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GSM

Global System
for Mobiles
1
TOPICS

• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTITIES USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
2
TOPICS

• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTITIES USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
3
Telecom Basics

• Communication
– Voice and Data
– Analog and Digital
– Circuit Switched and Packet Switched
– Media - Copper Wire, Co-axial cable, Air, Optical
Fibre
– Networks -PSTN, ISDN, PDN and Mobile
Networks

4
Background to GSM
• 1G : Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
• Analog, Circuit Switched, FDMA, FDD
• 2G : Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS)
• Digital, Circuit Switched, FDMA, FDD
• 2G : Global System for Mobile (GSM)
• Digital, Circuit Switched, FDMA and TDMA, FDD
• 2G : Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
• Digital, Circuit Switched, FDMA, SS, FDD

5
GSM History

6
Development of the GSM Standard
1982: Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) 1992: Official commercial launch of
created GSM service in Europe. First
Launch in Finland
1984: Description of GSM features
1993: The GSM-MoU has 62
signatories in 39 countries
1985: List of recommendations settled worldwide.

1987: Initial MoU (Memorandum of 1995: Specifications of GSM phase 2
Understanding) aside the drafting are frozen.
of technical specifications was
signed by network operators of 13 1999: GSM MoU joins 3GPP (UMTS)
countries: GPRS Trials begins

1988: Validation and trials, of the radio
2000: 480M GSM subscribers
interface.
Worldwide
First GPRS Networks roll out
1991: First system trials are
demonstrated at the Telecom 91 End 2002: 792M GSM subscribers
exhibition. Worldwide

7
GSM Specifications
01 SERIES
12 SERIES GENERAL 02 SERIES
OPERATION AND
MAINTENANCE SERVICE ASPECTS

11 SERIES 03 SERIES
EQUIPMENT AND TYPE NETWORK ASPECTS
APPROVAL SPECIFICATIONS

10 SERIES 04 SERIES
SERVICE INTERWORKING MS-BSS INTERFACE AND
PROTOCOLS

09 SERIES 05 SERIES
NETWORK PHYSICAL LAYER ON THE
INTERWORKING RADIO PATH.

08 SERIES 06 SERIES
BSS TO MSC INTERFACES 07 SERIES SPEECH CODING
TERMINAL ADAPTERS SPECIFICATIONS
FOR MOBILE STATIONS
Increasing GSM Data Rates
video
UMTS photo report clip

video
E/GPRS web photo report clip

video
ISDN e-mail web photo report clip

video
PSTN e-mail web photo report clip

video
GSM e-mail web photo report clip

0 10 sec 1 min 10 min 1 hour
GPRS = General Packet Radio Service
Transmission HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data
EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution
Time UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
Wireless Data Technology Options
2M
1M
k e t
throughput kbps

p ac

100 k
r c uit EDGE
64 k ci HSCSD
UMTS

14.4
10 k GPRS
9.6

Time frame
1k
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
GPRS = General Packet Radio Service
HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data
EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution
UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

10
Circuit-Switched or Packet-Switched

Circuit mode

Packet mode A
→F
A

F
B →F
A

C →GHF

D
A
C

→GHF
C
D
A

→G
C →
→GHF
C
D
A →G
C
G

D →H
D →H
D

H
E
11
Multiple Access Technique
• Multiple Access – Achieved by dividing the available
radio frequency spectrum, so that multiple users can
be given access at the same time.
• FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access
– ( eg: GSM each Frequency channel is 200KHz)
• TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access
– ( eg: GSM each frequency channel is divided into
8 timeslots)
• CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
– (eg: IS95- Each User data is coded with a unique
code) 12
Duplex Technique
• Duplex - How the up link and Down link of a user
is separated
• FDD - Frequency Division Duplex
– (eg:In GSM the up link and down link of a user is
separated by 45MHz )
• TDD - Time Division Duplex
– (the up link and down link of a user will be at the same
frequency but at different Time )

13
GSM Concepts -
Cellular Structure
2
2 7 Cellular
7 3 1 Networking technology
1 6 that breaks geographic
6 4 5 area into cells shaped
5 like honey comb

Cell
is the radio coverage
area of one base
transceiver station

14
What are the types in
GSM Network?

• GSM-900 (Channels 125 operating band 900Mhz
carrier spacing 200khz spacing 45Mhz)

• GSM -1800 (Channels 374 spacing 95Mhz)

• GSM -1900(Used in USA)

15
GSM Band Allocations (MHz)
Duplex Duplex
GSM systems Uplink Downlink Band
Spacing channels
GSM 450 450.4-457.6 460.4-467.6 2x7.2 10 35
GSM 480 478.8-486 488.8-496 2x7.2 10 35
GSM 850 824-849 869-894 2x25 45 124
GSM 900 890-915 935-960 2x25 45 124
E-GSM (900) 880-915 925-960 2x35 45 174
R-GSM (900) 876-880 921-925 2x04 41 40
GSM 1800 1710-1785 1805-1880 2x75 95 374
GSM 1900 1850-1910 1930-1990 2x60 80 299

Frequencies are in MHz

Carrier frequency = ARFCN = Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
GSM Family Radio Band Spectrum
Uplink 450.4 457.6 478.8 486 824 849

GSM 450 GSM 480 GSM 850

Downlink 460.4 467.6 488.8 496 869 894 MHz

915
Uplink
915
876 880 890 915 1710 1785 1850 1910

P-GSM
E-GSM GSM 1800 GSM 1900

R-GSM

921 925 935 960 1805 1880 1930 1990
960 MHz
Downlink
960
Traffic/Signaling
Traffic

«bla bla bla...»

Signaling « RING ! »
riiiiing

Network
MS
GSM - Network Structure
Um

BTS VLR HLR

BSC
Abis MSC
A B H
MS C AuC
BTS GMSC
E F
Abis
EIR
A E
MSC

BSC PSTN
Um
BTS X.25
VLR
X.25
OMC Server
19
GSM System specifications
Frequency band
Uplink 890 - 915 MHz
Downlink 935 - 960MHz
Duplex Frequency Spacing 45MHz
Carrier separation 200KHz
Frequency Channels 124
Time Slots /Frame(Full Rate) 8
Voice Coder Bit Rate 13Kbps
Modulation GMSK
Air transmission rate 270.833333 Kbps
Access method FDMA/TDMA
Speech Coder RPE-LTP-LPC
20
Paired Radio Channels in GSM
Case of GSM 900

Uplink Downlink BTS

890 MHz Frequency 915 MHz 935 MHz Frequency 960 MHz

0 channel # 124 0 channel # 124
Example:
Channel 48

Duplex spacing = 45 MHz
Frequency band spectrum = 2 x 25 MHz
Channel spacing = 200 kHz

21
GSM Time Division Multiplex
Frame and Physical Channels
Time-slot TDMA frame TDMA frame

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

(frames repeat continuously)

Time
0 4.615 ms 9.23 ms

Physical channel # 2 = recurrence of time-slot # 2
Physical Channel
BTS
BTS time Without FH
With FH
n+1
TDMAs
7
n TS
0

n-1 MS1

MS2

MS3

1 //
FDMA 2 124 ARFCN
Radio Link Aspects
• From Speech to RF Signal
Blah... Blah... Blah... Blah… Blah… Blah...
Digitizing and
Source Decoding
Source Coding

Channel Coding Channel Decoding

Interleaving De-interleaving

Ciphering Deciphering

Burst Formatting Burst De-formatting

Modulating Demodulating
Functions of the Radio Interface
• Speech and user's data Communication
Idle mode • Signaling mode

BTS

BTS-1 BTS-2
Access Techniques
Uplink 890 MHz to 915 MHz
Down Link 935 MHz to 960 MHz
25 MHz divided into 125 channels of 200 KHz
bandwidth

UP 890.0 890.2 890.4 914.8 915.0

DOWN 935.0 935.2 935.4 959.8 960.0

26
Access Techniques ...

Time Division Multiple Access
Each carrier frequency subdivided in time domain
into 8 time slots
Each mobile transmits data in a frequency, in its
particular time slot - Burst period = 0.577 milli secs.
8 time slots called a TDMA frame. Period is .577 * 8
= 4.616 milli secs

