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Santanu S. Dey and Diego A. Moran R.

H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering,

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

765 Ferst Drive, NW, GA , USA

santanu.dey, dmoran@isye.gatech.edu

January 23, 2011

Abstract

In this paper, we study properties of general closed convex sets that determine the closed-ness

and polyhedrality of the convex hull of integer points contained in it. We rst present necessary and

sucient conditions for the convex hull of integer points contained in a general convex set to be closed.

This leads to useful results for special class of convex sets such as pointed cones, strictly convex sets,

and sets containing integer points in their interior. We then present sucient conditions for the convex

hull of integer points in general convex sets to be polyhedron. These sucient conditions generalize

the sucient conditions given in Meyer [8]. Under a simple technical condition, we show that these

sucient conditions are also necessary conditions for the convex hull of integer points contained in

general convex sets to be polyhedra.

1 Introduction

An important goal in the study of mathematical programming is to analyze properties of the convex hull

of feasible solutions. The Fundamental Theorem of Integer Programming, due to Meyer [8], states that

the convex hull of feasible points in a mixed integer linear set dened by rational data is a polyhedron.

The proof of this result relies on (i) the Minkowski-Weyl Representation Theorem for polyhedron and

(ii) the fact that the recession cone is a rational polyhedral cone and thus generated by a nite number

of integer vectors. In the world of mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problems, these sucient

conditions for polyhedrality of the convex hull of feasible solutions are reasonable since we expect most

instances to be described using rational data.

A convex integer program is an optimization problem where the feasible region is of the form K Z

n

where K R

n

is a closed convex set. Let conv(K Z

n

) represent the convex hull of K Z

n

. In this

setting typically we do not have Minkowski-Weyl type Representation Theorem for K or nice properties of

recession cone of K. Therefore a natural question is to generalize Meyers Theorem, in order to understand

properties of the set K that lead to conv(K Z

n

) being a polyhedron. Note that [3] presents condition

about the set K Z

n

(and more generally any subset of Z

n

) such that elements of K Z

n

have a nite

integral generating set. In contrast, here we are interested in properties of the set K that allow us to

deduce that conv(K Z

n

) is a polyhedron.

Observe that if conv(K Z

n

) is a polyhedron, then conv(K Z

n

) is a closed set. To the best of

our knowledge, even the basic question of conditions that lead to conv(K Z

n

) being closed is not well-

understood. (See [9] for some sucient conditions for closed-ness of conv(KZ

n

) when K is a polyhedron

that is not necessarily described by rational data). We therefore divide this paper into two parts.

In the rst part of this paper (Section 2), we present necessary and sucient conditions for conv(KZ

n

)

to be closed when K contains no lines (Theorem 2.1). This characterization also leads to useful results for

special classes of convex sets such as sets containing integer points in their interior (Theorem 2.3), strictly

convex sets (Theorem 2.4), and pointed cones (Theorem 2.5). The necessary and sucient conditions for

1

sets containing integer points in their interior generalize the sucient conditions presented in [9]. The

case where K contains lines is then dealt separately (Theorem 2.6).

In the second part of this paper (Section 3), we present sucient conditions for the convex hull of integer

points contained in general convex sets to be a polyhedron (Theorem 3.1). These sucient conditions

generalize the sucient conditions presented in [8]. For a general convex set K containing at least one

integer point in its interior, we show that these sucient conditions are also necessary conditions for

conv(K Z

n

) to be a polyhedron (Theorem 3.1).

We conclude with some remarks in Section 4.

2 Closed-ness of conv(K Z

n

)

For u R

n

and > 0, we use the notation B(u, ) to denote the set x R

n

[ |x u| . Let K R

n

.

In this paper K represents the closure of K, int(K) represents the interior of K, bd(K) represents the

boundary of K, rel.int(K) represents the relative interior of K, dim(K) represents the dimension of K,

rec.cone(K) represents the recession cone of K, lin.space(K) represents the lineality space of K and a(K)

represents the ane hull of K. Note that

rec.cone(K) = d R

n

[ x +d K x K, 0,

is dened for all sets and not just for closed sets. For example, consider the set A = conv((0, 1) x

R

2

[ x

2

= 0). Then rec.cone(A) = 0 and rec.cone(int(A)) = rec.cone(A) =

1

(1, 0)+

2

(1, 0) [

1

,

2

0. In general, the following result is true; see [11] for a proof.

Lemma 2.1 ([11]). Let K R

n

be a convex set. Then

rec.cone(rel.int(K)) = rec.cone(K) rec.cone(K).

Before presenting the results of this section, we develop some intuition by examining some examples.

Example 2.1. If K is a bounded convex set, then conv(K Z

n

) is a polytope. Therefore properties of

the recession cone play an important role in determining the closed-ness of conv(K Z

n

). Intuitively,

it appears that irrational extreme recession directions of K may cause conv(K Z

n

) to be not closed.

However this is not entirely true as illustrated in the next few examples.

1. First consider the set K

1

= x R

2

[ x

2

2x

1

0, x

2

0. It is easily veried that in this case

conv(K

1

Z

2

) is not closed. In particular, the half-line x R

2

[ x

2

2x

1

= 0, x

2

> 0, belongs

to conv(K Z

2

) but not to conv(K Z

2

). In this case it is clear that the irrational data describing

the polyhedron causes conv(K

1

Z

2

) to be not closed.

Figure 1: K

1

and conv(K

1

Z

2

).

2

2. Now consider the set K

2

= x R

2

[ x

2

2x

1

0, x

2

0, x

1

1. Notice that the recession cone

of K

1

and K

2

are the same. In fact (K

1

Z

2

) = (K

2

Z

2

) (0, 0). However, we will verify (also

see Figure 2) that conv(K

2

Z

2

) is closed.

Figure 2: K

2

and conv(K

2

Z

2

).

We next illustrate a similar observation (i.e. recession cone of K has irrational extreme ray, but

conv(K Z

n

) is closed) using non-polyhedral sets.

3. Let K

3

= x R

2

[ x

2

x

2

1

. The recession cone of K

3

is x R

2

[ x

1

= 0, x

2

0. It can be

shown that conv(K

3

Z

2

) is closed.

Figure 3: K

3

and conv(K

3

Z

2

).

4. Now consider the set where we rotate the parabola K

3

such that the new recession cone is x

R

2

[

2x

1

= x

2

, x

2

0, i.e., consider the set K

4

= x R

2

[

1

3

_

1

2

2 1

_

x K

3

. In

this case, even though the recession cone is a non-rational polyhedral set, it can be veried that

conv(K

4

Z

2

) is closed.

Observe that all the sets discussed above have polyhedral recession cones. However, sets whose recession

cone are non-polyhedral can also lead to conv(K Z

n

) being closed.

5. Consider the set K

5

= (0, 0, 1)(0, 1, 1)(

1

n

,

1

n

2

, 1) n Z, n 1. Then K

5

is closed, since it

contains all its limit points. Therefore K

5

is a compact set and thus conv(K

5

) is compact (Theorem

17.2 [11]). Therefore, K

6

= conv

_

uK

5

u

u[

u

0 u R

5

_

is a closed convex cone. Finally,

it can be veried that conv(K

6

Z

3

) = K

6

is closed.

3

2.1 Necessary and sucient conditions for closed-ness of conv(KZ

n

) for sets

with no lines

Denition 2.1 (u(K)). Given a convex set K R

n

and u KZ

n

, we dene u(K) = d R

n

[ u+d

conv(K Z

n

) 0.

In this section we will prove the following result.

Theorem 2.1. Let K R

n

be a closed convex set not containing a line. Then conv(K Z

n

) is closed if

and only if u(K) is identical for every u K Z

n

.

Note here that when u(K) is identical for every u K Z

n

, Theorem 2.1 implies that conv(K Z

n

)

is closed and therefore we obtain u(K) = rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)) is closed for every u K Z

n

.

It is not dicult to verify that,

conv(K Z

n

) = conv

_

_

uKZ

n

(u +u(K))

_

. (1)

Hence Theorem 2.1 states that if the recession cone of each u+u(K) is identical, then the convex hull

of their union is closed. Therefore Theorem 2.1 is very similar in avor to the following result.

Lemma 2.2 ([11]). If K

1

, ..., K

m

are non-empty closed convex sets in R

n

all having the same recession

cone, then conv(K

1

. . . K

m

) is closed.

Note however that Lemma 2.2 is not directly useful in verifying the sucient part of Theorem 2.1

since the number of integer points in a general convex set in not necessarily nite and thus the union in

the right-hand-side of equation (1) is possibly over a countably innite number of sets. Lemma 2.2 does

not extend to innite unions, in fact it does not hold even if the individual sets are polyhedra with same

recession cone. (Consider for example conv(

iZ,i1

K

i

) where K

i

= (x

1

, x

2

) R

2

[ x

1

=

1

i

, x

2

0.)

