment/Reference: Closest reference found to this is CAP 715 Ch.6 Para.4.5 glare Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.5 Para.3.4 using precision measuring instruments such as a vernier gauge or AVO meter Comment/Reference: Parallax = 'The apparent displacement of an object as seen from two different points that are not on a line with the object'

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which may be broken down into many steps Comment/Reference: Complex means 'more than one'. frequent and small eye movement Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 para 2.5.2 small and frequent Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.2 para 2.5.2

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A written and verbal account of the work done Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Ch.9 Para.1.4.

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tasks that have been completed; tasks in progress, their status, any problems encountered etc.; tasks to be carried out and general company and technical information. Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.7 Para.1.5.1 and CAP 716 App.M Para.3.7.3 the recipient makes an assumption of the meaning of the information being transmitted Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.7 Para.1.6.2

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Questions 241 250 241. A good practice for a shift handover is for shifts to be specifically rostered so there is an overlap of 5 - 10 minutes 2 - 3 hours 20 - 30 minutes 'Asynchronous' communication includes immediate voice communication by radio link technical manuals, memos, Advisory Circulars and Airworthiness Directives face-to-face communications The best type of handover is when written instructions are given by the engineer finishing his shift to the engineer just beginning a shift. the use of handover logs and a brief by the shift supervisor when each individual gets a personal handover of the job The most effective form of communication is verbal communication explicit communication written communication To establish a reliable means of communication between teams detailed verbal communication is the most effective method change-over logs and verbal communication are essential a detailed written handover is the most effective method An effective shift handover will comprise of the shift supervisor informing personnel of all ongoing work the outgoing and incoming personnel individually handing over ongoing tasks handing over ongoing tasks in a designated area What is the most important means of communication in aircraft maintenance engineering? Written Implicit Verbal The most effective form of communication is verbal communication written communication implicit communication Little black books are a good time saving device for an engineer permissible as long as the information stored is from an approved source not to be used as information stored may be out of date If you are given a task that you are unsure of you should ask someone who has done it before consult the appropriate approved data consult type course notes

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Answers for Questions 241 250

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20 - 30 minutes Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Ch.9 Para.1.3 technical manuals, memos, Advisory Circulars and Airworthiness Directives Comment/Reference: the use of handover logs and a brief by the shift supervisor Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Ch.9 Para.1.4 and App.M Para.4 and AWN 3 Para.1.4 explicit communication Comment/Reference: change-over logs and verbal communication are essential Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Ch.9 Para.1.4 handing over ongoing tasks in a designated area Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App.M Para 3.7.4 & CAP715 Ch.7 Para.1.5.2 Written Comment/Reference: CAP 716 App T Para 1 verbal communication Comment/Reference: Interrogation and confirmation can be used in verbal communication to ensure that the receiver has understood. 'Implicit communication' is implied (non-verbal) communication and is open to interpretation and errors. not to be used as information stored may be out of date Comment/Reference: consult the appropriate approved data Comment/Reference:

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Questions 251 260 251. A shift hand-over is where each individual person hands over their work a shift supervisor hands the work over to a complete shift the work done is written down by a company organization The alerting system for an important system failure should be a dolls-eye indicator a flashing visual signal, preferably red an aural warning Failures caused by those in direct contact with the system are described as routine failures latent failures active failures If, during a ground-run, the engine catches fire, and the technician carries out the fire drill, this is knowledge based action skill based action rule based action A maintenance Error Management System (MEMS) is used to process Mandatory Occurrence Reports (MORs) only investigate reports on all incidents and accidents investigate Confidential Human Incident Reports (CHIRP) only A wrongly set torque wrench would most likely produce a Type 1 error constant error variable error The biggest risk of error associated with using checklists is that they can invoke automatic responses they can be misread the user may be distracted Skill-based behaviour is associated with rules experience motor programmes When carrying out a cockpit drill in response to an engine fire warning you are using rule-based behaviour knowledge-based behaviour skill-based behaviour

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260. A maintenance Error Management System (MEMS) is used to process Mandatory Occurrence Reports (MORs) only investigate Confidential Human Incident Reports (CHIRP) only investigate reports on all incidents and accidents

Answers for Questions 251 260

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a shift supervisor hands the work over to a complete shift Comment/Reference: an aural warning Comment/Reference: active failures Comment/Reference: rule based action Comment/Reference: investigate reports on all incidents and accidents Comment/Reference: constant error Comment/Reference: they can invoke automatic responses Comment/Reference: motor programmes Comment/Reference: rule-based behaviour Comment/Reference: investigate reports on all incidents and accidents Comment/Reference:

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Questions 261 270 261. The SHEL model of human factors takes into account Software, hardware, efficiency and liveware Software, hardware, environment and liveware Software, hardware, environment and location What part of the SHEL model would the writing and interpretation of maintenance manuals fit into? Software Environment Hardware The 'error chain' theory refers to a chain of errors within an organizations can be investigated, and similar errors prevented by determining a common link between them. errors are caused by a chain of linked events, and the breaking of one link in the chain will prevent the error. a company is only as good as its weakest employee or employees, and removal of that/those employee from the chain should prevent errors. What part of the SHEL model would the aircraft design fit into? Hardware Environment Liveware Which part of the SHEL model is most difficult to protect from errors by 'designing out' or to 'work around'? Liveware Environment Software A violation in an aircraft maintenance procedure is usually carried out with the best intentions from a genuine desire to 'get the job done' is always considered an act of vandalism or sabotage is always carried out to satisfy some personal need, often unrelated to the actual task Which type of human error is easiest to correct? Constant error Reversible error Variable error In the 'slips, lapses and mistakes' definition of errors, forgetting to replace an engine cowling would be considered a Lapse Mistake slip In the 'slips, lapses and mistakes' definition of errors, a mistake would typically occur at the execution stage storage (memory) stage planning stage On a task that is complex, an engineer uses his own procedures due to pressure. This is legally termed violation modification initiative

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Software, hardware, environment and liveware Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.1.5.1

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Software Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.1.5.2 errors are caused by a chain of linked events, and the breaking of one link in the chain will prevent the error Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.2.7.2 Hardware Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.1.5.2. Liveware Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.1.5.4 is usually carried out with the best intentions from a genuine desire to 'get the job done' Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4.5 Constant error Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.2.1 lapse Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4.3 planning stage Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4.4 violation Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.2.4 and Para.1.4.5

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Questions 271 280

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Visual inspection by an 'experienced' maintenance engineer is knowledge and rule base behaviour skill and knowledge based behaviour skill and rule based behaviour Troubleshooting is skill based rule based knowledge based A violation is a deliberate departure from the rules an unintentional error an intentional act of sabotage A mistake is a deliberate departure from the rules an intentional act of sabotage an unintentional error Whilst working on an aircraft a spanner placed on the wing surface is kicked off and subsequently falls into an open engine cowl, breaking off a sensor connector. This is an example of Murphy's law a skill based error a punishable occurrence An experienced engineer fits the wrong seal during a routine component change. This is skill based knowledge based rule based An engineer is working on a wing and kicks a spanner off into an engine cowl and breaks a sensor. This is skill based error rule based error knowledge based error The difference between a mistake and a violation is a mistake is less serious than a violation a violation is not deliberate a mistake is unintentional and a violation is deliberate An engineer finds his own method of doing a repetitive job. He should hand it on to his junior colleagues He should be commended for his resourcefulness He is in regular violation An experienced engineer is fitting a valve. A required seal is not fitted. What type of error is this? Skill based Knowledge based Rule based

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Answers for Questions 271 280

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knowledge and rule base behaviour Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.5.1 and Ch.6 Para.3.4 rule based Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.5 a deliberate departure from the rules Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4.5 an unintentional error Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4.3 a skill based error Comment/Reference: A Skill based error are errors associated with 'intrinsic variability of force, space or time coordination' (Human Error, James Reason pg.43). rule based Comment/Reference: Using the IPC is a rule based behaviour. skill based error Comment/Reference: A skill based error (slip) is an error in force, space or time coordination (Reason, Human Error pg 43). a mistake is unintentional and a violation is deliberate Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4 He is in regular violation Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4 Rule based Comment/Reference: This is a rule based error. In Rule Base errors are typically associated with misclassification of situations leading to the application of the wrong rule or with the incorrect recall of procedures. (Reason, Human Error pg 43)