0.577 ms

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4.616 ms 27
28
Fundamentals
960 MHz

959.8MHz 124 TS: Time slot
123
DOWNLINK ……. GSM utilizes two bands(TDMA
Downlink of 25 MHz.
frame)890-915
= 8 TS
…… MHz band is used for uplink while the 935-
2 960 MHz is used for downlink.
200KHz

935.2 Mhz 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
The frequency bands are divided into 200
935 MHz KHz wide channels called ARFCNs (Absolute
Radio Frequency Channel
Data burst = 156.25 Numbers)
bit periods = 576.9μs i.e.
there are 125 ARFCNs out of which only 124
915 MHz
are used.
914.8 MHz 124
Each ARFCN supports 8 users with each user
45 MHz 123
200KHz ……. 0
transmitting
Delay
slot (TS).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
/ receiving on a particular time
UPLINK ……
2
Uplink (TDMA frame)
890.2 MHz 1

890 MHz
Therefore 1 TDMA frame = 156.25 x 8 = 1250 bits
The technology and has a duration of 576.92μs x 8 = 4.615 ms 29
GSM Delays Uplink TDMA Frames
BTS side The start of the uplink TDMA TDMA Frame (4.615 ms)
is delayed of three time-slots
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
R R R R R R R R
Downlink TDMA

BTS
T T T T T T T T

Down Up
MSs side link link

MS1 R T

MS2 R T

Fixed transmit
delay of three
time-slots
Timing Advance
1 - Propagation Delay

M2 d2 d1>>d2 M1

BTS Frame reference TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7

Propagation Delay τp
Bits Overlapping
MSs transmit
Timing Advance
2 - Without Timing Advance: Collision
TX BTS CAN W HAT GSM HOW W HEN WHAT
RX BTS yes the ms-isdn
TA
RX MS1 CAN
TX MS1 +3TS yes

RX MS2 W HAT
TX MS2 the

RX MS3 GSM
D
TX MS3
D ms-isdn

RX MS4 HOW
TX MS4

RX MS5
TX MS5 Propagation Delay W HEN

RX MS6 WHAT
TX MS6

RX MS7
TX MS7

RX MS8
TX MS8

32
Timing Advance
3 - With Timing Advance: No Collision
TX BTS CAN WHAT GSM HOW WHEN WHAT
RX BTS yes the ms-isdn

RX MS1 CAN
TX MS1 +3TS - TA yes

RX MS2 WHAT
TX MS2 D the

RX MS3 GSM
TX MS3 D ms-isdn

RX MS4 HOW
TX MS4

RX MS5 WHEN
TX MS5
Propagation Delay
RX MS6 WHAT
TX MS6

RX MS7
TX MS7
Timing Advance = 2 * Propagation Delay
RX MS8
TX MS8

33
GSM in comparison with other
Standards
• GSM gives mobility without any loss in Audio quality
• Encryption techniques used gives high security in the
air Interface and also use of SIM.
• Bit Interleaving for high efficiency in Transmission.
• Variable Power (Power budgeting- extend battery life)
• Minimum Interference.
• Features-CCS7 Signaling
– SMS (Short Message Services)
– Emergency Calls
– CELL Broadcast
34
TOPICS

• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTITIES USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 35
MS
GSM - Network Structure
Um

BTS VLR HLR

BSC
Abis MSC
A B H
MS C AuC
BTS GMSC
E F
Abis
EIR
A E
MSC

BSC PSTN
Um
BTS X.25
VLR
X.25
OMC Server
36
GSM Network
SS
Switching
AUC System
External
PSTN & VLR HLR EIR
PDN N/W OMC
MSC
MS Mobile Station
BTS Base transceiver System
BSC Base Station Controller
MSC Mobile Switching Center BSS BSC Base Station
HLR Home Location Register
VLR Visitor Location Register BTS
System
EIR Equipment Identity Register
AUC Authentication Center MS 37
OMC Operation And Maintenance Center
GSM Architecture
GSM VMSC SMSC
Air interface
B
S
C A AUC
interface HLR
Abis
interface
TRAU MSC PSTN

B VLR
BTS S
BTS C
BTS EIR
OMCS

BTS BTS
BTS
Network and switching
subsystem
Mobile A interface SS7 / speech
Station X.25
OMCR SS7

Base Station System 38
Mobile Equipment(ME)
• Frequency and Time Synchronization
• Voice encoding and transmission
• Voice encryption/decryption functions
• Power measurements of adjacent cells
• Display of short messages
• International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI)

39
SIM
• Portable Smart Card with memory (ROM-6KB to
16KB-A3/A8 algorithm, RAM- 128KB TO 256KB,
EEPROM- 3KB to 8KB )
• Static Information
– International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI)
– Personal Identification Number (PIN)
– Authentication Key (Ki)
• Dynamic Information
– Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI)
– Location Area Identity (LAI)
– Phone memories, billing information
– Ability to store Short Messages received
40
SIM-Card and GSM Mobile
Equipment
Global GSM Mobility
Card

= +
The Smart Card to use

GSM
Contains:
- IMSI

SIM-Card
The SIM-Card Functions
Credit Card Size
µ SIM-Card
Global GSM Mobility
Card
15 mm The Smart Card to use
25 mm

GSM
Permanent data:
- Unique mobile subscriber identity Microchip with stored
through IMSI number and PIMSI user information
for Packet Mode
- Authentication parameter Ki,
- Authentication algorithm A3, Removable data:
- Generating encryption key Kc - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Number,
algorithm A8, - Location Area Identification
- Routing Area Identification (Packet mode)
- PIN code.
Subscriber Identification
IMSI MS - ISDN

Mobile Station -
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
Nature Integrated Services Digital Network Nb

Similar to ISDN,
Conformity with E212
Conformity with E164/E213

Identify a PLMN Identify the subscriber
National Significant Mobile Number
worldwide of a PLMN

MCC MNC MSIN CC NDC SN
Format H1 H2 x x x ......... x x x M1 M2 xx xx xx xx

Country
Mobile Mobile Mobile Subscriber National Mobile Subscriber
Code
Meaning Country Network Ident. Nb
(where Destination (national definition)
Code Code H1 H2 = Identity of HLR
subscription Code * M1 M2 = nbr of logical HLR
within the home PLMN
has been made)

Nb. digits 3 2 max 10 1 to 3 2 to 4 total max 15

*This code does not identify a geographical area
but an operator
Description Stored in SIM Card
Global GSM Mobility
Card
MCC MNC The Smart Card to use
= =
208 (France) 71(APBSNL)
234 (G-B) 72(TNBSNL)
262 (Germany) 20 (Bytel) IMSI = 15 digits max GSM
404,405(India)
Mobile Mobile Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN)
Country Network
Code Code
H1 H2 X X X X X X
3 digits 2 digits 10 digits max

NMSI Temporary Mobile
Subscriber Identity
LAI
4 octets

Mobile Mobile
Country Network Location Area Code Routing Area Code
Code Code
LAC RAC
3 digits 2 digits

RAI
Description Stored in the Network
MS-ISDN (15 digits max)

Country National Subscriber Number (SN) Must be dialed to
Code Destination make a call to
Code M1 M2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X mobile
3 digits max 2 or 3 digits 10 digits max subscriber

MSRN

Roaming Number (RN) Is a PSTN-like
National number used to
Country reach a roaming
Destination
Code MS
Code

Is a PSTN-like
number to track the
National
Country MS that hands over
Code
Destination HO-number to another MSC
Code during call-in-state

NDC = 9448(BSNL-karnataka)
CC = 33 (France)
9845,9880(Airtel)
091(India)
9886(Hutch)
001(US)
45
= 660, 661, 618 (Bytel)
Descriptor Embodied in the Mobile
Equipment
IMEI enables the operator to check
the Mobile Equipment Identity
at call setup and make sure
that no stolen or unauthorized MS
is used in the GSM network

YPE VED
T O
P PR
A
TAC FAC SNR SP

Type Approval Serial NumbeR (SPare)
Code Final Assembly
Code
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)

