INTRODUCTION Electric motors are everywhere in your house, almost every mechanical movement that you see around

you is caused by an AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current) electric motor. A simple motor has six parts :      Armature or rotor Brushes Axle Field magnet DC power supply of some sort

Major types of electric motors are DC motors (direct current) and AC motors (Alternating current). Direct current generators produce electric current that always flows in the same direction while Alternating current generators or alternators produce electric current that reverses direction many times every seconds. An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion. The fundamental law of all magnets is opposites attract and likes repel. Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion. In the diagram, we can see two magnets in the motor: The armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it isn't in order to save power).

The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks. Some devices, such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers, although they generate some mechanical power, are not generally referred to as electric motors, and are usually termed actuators and transducers.

He exploited this principle in the design of a poly-phase induction motor in 1883. Transmission of electrical energy covered longer distances at lower loss with alternating current. Steinmetz contributed to solving these problems with his investigation of hysteresis losses in iron armatures. persist in small appliances along with small Tesla induction motors. The problems are :  Initially. Because of significant historical advantages of alternating current over direct current in transforming and transmission. Yet small brushed AC motors. (Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla -1882) The first commercial electric power transmission used direct current. Nikola Tesla envisioned an entirely new type of motor when he visualized a spinning turbine. Modern solid state electronic circuits drive brushless DC motors with AC waveforms generated from a DC source. but by a rotating magnetic field. motors were a problem with alternating current. the AC induction motor. is the workhorse of industry to this day. 2. AC motors were constructed like DC motors. similar to the DC variety. Its ruggedness and simplicity (Figure above) make for long life. not spun by water or steam. as compared to the static fields in DC motor field coils. To identify the characteristics of Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) motor. Determine the operation of Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) motor.   . electric power distribution was nearly all alternating current until a few years ago. However. Numerous problems were encountered due to changing magnetic fields. (Thomas Edison – 1941) PROBLEM RELATED Alternating Current (AC) Motor Lighting worked as well on AC as on DC. Above one horsepower (750 W). LITERATURE REVIEW The rotating magnetic induction field principle used in alternators and pioneered the use of this rotating and inducting electromagnetic field force to generate torque in rotating machines. Charles P.OBJECTIVE 1. His new type of motor. the Tesla motor reigns supreme. high reliability. and low maintenance.

 At the system level. The less length the less spring tension on the brush. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Operation and characteristic of Alternating Current (AC) Motor . Ounce brushes are removed shine a flashlight inside and look to see if there is build up on the commutate or in the housing. Typical Fanuc DC motor brushes when new are about . The heat is an undesired byproduct of the conversion. reducing the heat loss. Use an air line/clean air supply to blow this out. another form of energy. (Figure above) a motor takes in electrical energy in terms of a potential difference and a current flow. Alas. Clean between all the commutate grooves and area for brushes. Check for wear grooves on the commutate from the brushes rubbing. one goal is to maximize motor efficiency. due to I2R losses in the motor windings. Some of the electric energy is lost to heat.it should be shiny or polished which will indicate good contact. It must be removed from the motor and may adversely affect longevity. electric motors are not 100% efficient. Direct Current (DC) Motor 1. Typical inspections when troubleshooting DC motor problems or doing preventative maintenance:       Remove the springs and brushes by removing the cover typically with a slotted screw driver Check the motor brushes are moving freely when disassembling Check that the spring tension on all the brushes are about equal Check the face of the brushes. Consider replacement if extremely worn or pitted. converting it to mechanical work.75" long. If the is black residue on the commutate polish with fine sandpaper. If not replace Check the brush length. Thus.

the motor will run smoothly only at the frequency of the sine wave. depending on the type of rotor used. As in the DC motor case. Operation and characteristic of Direct Current (DC) Motor . Since the current is alternating. which runs slightly slower than the supply frequency. and also AC/DC mechanically commutated machines in which speed is dependent on voltage and winding connection. One of the drawbacks of this kind of AC motor is the high current which must flow through the rotating contacts. Sparking and heating at those contacts can waste energy and shorten the lifetime of the motor. and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. just as the current in the coil varies. There are two main types of AC motors. while the coils and the solid core which rotates is called the "armature". The coils which produce the magnetic field are sometimes referred to as the "stator". The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet. In common AC motors the magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet powered by the same AC voltage as the motor coil. It is called a synchronous motor. More common is the induction motor. The first type is the induction motor. In an AC motor the magnetic field is sinusoid ally varying. Other types of motors include eddy current motors. can rotate exactly at the supply frequency or a sub-multiple of the supply frequency. an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field. It commonly consists of two basic parts. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current. The second type is the synchronous motor. which does not rely on induction and as a result. a current is passed through the coil.An AC motor is an electric motor driven by an alternating current. where electric current is induced in the rotating coils rather than supplied to them directly. generating a torque on the coil.