However, we note here that the proof of Theorem 1 presented here will eventually use Lemma 2.2 is some

cases, by suitably converting the set conv (

uKZ

n(u +u(K))) to the convex hull of the union of a nite

number of appropriate sets.

We begin by presenting some results that are required for the proof of Theorem 2.1. The following

crucial result is from [5]. Also see [6].

Lemma 2.3 ([5]). Let K R

n

be a nonempty closed set. Then every extreme point of conv(K) belongs

to K.

Lemma 2.4. Let A be a nn matrix and let K R

n

be a closed convex set. Then conv(AK) = Aconv(K).

Proof. Let

1

, . . . ,

m

R

+

such that

m

i=1

i

= 1 and let x

1

, . . . , x

m

K. By linearity of A, we have

the following identity A(

m

i=1

i

x

i

) =

m

i=1

i

Ax

i

. This identity implies the result.

Lemma 2.5. Let U be a n n unimodular matrix and let K R

n

be a closed convex set. Then

conv(K Z

n

) is closed i conv((UK) Z

n

) is closed.

Proof. Since the linear transformation dened by U : R

n

R

n

is an homeomorphism, we conclude

conv(KZ

n

) is closed i Uconv(KZ

n

) is closed. It remains to show that Uconv(KZ

n

) = conv((UK)

Z

n

). Since U is unimodular, we obtain that U(K Z

n

) = U(K) U(Z

n

) = U(K) Z

n

. Therefore, by

Lemma 2.4, U(conv(K Z

n

)) = conv(U(K Z

n

)) = conv((UK) Z

n

).

Lemma 2.6 ([11]). Let K R

n

be a closed convex set not containing a line. Let S be the set of extreme

points of K. Then K = conv(S) + rec.cone(K).

A convex set K R

n

is called lattice-free, if int(K) Z

n

= . A lattice-free convex set K R

n

is

called maximal lattice-free convex set if there does not exist a lattice-free convex set K

R

n

satisfying

K

K.

We note here that every lattice-free convex set is contained in a maximal lattice-free convex set. The

following characterization of maximal lattice-free convex set is from [7]. See also [1] for related result.

4

Theorem 2.2 ([7]). A full-dimensional lattice-free convex set K R

n

is a maximal lattice-free convex

set is and only if K is a polyhedron of the form K = P + L, where P is a polytope and L is a rational

linear subspace and every facet of K contains a point of Z

n

in its relative interior.

We now present the proof of the main result of this section.

Proof. of Theorem 1 If KZ

n

= , then the result is trivial. Therefore, we will assume that KZ

n

,= .

If conv(K Z

n

) is closed, then u K Z

n

, u(K) = rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)). Thus u(K) is identical

for all u K Z

n

.

By denition of u(K), we have that

rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)) u(K) rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)) u K Z

n

. (2)

Assume now that u(K) is identical for every u KZ

n

. We rst claim that u(K) = rec.cone(conv(KZ

n

))

u K Z

n

. Let r u(K) and x conv(K Z

n

). We can write x =

N

i=1

i

z

i

, where z

i

K Z

n

,

i

0 for all i = 1, . . . , N and

N

i=1

i

= 1. Since r z

i

(K), i = 1, . . . , N, we have z

i

+ r

conv(K Z

n

) for all 0. Since x + r =

N

i=1

i

(z

i

+ r), we obtain that x + r conv(K Z

n

).

Thus, u(K) rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)) and by (2) we obtain that

u(K) = rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)) u K Z

n

. (3)

We will now show that conv(K Z

n

) is closed. There are two cases:

Case 1: rel.int(conv(K Z

n

)) Z

n

,= . We will verify that conv(K Z

n

)conv(K Z

n

). Let

u rel.int(conv(KZ

n

)) Z

n

. By denition of u(K), rec.cone(rel.int(conv(KZ

n

)) u(K). Since

rec.cone(conv(KZ

n

)) = rec.cone(rel.int(conv(KZ

n

)) (Lemma 2.1), by using (2) we conclude that

u(K) = rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)). Therefore by using (3) we obtain that rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)) =

rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)). Finally by Lemma 2.3, the extreme points of conv(K Z

n

) belong to

conv(KZ

n

). Since conv(KZ

n

) K, it does not contain any lines. Thus, by Lemma 2.6, conv(K

Z

n

) is given by the convex hull of its extreme points plus its recession cone. Since the extreme points

of conv(K Z

n

) belongs to conv(K Z

n

) and rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)) = rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)),

we obtain that conv(K Z

n

) conv(K Z

n

). Therefore, conv(K Z

n

) is closed.

Case 2: rel.int(conv(K Z

n

)) Z

n

= . We will use induction on the dimension of conv(K Z

n

).

The base case, dim(conv(K Z

n

)) = 0, 1 is straightforward to verify.

Suppose now the property is true for every closed convex set K

Z

n

)) <

dim(conv(K Z

n

)).

First for convenience, we redene K := K a(K Z

n

). Therefore dim(K Z

n

) = dim(K). Let

z KZ

n

. We now translate K as Kz and note that it is sucient to show that conv(KZ

n

) is

closed for this new set K. Observe that a(KZ

n

) is a rational linear subspace, since it is generated

by integer vector. Now by selecting a suitable unimodular matrix (see [12]) and by the application

of Lemma 2.5, we may assume that a(K Z

n

) is of the form x[ x

i

= 0 i = k +1, ..., n. Finally,

we can project out the last n k components (every point in K has zero in these components) and

note that it is sucient to show that conv(K Z

k

) is closed for this new set K R

k

.

In particular, without loss of generality, we may assume that conv(K Z

n

) is full-dimensional.

Note that conv(KZ

n

) is lattice-free, and therefore there exists a full-dimensional maximal lattice-

free polyhedron Q R

n

such that conv(K Z

n

) Q and Q = P +L, where P is a polytope and L

is a rational linear subspace.

Let F

i

, i = 1, . . . , N be the facets of Q such that K F

i

Z

n

,= . We will verify that

conv(K Z

n

) F

i

= conv(K F

i

Z

n

). (4)

Since conv(K Z

n

) F

i

is a convex set and contains K F

i

Z

n

we have conv(K Z

n

) F

i

conv(KF

i

Z

n

). On the other hand, let x conv(KZ

n

) F

i

. Therefore x =

M

j=1

j

z

j

, where

5

z

j

KZ

n

,

j

0 for all j = 1, . . . , M, and

M

j=1

j

= 1. Since KZ

n

Q and x F

i

, we must

have z

j

F

i

, , j = 1, . . . , M, so x conv(K F

i

Z

n

).

Next we verify that

u(K F

i

) = u(K) L u K F

i

Z

n

, i = 1, . . . , N. (5)

Let r u(K F

i

). Therefore, by denition we have that u + r conv(K F

i

Z

n

) 0.

By (4), this is equivalent to u + r conv(K Z

n

) F

i

0. This is also equivalent to

u+r conv(KZ

n

) 0 and u+r F

i

0. Thus equivalently we obtain that r u(K)

and r rec.cone(F

i

) = L, i.e., r u(K) L. Thus, u(K F

i

) = u(K) L.

Since u(K) is identical for all u K Z

n

, (5) implies that u(K F

i

) is identical for every u

KF

i

Z

n

and i = 1, . . . , N. Moreover, since conv(KF

i

Z

n

) F

i

, dim(conv(KF

i

Z

n

)) <

dim(conv(K Z

n

)). So we can apply the induction hypothesis to conclude that conv(K F

i

Z

n

)

is a closed set. (Note that if rel.int(conv(K F

i

Z

n

)) Z

n

,= , then this follows from case 1.)

We now have that u(K F

i

) = rec.cone(conv(K F

i

Z

n

)) = u(K) L for all i = 1, . . . , N. So the

recession cone of conv(K F

i

Z

n

) is the same for all i = 1, . . . , N. Observe that,

conv(K Z

n

) = conv

_

_

_

i{1,...,N}

conv(K F

i

Z

n

)

_

_

.

Since the convex hull of a nite union of closed convex sets with the same recession cone is closed

(Lemma 2.2), we conclude that conv(K Z

n

) is closed.

We note here that the condition that K contains no line in the statement of Theorem 2.1 is not

superuous. This is illustrated in the next Example.

Example 2.2. Consider the set K

7

:= (x

1

, x

2

) R

2

[ 0.5 x

2

2x

1

0.7 which contains a line and

let u K

7

Z

2

. Since bd(K

7

) Z

2

= , we have that u int(K

7

). Since u int(K

7

), it can be veried

that u(K

7

) = rec.cone(K

7

) (see Lemma 2.10 in the next Section). Thus u(K

7

) is closed and identical for

all u K

7

Z

2

. However, conv(K

7

Z

2

) is not closed, since conv(K

7

Z

2

) = int(K

7

).