YPE VED
T O
P PR
A
TAC FAC SNR SP

Type Approval Serial number (SPare)
Code Final Assembly
Code

IMEI: #06#
351475 60 926514 4
*
MS Classmark
Power classes
Classmark For GMSK modulation
Revision level GSM GSM GSM
Class
400/850/900 1800 1900
RF power
1 1 W** 1 W**
Encryption algorithm 8 W*
2 0.25 W 0.25 W
Frequency 3 5W 4W 2W
Short message 4 2 W**
LoCation Services 5 0.8 W

MS Positioning Method
For 8-PSK modulation
8-PSK modulation GSM GSM GSM
Class
Multi-slot class 400/850/900 1800 1900
E1 2W 1W 1W
Multi-band
E2 0.5 W 0.4 W 0.4 W
* Typical value for car mounted E3 0.2 W 0.16 W 0.16 W
** Typical value for handheld
Base Transceiver Station
(BTS)
• Handles the radio interface to the mobile station.
• Consists of one or more radio terminals for
transmission and reception
• Each Radio terminal represents an RF Channel
• TRX and MS communicates over Um interface
• Received data transcoding
• Voice encryption/decryption
• Signal processing functions of the radio interface
• Uplink Radio channel power measurements

49
Base Station Controller (BSC)
• Provides all the control functions and physical links
between the MSC and BTS
• External Interfaces
– ‘Abis’ interface towards the BTS
– ‘A’ interface towards the MSC
• Monitors and controls several BTSs
• Management of channels on the radio interface
• Alarm Handling from the external interfaces
• Performs inter-cell Handover
• Switching from ‘Abis’ link to the ‘A’ link
• Interface to OMC for BSS Management
50
Mobile Switching Center
(MSC)
• Performs call switching
• Interface of the cellular network to PSTN
• Routes calls between PLMN and PSTN
• Queries HLR when calls come from PSTN to mobile
user
• Inter-BSC Handover
• Paging
• Billing

51
Home Location Register
(HLR)
• Stores user data of all Subscribers related to the
GMSC
– International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI)
– Users telephone number (MS ISDN)
– Subscription information and services
– VLR address
– Reference to Authentication center for key (Ki)
• Referred when call comes from public land network

52
Visitor Location Register
(VLR)
• Database that contains Subscriber
parameters and location information for all
mobile subscribers currently located in the
geographical area controlled by that VLR
• Identity of Mobile Subscriber
• Copy of subscriber data from HLR
• Generates and allocates a Temporary
Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI)
• Location Area Code
• Provides necessary data when mobile
originates call
53
Authentication Center (AuC)
• Stores Subscriber authentication data called Ki, a
copy of which is also stored in in the SIM card
• Generates security related parameters to authorize a
subscriber (SRES-Signed RESponse)
• Generates unique data pattern called Cipher key (Kc)
for user data encryption
• Provides triplets - RAND, SRES & Kc, to the HLR on
request.

54
EIR (Equipment Identity
Register)
• EIR is a database that contains a list of all valid
mobile station equipment within the network,
where each mobile station is identified by its
International Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI).
• EIR has three databases.,
– White list - For all known,good IMEI’s
– Black list - For all bad or stolen handsets
– Grey list - For handsets/IMEI’s that are
on observation

55
Location Area Identity
• LAI identifies a location area which is a group of
cells..
• It is transmitted in the BCCH.
• When the MS moves into another LA (detected by
monitoring LAI transmitted on the BCCH) it must
perform a LU.
• LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC
– MCC= Mobile Country Code(3 digits), identifies the country
– MNC= Mobile Network Code(1-2 digits), identifies the GSM-
PLMN
– LAC= Location Area Code, identifies a location area within a
GSM PLMN network. The maximum length of LAC is 16
bits,enabling 65536 different location areas to be defined in
56
one GSM PLMN.
Interfaces and Protocols
Digital
Networks
ISUP
Abis A E

LAPD BSSAP TUP
MAP

Um LAPDm F MAP B POTS
MAP
C

D G

57
GSM Entities and Signaling
Architecture

58
GSM Protocols
• CM - Connection Management
• MM - Mobility Management
• RR - Radio resource
• LAPDm - LAPD for mobile
• LAPD - Link Access Procedure for D channel
• BTSM - BTS Management Part
• BSSAP - BSS Application Part (BSC - MSC)
• DTAP - Direct Transfer Application Part (MS - MSC)
• MAP - Mobile Application Part
• MTP - Message Transfer part of SS7
• SCCP - Signalling Connection Control Part of SS7
• TCAP - Transaction Capabilities Application Part
• ISUP - ISDN User Part
59
Functional Plane of GSM

MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR HLR GMSC

CC

MM

RR

Trans

MS BTS BSC MSC/ HLR GMSC
VLR
60
TOPICS
• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTIFIERS USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

61
TOPICS
• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTITIES USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

62
Channels : differentiating
between Physical and Logical
channels
Physical channels : The combination of an ARFCN
and a time slot defines a physical channel.

Logical channels : These are channels specified by
GSM which are mapped on physical channels.

63
Channel concept
Physical channel:
One timeslot of a TDMA-frame on one carrier
is referred to as a physical channel.
There are 8 physical channels per carrier in
GSM,channel 0-7(timeslot 0-7)

Logical channel:
A great variety of information must be
transmitted between BTS and the MS,for e.g.
user data and control signaling.Depending
on the kind of information transmitted we
refer to different logical channels.These logical
channels are mapped on physical 64
channel.
Logical Channels on Air interface
LOGICAL
CHANNELS

COMMON DEDICATED
CHANNELS CHANNELS

BROADCAST COMMON DEDICATED TRAFFIC
CHANNELS CONTROL CONTROL CHANNELS
CHANNELS CHANNELS

FCCH SCH BCCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH

PCH RACH AGCH TCH/F TCH/H TCH/EFR

65
Logical channels
Logical channels

Control channels Traffic channels

Half Full
CCCH DCCH
BCH rate rate

FCCHSCH BCCH CBCH PCH AGCH RACH SDCCH SACCH FACCH
66
Broadcast channels BCH
• Broadcast Channel-BCH
– Alloted one ARFCN & is ON all the time in every cell.
Present in TS0 and other 7 TS used by TCH.
• Frequency correction channel-FCCH
– To make sure this is the BCCH carrier.
– Allow the MS to synchronize to the frequency.
– Carries a 142 bit zero sequence and repeats once in every
10 frames on the BCH.
• Synchronization Channel-SCH
– This is used by the MS to synchronize to the TDMA frame
structure within the particular cell.
– Listening to the SCH the MS receives the TDMA frame
number and also the BSIC ( in the coded part- 39 bits).
67
– Repeats once in every 10 frames.
Broadcast channels BCH ...
• BCCH
– The last information the MS must receive in order to receive
calls or make calls is some information concerning the cell.
This is BCCH.
– This include the information of Max power allowed in the cell.
– List of channels in use in the cell.
– BCCH carriers for the neighboring cells,Location Area
Identity etc.
– BCCH occupies 4 frames (normal bursts) on BCH and
repeats once every Multiframe.
– This is transmitted Downlink point to multipoint.
• Cell Broadcast Channel - CBCH
– Used for the Transmission of generally accessible
information like Short Message Services(SMS) 68
Common Control Channels
CCCH
• CCCH-
– Shares TS-0 with BCH on a Multiframe.
• Random access channel-RACH:
– Used by Mobile Station for requesting for a channel. When
the mobile realizes it is paged it answers by requesting a
signaling channel (SDCCH) on RACH. RACH is also used
by the MS if it wants to originate a call.
– Initially MS doesn’t know the path delay (timing advance),
hence uses a short burst (with a large guard period = 68.25
bits).
– MS sends normal burst only after getting the timing advance
info on the SACCH.
– It is transmitted in Uplink point to point.
69
Common Control Channels
CCCH ..
• Access Grant Channel-AGCH
– On request for a signaling channel by MS the network
assigns a signaling channel(SDCCH) through AGCH. AGCH
is transmitted on the downlink point to point.
• Paging Channel-PCH
– The information on this channel is a paging message
including the MS’s identity(IMSI/TMSI).This is transmitted on
Downlink, point-to-multipoint.