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Questions 281 290 281. 282. 283. 284. 285. 286. 287. 288. 289. 290. The hub of the SHEL model of human factors is Hardware environment liveware A type 1 visual inspection error occurs when a faulty item is missed a duplicate inspection is not carried out a good item is incorrectly identified as faulty What is the difference between error and violation? No difference Violation is deliberate, error is not Error is deliberate, violation is not What is a latent failure? Receiving bad instruction from a manager who is out of touch with maintenance A failure which could not have been predicted A mistake that has already been made, but has not yet caused an accident What happens when you break the 'chain of error'? Accident happens Pilot submits report within 72 hours Accident does not happen If an engineer forgets to fit a seal to an engine drain plug, he or she has made an error of commission committed a violation made an error of omission An engineer is performing a task in less than ideal conditions in order to meet an operational deadline is committing a situational violation committed a routine error making a rule based slip An engineer who has developed his or her own method of performing a complex task is performing a rule based behaviour should be commended for his/her resourcefulness is violating on a regular basis Error tolerance in maintenance progress refers to ability of a system to remain functional after a maintenance error process of eliminating the contributing factors to error performance of tasks specifically designed to identify errors during a maintenance task Duty of care for health and safety of people at work rests with employers and employees employers only the Health and Safety Executive

Answers for Questions 281 290

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liveware Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para. 1.5 a good item is incorrectly identified as faulty Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.2.6 Violation is deliberate, error is not Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4.5 A mistake that has already been made, but has not yet caused an accident Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.6.2 Accident does not happen Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.1 Para.2.7.2 made an error of omission Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.1.4.3 committing a situational violation Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.2.4.3 is violating on a regular basis Comment/Reference: CAP 715 Ch.8 Para.2.4.2 ability of a system to remain functional after a maintenance error Comment/Reference: Human Error by James Reason. (Error Tolerant systems) employers and employees Comment/Reference:

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Questions 291 300

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When dealing with an emergency, the first priority is to protect others only building and equipment yourself and others The three basic steps in dealing with an emergency are summon assistance, assess and then make safe make safe, summon assistance and then assess assess, make safe and then summon assistance Hazards found in the workplace are the result of unsafe environmental conditions only human conditions only human and environmental conditions When evacuating casualties you would first move fatalities walking wounded the most seriously wounded if incapacitated Engineers often work on raised platforms, ladders etc. What dangers can this contribute to? Staging may be made of wood Two workers may be carrying out maintenance on the same lift Ladder may slip and worker falls Risk assessment and management is reduction of risks to a tolerable standard and monitoring the situation the investigation of risks and totally removing them and the monitoring of new work practices choosing a cheaper supplier or manufacturer for parts When carrying out a risk assessment it is necessary to identify where equipment/procedures might fail a hard hat should be worn an investigation is made to determine what caused an accident or incident The long term memory can be classified as two types, 'Semantic' and 'Episodic'. How do these compare? 'Semantic' is less accurate and longer lasting than 'Episodic' 'Semantic' is more accurate and longer lasting than 'Episodic' 'Episodic' is more accurate and longer lasting than 'Semantic' What is the most common cause of long or short sightedness? Stiffening of the lens with age Stiffening of the cornea with age Shape of the eye ball Stress improves performance has an adverse affect on our ability can have a positive effect on ability

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yourself and others Comment/Reference: assess, make safe and then summon assistance Comment/Reference: human and environmental conditions Comment/Reference: walking wounded Comment/Reference: Ladder may slip and worker falls Comment/Reference: CAP 716 Ch.5 Para.5.1 reduction of risks to a tolerable standard and monitoring the situation Comment/Reference: it is necessary to identify where equipment/procedures might fail Comment/Reference: 'Semantic' is more accurate and longer lasting than 'Episodic' Comment/Reference: CAP 715 ch2 para 4.5.8 Shape of the eye ball Comment/Reference: CAP 715 ch2 para 2.7.1 / para 2.7.2 can have a positive effect on ability Comment/Reference: CAP 715 ch4 para 2.4.1

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Questions 301 302

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The relative stimulation and responses of the brain to stimuli from the senses varies. Which of the following are true? Visual stimuli attract attention faster then auditory, but result in a more accurate response Visual stimuli attract attention faster than auditory, but results in less accurate response Visual stimuli attract attention slower than auditory, but results in a more accurate response Our model of the world is based upon, sensual perception only past experience only sensual perception and past experience

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Answers for Questions 301 302

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Visual stimuli attract attention slower than auditory, but results in a more accurate response Comment/Reference: CAP 715 ch2 para 4.2 sensual perception and past experience Comment/Reference: www.integritynlp.co.uk/2007/07/09/model-of-the-world/

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Last Updated 14SEP07