2.2 Closed-ness of conv(K Z

n

) where int(K) Z

n

,=

In this section, we simplify the conditions of Theorem 2.1 for the case where int(conv(K Z

n

)) Z

n

,= .

We will assume that K and K Z

n

are full-dimensional throughout this section. In particular if K and

KZ

n

are not full-dimensional, then by application of Lemma 2.5 as in the proof of Theorem 2.1, we can

modify K and subsequently apply projection to achieve full-dimensionality of K and K Z

n

.

In this section, we prove the following result.

Theorem 2.3. Let K R

n

be a closed convex set not containing a line and containing an integer point

in its interior and assume that K Z

n

is also full-dimensional. Then the following are equivalent.

1. conv(K Z

n

) is closed.

2. u(K) = rec.cone(K) u K Z

n

.

3. The following property holds for every proper exposed face F of K: If F Z

n

,= , then for all

u F Z

n

and for all r rec.cone(F), u +r [ 0 conv(F Z

n

).

Theorem 2.3 converts the question of verication of closed-ness of conv(KZ

n

) to the verication of a

somewhat simpler property of the faces of the set K. To see a simple application of Theorem 2.3 consider

the cases (1.) and (2.) presented in Example 2.1. Note that both K

1

and K

2

contain integer points in their

interior and conv(KZ

n

) is full-dimensional. In (1.), the facet F := x R

2

[ x

2

=

2x

1

, x

2

0 contains

only the point (0, 0) and thus does not satisfy the property presented in Theorem 2.3. Hence we deduce

6

that conv(K

1

Z

n

) is not closed. On the other hand, since the facet x R

2

[ x

2

=

2x

1

, x

2

0, x

1

1

contains no integer point and all other faces of K

2

also satisfy the property presented in Theorem 2.3, we

can deduce that conv(K

2

Z

n

) is closed.

We note that Theorem 2.3 generalizes sucient conditions for closed-ness of conv(K Z

n

) presented

in [9]. [9] shows that conv(K Z

n

) is closed if K is a polyhedron that contains no lines, rec.cone(K) is

full-dimensional and every face of K satises the conditions described in the statement of Theorem 2.3.

Before we present the proof of Theorem 2.3, we rst present a sequence of preliminary Lemmas. The

following Lemma is a consequence of the Dirichlet Diophantine Approximation and was proven in this

form in [1].

Lemma 2.7 ([1]). If x Z

n

and r R

n

, then for all > 0 and 0, there exists a point of Z

n

at a

distance less than from the half line x +r [ .

We will call a vector r R

n

rational scalable if there exists R 0 such that r Z

n

. The proof

of the next lemma is similar to the proof of a related result in [1]

Lemma 2.8. Let r be a vector that is not rational scalable. Let 0 and let be the projection of

P := x Z

n

[ r, x) on the linear subspace x R

n

[ r, x) = 0. Then there exists a non-trivial

subspace V of R

n

such that V is dense in V .

Proof: By Lemma 2.7, for every > 0 there exists a point y , y ,= 0 such that |y| . Let V

be

the linear subspace generated by all y such that |y| . Observe that

1

>

2

implies that V

1 V

2.

Therefore, there exists

0

such that V

= V

0

,= 0 for all 0 <

0

. Now we claim that U is dense

in U = V

0

.

First we claim that for any > 0 and u Z

n

s.t. u, r) < 0, there exists v P (i.e. v Z

n

and

v, r) ) such that the projection of u and v onto the subspace x R

n

[ r, x) = 0 are at a distance

less than . Let u = a r where a, r) = 0 and > 0. Since u Z

n

, by Lemma 2.7 we obtain that there

exists v Z

n

so that the distance between the half-line u +r [

r

2

+ and v is less than . This

completes the proof of the claim.

Let x U, > 0, m = dim(U). Choose any > 0 s.t. < min

0

,

m

. By denition of U, x V

.

So, x =

m

i=1

i

y

i

where

i

R and y

i

U and |y

i

| < for i = 1, . . . , m. Choose n

i

Z such

that [n

i

i

[

1

2

. Let y

i

be the projection of p

i

P. If n

i

1, then n

i

y

i

is the projection of the point

n

i

p

i

P. If n

i

0, by the use of previous claim, let q

i

P such that distance between n

i

y

i

and w

i

, the

projection of q

i

on the linear subspace x R

n

[ r, x) = 0, is less than

2

. Let y =

n

i

>0

n

i

y

i

+

n

i

0

w

i

.

Then,

|x y| =

_

_

_

_

_

_

n

i

>0

(

i

n

i

)y

i

+

n

i

0

(

i

y

i

w

i

)

_

_

_

_

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

n

i

>0

(

i

n

i

)y

i

+

n

i

0

(

i

y

i

n

i

y

i

+n

i

y

i

w

i

)

_

_

_

_

_

_

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

m

i=1

(

i

n

i

)y

i

+

n

i

0

(n

i

y

i

w

i

)

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

m

i=1

(

i

n

i

)y

i

_

_

_

_

_

+

n

i

0

|(n

i

y

i

w

i

)|

< m < .

Finally, since y is an integer non-negative linear combination of elements of U, we conclude that

y U, completing the proof.

Lemma 2.9. Let V R

n

be a linear subspace and let V be dense in V . Then for all > 0,

0 conv(B(0, ) ).

7

Proof. For clarity, we use the notation 0

t

to represent the t-dimensional vector of zeros and use 0 for 0

1

in this proof.

Observe that B(0

n

, ) is dense in := V B(0

n

, ). For ease in computation, without loss of

generality, we apply an invertible linear transformation to V such that V = (R

k

, 0

nk

). Let > 0 such

that <

2

. For B 1, . . . , k let

v

B

=

_

i B

i / B.

Observe that since B(0

n

, ) is dense in , there exists v

B

such that |v

B

v

B

| <

3

for all

B 1, . . . , k. Now we claim that 0

n

belongs to conv(

B{1,...,k}

v

B

). The proof is by induction on

the dimension of , i.e., on k. It is straightforward to verify that this result is true for k = 1. Now by

induction hypothesis, assume that the result is true when k = t 1. Let B

= B 1, . . . , t [ t / B

and B

+

= B 1, . . . , t [ t B. By the induction hypothesis, there exists a point of the form

(0

t1

,

BB

B

(v

B

)

t

, 0

nt

) =:

BB

B

v

B

that is a convex combination of v

B

, B B

. Note that

3

BB

B

(v

B

)

t

+

3

. Similarly, by the induction hypothesis, there exists a point

of the form (0

t1

,

BB

+

B

(v

B

)

t

, 0

nt

) that is a convex combination of v

B

, B B

+

and

3

BB

B

(v

B

)

t

+

3

. Now observe that 0

n

is a convex combination of (0

t1

,

BB

B

(v

B

)

t

, 0

nt

)

and (0

t1

,

BB

+

B

(v

B

)

t

, 0

nt

), completing the proof.

Lemma 2.10. Let K R

n

be a closed convex set, let u K Z

n

and let d = u +r [ > 0 int(K).

Then u d conv(K Z

n

).

Proof. If r is rational scalable, then the result is straightforward. Suppose therefore that r is not rational

scalable.

Without loss of generality we may assume that u = 0. Observe that u conv(KZ

n

). Therefore it is

sucient to show that for > 0, u +r conv(K Z

n

). Let be the projection of x Z

n

[ r, x)

on the linear subspace x R

n

[ r, x) = 0. Then by Lemma 2.8, there exists a linear subspace, say V ,

such that is dense in V and V ,= 0. Note now that d = u + r [ > 0 int(K), is equivalent to

> 0 such that B(u + r, ) K > . Let := V B(0, ). Then note that B(0, ) is dense in

.

By Lemma 2.9, we have that 0 =

p

i=1

i

v

i

where v

1

, v

2

, . . . , v

p

B(0, ), 0 <

i

1,

p

1=1

i

= 1.

Let v

1

, . . . , v

p

be the projection of the integer points u

1

, . . . , u

p

where u

i

= v

i

+

i

r Z

n

and

i

.

Since distance between v

i

and the half-line u + r [ 0 is less than and

i

, we obtain that

u

i

u +r [ +B(0, ) K. Therefore u

i

K Z

n

.

Now observe that

p

i=1

i

(v

i

+

i

r) =

p

i=1

i

v

i

+r

p

i=1

i

= r

p

i=1

i

.

Since

p

i=1

i

= 1, we obtain that

p

i=1

i

. Thus, a point of the form r where belongs to

conv(K Z

n

), completing the proof.

Now we have all the tools needed to verify Theorem 2.3.