70
Dedicated Control Channels-
DCCH
• Stand alone dedicated control channel(SDCCH)
• AGCH assigns SDCCH as signaling channel on
request by MS.The MS is informed about which
frequency(ARFCN) & timeslot to use for traffic.
• Used for location update, subscriber authentication,
ciphering information, equipment validation and
assignment of TCH.
• This is used both sides, up and Downlink point-point.

71
Dedicated Control Channels-
DCCH
• Slow associated control channel-SACCH
– Transmission of radio link signal measurement, power
control etc.
– Average signal strengths(RXLev) and quality of service
(RXQual) of the serving base station and of the neighboring
cells is sent on SACCH (on uplink).
– Mobile receives information like what TX power it has to
transmit and the timing advance. It is associated with TCH
or SDCCH
• Fast associated control channel-FACCH
– Used for Hand over commands and during call setup and
release. FACCH data is sent over TCH with stealing flag set
72
Traffic Channels-TCH
• TCH carries the voice data.
• Two blocks of 57 bits contain voice data in the normal
burst.
• One TCH is allocated for every active call.
• Full rate traffic channel occupies one physical
channel(one TS on a carrier) and carries voice data
at 13kbps
• Two half rate (6.5kbps) TCHs can share one physical
channel.

73
GSM Channels
GSM Channels

Traffic Channels Control Channels
(TCHs)

Broadcast Common Control Dedicated Control
Channels Channels Channels
(BCHs) (CCCHs) (DCCHs)

(down uplink)
Full Half
Downlink Downlink Uplink
rate rate
Fast Slow

TCH /F TCH /H FCCH SCH BCCH PCH AGCH CBCH RACH SDCCH FACCH SACCH
Traffic Multiframing Signaling Multiframing Traffic Multiframing

74
The Logical Channels on Radio Interface
TS 0123456 7

BTS MS
FCCH TCH
Frequency correction Traffic (speech-data)
SCH FACCH
Synchronization Associated Signaling
BCCH
Broadcast control
RACH Radio Measurement + SMS
SACCH
Access request SDCCH
Dedicated Signaling
PCH
Subscriber paging CBCH
Broadcast info
AGCH
Answer to Access request
FCCH
CBCH
Broadcast info SCH
M.S. Pre-synchronization
SDCCH
Dedicated Signaling BCCH
SACCH
Sys InFo 5, 6 + SMS RACH
Access request
PCH
Traffic (speech data) Subscriber paging
TCH
AGCH
Associated Signaling Answer to Access request
FACCH
75
Logical Channel Description
(1/2)
SACCH MESSAGES
TCH MESSAGES
Measures:
- power level of the communication • Speech

- quality level of the communication • Data

- level on the beacon frequency of • Handover Access message (uplink)
the neighboring cells
• Timing Advance
• Power Control
• SMS
FACCH MESSAGES
• Connection establishment from
SDCCH to TCH

SDCCH MESSAGES • End validation of a SDCCH-TCH
commutation
• Request for a SDCCH assignment
• Characteristics of the future used BS
• Request for the end of channel after handover
assignment
• Connection establishment to BS after
• Order of commutation from SDCCH to handover
TCH
• Validation of an handover
• SMS

76
Logical Channel
FCCH MESSAGES
Description
AGCH MESSAGES
(2/2)
• no message is sent (all bits 0) • For dedicated channel assignment:
- frequency number
- slot number
- frequency hopping description
SCH MESSAGES - Timing Advance (1st estimation)
• Frame Number - MS identification
• Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)
CBCH MESSAGES
BCCH MESSAGES • Specific information
(weather, road information
• System Information type 1, 2, 2bis,
2ter, 3, 4, 7, 8
(idle mode) RACH MESSAGES
• Service request:
- emergency call
PCH MESSAGES - answer to an incoming call
- outgoing call
• messages containing a mobile - short message
identity for a call, a short message - call re-establishment
or an authentication - inscription

77
GPRS
DL Channels
PDTCH
PBCCH
PACCH
PPCH BSC
PTCCH GPRS
PAGCH PCUSN
PNCH CORE
NETWORK
PDTCH
PRACH Packet
PACCH Common
PTCCH Control
UL CHannels
Packet
PDCH = Packet Data Traffic
CHannel CHannels

PBCCH
78
Traffic and Control Multiframing
Traffic channel Control channel
Frame
4.615 ms

TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

26 traffic frames = 120 ms

0 1 2 3 4 21 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 46 47 48 49 50

1326
frames

0 1 2 3 4 51 x 26 traffic frames = 6.12 s 46 47 48 49 50

0 1 2 3 26 x 51 control frames = 6.12 s 22 23 24 25

0 1 2 3 4 5 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047

1 Hyperframe = 2,715,648 frames= 3h 28 min. 53 s 760 ms
79
80
81
Logical Channel Mapping
1 - Traffic Channel Combination
T
Full Rate - Downlink & Uplink
26 frames = 120 ms

T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T time

Half Rate - Downlink & Uplink
26 frames = 120 ms

T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 A0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 A1 time

T : TCH Ti : TCH A : SACCH Ai : SACCH : IDLE
sub-channel no. i sub-channel no. i

82
Logical Channel Mapping
2 - Dedicated Signaling Channel Combination

A A A A

Downlink
51 frames = 235 ms

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0 A1 A2 A3

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A4 A5 A6 A7
time

Uplink
51 frames = 235 ms

A5 A6 A7 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0

A1 A2 A3 D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A4
time
A : SACCH D : SDCCH : IDLE

83
Logical Channel Mapping
3 - Common Channel Combination
Downlink Multiframe m
Multiframe Multiframe
m-1 51 frames = 235.38 ms m+1

C FS B C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS B

Frames repeat continuously time

PCH/AGCH
Physical Channel
BTS ARFCN (n) TS (s) MS
SCH BCCH
FCCH

Uplink
51 frames = 235.38 ms
R R R RR R R RR R R RR R R RR R R RR R R RR R R RRR R R R R RR R R RR R R RR RR RR R R R

time
: PCH /
F : FCCH S : SCH B : BCCH C AGCH R : RACH : IDLE

84
Logical Channel Mapping
4 - Common
Downlink
Channel Combination
51 frames = 235 ms

FS B C FS C C FS D0 D1 FS D2 D3 FS A0 A1

FS B C FS C C FS D0 D1 FS D2 D3 FS A2 A3
time

Uplink
51 frames = 235 ms

D3 RR A2 A3 RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D1 RR D2

D3 RR A0 A1 RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D1 RR D2
time

: AGCH
F : FCCH S : SCH B : BCCH C /PCH R : RACH A : SACCH D : SDCCH : IDLE

85
86
Why 26 and 51 per Multiframe?
Frames

0 1 10 20 30 40 50 0 1

FS B C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS

TTTTTTTTTTTTATTTTTTTTTTTT TTTTTTTTTTTTATTTTTTTTTTTT

01 12 25 0 1 12 25

Downlink
message

Uplink
message

Mobile Rx Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx
activity (n) (n) (n)

Neighboring BTS
(downlink)

Measurement Windows
87
TOPICS
• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTITIES USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

88
From Speech to Radio Transmission
Speech

Digitizing and Source
Step 1 source coding decoding

Channel Channel
Step 2 coding decoding

Interleaving De-interleaving

Step 3
Burst deformatting
Burst formatting

Deciphering
Step 4 Ciphering

Demodulation
Step 5 Modulation equalization

Step 6 Diversity
Transmission

89
GSM Radio Link

• Speech Coding -Done at Transcoder of BSC and MS
– The Linear Predictive Coder uses RPE-LTP(Regular Pulse
Excitation- Long Term Prediction)
– Converts 64kbps voice to 13kbps(260 bits every 20ms)
• Channel Coding - Done at BTS and MS
– Uses Convolution Coding and CRC (Cyclic Redundancy
Check)
– Converts 13 kbps to 22.8 kbps (456 bits per 20ms)

90
GSM Radio Link
• Bit Interleaving - Done at BTS and MS
• Encryption - Done at BTS and MS
– EX OR data with cipher block, which is generated by
applying A5 Algorithm to the Ciphering Key(Kc)
• Multiplexing - Done at BTS
• Modulation - Done at BTS and MS
– GMSK(Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying)
– Phase change of +90 for 0 and -90 for 1

91
Why Digitizing and Coding the
Speech?

SPEECH
TRANSMISSION
BETWEEN MOBILE
AND NETWORK BSS
MS
SPEECH MUST BE
DIGITIZED AND CODED

Better Quality Lower Rate
64 kbit/s
Speech Quality – Source Coding
Codec Type Mean Opinion Score Rate (kb/s)
(MOS)

PCM A law 4.25 64
GSM EFR 4.2 12.2
CDMA 13 4.2 13
D-AMPS 4 8
GSM FR 3.8 13
CDMA 8 3.4 8

Quality MOS Listening Effort Required

Excellent 5 Complete relaxation possible, no effort.
Good 4 Attention necessary, no appreciable effort.
Fair 3 Moderate effort.
Poor 2 Considerable effort.
Bad 1 No meaning understood with feasible effort.

