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to in the diagnosis and treatment of individual’s anguish from diseases and disorders. The subsequent will consist of the psychoanalysis of the disorder identified as Schizophrenia. As for the areas of brain affected, contributory factors, related symptoms, the neural origin, and suitable drug therapies will be discussed. Additionally, the disorders of Anorexia Nervosa and Generalized Anxiety Disorder will also be examined. Therefore the disorders of Anorexia Nervosa and Generalized Anxiety Disorder will be discussed for their relation to the nature-nurture issue and other appropriate theories of etiology. Possible drug therapies and alternative solutions will also be a focus of discussion.
Part A: Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is indubitably one of the most intricate psychiatric disorders of all time. It is a disorder which name defines the “splitting of psychic functions (Pinel, 2007, p.481)”, Schizophrenia habitually presents itself with a multiplicity of attribute symptoms including hallucinations, possible delusions, disorganized ,grossly disorganized, incoherent speech, or catatonic behavior patterns and negative symptoms (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Social and occupational dysfunction often accompany these characteristic symptoms of Schizophrenia and the combination of function impairment and symptoms must persevere in duration for a period of six months to warrant a diagnosis of Schizophrenia (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
The Various Theories and Neural Basis
the neuroleptic therapies have failed to help individuals that have been diagnosed with the Schizophrenic disorder. the detail to facilitate the neuroleptic drug therapy requires numerous weeks to assuage the symptoms of Schizophrenia. Additionally. Additionally. but by blocking these receptors is not the etiology of this disorder (Pinel.The assorted theories that contain the causal factors allied to the development of Schizophrenia. except augmented effects on other receptors including the D1 and D4 receptors. people with the genetic predisposition for Schizophrenia will frequently demonstrate evidence that could suggest a neurodevelopment hindrances associated to early infection. Such as autoimmune reactions and toxin exposure that could amplify the likelihood of developing the Schizophrenia disorder (Pinel. combined with experiences relating from significant trauma. Therefore researcher’s findings relating phenothiazines. stress. 2007). This predisposition. by successfully blocking the activity at the D2 receptors in merely hours. incoherence. 2007). The alternate theory suggests Schizophrenia could have a connection to augment the dopamine levels. is the evidence that the disorder could result from genetic predisposition ensuing from the Schizophrenia diagnosis from a close relative (Pinel. 2007). that bind to the D2 receptors support that Schizophrenia is probably caused by hyperactivity located at the D2 receptor site. 2007). 2007). That specific attention has been drawn to the D2 receptors. Atypical neuroleptic drugs. Further recent research has implied that Schizophrenia has a connection with excess of the D2 receptors. and delusions the neuroleptic drugs are less effective in the treatment of negative . and not the dopamine receptor sites (Pinel. could trigger the later development of Schizophrenia disorder. 2007). which bind to both D1 and D2 receptors and butyrophenones. in addition to numerous serotonin receptors (Pinel. the neural basis of the disorder could facilitate in additional perceptive on Schizophrenia (Pinel. While typically effective in treating the positive symptoms including hallucinations. for instance the clozapine demonstrate only a trivial effect on the D2 receptors. that are not principal blockers of the D2 receptors. In addition. Even though research related to the D2 receptor is substantive.
drug therapy should be cautiously considered and monitored during the course of treatment (Grohol. The outcome of these brain image studies lends further merit to the suggestion of early neural development issues as bearing connection to the development of Schizophrenia. to concentrate on the compound symptoms associated to the individuals disorder (Grohol. The Appropriate Drug Therapies Despite the fact that psychotherapy and a group or family therapy may assist in the achievement of treating the Schizophrenic patient. also anti anxiety medications to utterly manage and address the patients’ array of symptoms (Grohol. Additional consideration revolving Schizophrenia etiology results from brain imaging studies that commonly evidence extensive abnormalities of the brain including small cerebral cortex and the enlarged cerebral ventricles (Pinel. the D2 theory of hyperactivity at the receptor site remains challenged by the fact that if this theory were complete both the positive and negative symptoms of the disorder would be alleviated by the neuroleptic therapies (Pinel. Therefore drug therapy may perhaps necessitate a combination of antidepressant. Moreover notable in the Schizophrenia cases is the lack of normal brain laterality. Due to the probability of patient discontinuation of medication as a consequence of drug ineffectiveness. these treatment options must be used in combination of effective drug therapy. . 2008). 2007).symptoms related to affect. Therefore. 2007). 2008). cognitive deficits and speech dysfunction. 2007). or side effects in which the patient finds intolerable. which then the dopamine theory would be unsuccessful to explain (Pinel. antipsychotic. 2008).