Proof. of Theorem 2.3. Let u int(K) Z

n

. Then we claim that u(K) = rec.cone(K). Observe rst

that u(K) rec.cone(K). Let r rec.cone(K). Now observe that since u int(K) Z

n

, u + r [ >

0 int(K). Thus by Lemma 2.10, the half-line line u + r [ 0 conv(K Z

n

). Thus, r u(K),

completing the proof of the claim.

Now observe Theorem 2.1 implies (2.) (1.) and the above claim together with Theorem 2.1 implies

(1.) (2.). We now verify (1.) (3.).

Assume that every exposed face of K satises the condition. We will verify that conv(KZ

n

) is closed.

By Theorem 2.1, it is sucient to show that u(K) is closed and identical for every u K Z

n

. Observe

that we have veried that u(K) = rec.cone(K) u int(K) Z

n

. Therefore, it remains to be shown that

u(K) = rec.cone(K) for all u bd(K). Consider any u bd(K) and let r rec.cone(K). Then either

8

u + r int(K) for all > 0 or r rec.cone(F) for some exposed face F. In the rst case by Lemma

2.10, the half-line line u + r [ 0 conv(K Z

n

). In the second case, by the condition, we have

that u +r [ 0 conv(F Z

n

) conv(K Z

n

). Thus u(K) = rec.cone(K), completing the proof.

Let conv(K Z

n

) be closed. Then by Theorem 2.1, we know that u(K) is closed and identical for

all u K Z

n

. Thus u(K) = rec.cone(K) for all u K Z

n

. Now examine any exposed face of

F. If F Z

n

,= , u F Z

n

and r rec.cone(F), then we have that r rec.cone(K) and thus

u +r [ 0 conv(K Z

n

). Therefore, it remains to verify that conv(K Z

n

) F = conv(F Z

n

)

to complete the proof. Clearly conv(F Z

n

) conv(K Z

n

) F. If x conv(K Z

n

) F, then x is a

convex combination of z

1

, . . . , z

p

where z

i

K Z

n

for i 1, . . . , p. However, since x F, z

i

F for

all i 1, ..., p. Thus, x conv(F Z

n

), completing the proof.

2.3 Closed-ness of conv(K Z

n

) where K is strictly convex set

A set K R

n

is called a strictly convex set, if K is a convex set and for all x, y K, x + (1 )y

rel.int(K) for (0, 1).

Theorem 2.4. If K R

n

is a full-dimensional closed strictly convex set, then conv(K Z

n

) is closed.

Proof. First note that if K is bounded or if KZ

n

= , then conv(KZ

n

) is closed. Therefore we assume

that K is unbounded and K Z

n

,= .

We rst claim that K does not contain a line. Assume by contradiction that K contains a line in the

direction r ,= 0. Examine x bd(K). Then points of the form x + r and x r belong to K, where

> 0. In particular, x + r, x r bd(K) since x bd(K). However this contradicts the fact that K

is strictly convex.

Consider a point u K Z

n

. Let r rec.cone(K). Since K is strictly convex, we obtain that that

set u + r [ > 0 belongs to the interior of K. Therefore, by Lemma 2.10 we obtain that that the set

u + r [ 0 belongs to conv(K Z

n

). Thus, u(K) = rec.cone(K) for all u K Z

n

. Therefore, by

Theorem 2.1 we obtain that conv(K Z

n

) is closed.

Thus in the case of full-dimensional closed strictly convex set K, conv(K Z

n

) is closed independent

of the recession cone. The sets K

3

and K

4

in Example 2.1 are examples of this fact.

It is easily veried that every face of K is zero-dimensional, i.e. a single point. Therefore in fact

the statement of Theorem 2.4 follows straightforwardly from Theorem 2.3 in the case when K is not

lattice-free. It turns out that if K R

n

is a full-dimensional unbounded closed strictly convex set and

K Z

n

,= , then K is not lattice-free. The proof would follow from a variant of Lemma 2.10.

2.4 Closed-ness of conv(K Z

n

) where K is full-dimensional pointed closed

convex cone

In this section we prove the following result.

Theorem 2.5. Let K be a full-dimensional pointed closed convex cone in R

n

. Then conv(K Z

n

) = K.

In particular, conv(K Z

n

) is closed if and only if every extreme ray of K is rational scalable.

We begin with a few Lemmas before presenting the proof of Theorem 2.5.

Lemma 2.11. If A, B R

n

are closed full dimensional convex sets such that A B, then int(B)A ,= .

Proof. Assume by contradiction that int(B) A = . Equivalently we have that int(B) A. Since A is

closed, int(B) A. However since B is convex and full-dimensional, B = int(B) A, a contradiction

(See [4] for a proof of the rst equality.)

Lemma 2.12. Let K R

n

be a convex cone. Then K is a convex cone.

Proof. Let u K K and let > 0. Consider the open ball of radius around u, i.e. B(u, ). We

shown that B(u, ) K ,= for all > 0. Since u K, we obtain that B(u,

) K ,= 0. This implies

that B(u, ) K ,= . Therefore K is a cone. Moreover K is convex, since the closure of a convex set is

convex.

9

Lemma 2.13. Let K be a full-dimensional, pointed closed convex cone in R

n

. Then conv(K Z

n

) is a

cone.

Proof. Let Q := conv(K Z

n

). If u Q, then there exists a nite number of points p

1

, ..., p

k

K Z

n

,

such that u is a convex combination of p

1

, ..., p

k

. Let 0. We show that u Q. If 1, then the

points |p

1

, ..., |p

k

K Z

n

and therefore u is a convex combination of the points p

1

, ..., p

k

and

|p

1

, ..., |p

k

. If 1, then u is a convex combination of 0 and p

1

, ..., p

k

. Thus, Q is a cone. Now by

Lemma 2.12, we obtain that conv(K Z

n

) is a cone.

Proof. of Theorem 2.5 We rst verify that conv(K Z

n

) = K.

By convexity of K we obtain that conv(K Z

n

) K. Since K is also closed, we obtain that conv(K

Z

n

) K.

Assume by contradiction that conv(K Z

n

) K. Then by Lemma 2.11, we obtain that there exists

u int(K) such that u / conv(K Z

n

). Clearly u ,= 0. Moreover since u int(K) and conv(K Z

n

)

is closed, there exists > 0 such that the set B(, u) K conv(K Z

n

). Since K and conv(K Z

n

)

are cones (Lemma 2.13), we now obtain that the set B(, u) + u[ 0 is a subset of K and is not

contained in conv(K Z

n

). However, by Lemma 2.7 the set B(, u) + u[ 0 contains an integer

point. Since this integer points belongs to K and not to conv(K Z

n

), we obtain a contradiction.

We now verify that conv(KZ

n

) is closed if and only if all the extreme rays of K are rational scalable

rays. Suppose conv(K Z

n

) is closed. Then conv(K Z

n

) = K. If r is any extreme ray of K, then

observe that K r [ > 0 is a convex set. Since r [ > 0 conv(KZ

n

), there must be an integer

point in the set r [ > 0. In other words, r is rational scalable.

Now assume that every extreme ray of K is rational scalable. Let R be the set of all extreme rays.

Then observe that

K = cone(R) conv(K Z

n

) K,

where the rst equality follows from Lemma 2.6. Thus, conv(K Z

n

) = K or equivalently conv(K Z

n

)

is closed.

We note here that K

6

in Example 2.1 is an example for a non-polyhedral cone where each extreme ray

is rational scalable. Therefore conv(K

6

Z

3

) = K

6

.

2.5 Closed-ness of conv(K Z

n

) where K contains lines

Given V R

n

a linear subspace, we denote by V

by P

V

the projection on to the set V

coterminal with d if

sup[ > 0, u +r K = .

This denition is originally presented in [6]. Given a closed convex set K, a face F of K is called extreme

facial ray of K if F is a closed half-line.

In this section, we will verify the following result.

Theorem 2.6. Let K R

n

be a closed convex set such that the lineality space L = lin.space(conv(KZ

n

))

is not trivial. Then, conv(K Z

n

) is closed if and only if

1. The set K L

P

L

(Z

n

)).

2. L is a rational subspace.

Note that if the set KL

does not contain any lines, (1.) of Theorem 2.6 is equivalent to saying that

conv(K L

P

L

(Z

n

)) is closed. This is due to the following result from [5]: If A is a closed convex

set not containing a line, then conv(A) is closed if and only if A is coterminal with all the extreme facial

rays of conv(A). (See Theorem 2.7 below for the general version of this result from [5].) Since L is a

rational subspace (otherwise we already know that conv(KZ

n

) is not closed), we obtain that P

L

(Z

n

) is

a Lattice. Therefore we can characterize the closed-ness of conv(K L

P

L

(Z

n

)) using the properties

we have for convex sets not containing lines.

10

Before presenting the proof of Theorem 2.6, we describe some useful corollaries based on the above

discussion.

Corollary 2.1. Let K be a closed convex set and let rec.cone(K) be a rational polyhedral cone. Then

conv(K Z

n

) is closed.