93
Speech Coding
BP A/D SPEECH
ENCODER
CHANNEL
CODING
To modulator

Every 20ms 160 samples 1A 1B 2
BAND Every 125μ s value is taken
PASS Data rate = 160 * 13/20ms
300 Hz -
sampled from analog 50 132 78
signal and quantised by = 104 kbps
3.4 kHZ
13 bit word 3 crc bits
Data rate = 13/125*10 -6 Four 0 bits for codec
= 104 kbps
50 3 132 4

Conv coding rate = 1/2 delay = 4

Linear Predictive Coding & Regular Long term prediction analysis
Pulse Excitation Analysis 1. Previous sequences stored in memory
378 coded bits 78
1. Generates 160 filter coeff 2. Find out the correlation between the
2. These blocks sorted in 4 sequence present seq. And previous sequences
1,5,9,…37 / 2,6,10----38/ 3. Select the highest correlation sequence 456 bits in 20 ms = 22.8 kbps
3,7,11…39/8,12,16…40 4. Find a value representing the difference 57 x 8 = 456
3. Selects the sequence with most between the two sequences.
1A = Filter Coeff
energy
Reduces data rate = 26 kbps/2 = 13 kbps block ampl, LTP
ie 260 bits in 20ms params
So data rate = 104/4 = 26 kbps
1B = RPE pointers &
pulses
2 = RPE pulse & filter
params
CHANNEL
LP D/A SPEECH
DECODER
DECODING

94
Channel Processing in GSM
Overview for Full Rate
20 ms Speech blocks 20 ms 20 ms
A B C

Codec dependent Codec dependent Codec dependent
Source coding
Channel coding

A 456 bits B 456 bits C 456 bits

A A A A B B B B B B B B 8 Sub blocks C C C C
5 6 7 8 Interleaving 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4
of 57 bits

A5 A6 A7 A8 B5 B6 B7 B8
8 Bursts B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4

Normal 3 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3
burst
Tail Information CRL Training CRL Information Tail
95
96
Channel Processing in GSM
Overview for Half Rate
20 ms Speech blocks 20 ms 20 ms
A B C

Codec dependent Codec dependent Codec dependent
Source coding
Channel coding

A 228 bits B 228 bits C 228 bits

A A A A B B B B 4 Sub blocks C C C C
1 2 3 4 Interleaving 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
of 57 bits

A3 A4 B3 B4
4 Bursts B1 B2 C1 C2

Normal
burst 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

97
Interleaving: TCH Full Rate
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ... 452 453 454 455
456
coded bits
Divide 456 bits in 8 sub-blocks

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

57 Rows
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 reordering
•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• &
• • • • • • • • partitioning
out
448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455

4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3

diagonal
interleaving

bit
interleaving

burst
b0 b1 b56 b0 b1 b56
98
Burst Formatting
Normal Burst
1 frame:
4.615 ms

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Training Guard
DATA S S DATA
sequence Band

3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25

Burst
148 bits Guard

156.25 bits duration
(0.577 ms)

99
Burst Formats
Frequency Correction Burst
(FCCH) Guard
Tail Data Tail Period
3 bits 142 fixed bits (0) 3 bits 8.25 bits

156.25 bits duration
(0.577 ms)

Synchronization Burst
(SCH) Guard
Tail Data Extended Training Sequence Data Tail Period
3 bits 39 encrypted bits 64 synchronization bits 39 bits 3 bits 8.25 bits

156.25 bits duration
(0.577 ms)

100
Burst Formats
Normal Burst
Tail Data Training Sequence Data Tail Guard
Period
3 bits 57 encrypted bits 1 26 bits 1 57 encrypted bits 3 bits 8.25 bits

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

Dummy Burst
Guard
Tail Dummy Sequence Training Sequence Dummy Sequence Tail Period

3 bits 58 mixed bits 26 midamble bits 58 mixed bits 3 bits 8.25 bits

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)

Access Burst
Training
Tail Sequence Data Tail Guard Period

8 bits 41 synch bits 36 encrypted bits 3 bits 68.25 bits

156.25 bits (0.577 ms)
101
Ciphering
Burst to be
Data S S Data
transmitted

Plain data: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0.....
Ciphering sequence: 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0.....
XOR:
Ciphered data (transmitted): 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0.....
Ciphered sequence: 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0.....
XOR:
Recovered data: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0.....

Received S
Training
S
Data Data
burst sequence

102
Interleaving
Encoded speech blocks - Diagonal Interleaving

57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 Even bits
57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 Odd bits
Bn-4 Bn-3 Bn-2 Bn-1 Bn Bn+1 Bn+2 Bn+3

Encoded control channel blocks - Rectangular Interleaving

57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57

57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 Even bits
57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 Odd bits
Bn-4 Bn-3 Bn-2 Bn-1 Bn Bn+1 Bn+2 Bn+3

Tb Coded Data F Training Sequence F Coded Data Tb Gp
3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25

103
Burst
• The information format transmitted during one
timeslot in the TDMA frame is called a burst.
• Different Types of Bursts
– Normal Burst
– Random Access Burst
– Frequency Correction Burst
– Synchronization Burst

104
Normal Burst
156.25 bits 0.577 ms

T Coded Data S T. Seq. S Coded Data T GP
3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25

Tail Bit(T) :Used as Guard Time
Coded Data :It is the Data part associated with the burst
Stealing Flag :This indicates whether the burst is carrying
Signaling data (FACCH) or user info (TCH).
Training Seq. :This is a fixed bit sequence known both to
the BTS & the MS.This takes care of the
signal deterioration.

105
156.25 bits 0.577 ms

T Training Sequence Coded Data T GP
3 41 36 3 68.25

Random Access Burst

156.25 bits 0.577 ms

T Fixed Bit Sequence T GP
3 142 3 8.25

Freq. Correc. Burst

156.25 bits 0.577 ms

T Coded Data Training Sequence Coded T GP
3 39 64 Data 39 3 8.25

Synchronization Burst

106
Transmission on the
radio channels
• A timeslot has a duration of .577 m seconds (148 Bits)
• 8 timeslots(8 x 0.577 = 4.62 ms) form a TDMA frame
• If a mobile is assigned one TS it transmits only in this time
slot
• and stays idle for the other 7 with its transmitter off, called
bursting
• The start on the uplink is delayed from downlink by 3 TS
periods
• One TS = duration of 156.25 bits, and its physical contents is
• called a burst
Downlink 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
BTS > MS

Uplink 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
MS > BTS
107
Offset
Timing Advance
MS1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MS1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
near near

MS2 MS2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
far far

At At
BTS BTS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

108
Frames Types On Um
Interface
• TDMA Frame
– 8 Time slots (Burst Period)
– Length is 4.62 ms(8 * 0.577ms)
• 26-TDMA Multiframe
– 26 TDMA Frames (24 TCH, SACCH, Idle)
– 120 ms (26 * 4.62ms)
• 51-TDMA Multiframe
– 26 TDMA Frames (FCCH, SCH, BCCH, SDCCH, CCCH)
– 235.6 ms (51 * 4.62ms)

109
Frames Types On Um
Interface
• Super Frame
– 51* 26 TDMA Frames
– 6.12 S
• Hyper Frame
– 2048 * 51* 26 TDMA Frames
– 3 Hours, 28 Minutes, 53 Secs and 760 ms

110
TOPICS
• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTITIES USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

111
Mobility Management
• Mobility Management (MM)
• Location updating- normal,periodic, IMSI attach
• Paging
• Security Management
– Preventing unauthorized users- authentication
– Maintaining Privacy of users- ciphering
• Providing roaming facility
• MM functionality mainly handled by MS, HLR,
MSC/VLR.