). “Even during treatment the patients’ advancement should be monitored to address their responsiveness to treatment. Although. photosensitivity. and other potential interactions of other drugs must also be assessed previous to developing a treatment plan” (Bailey. “These side effects can consist of gastrointestinal complaints. 2008). sedation. it should be noted that various antipsychotic medications carry the risk of a plethora of problematic side effects which will need to be monitored throughout the duration of their treatment.” Clozapine should be the medication considered for the Schizophrenic individual.” The Patients age. the essayist was asked to relate the case study disorders to the nature-nurture issue as well as to discuss any beneficial drug therapies for each case. medical history. compliance abilities target symptoms. and patients’ compliance with treatment and tolerance to side effects” (Bailey. as this pharmaceutical alternative that has been publicized to be further effective than several of the newer antipsychotic medications obtainable” (Grohol. skin discoloration. 1998). visual disturbances. . dosage adjustments. reduced sweating ability or possible allergic reaction that could vary in duration and in severity” (Bailey. 1998). In addition. n. 1998). Therefore. and length of treatment with the emphasis on coping methods associated to side effects. side effects. current illness. central nervous dysfunction. Part B: The Case Studies on Anorexia Nervosa and Generalized Anxiety Disorder The essayist has been provided with two case studies for analysis from the biopsychological perspective.d. Case A involves a young lady living with the diagnosis of Anorexia Nervosa and Case B an individual suffering from anxiety (Axia College.Therapy should contain appropriate patient education with regard to having possible medication dosage.
the food no longer holds or is perceived to have a positive incentive value. The role of positive incentive and the relation to food in anorexics have been disregarded. of normal weight for her height and age. 2000). because of the confusion surrounding the disorder.). The essayist’ notion is that Beth’s disorder possibly began with the process of strict dieting. also acceptable weight limits often develop the disorder if they are highly controlled. as “research suggests adolescent females in response to physical attractiveness. & Lehman. another perspective on Anorexia Nervosa with relation to the positive incentive values of food may provide additional insight on the disorder. Beth became overwhelmed by fear as a teenager with regard to the possibility of gaining weight although she was. Assanand. rigid or obsessive personalities” (Pinel. ensuing from the her apprehension of gaining weight. Beth began to diet and subsequently lost weight yet her self-image continued to suffer regardless of the amount of weight lost. conversations about food. As a result the individual will continue to restrict their intake as the food no longer holds this positive incentive value to them (Pinel. & Lehman. If the patient relates the intake of food to weight gain. she continues to lose weight and is apparently suffering from amenorrhea as a result her weight loss (Axia College. 2007). Assanand. Although. These behaviors have lead many individuals to conclude that there is still some positive incentive value of food to the anorexic.d.Case A: Anorexia Nervosa (Restricting Type) Case A familiarizes the author with Beth. or just thinking about food”(Pinel. 2000). The anorexic individual is repeatedly obsessed with food. The essayist would suggest the complete diagnosis for Beth to be Anorexia Nervosa (Restricting Type) (American Psychiatric Association. n. we must not become confused because these behaviors differ from the act of eating food. Currently Beth is described as “dangerously thin”. instead of for maintaining their health and their energy needs. 2000). Therefore. in fact. . “The individual will spend a significant amount of time preparing the food.
The pharmacological methods that have shown diminutive to no effectiveness in treatment of anorexia” include tricyclic antidepressants which inhibit norepinephrine.Anorexia Nervosa is indubitably one of the most devastating of all the eating disorders. & Lehman. Assanand. Tom presents signs and symptoms which lead the essayist to a diagnosis of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. that could result in weight gain. the antipsychotic drugs are usually refused by the patient because of this reason (Barbarich-Marstellar. Conceivably Beth’s genetic make-up predisposes her to specific traits. but with less emphasis on pharmacological methods. Tom’s life is seemingly stable and satisfying. then which would necessitate treatment involving more extensive psychotherapy methods. which are extremely common in those diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa. n. The culprit of nurture is frequently originated from their familial environment. Though. The causal factors vary from one case to another and the naturenurture issue may provide clues to the patients Anorexia etiology. or in the society there are more probable problematic psychological issues. their results of that have been unsatisfactory in treating acute phases of the illness.d. also 5-HT uptake” (Barbarich-Marstellar. which makes treatment of the anorexic patient complicated. A third option would be use of a classic antipsychotics. nurture is likely the leading factor that played a role in Beth’s development of Anorexia. Case B: Anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) Tom is a successful man with three children who are the product of the happy marriage Tom shares with his wife (Axia College. 2000). Tom meets the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for diagnosis based upon his excessive worry associated to . 2007).). Other options would include prescriptions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. 2007). 2007). Anorexia is highly resistant to treatment and there are no known effective treatment methods for this disease (Pinel. or in the prevention of having a relapse (Barbarich-Marstellar.