Proof. Let L = lin.space(K). Since L is rational, lin.space(conv(KZ

n

)) = L. Now observe that KL

P

L

(Z

n

)) is closed.

To simplify the proof, we may assume by using Lemma 2.5 that L

= x R

n

[ x

i

= 0 i = k +

1, . . . , n. Thus, it is sucient (after projecting out the last nk components) to show that conv(K

Z

k

)

is closed, where K

R

k

is a closed convex set not containing any line and rec.cone(K

) is a rational

polyhedral cone. However note now that u(K

) rec.cone(K

) rec.cone(conv(K

Z

k

)) u(K

) for all

u K

Z

n

, where the rst inclusion is due to the fact that rec.cone(K

the second inclusion is due to the fact that K

u(K

Z

k

. Therefore by Theorem 2.1 we conclude that K

is closed

which completes the proof.

Note that maximal lattice-free convex sets have rational lineality space but are not necessary rational

polyhedron. Corollary 2.1 yields the following corollary.

Corollary 2.2. If K is a maximal lattice-free convex set, then conv(K Z

n

) is closed.

Corollary 2.3. If lin.space(K) is not a rational subspace and int(K) Z

n

,= , then conv(KZ

n

) is not

closed.

Proof. By Lemma 2.10, we conclude lin.space(conv(K Z

n

)) = L, which completes the proof.

Next we present some results needed to verify Theorem 2.6. The crucial result needed is the following

Theorem from [5].

Theorem 2.7 ([5]). Let A R

n

such that L = lin.space(conv(A)) is not trivial. Then, conv(A) is closed

if and only if

1. The set P

L

(A) is coterminal with every extreme facial ray of conv(A) L

.

2. For every extreme point z of conv(A) L

Lemma 2.14. Let A, B R

n

and denote L = lin.space(conv(A)). We have the following:

1. P

L

(B) P

L

(B).

2. P

L

(conv(B)) = conv(P

L

(B)).

3. P

L

(conv(A)) = conv(A) L

.

4. P

L

(conv(A)) = conv(P

L

(A)).

Proof. Lets prove all the assertions:

1. This follows from the fact that P

L

is a continuous function and another equivalent denition of

continuity is C R

n

, P

L

(C) P

L

(C) (see for example [10].)

2. This follows from Lemma 2.4.

3. The inclusion P

L

(conv(A)) conv(A) L

is straightforward. Let x P

L

(conv(A)), there exists

l L such that x +l conv(A). Since l L, (x +l) l conv(A). Therefore x conv(A). Since

x L

, we conclude x conv(A) L

.

4. We have P

L

(conv(A)) P

L

(conv(A)). By 3., P

L

(conv(A)) is a closed set and therefore

P

L

(conv(A)) P

L

(conv(A)). By 2., we conclude that conv(P

L

(A)) P

L

(conv(A)). On

the other hand by 1. and 2. we obtain that P

L

(conv(A)) P

L

(conv(A)) = conv(P

L

(A)). We

therefore conclude that P

L

(conv(A)) = conv(P

L

(A)).

11

Lemma 2.15. Let K R

n

be a closed convex set. Denote L = lin.space(conv(K Z

n

)). Then P

L

(K

Z

n

) = P

L

(K) P

L

(Z

n

). In particular, P

L

(K Z

n

) = K L

P

L

(Z

n

).

Proof. The inclusion P

L

(K Z

n

) P

L

(K) P

L

(Z

n

) is straightforward. Let x P

L

(K) P

L

(Z

n

).

There exist l

1

, l

2

L such that x + l

1

K and x + l

2

Z

n

. Notice that since conv(K Z

n

) K is a

closed set, then L lin.space(K). Hence, since l

2

l

1

L we have x + l

1

+ (l

2

l

1

) K. Therefore,

x +l

2

K Z

n

. In conclusion, since x L

, we conclude x P

L

(K Z

n

).

Finally, since L lin.space(K), we have P

L

(K) = K L

Lemma 2.14.

We now have all the tools for proving Proposition 2.6.

Proof. of Theorem 2.6 Note that by Lemma 2.14 and Lemma 2.15 we have conv(K Z

n

) L

=

P

L

(conv(K Z

n

)) = conv(P

L

(K Z

n

)) = conv(K L

P

L

(Z

n

)). Therefore (1.) of Theorem

2.6 is just a restatement of (1.) of Theorem 2.7 with A = K Z

n

.

Observe that since the set conv(K Z

n

) L

extreme point.

Suppose conv(KZ

n

) is closed. Then, by Theorem 2.7, we have (1.) of Theorem 2.6 and also have

that for every extreme point z of conv(K Z

n

) L

, conv(K Z

n

(z +L)) = z +L. Since z +L ,= ,

,= KZ

n

(z +L) Z

n

. Thus z +L is the convex hull of some non-empty subset of integer points and

therefore L is a rational subspace.

Now suppose (1.) and (2.) of Theorem 2.6. Then we have (1.) of Theorem 2.7. We will prove (2.)

of Theorem 2.7, that is for every extreme point z of conv(K Z

n

) L

, conv(K Z

n

(z +L)) = z +L.

Let z be an extreme point of conv(K Z

n

) L

n

,= . Since

conv(K Z

n

) L

= conv(P

L

(K Z

n

)) by Lemma 2.3 we have that z P

L

(K Z

n

), therefore there

exists l L such that z+l KZ

n

. Hence, (z+L)KZ

n

,= . Now let l

1

, . . . , l

p

Z

n

be a basis of L

and since (z +L) KZ

n

,= , let w (z +L) KZ

n

. Since L lin.space(K) for all

1

, . . . ,

p

Z, the

points w, w+

1

l

1

, . . . , w+

p

l

p

belongs to (z +L) KZ

n

. Thus, by convexity of conv((z +L) KZ

n

),

for all

1

, . . . ,

p

R, the points w, w +

1

l

1

, . . . , w +

p

l

p

belongs to conv((z + L) K Z

n

). Thus,

conv((z + L) K Z

n

) contains a ane subspace whose dimension is the same as that of z + L. Since

conv(KZ

n

(z +L)) z +L, we therefore obtain that conv(KZ

n

(z +L)) = z +L. Thus we obtain

(2.) of Theorem 2.7 and hence conv(K Z

n

) is closed.

3 Polyhedrality of conv(K Z

n

)

Let us develop some intuition regarding the question of polyhedrality of conv(K Z

n

). Suppose for

simplicity that K contains no lines, K Z

n

is full-dimensional and int(K) Z

n

is non-empty. Then by

Theorem 2.3, we obtain that a necessary condition for conv(KZ

n

) to be closed is that rec.cone(conv(K

Z

n

)) = rec.cone(K). Therefore in this setting if we require rec.cone(K Z

n

) to be polyhedron, it is

necessary that K has a rational polyhedral recession cone. However this is not sucient. Consider the

case of the parabola K

3

presented in Example 2.1. It is easy to verify that conv(K

3

Z

2

) is not a

polyhedron. To see what is going wrong, observe that minx

1

[ x K

3

= even though (1, 0)

is orthogonal to the all vectors in the recession cone. Intuitively, this causes conv(K

3

Z

2

) to have an

innite number of extreme points. This motivates the following denition.

Denition 3.1 (Thin Convex set). Let K R

n

be a closed convex set. We say K is thin if the following

holds: minc, x) [ x K = if and only if there exist d rec.cone(K) such that d, c) < 0.

In this section we verify the following result.

Theorem 3.1. If K R

n

is thin and recession cone of K is a rational polyhedral cone, then conv(KZ

n

)

is a polyhedron. Moreover, if int(K) Z

n

,= and conv(K Z

n

) is a polyhedron, then K is thin and

rec.cone(K) is a rational polyhedral cone.

12

Since every polyhedron is a thin set, Theorem 3.1 generalizes the result in [8]. We present a simple

example illustrating Theorem 3.1 when K is not a polyhedral set.

Example 3.1. Consider the set K

8

= (x

1

, x

2

) R

2

+

[ x

1

x

2

1. It is straightforward to verify that K

8

is thin and rec.cone(K

8

) = (y

1

, y

2

) R

2

[ y

1

0, y

2

0 is a rational polyhedron. Thus, conv(K

8

Z

2

) =

(x

1

, x

2

) [ x

1

1, x

2

1 is a polyhedron. On the other hand observe that while each of the sets K

1

, K

2

,

K

3

, K

4

, K

6

in Example 2.1 contains integer points in its interior, none of them are both thin and have

rational polyhedral recession cone. Thus by Theorem 3.1, the convex hull of integer points in all these sets

is non-polyhedral.

3.1 Sucient conditions for conv(K Z

n

) to be polyhedral

We begin with a few Lemmas before presenting the suciency direction of Theorem 3.1.