112
Network Attachment
• Cell Identification
• MS scans complete GSM frequency band for
highest power
• Tunes to highest powered frequency and looks
for FCCH. Synchronizes in frequency domain
• Get training sequence from SCH which follows
FCCH. Synchronizes in time domain.
• Accesses BCCH for network id, location area and
frequencies of the neighboring cells.
• Stores a list of 30 BCCH channels

113
Network Attachment…..
• PLMN Selection
• Get the operator information from SIM.
• Cell Selection
• Selected cell should be a cell of the selected
PLMN
• Signal strength should be above the threshold.
• Cell should not be barred
• Location Update
• Register with the network by means of location
updation procedures.

114
MS Location Update
MS BTS BSC
(registration)
(G)MSC VLR HLR
Action
Channel Request (RACH)
Channel Assignment (AGCH)

TMSI + old LAI
Location Update Request (SDCCH)
Authentication Request (SDCCH)

Authentication Response (SDCCH)

Comparison of Authentication param

Accept LUP and allocTMSI (SDCCH)

Ack of LUP and TMSI (SDCCH)

Entry of new area and identity into
VLR and HLR

Channel Release (SDCCH)
115
Security - Authentication
MS
Ki RAND
Authentication center
provides RAND to Mobile
A3 AuC generates SRES using
SRES Ki of subscriber and RAND
Mobile generates SRES
MS BTS AuC using Ki and RAND
Mobile transmits SRES to
BTS
RAND
BTS compares received
SRES
SRES with one generated
SRES by AuC
Auth Result
116
Security - Ciphering
MS
Ki RAND

A8
Data sent on air
interface ciphered
for security
Kc
Um interface A5 and A8
MS Network

Kc
algorithms used to
Kc
cipher data
Data Ciphered Data
A5 A5 Ciphering Key is
Data
never transmitted
on air
117
TOPICS
• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTITIES USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

118
Communication Management
(CM)
• Setup of calls between users on request
• Routing function i.e. Choice of transmission
segments linking users
• Point to Point Short message services

119
GSM Actors
NSS

BSS
MSC Public
Switched
BSC Telephone
Network
BTS
VLR HLR

AUC
Fixed subscriber
Mobile subscriber
PLMN Selection
Yes Yes
Is there an up to date
found PLMNs list?

No

Creation of a found
PLMN list

manual automatic
mode mode

The user selects a The MS selects the first
PLMN from the PLMN from the preferred
displayed PLMNs PLMNs list (if it is not in
the forbidden PLMNs list)

No (manual)
Cell Selection
succeed?

Yes Selection of the
No (automatic) next preferred
End of PLMN possible PLMN
selection
PLMN Selection
• Constitution of the "Found PLMN list"
Listen to all the
frequencies of the GSM
spectrum:
power level measurement (124 channels in GSM
and average on these 900, 374 in GSM 1800
measurements and 299 in GSM 1900

Select the best
frequencies
according to the
power level (30 in GSM 900 and 40 in GSM 1800)

Memorize the
beacon
frequencies in the
precedent
selection

=> Create the
Found PLMN list
Initial Cell Selection
List of the
frequencies of the
selected PLMN

Selection of
Eligible cell? another PLMN
No
Yes
C1 Computation for
Suitable cell:
eligible cells
- cell of the selected PLMN
Eligible cell
- cell not barred
- C1 > 0 Suitable cell?
No
Yes
Look for the cell with the best
C1 in the suitable cells list

PLMN set in the
IMSI Attach forbidden
PLMN list
End of Cell Selection
Rejected?

No Yes
Cell Selection
Purpose: get synchronization
with the GSM network
prior establishing any communication.
1

1

BTS-5
1 BTS-4 1

H 2
FCC
1 3
BTS-3 5 SCH
4
CH
BC BTS-1

This cell
BTS-2
Immediate Assignment
MS BTS BSC MSC

CHANNEL REQUEST
1 CHANNEL REQUIRED
RACH 2
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
3 Immediate
4
CHANNEL ACTIVATION Assignment
ACK.

IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
5
5 COMMAND
AGCH

CM SERVICE REQUEST
6
SDCCH or TCH
OR
LOCATION UPDAT. REQU.
6
SDCCH or TCH
Registration: the Very First Location
Update
1
BSS
IMSI 2
2 4 MSC
4 BSC TMSI
5
TMSI 6
5 BTS 2
Release
6
4 TMSI

5

LAI HLR VLR
IMSI 3 IMSI
VLR id TMSI
LAI
Intra – VLR Location Update
1 BSS
TMSI + old LAI 2
2 MSC
BSC
new TMSI 3
3
BTS 4
4 2
New TMSI
TMSI
3

New LAI VLR
IMSI
TMSI
LAI

IMSI not Required
Inter – VLR Location Update
1 BSS
2
TMSI + old LAI
2 BSC 5 MSC
newTMSI
5
BTS 7
7 2
TMSI New TMSI
5
New LAI Old VLR New VLR
IMSI, TMSI 3 IMSI,TMSI
Old LAI LAI
RAND, SRES, 4 RAND, SRES,
Kc Kc

6

IMSI not Required HLR subscriber
6 data
new
VLR id

128
IMSI Attach
CHANNEL
1
REQUEST BSS
IMMEDIATE
2
ASSIGNMENT

3 LOCATION UPDATING BSC 3
REQUEST (IMSI Attach)
Authentication BTS 4
Procedure
4 MSC
LOCATION UPDATING
5
5
ACCEPT (LAC, TMSI)

4

VLR

6

129
IMSI Detach
CHANNEL
1 BSS
REQUEST
IMMEDIATE
2
ASSIGNMENT
BSC MSC
3 IMSI DETach
IMSI DETach
3 INDication
INDication BTS
CHANNEL
4
RELEASE

VLR

130
Outgoing Call
Great Britain France Germany

Telephone
network

BSS

Terminating Gateway
BSC MSC
BTS MSC

VLR HLR

FT
131
Mobile Originating Call
MS BSS MSC PSTN
CHANNEL REQUEST VLR
Dialing 1
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
2
CM SERVICE REQUEST CM SERVICE REQUEST
2 2

3 Authentication procedure

3 Ciphering procedure

Sending SETUP (basic) or SETUP
4 4
Number EMERGENCY 5
IAM
CALL PROCEEDING 6 Ring
CALL PROCEEDING 7
7
Ringing
7 Assignment procedure
ACM
ALERTING 9 8
Ringing
ANM
Path CONNECT 10
11
Established
CONNECT ACKnowledge ACM = Address Complete Message
11 ANM = ANswer Message
IAM = Initial Address Message

132
Mobile Terminating Call
1 - Paging Principle
LA1

6 BSC1 4
BTS11
5
3 1
BTS12 MSC/ PSTN
6 GMSC
5 VLR
BSC2
BTS21
2
BTS22
HLR
LA2
BTS23 BSC3

BTS31

133
Mobile Terminating Call
2 - Detailed Procedure
Visitor PLMN International Home PLMN
SS7
VLR HLR
Provide Roaming Number
4
(IMSI)

Roaming Number
5 (MSRN)
6
9
Send 1
Send info Routing Routing
PAGE to I/C
PAGING Information Information MSISDN
(TMSI + LA) (MSRN)
REQUEST (MSRN) (MSISDN)
(TMSI) 3
8
11 PAGING IAM (MSRN)
REQUEST IAM
10 VMSC 7 GMSC 2 ISDN
BSS (TMSI + LA) (MSISDN)
PN