d. “Additionally. n. Tom’s has become disturbed and he often becomes irritable and has difficulty concentrating due to the lack of sleep (Axia College. muscle tension. 2007). For this reason the role of nurture seems to play a more prevalent role in the development of such disorders. The benzodiazepines . are also present in the form of headaches. “Many theories associated to the anxiety disorders recommend these disorder types to be experienced based.” 1999). The physical symptoms of having Generalized Anxiety Disorder. 2007). some of these medications often present bothersome side effects.” 1999). in an attempt to decrease the associated anxiety symptoms (Pinel. Generalized Anxiety Disorder is characterized by a general sentiment of anxiety in the absence of obvious causal factors (Pinel. Taking all of these factors in to account the essayist is confident the complete diagnosis is that of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed in the treatment of having anxiety. or nausea. that are guided by separate brain mechanisms (“Fear and anxiety: A simultaneous concept analysis. but carry a high peril of dependency.perceived health problems. The treatment of having a anxiety disorders such as diagnosed in Tom’s case usually involves the prescription of benzodiazepines and serotonin agonist. which can encumber functioning including sedation.). and fatigue. 2007). 2007). while the hippocampus is associated to feelings of anxiety (“Fear and anxiety: A simultaneous concept analysis. hot flashes.” Withdrawal effects can also be quite severe (Pinel. rather than a direct consequence of faulty neural functioning” (Pinel. Additionally. Therefore emotion of fear is connected to the amygdale. The notability is the dissimilarity between anxiety and fear. 2000). which research suggests that each to be a distinct diagnosis’s. tremors. motor activity disruption. finances. This disorder could hold a important genetic component that is involved in the development probability for Generalized Anxiety Disorder. nausea. and job responsibilities which has been affecting Tom for more than six months (American Psychiatric Association. which at times has begun to impinge on his job performance. Tom has intricacy controlling his worry and anxiety.
Conclusion The Psychological disorders and diseases can array from the mild and easily treatable disorders. headaches. or possible sleep disturbances that may fluctuate in severity and could diminish over time” (Pinel. nausea. 2007).would be more beneficial to the patient with a diagnosis related to one of the four other possible anxiety disorders other than Generalized Anxiety Disorder. 2007). Therefore this method of treatment is mostly beneficial for the longer-term treatments of anxiety. and the role of examining the biological factors that may contribute to the course of psychological illness. The essayist would recommend the prescription of a serotonin agonist. which can be used to more effectively to address individuals psychiatric disorders. knowledge is the key. to having the extreme complexities of Schizophrenia.” Therefore the possible side effects of using the serotonin agonists includes. either way they must not be ignored. The serotonin agonist will effectively reduce anxiety without the side effects that commonly occur with the use of benzodiazepines. dizziness. as seen in many Generalized Anxiety Disorder cases” (Pinel. Therefore having an understanding of neural functions. and on the various brain structures role in behavior and individuals thought processing allows superior insight into the mind of the psychologically impaired individuals. Individuals. . such as Buspirone. knowledge is a powerful tool and the connection between the biopsychosocial factors affords essential knowledge. Whether it is the common disorders of having Generalized Anxiety Disorder. “These side effects could be troublesome. or to the most difficult to comprehend Anorexia Nervosa.
(n. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.The Brain.References American Psychiatric Association. Axia College. (2007). and the Mind. Nursing Diagnosis. Neurochemistry and pharmacological treatments: Where is the field of anorexia nervosa heading?. from CINAHL Plus database. Bailey. Barbarich-Marstellar.d.). Appendix A: Case studies. (2000). Fear and anxiety: A simultaneous concept analysis (1999). Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. Schizophrenia and anti-psychotics. Washington. Retrieved December 8. (1998). PSY240 .). from EBSCOhost database. 10(3). 35-43. 7. 2008. L. the Body. N. Available from University of Illinois College of Pharmacy. DC: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd. 103-112. 2008.C. . 2008. Retrieved December 9. Retrieved December 6. from Axia College. Week Nine.
Pinel. Retrieved December 10.M.. D. Basics of biopsychology. . 55(10). from ESBCOhost database. J. and ill health. American Psychologist. 2008. Retrieved December 9. S.Grohol. Schizophrenia treatment. Hunger. & Lehman.P. Boston: Pearson Education. (2000). 1105-1116.. (2007). from http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx31t. Psych Central. J. eating. (2008).htm Pinel. J. 2008. Assanand.
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