Lemma 3.1. If K R

n

is thin and T R

n

is a closed subset of K such that rec.cone(T) = rec.cone(K),

then T is thin.

Proof. Suppose minc, x) [ x T is unbounded. Then, minc, x) [ x K is unbounded. Since K is

thin, there exists d rec.cone(K) = rec.cone(T) such that d, c) < 0. If minc, x) [ x T is bounded,

then d, c) 0 for all d rec.cone(T).

Lemma 3.2. Let K R

n

be a thin set whose recession cone is polyhedral. Let v R

n

, b R and let

T := K x[ v, x) b. Then T is a thin set.

Proof. If T = , then the result is trivial. Therefore we assume that T ,= . Note rst that

rec.cone(T) = u rec.cone(K) [ v, u) 0. (6)

Assume by contradiction that T is not thin. Then there exists c R

n

such that supc, x) [ x T is

unbounded but there does not exist a vector u in rec.cone(T) such that u, c) > 0. Let r

1

, ..., r

k

generate

rec.cone(K). Note now that if r

i

, c) > 0 (and there exists one such r

i

since K is thin and T K), then

we must have (by assumption) that r

i

/ rec.cone(T) and therefore using (6) we obtain that r

i

, v) < 0.

Let

= max

_

r

i

, c)

r

i

, v)

[ r

i

, c) > 0 i 1, . . . , k

_

,

and let

= min

_

r

i

, c)

r

i

, v)

[ r

i

, c) 0, r

i

, v) > 0, i 1, . . . , k

_

.

( = + if r

i

, c) 0, r

i

, v) > 0 does not hold for any i).

Observe that > 0 and 0. Now examine the following cases:

1. : In this case consider the vector c +v and examine the product r

i

, c +v):

(a) r

i

, c) > 0. Then r

i

, v) < 0 and

r

i

,c

r

i

,v

or equivalently r

i

, c +v) 0.

(b) r

i

, c) = 0. If r

i

, v) 0, then r

i

, c + v) 0. Note that r

i

, v) > 0 is not possible since

> 0.

(c) r

i

, c) < 0. If r

i

, v) 0, then r

i

, c + v) 0. If r

i

, v) > 0, then

r

i

,c

r

i

,v

or

r

i

, c +v) 0.

Therefore, r

i

, c +v) 0 for all i 1, ..., k. Let x

i

i=1

be the sequence of points in T such that

lim

i

c, x

i

) = +. Now observe that

c +v, x

i

) c, x

i

) +b.

Therefore lim

i

c +v, x

i

) = +, which contradicts the thinness of K.

13

2. > . Without loss of generality, let =

r

1

,c

r

1

,v

and =

r

2

,c

r

2

,v

, where r

1

, c) > 0, r

1

, v) < 0,

r

2

, c) 0 and r

2

, v) > 0. Therefore :=

r

1

,v

r

2

,v

> 0. Now observe that r

1

+ r

2

, v) = 0 and

therefore r

1

+r

2

rec.cone(T). On the other hand

r

1

+r

2

, c) > 0

r

1

, c) > r

2

, c)

r

1

, c) >

r

1

, v)

r

2

, v)

r

2

, c)

r

1

, c)

r

1

, v)

<

r

2

, c)

r

2

, v)

r

1

, c)

r

1

, v)

>

r

2

, c)

r

2

, v)

> .

Thus, we obtain a vector r rec.cone(T) such that r, c) > 0 which is in contradiction to our

assumption.

Corollary 3.1. If K is thin, recession cone of K is a polyhedral cone and F is an exposed face of K,

then F is thin.

Corollary 3.2. If K is thin and recession cone of K is a polyhedral cone, then the intersection of K with

a ane space is a thin set.

Lemma 3.3. Let A be a m n matrix and let K R

n

be a thin convex set. Then AK R

m

is a thin

convex set.

Proof. We rst claim that rec.cone(AK) A(rec.cone(K)). Consider any r rec.cone(K). Let Ax AK.

Then observe that Ax +Ar = A(x +r) AK for all 0. Thus, Ar rec.cone(AK).

Now suppose there exists c R

m

such that supc, x) [ x AK = . Observe that,

supA

T

c, x) [ x K = supc, Ax) [ x K = supc, x) [ x Ak = . (7)

Since K is thin, (7) implies that there exists d rec.cone(K) such that A

T

c, d) > 0 or equivalently,

c, Ad) > 0. Since Ad rec.cone(Ak), this completes the proof.

Corollary 3.3. Let K R

n

be a thin convex set. Then K

R

k

, the projection of K onto the rst k

coordinates is thin.

Proof. Let A the matrix dening the projection of R

n

onto the rst k coordinates. Then K

= AK, so we

are done.

We use the following notation in this section. Let K R

n

be a closed convex set. Then

K

: R

n

R

dened as

K

(a) = supa, x) [ x K is the support function of K. Given a cone T, we represent its

polar by T

. In particular, (rec.cone(K))

= d R

n

[ d, u) 0 u rec.cone(K).

Lemma 3.4. Let K be a thin set and let rec.cone(K) be polyhedral. Then

K

: (rec.cone(K))

R is a

continuous function.

Proof. The support function is sublinear and therefore lower semi-continuous (see Theorem 13.2, Theorem

7.1 [11]). Next observe that (rec.cone(K))

K

(d) < + for all d (rec.cone(K))

K

is an upper semi-continuous

function on (rec.cone(K))

Lemma 3.5. Let P is a rational polyhedron, and F be a face of P. Then there exists c Z

n

and d Z

such that P x R

n

[ c, x) d and F = x P [ c, x) = d.

14

Proof. Let P = x R

n

[ a

i

, x) b

i

, i U V and F = x R

n

[ a

i

, x) b

i

, i U, a

i

, x) =

b

i

, i V . Without loss of generality, we can assume all data is integral.

Consider c =

iV

a

i

and d =

iV

b

i

. Then observe that if x F, then

c, x) =

iV

a

i

, x) =

iV

a

i

, x) =

iV

b

i

= d.

On the other hand, if x P F, then there exists i V such that a

i

, x) < b

i

. Thus,

c, x) =

iV

a

i

, x) =

iV

a

i

, x) <

iV

b

i

= d.

The next lemma essentially is a restatement of result from [8].

Lemma 3.6. Let P R

n

be a polyhedron such that rec.cone(P) is a rational polyhedral cone. Then

conv(P Z

n

) is a rational polyhedron.

Proof. By Minkowski-Weyl Theorem, let P be generated by the convex combination of the points u

1

, ..., u

s

and the conic combination of r

1

, ..., r

k

which are scaled to be integers (since rec.cone(P) is a rational

polyhedral cone).

Dene T as

T = conv

__

x Z

n

[ x =

i{1,...,s}

i

u

i

+

i{1,...,t}

i

r

i

i

0,

i{1,...,s}

i

= 1, 0

i

1.

__

To complete the proof of this lemma, we verify that conv(P Z

n

) = T + rec.cone(P). Now clearly

conv(P Z

n

) T + rec.cone(P). On the other hand, if x (P Z

n

), then x =

i{1,...,s}

i

u

i

+

i{1,...,t}

i

r

i

=

i{1,...,s}

i

u

i

+

i{1,...,t}

(

i

i

|)r

i

+

i{1,...,t}

i

|r

i

T + rec.cone(P).

Proposition 3.1 (Sucient Condition). If K is thin and recession cone of K is a rational polyhedral

cone, then conv(K Z

n

) is a polyhedron.

Proof. If K Z

n

= , then the result is straightforward. So we assume that K Z

n

,= .

Since the recession cone of K is a rational polyhedral cone, by Corollary 2.1 we obtain that conv(KZ

n

)

is closed. We prove this statement by induction on the dimension of K. Note that for dimensions 0 and

1, the statement is true. Assume that the statement is true for all dimensions less than the dimension of

K.

We rst illustrate that we may assume that K is full-dimensional. Observe that since a(K Z

n

) is

a rational ane subspace, we have that K a(K Z

n

) is a thin set (Corollary 3.2) with a recession

cone that is a rational polyhedron. Let z K Z

n

. We now translate K as K z and note that it is

sucient to show that conv(K Z

n

) is polyhedral for this new set K, which is a thin set with a recession

cone that is a rational polyhedron. Now by selecting a suitable unimodular matrix (see [12]) and by the

application linear map corresponding to this matrix to R

n

, we may assume that a(KZ

n

) is of the form

x[ x

i

= 0 i = k + 1, ..., n and K is a thin set (Lemma 3.3) with a recession cone that is a rational

polyhedron. (Note that linear maps preserve polyhedrality.) Finally, we can project out the last n k

components (every point in K has zero in these components) and note that it is sucient to show that

conv(KZ

k

) is polyhedron where K is a full-dimensional thin set (Lemma 3.3) with a recession cone that

is a rational polyhedron.