IAM : Initial Address Message IMSI : International Mobile Subscriber Identity
MSISDN : Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital GMSC : Gateway MSC
network Number VMSC : Visitor MSC
MSRN : Mobile Station Roaming Number TMSI : Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
134
Mobile Terminating Call
3 - End to End Procedure
MS BSS VMSC GMSC PSTN

IAM
IAM 1
PAGING REQUEST 2 (MSISDN)
PAGING REQUEST 3 (MSRN)
4 (TMSI or IMSI, LA) Dialing
CHANNEL REQUEST
5
(LAC, Cell ID)

IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT 6
(SDCCH or TCH)

CM SERVICE REQUEST
7 PAGING RESPONSE
(Paging Response) 7
(TMSI or IMSI, LA)

8 Authentication procedure

9 Ciphering procedure
Ringing
10 Setup, Assignment, Alerting Address Complete Message
11
CONNECT ANswer Message
12
12
Path
Established
135
Call Release
1 - Mobile Initiated
MS BSS MSC PSTN

1 Call in progress

DISCONNECT
2 DISCONNECT
2

RELEASE RELEASE
3
3

RELEASE COMPLETE
4
Release
CHANNEL RELEASE 6 5

RELEASE INDICATION
7

RF Channel Release
procedure 8
Release
9
tone

136
Call Release
2 - PSTN Initiated
1
BSS 1 1

3 3 REL
MSC 2
4 BSC 4 PSTN
RLC
5 6
BTS 5

1
2
Purpose:
informs the mobile
then releases radio
and network resources.

On hook

137
Mobile Originated Call
• Request for Service
• Authentication
• Ciphering
• Equipment Validation
• Call Setup
• Handovers
• Call Release

138
Mobile Terminated Call
• Paging
• Authentication
• Ciphering
• Equipment Validation
• Call Setup
• Handovers
• Call Release

139
Mobile Terminated Call
MS

Paging HLR
BTSTMSI Paged
Assignment CMD
(=TCH) on SDCCH on PCH BSC VLR

Query for
*RESP
MS
Allocate
Page tunes
SDCCHon SDCCH VLR info
MS Ch. REQ
* Assgn CMP Connect traffic Ch.to trunk AuC
over
over AGCH
( TMSI
RACH + LAI) frees SDCCH Query VLR GMSC
BTS
* Phone rings Page
Page RES Reply
Assgn CMP for LAC and (MSRN)
Assign. REQ
Paging TMSI
the area
(+TMSI) EIR
Route
toNetwork
MSC Alerting
MSC
BSC
PSTN
BTS

Land to
Mobile call
(MSISDN)

Authentication and Ciphering procedure done as seen in Location Updation 140
TOPICS
• GSM CONCEPTS
• GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
• IDENTITIES USED IN GSM
• GSM CHANNELS
• GSM RADIO LINK
• MOBILITY MANAGEMENT
• CALL MANAGEMENT
• RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

141
Radio Resource Management
• Establish maintain and release stable connections
between MS and MSC
• Manage Limited Radio and Terrestrial resources
• Handover process is the sole responsibility of the RR
Layer
• Functions of RR layer are performed by MS and BSC
and partly by MSC

142
Radio Resource Management

• Power Control
• Hand over Control
• Discontinuous Transmission
• Frequency Hopping

143
Power Control

BTS commands MS at different
distances to use different power levels
so that the power arriving at the BTS’s Rx is
approximately the same for each TS

- Reduce interference
- Longer battery life

144
Handover
Means to continue a call even a mobile crosses
the border of one cell to another
Procedure which made the mobile station really
roam
Handover causes
RxLev (Signal strength , uplink or downlink)
RxQual (BER on data)
O & M intervention
Timing Advance
Traffic or Load balancing

145
Handover Types
• Internal Handover (Intra-BSS)
– Within same base station - intra cell
– Between different base stations - inter cell
• External Handover (Inter-BSS)
– Within same MSC -intra MSC
– Between different MSCs - inter-MSC

146
Handover Types
GMSC
MSC

BSC

BSC

C-3
BSC
MSC

C-4 C-1 C-2 BSC
147
Intra BSC handover HO performed

HO required
Activate TCH(facch)
with HoRef#
BSC
Acknowledges and
alloctes TCH (facch) if
1. Check for HO passed
2. Channel avail in new BTS

BTS 2 Periodic Measurement
Reports (SACCH)
Periodic Measurement
Reports

MS tunes into new frequency
and TS and sends HO message to
new BTS (facch)
HO cmd with HoRef#
Receives new BTS data(FACCH)

Release TCH

Cell 2
Periodic Measurement
Reports (SACCH) BTS 1

Cell 1
148
Frequency plan and importance of
BCCH
B5 Sectored
B6 antennas
B4
BPL frequency plan:
Broadcast frequencies : B3
B7
15 Broadcast channels = 48-62 B1

15 Hopping channels = 32-46 B8 B2

B12 MS ( monitoring the
B9 broadcast radio B1 in ‘idle
B10 mode’ )

B11

F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F10 F11 F50

F S B B B B ….. F S ….. ….. I

•F,S,B exist in time slot 0 of each frame
149
What information does Broadcast Control channel
(BCCH) contain?

z Serves as a Beacon for the Cell
z Country Code (CC) and the Network Code (NC)
z Location Area Identity (LAI)
z List of neighboring cells which should be monitored by MS
z List of frequencies used in the cell
z Cell identity

Back 150
Location Updates
Location Updates can be classified into
two:

Periodic Location Updates:
This occurs as per the timer set by the network operator.
If the MS does not perform this update the MSC marks
the MS as ‘Detached’ on the VLR.

Location Update on a handover:
This occurs if during a handover the MS is moved into a
new Location Area Code (LAC).

151
1. The MS is monitoring the BCCH and has all the decoded
information stored on the SIM ( including the LAC)
2. As soon as the mobile is on a TCH it sends the signal
strength indication on the corresponding SACCH
3. The BSC monitors the signal strengths and on analysis
sends a ‘handoff request’ on FACCH. The handoff
process is completed on the FACCH.
4. After the completion of call, the MS starts monitoring the
BCCH again. On finding the LAC (stored on SIM) and that
decoded from the BCCH to be different , the MS requests
a ‘Location Update’ through SDCCH.

Back 152
Discontinuous
Transmission
• Discontinuous Transmission(DTX) allows the
radio transmitter to be switched off most of the
time during speech pauses.
• A Silence Indicator Block is transmitted at
500bps, which generates a comfort noise
• Down Link interference is decreased.
• Up link battery is saved

153
Frequency Hopping
• Frequency Hopping permits the dynamic switching of
radio links from one carrier frequency to another.
• Base Band Hopping
– At the BTS each the timeslot is shifted to another
transceiver, which is transmitting at the hop
frequency. User will be connected to different
Transceivers depending on hop sequence.
• Synthesis Hopping
– At the BTS transceiver changes the frequencies used.
The user will be connected to only one transceiver.
• Decreases the probability of interference
• Suppresses the effect of Rayleigh fading 154
Add-on to GSM network
Enhanced : rate for GSM Evolution
Data
PCU; Packet• EDGESegmentation/re-assembly
is an enhancement ofand scheduling
GPRS and CSD technologies.
• Radio channel
Universal access
Mobile control and
Telecommunication management
Standards
• Based on the current GSM technology - same TDMA frame structure,

Wireless Data
• Transmission
• Innovative
same error
Service detection and
Architecture
bandwidth (200 retransmission.
: VHE Concept - providing the us
kHz).
• Power control
the same • look
Usesand8-PSKfeelmodulation
of its personalized
instead services
of GMSK.independent of
SGSN: GPRS mobility Surf the Internet while on the move
network and
High terminal.
• Requires
Speed goodSwitched
Circuit propagation Dataconditions.
Data Application
• Encryption
• Global Convergence
User• Allows : Fixed/Mobile,
upto 48 kbps (EGPRS)
Data Rate:14.5kbps Telecom/Datacom, public/private
and upto 28.8 kbps
W@P (ECSD)
Gateway on :every
• Charging
• Mobile Multimedia driven market.
Useradio channel
multiple timeslots
α-numeric (max=8), • Adaptation of the information to the mobile
•SMS
GGSN : Data:
Wideband
hence

