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‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ‪:‬‬
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‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﺜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭﻳﻮﻡ ‪Th‬‬
‫ﺑﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ، α‬ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ‪. 88Ra‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺗﻐﻴﺮ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ‪ R = N(t)/N0 :‬ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ‪t :‬‬

‫‪ (1‬ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ، α‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﻛﺘﺐ ﻣﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﺖ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭﻳﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺬﻛﺮﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺪﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ‪).‬ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻟﺪﺓ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺜﺎﺭﺓ (‬
‫‪ (2‬ﻋﺮﻑ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ‪، t1/2 :‬ﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‪ .‬ﻣﺒﻴﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫‪ (3‬ﺍﻋﻂ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻲ ﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺘﺠﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ ‪. λ‬‬
‫‪ (4‬ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺮﺍﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺣﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻤﺮ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻯ‬
‫• ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻲ‬
‫• ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫• ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻯ‬

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‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﺘﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺁﺧﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪(5‬ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭﻳﻮﻡ ﻳﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻧﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻊ ‪U‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻧﻮﺍﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺮﺓ ) ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺎﺹ‪ .( 206‬ﺗﻔﺘﺖ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻧﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﺍﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭﻳﻮﻡ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪238‬‬
‫‪92U‬‬ ‫‪→ 23490Th → 23491Pa → 234Z4U → 230Z 5Th‬‬
‫‪ Z4‬ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺍ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺘﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﻦ ‪.‬‬ ‫;‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺟﺪ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪Z 5‬‬
‫‪ (6‬ﻋﻨﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺠﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‪ 238U‬ﻭﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫‪N(230Th) / N(238U).‬‬ ‫‪ .230Th‬ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺄﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺟﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻯ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻧﻴﻮﻡ ‪ 238‬ﻭﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻧﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﺭﻳﻮﻡ‬
‫‪ 230‬ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ) ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ‪("l’équilibre séculaire". :‬‬
‫‪(1.6‬ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ A(t) = - dN(t)/dt‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ )‪A(t) = λ . N(t‬‬
‫‪ (2.6‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻥ ‪ N(230Th) / N(238U).‬ﺗﺒﻘﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‬

‫ﺯﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬
‫ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻔﻜﻚ ﺑﻴﺮﻭ ﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﻴﻞ( ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺑﺤﻀﻮﺭ ﺣﻔﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻔﻜﻚ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎﺀ ﻭ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﻄﻲ ‪ [H2O2]0 = 9,0.10–2 mol.L–1 :‬ﻧﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻚ ﻳﺘﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻋﺘﻴﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ) ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ(‬
‫‪ (1‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﺖ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺩﻭﺟﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪ O2 / H2O2‬و ‪. H2O2/ H2O‬أآ د ‬
‫ا  ا  دا  ا  ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺃﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺑﻄﻲﺀ ﻭﻛﻠﻲ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﺯﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ‪1‬‬
‫‪ (4‬ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ‪ 2‬ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﺪﺋﻲ‬
‫‪[H2O2]0 = 1,8.10 –1 mol.L-1‬‬
‫&"‪%‬ر‪ #‬ا "!! ‪ 1‬و‪ 2‬ه ا ‪0‬آ‪ 6‬ا ‪ /* 0123 45‬ز ‪ ,-#‬ا  ؟ * )(ا&' ‪.‬‬
‫‪(5‬ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺋﻲ ﻫﻮ ‪[H2O2]0 = 9,0.10–2 mol.L–1‬‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﺔ‪:‬‬

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‫ﺇﻥ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ‪ 0" 8! & N(t) / N0‬ا !‪ ,-‬و )‪ >& [H2O2](t‬ا ‪;<= 6‬ن !‪ :‬ا ‪(#%‬ن‬
‫ا ‪. 4?30‬‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻼﺣﻈﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻦ‬
‫ﻭﺯﻣﻦ ﻧﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺎﺫﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎﻟﻴﻦ ؟‬
‫*(@ ‪ :‬إن ‪ E5#‬ه‪ CD‬ا را‪ G"3 > B‬أن ="‪ /* H‬آ ا (>ت ا ‪ 5"G‬‬

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