Therefore, we assume hence forth that K R

n

is full-dimensional thin set with a recession cone that

is a rational polyhedron.

Since the recession cone of K is a rational polyhedral, rec.cone(conv(K Z

n

)) = rec.cone(K). Thus

by Corollary 3.1, we obtain that conv(K Z

n

) is thin. Dene D = d R

n

[ |d| = 1, d, u) 0 u

rec.cone(K).

Let v D and let F

v

= x K[ v, x) =

K

(v) be the proper exposed face of K (since K is full-

dimensional set and v ,= 0, F

v

is a proper face of K) corresponding to the vector v. We will show rst

15

that conv(F

v

Z

n

) is a polyhedron. If F

v

Z

n

= , then there remains nothing to verify. So assume that

F

v

Z

n

,= . Let L = ax Z

n

[ v, x) =

K

(v). Since L is generated by integer vectors it is a rational

ane subspace. By Corollary 3.1 we obtain that F

v

is a thin set. Now by Corollary 3.2 we obtain that

F

v

L is thin. Now observe that

rec.cone(F

v

L) = rec.cone(K x R

n

[ v, x) =

K

(v) L)

= rec.cone(K) rec.cone(x R

n

[ v, x) =

K

(v))

rec.cone(L)

= rec.cone(K) rec.cone(L),

where the last equality follows from the fact that rec.cone(L) rec.cone(x R

n

[ v, x) =

K

(v)).

Thus, rec.cone(F

v

L) is a rational polyhedral cone. Moreover, dim(F

v

L) < dim(K). Therefore by

the induction hypothesis, conv(F

v

L Z

n

) is a polyhedron. Now the result follows from the fact that

conv(F

v

Z

n

) = conv(F

v

L Z

n

).

For any v D, we now verify that there exists a polyhedron P

v

R

n

such that

1. P

v

Z

n

K Z

n

2. Either

P

v

(v) <

K

(v) or u P

v

s.t. u, v) =

K

(v) u K.

Let rec.cone(K) := x R

n

[ a

i

, x) 0 i 1, ..., t =

k

i=1

i

r

i

[

i

0, where r

i

Z

n

generate

rec.cone(K). Let

P = x R

n

[ a

i

, x)

conv(KZ

n

)

(a

i

) i 1, ..., t. Note that

conv(KZ

n

)

is nite

because conv(K Z

n

) is thin. Observe that rec.cone(

P) = rec.cone(K) and

P Z

n

K Z

n

. Let

P

v

= x

P [ v, x)

conv(KZ

n

)

.

Since

P Z

n

KZ

n

, we obtain that

P

v

Z

n

KZ

n

Observe also that rec.cone(

P

v

) = rec.cone(

P) =

rec.cone(K) and since rec.cone(K) is a rational polyhedral cone, by Lemma 3.6 we obtain that

Q

v

:= conv(

P

v

Z

n

)

is a rational polyhedron. There are two cases to consider:

1.

Q

v

(v) <

K

(v): In this case, we dene P

v

:= Q

v

. Then observe that P

v

Z

n

=

P

v

Z

n

K Z

n

and

P

v

(v) <

K

(v).

2.

Q

v

(v) =

K

(v): Now let G be the face of Q

v

dened as G := x Q

v

[ v, x) =

K

(v). Since Q

v

is rational polyhedron, by Lemma 3.5, let c Z

n

and d Z such that G = x Q

v

[ c, x) = d.

Now we consider two cases:

(a) F

v

Z

n

= . In this case let

P

v

= x Q

v

[ c, x) d 1.

We rst claim that P

v

Z

n

(K Z

n

). Let x K Z

n

. Then x Q

v

Z

n

since Q

v

Z

n

=

P

v

Z

n

K Z

n

. Since F

v

Z

n

= , we have that v, x) <

K

(v). Thus, x / G. Therefore,

x (Q

v

Z

n

) G or equivalently x P

v

.

Next we claim that

P

v

(v) <

K

(v). Assume by contradiction that

P

v

(v) =

K

(v). Since P

v

is a polyhedron, there exists x P

v

such that v, x) =

K

(v). Since P

v

Q

v

, we obtain that

x y Q

v

[ v, y) =

K

(v). However, this implies that x G or equivalently c, x) = d, a

contradiction since

P

v

(c) d 1.

(b) F

v

Z

n

,= . Let G, c, d be dened as in the previous case. Let

P

1

v

= x Q

v

[ c, x) d 1.

We rst claim that P

1

v

Z

n

(K Z

n

) (F

v

Z

n

). Let x (K Z

n

) (F Z

n

). Then as

before we obtain that x Q

v

Z

n

. Moreover, since x / F

v

, we obtain that v, x) <

K

(v).

Thus, x / G. Therefore, x (Q

v

Z

n

) G or equivalently x P

1

v

.

16

Next we claim that

P

1

v

(v) <

K

(v). Assume by contradiction that

P

1

v

(v) =

K

(v). Since P

1

v

is a polyhedron, there exists x P

1

v

such that v, x) =

K

(v). Since P

1

v

Q

v

, we obtain that

x y Q

v

[ v, y) =

K

(v). However, this implies that x G or equivalently c, x) = d, a

contradiction since

P

1

v

(c) d 1.

Now if P

1

v

,= , then dene

P

v

:= conv

_

(P

1

v

+ rec.cone(K)) (conv(F

v

Z

n

) + rec.cone(K))

_

,

else dene

P

v

:= conv(F Z

n

) + rec.cone(K).

We rst verify that P

v

is a polyhedron. Observe rst that, by previous claim, conv(F

v

Z

n

)

is a polyhedron. Therefore (P

1

v

+ rec.cone(K)) and (conv(F

v

Z

n

) + rec.cone(K)) are two

polyhedra with the same recession cone. Thus, P

v

is a polyhedron.

Now we verify that P

v

Z

n

K Z

n

. If x (K Z

n

) (F

v

Z

n

), then as veried before

x P

1

v

Z

n

or equivalently x P

v

. If x F

v

Z

n

, then by denition of P

v

, x P

v

.

Finally we verify that

u P

v

s.t. u, v) =

K

(v) u K. (8)

Observe that if u P

v

such that u, v) =

K

(v), then u conv(F

v

Z

n

) + rec.cone(K) since

P

1

v

+rec.cone(K)

(v) =

P

1

v

(v) <

K

(v). Since conv(F

v

Z

n

) + rec.cone(K) K, the result

follows.

Claim 1: For any v D, there exists a neighborhood N

v

of v (wrt D) such that

P

v

(v

)

K

(v

) for all

v

N

v

. There are two cases:

1.

P

v

(v) <

K

(v). By Lemma 3.4, both

P

v

and

K

are continuous functions over their domain

(rec.cone(K))

. In particular,

P

v

and

K

are continuous over D (rec.cone(K))

. Therefore,

P

v

K

is a continuous function over D. This implies that there is a neighborhood N

v

of v such

that

P

v

(v

)

K

(v

N

v

.

2.

P

v

(v) =

K

(v). By Minkowski-Weyl Theorem, let P

v

= convu

1

, ...., u

s

+ coner

1

, ..., r

k

. Let

O u

1

, ...., u

s

such that u

j

O implies u

j

, v) =

K

(v). We note here that O ,= , since

P

v

(v) =

K

(v). By (8), we obtain that O K. Let N = u

1

, ..., u

s

O. Note that r

i

, v) 0 i 1, ..., k.

Let =

K

(v) max

u

i

N

u

i

, v) > 0. Let = max

u

i

O

|u

i

|. Let N

v

= d D[ |d v| <

2

.

(a) For u

j

O and v

N

v

, observe that

u

j

, v

) = u

j

, v) +u

j

, v

v)

K

(v) |u

j

||v

v| >

K

(v)

2

.

(b) For u

j

N and v

N

v

, observe that

u

j

, v

) = u

j

, v) +u

j

, v

v)

K

(v) +|u

j

||v

v| <

K

(v)

2

.

Therefore for any v

N

v

we obtain that,

P

v

(v

) = max

1js

v

, u

j

) = max

u

j

O

v

, u

j

)

K

(v

), (9)

where the last inequality is a consequence of the fact that O K.

This completes the proof of the claim.

Now observe that the sets N

v

for all v D represent an open cover of D. Since D is compact, there

exists a nite set of vectors v

1

, ..., v

l

, such that

l

i=1

N

v

i = D.

Claim 2: P

:=

l

i=1

P

v

i K:

17

Assume by contradiction that there exists x

l

i=1

P

v

i K. Then by separation theorem, there exists

d such that

K

(d) < x, d)

P

(d). (10)

Since

K

(d) is nite and d ,= 0, we obtain (by possibly scaling d) that d D and therefore d N

v

i for

some i 1, ...k. Therefore,

P

(d)

P

v

i

(d)

K

(d), (11)

where the last inequality follows from Claim 1. This is the required contradiction to (10).