160
Interface
EDGE to
bearersthe- 2GHz
helps
max: 9.6kbps
PDN, characters
Internet
band
GSM-Only
rate = 115.2kbps. ( 5 MHz per
operators carrier),
to compete -max.
with2Mbps
UMTS.
User Data Rate • Compression of theUMTS
data
UMTS
One Needs
time slota duplexor
over the in
air MS for
interface • Buffering of the information
Max user data rate : 21.4 kbps
simultaneous Tx and Rx
Dynamic rate adaptation to suit the radio conditions at EDGE
EDGE
that time ( 9.05 kbps, 13.4 kbps, 15.6 kbps 21.4 kbps)

GPRS
GPRS

HSCSD
HSCSD
SIM WAP
WAP
SIM Circuit Switched technology
Toolkit
Toolkit
GSM
GSM Packet Switched technology
DATA
DATA
Technology for Applications
Internet
W F Mobile Network Time
W@P Service
@ o W@P Gateway
P n 98 99 2000 2001
e 155
References
• Wireless and Personal Communication Systems.
Vijay.K.Garg and Wilkes
• Overview of the GSM System and Protocol
Architecture, IEEE Comm. Magazine, Moe Rahnema.
• The GSM System for Mobile Communications-
Michel Mouly & Marie-Bernadette Pautet
• Overview of the GSM Comm- John Scourias.

156
Coverage or Traffic Limitations
TRAFFIC-
LIMITED
AREA COVERAGE-
(10000 LIMITED
subscribers AREA
per km2) (-75 dBm
at cell edge)

COVERAGE-
LIMITED
AREA
(-70 dBm
at cell edge)

157
158
Erlang Concept
Erlang is the unit of statistical resource use

Average number of busy channels
during the period of observation
(usually, the peak hour).

Erlang B
At any time, more than 1 user may request the same resource simultaneously. The use of such a
resource is associated with a blocking rate.

Erlang C
When more than 1 user request at the same time, instead of rejecting the extra calls, there is a
queuing system.

159
Different Types of Cells
EXTENDED-CELL: CONCENTRIC-CELL:
macro cell with system coverage macro cell with system coverage
extension (≤ 120 km) for coasts... limitation inside another macro

MACRO-CELL:
antenna radiating ‘above’ roofs
---> Wide Coverage (≤ 35 km)

• High sensitivity to
interference
• Requires "secured"
Frequency reuse pattern

PICO-CELL:
MICRO-CELL: • High isolation from
Antenna inside building interferences
---> Very small coverage Antenna ‘below’ the roofs
• A few Frequencies
---> small coverage intensively reused

160
Cell Patterns

161
Cell Sectorization

TRI OMNI BI
Omnidirectional Site Antennas
Bi and Trisectorial Site Antennas
Link Budgeting

Calculation of the maximum coverage range of each cell in a specific environment.

Definition of planning tools parameters.

Based on the path loss calculation between the MS and the BS in both ways.

This calculation considers:

• RF parameters of MS and BS,
• system parameters (diversity gains...),
• propagation parameters (shadowing),
• physical installation parameters (antenna height),
• environment classification.
- Beyond which distance the
communication will cut off?
- Is indoor coverage
guaranteed?
- What is the maximum EIRP? - Is frequency hopping used?
- What are the losses in
transmission and reception?
- Is diversity used? - What is the minimum
equivalent sensitivity?
- What is the maximum
equivalent output power?
- What are the body losses?

EIRP:Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power
Link Budget Parameters
• Overview
Standard conf. DLNA conf. Propagation Parameters:
- Incar, Indoor penetration factors
Antenna Gain
- Frequency 900, 1800, 1900 MHz
Rx Sensitivity - Antenna Height
- Environment

Radio Link Design Parameters:
Common cable Losses
Overlapping margin
Rx Sensitivity
Specific Tx Cable
Losses
Antenna Gain
Combiner losses
Rx Sensitivity
Tx PA Output
Power Tx PA Output Power

Rx Diversity Gain MS
Base Station

Duplexer Other factors for MS
Combiner Body Losses
Common cable losses
Power Amplifier

DLNA:Diversity Low Noise Amplifier
Link Budget Parameters
• BTS TX Power Amplifier

2.5W PA 25W PA 35W PA 20W PA 30W PA

S2000E
S8000 Indoor
GSM 900 S2000L S4000 Indoor S4000 Indoor S2000H
S8000 Outdoor
S4000 Outdoor

S2000E S4000 Indoor
DCS 1800 S2000L S4000 Indoor S2000H S8000 Indoor
S4000 Outdoor S8000 Outdoor

S2000E
S2000H
PCS 1900 S2000L S8000 Outdoor
S4000 Indoor
S4000 Outdoor
Link Budget Parameters
• Combiners

H2D
D
D
4.5
4.5dB
dBLoss
Loss 4.9
4.9dB
dBLoss
Loss
Hy/2 C C C C

TX TX TX TX TX TX

2-Way
2-WayHybrid
HybridCombiner
Combinerwith
withDuplexer
Duplexer 4-Way
4-WayCavity
CavityCombiner
Combinerwith
with
Duplexer
Duplexer
allows Synthesized Frequency Hopping allows Baseband Frequency Hopping
Link Budget Parameters
• Cable Losses

At the BS, for a 7/8” foam dielectric coaxial cable:

• 4 dB/100 m (900 MHz),

• 6 dB/100 m (1800 MHz),

• Common cable losses for 40 meters: 2.5 dB (900 MHz) and 3.5 dB (1800 MHz).

Jumpers (up and down the feeder)

• 0.5 dB (800 MHz),

• 1 dB (1800 MHz).
Link Budget Parameters
• BTS Antenna Gain

Omnidirectional antenna

Default 6.5° V with 11 dBi gain

Directional antenna for trisectorial site

Default 65° H / 6.5° V with 18 dBi gain
Link Budget Parameters
• Mobile Station Parameters

900 MHz 1800/1900 MHz

TX PA Output
33 dBm (2W) 30 dBm (1W)
Power

RX Sensitivity -102 dBm -100 dBm

-2 dBi for Handheld
Antenna Gain
2 dBi for Car Kit

Common Cable 0 dB for Handheld
Loss 2 dB for Car Kit

3 dB for Handheld
Body Loss
0 dB for Car Kit
Link Budget Presentation
Parameters
Antenna Gain (65 °)
18 dBi Frequency 1800 MHz
Jumper Loss Base Height 40.0 m
0.5 dB Mobile Height 1.5 m
Feeder Loss Environment Urban
3 dB
Penetration Factor 15 dB
Sensitivity Body Loss 3 dB
-110 dBm

Antenna Gain
Coupling system Outdoor Minimum Field -2 dB
Cable Loss
95%: -80 dBm 0 dB
Tx loss
4.5 dB Coverage Range RX TX
95%: 810 m
Output Power
RXm RXd 30 dBm

Sensitivity
-100 dBm
Max TX Output Power
Options
44.8 dBm
Rx Diversity Gain: 5 dB
Mobile
Base Station Overlapping Margin: 0 dB
173
Link Budget Calculation
Exercise 1: S8000 INDOOR: OPERATING FREQUENCY 1800 MHz

BTS MS
30.00 W (44.8 1.00 W (30.0
TX OUTPUT POWER dBm) dBm) BODY LOSSES 3.0 dB

COMBINER LOSSES 5.0 dB None OVERLAPPING MARGIN 0.0 dB
RX SENSITIVITY -110.0 dBm -102.0 dBm
RX SENSITIVITY + INDOOR PENETRATION
DIVERSITY -115.0 dBm None FACTOR 18.0 dB

COMMON CABLE
LOSSES 3.0 dB 0.0 dB
ANTENNA GAIN 18.0 dBm -2.0 dBm

174
Fading
Example of Field Strength Variation for GSM 1800
-10

-20 Zoom on
Short Term Fading
-30 Measurement
Field Strength (dBm)

Free Space
≅ λ/2
-40
±2m
-50

-60

Long Term Fading
-70

-80

-90
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
-100
Distance (m)
Clutters
177
Mobile Station (MS)
• Hand portable unit

• Contains Mobile Equipment(ME) and
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

178