operation is based on simple electromagnetism. and brushes. South and South) repel. and energize the next winding. when this is then placed in an external magnetic field. the brushes move to the next commutator contacts. the windings being electrically connected to the commutator The geometry of the brushes. and energize the next winding. rotor (armature). stator. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion. Given our example two-pole motor. and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. while like polarities (North and North. The stator is the stationary part of the motor and this includes the motor casing. the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned. commutator contacts. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core). The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. The rotor reaches alignment. driving it to continue rotating. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid. driving it to continue rotating. As the rotor reaches alignment.  Less complex. Given our example two-pole motor. the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding. it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor. as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. opposite (North and South) polarities attract. In most common DC motors the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets. commutator. leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field. field magnet(s).In any electric motor. the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding. leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field. and to the strength of the external magnetic field. Every DC motor has six basic parts which are axle. Reliable quick power back up during emergency or blackout Direct Current (DC)  The power generation can be from large portable generator depending upon usage . the brushes move to the next commutator contacts. and rotor windings are such that when power is applied. Advantages Alternating Current (AC)  The voltage can be raked or lowered economically by transformer.   Can be built without brushes and commutators. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field.

Direct Current (DC)  More complex than alternating current  High cost installation CONCLUSION / RECOMMENDATION  Conclusion We can conclude that AC current is a specific type of electric current in which the direction of the current's flow is reversed. it is more dangerous than DC.  Since AC voltage is much greater. The standard current used is 60 cycles per second (i.Disadvantages Alternating Current (AC)  The greater amount of insulation required for wires carrying AC current. or alternated. One advantage of alternating current is that it is relatively cheap to change the voltage of the current.e. Graphic representation of the intensity of the current as a function of time: . nearly all modern electronic devices require direct current for their operation. in which the direction of the flow of electrons switches back and forth at regular intervals or cycles. Alternating current is still used to deliver electricity to the device. However. Electrical devices that convert electricity directly into other forms of energy can operate just as effectively from AC current as from DC. Alternating Current (AC) is a type of electrical current.  Cannot be converted into alternating current. the inevitable loss of energy that occurs when current is carried over long distances is far smaller with alternating current than with direct current.  Much of the equipment designed for AC operation is inefficient if not downright wasteful. on a regular basis. and a transformer is included with these devices to convert AC power to DC power (usually at much lower than the supplied voltage) so that electronic devices can use it. Furthermore. Current flowing in power lines and normal household electricity that comes from a wall outlet is alternating current. The current that flows in a flashlight or another appliance running on batteries is direct current. a frequency of 60 Hz).Direct current (DC) is electrical current which flows consistently in one direction. Direct current is no different electrically from alternating current except for the fact that it flows in the same direction at all times.

. mostly due to the low voltages used. Direct Current (DC) Direct-current installations usually have different types of sockets. from those suitable for alternating current. but the cost of converting DC current to AC is relatively high. i) DC is commonly found in many low-voltage applications:  Especially where these are powered by batteries. since solar cells can produce only DC. and fixtures.  Use of a higher voltage leads to significantly more efficient transmission of power. The power losses in a conductor are a product of the square of the current and the resistance of the conductor. ii) Most automotive applications use DC  The alternator is an AC device which uses a rectifier to produce DC. which can produce only DC. DC current is more effective for long-distance. It is usually important with a direct-current appliance not to reverse polarity unless the device has a diode bridge to correct for this (most battery-powered devices do not). high-voltage transmission because it results in less energy lost in transmission.Direct Current  Recommendation Alternating Current (AC) Alternating Current Alternating Current voltage may be increased or decreased with a transformer. switches. or solar power systems. so DC is typically cost-effective only for long-distance transmission. Most electronic circuits require a DC power supply.

gsu. 2011.htm. . http://www.net/starting/200111_dcmotor/200111_dcmotor2. title.edu/hbase/magnetic/motorac. http://www.phy-astr.com/ops/electric_direct_current_motor/. 2011.de/ph14e/electricmotor.REFERENCES I. Retrieved on December 11. Retrieved on December 12. title. 2011 http://hyperphysics. Retrieved on Dicember 12. title. Retrieved on December 11. III. http://www. IV.walter-fendt. title. 2011. V.html.howstuffworks. 2011.html. II.com/motor.solarbotics. title.htm. http://ecmweb. Retrieved on December 11.

Figure 2 : Operation of Alternating Current (AC) motor.APPENDIX Figure 1 : The Alternating Current (AC) motor. .

Figure 4 : Operation of Direct Current (DC).Figure 3 : Direct Current (DC) motor. .

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