Since P

v

i conv(K Z

n

), we have that P

:=

l

i=1

P

v

i conv(K Z

n

). On the other hand by Claim

2, P

Z

n

K Z

n

. In other words,

conv(K Z

n

) = conv(P

Z

n

). (12)

Moreover note that rec.cone(P

Z

n

) is a

rational polyhedron by using Lemma 3.6.

We note here that argument based on the compactness of D in Proposition 3.1 is similar to an argument

used in [2].

3.2 Necessary conditions for conv(K Z

n

) to be polyhedral

Lemma 3.7. Let Q R

n

be a full-dimensional maximal lattice free convex set and let c, x) d be a

valid inequality for Q. Then there exists > 0 such that c, x) d is a valid inequality for Q.

Proof. Assume by contradiction that infc, x) [ x Q = . Since Q is polyhedron (Theorem 2.2),

we obtain there exists a recession direction r of Q such that r, c) < 0. However because rec.cone(Q) =

lin.space(Q), we have that r is a recession direction of Q. Then supc, x) [ x Q = +, contradicting

the assumption that c, x) d is a valid inequality for Q.

Proposition 3.2 (Necessary Condition). Let K R

n

be a convex set such that int(K) Z

n

,= . If

conv(K Z

n

) is a polyhedron, then K is thin and rec.cone(K) is a rational polyhedral cone.

Proof. Let P = x R

n

[ a

i

, x) b

i

, i 1, ..., m be a description of conv(K Z

n

). Note that P

is a rational polyhedron. We will show rst that for all i 1, ..., m, supa

i

, x) [ x K < . Let

i 1, ..., m and assume by contradiction that supa

i

, x) [ x K = . Consider the set K

i

= Kx

R

n

[ a

i

, x) b

i

. Notice that int(K) Z

n

,= , so K must be a full dimensional set. Also, by assumption,

we have K x R

n

[ a

i

, x) b

i

. Therefore it can be veried that int(K) x R

n

[ a

i

, x) > b

i

,= .

This implies int(K

i

) = int(K) x R

n

[ a

i

, x) > b

i

,= and thus K

i

is of full dimension.

Moreover, we have int(K

i

)Z

n

= (int(K

i

)K)Z

n

int(K

i

)P = , so K

i

is a lattice-free set. Hence,

there exists a full dimensional maximal lattice-free polyhedron Q = x R

n

[ c

j

, x) d

j

, j 1, . . . , q

such that K

i

Q.

Since K is not lattice-free we obtain that K Q. Therefore there exists x

0

K and j 1, . . . , q

such that a

i

, x

0

) < b

i

and c

j

, x

0

) > d

j

. By Lemma 3.7, there exists > 0 such that x Q implies

c

j

, x) d

j

.

Let x

n

n1

K

i

such that lim

n

a

i

, x

n

) = and

n

(0, 1) such that the point y

n

= (1

n

)x

0

+

n

x

n

satises a

i

, y

n

) = b

i

. Since x

0

, x

n

K, by convexity of K, we have y

n

K. Therefore we

obtain that y

n

K

i

.

On the other hand,

c

j

, y

n

) d

j

= (1

n

)c

j

, x

0

) +

n

c

j

, x

n

) d

j

(1

n

)(c

j

, x

0

) d

j

)

n

= (c

j

, x

0

) d

j

)

n

[(c

j

, x

0

) d

j

) +].

18

Notice that, by denition,

n

=

b

i

a

i

,x

0

a

i

,x

n

a

i

,x

0

n

n

= 0. Hence, for suciently large n, we

have c

j

, y

n

) > d

j

, a contradiction with the fact y

n

K

i

Q. So, we must have supa

i

, x) [ x K < ,

for all i 1, ..., m.

We conclude that there exist numbers b

i

, i 1, ..., m, with b

i

b

i

< such that K P

:=

x[ a

i

, x) b

i

, i 1, ..., m. Hence, since P K P

, we have rec.cone(K) = x[ a

i

, x) 0, i

1, ..., m, so rec.cone(K) is a rational polyhedral cone. Moreover, every polyhedron is thin, so by Lemma

3.1, we conclude K is also thin, as desired.

We note here that the addition technical condition that int(K) Z

n

,= in Proposition 3.2 is not

articial. We illustrate this with examples next.

Example 3.2. 1. Here is an example that shows that conv(K Z

n

) can be a polyhedron and yet it is

not thin, since it is lattice-free. Consider the set

K

9

:= conv((x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

[ x

3

= 0, x

1

= 0, x

2

0

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

[ x

3

= 0.5, x

2

x

2

1

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

[ x

3

= 1, x

1

= 0, x

2

0).

Observe that conv(K

9

Z

3

) = (x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

[ x

1

= 0, x

2

0, 0 x

3

1 is a polyhedron.

However note that K

9

is not thin since rec.cone(K

9

) = (0, 1, 0) [ 0 and inf(1, 0, 0), x) [ x

K

9

= but (0, 1, 0), (1,

0, 0)) = 0. Finally note that K

9

is lattice-free.

2. Here is an example that shows that conv(K Z

n

) can be a polyhedron and yet rec.cone(K) does not

have a polyhedral recession cone, since it is lattice-free. Consider the set

K

10

:= conv((x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

[ x

2

2x

1

= 0, x

3

= 0

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

[ x

2

2x

1

= 1, x

3

= 0.5

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

[ x

2

2x

1

= 1, x

3

= 0.5

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) R

3

[ x

2

2x

1

= 0, x

3

= 1).

Then K

10

Z

3

= (0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1) and thus conv(K

10

Z

3

) is a polyhedron. However note that

rec.cone(K

10

) is not a rational polyhedral cone. Also observe that K

10

is lattice-free.

4 Remarks

We rst remark that all the key results in this paper (Theorem 2.1, Theorem 2.3, Theorem 2.4, Theorem

2.5, Theorem 2.6, Theorem 3.1) hold if we replace Z

n

by any general lattice R

n

and investigate the

closed-ness and polyhedrality of conv(K ).

It is possible to relax the requirement of conv(K Z

n

) being a polyhedron and ask the question when

conv(K Z

n

) is locally polyhedron, i.e., the intersection of conv(K Z

n

) with any polytope is also a

polytope. To the best of our knowledge the most general sucient conditions known for conv(K Z

n

)

to be locally polyhedral are presented in [9] for the case where K is general polyhedron (not necessary

rational). Coming up with necessary and sucient conditions for conv(K Z

n

) to be locally polyhedron

in the case where K is general convex sets is an interesting open question.

Another important question is determining necessary and sucient conditions for the following opti-

mization problem

z

= min d, x) (13)

s.t. x K Z

n

(14)

to be solvable, i.e., if z

is bounded and K Z

n

,= implies there exists x

K Z

n

such that

d, x

) d, x) x K Z

n

. Clearly if conv(K Z

n

) is a polyhedron, then the optimization problem is

solvable for any d. Another sucient condition that can be easily veried is that d is a rational vector.

However, nding general necessary and sucient conditions for (13)-(14) to be solvable is a challenging

question.

19

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by NSF CMMI Grant 1030422. The authors thank Juan Pablo Vielma and

Daniel Dadush for various discussions on this topic.

References

[1] A. Basu, M. Conforti, G. Cornuejols, and G. Zambelli, Maximal lattice-free convex sets in linear

subspaces, Mathematics of Operations Research 35 (2010), 704720.

[2] D. Dadush, S. S. Dey, and J. P. Vielma, On the Chvatal-gomory closure of compact convex set,

http://www.optimization-online.org/DB HTML/2010/11/2798.html, 2010.

[3] R. Hemmecke and R. Weismantel, Representation of sets of lattice points, SIAM Journal on Opti-

mization 18 (2007), 133137.

[4] J.-P. Hiriart-Urrut and C. Lemarechal, Fundamentals of convex analysis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,

2000.

[5] F. H usseinov, A note on the closedness of the convex hull and its applications, Journal of Convex

Analysis 6 (1999), 387393.

[6] V. L. Klee, Extremal structure of convex sets, Archiv der Mathematik 8 (1957), 234 240.

[7] L. Lovasz, Geometry of numbers and integer programming, Mathematical Programming: Recent

Developments and Applications (1989).

[8] R. R. Meyer, On the existance of optimal solutions of integer and mixed-integer programming prob-

lems, Mathematical Programming 7 (1974), 223225.

[9] J.-O. Moussar, Convex hulls of integral points, Journal of Mathematical Sciences 113 (2003), 647

665.

[10] J. R. Munkres, Topology, Prenctice Hall, Inc., New Jersey, 2000.

[11] G. T. Rockafeller, Convex analysis, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, NJ, 1970.

[12] A. Schrijver, Theory of linear and integer programming, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY,

USA, 1986.

20

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